1 Chapter 14 True-False Questions 1. T F Research has shown that an average speaker who uses visual aids will come across as more credible and better prepared than a speaker who does not use visual aids. 2. T F Research shows that an average speaker who uses visual aids effectively will come across as more professional than a dynamic speaker who does not use visual aids. 3. T F One of the reasons to use visual aids in a speech is that you can break eye contact with the audience while discussing the aids. 4. T F Research has shown that visual aids can increase both the clarity and the persuasiveness of a speaker s message. 5. T F Research has shown that using visual aids can increase the audience s retention of a speaker s message. 6. T F Using visual aids can help a speaker combat stage fright. 7. T F If the object you want to speak about is too large, too small, or unavailable to use as a visual aid, you have little choice but to change the topic of your speech. 8. T F If the object you want to speak about is too large, too small, or unavailable to use as a visual aid, you may be able to use a model instead. 9. T F Models are the best type of visual aid for presenting statistical information. 10. T F Because a picture is worth a thousand words, it is a good idea to pass photographs among the audience in order to illustrate your point. 11. T F To be effective as visual aids, photographs must be large enough to be seen easily by everyone in the audience. 12. T F The best way to show drawings and photographs is to pass them around the room during your speech. 13. T F If you were giving a speech about how to lift weights, the most effective visual aid would probably be a drawing.
2 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS T F If you were showing statistical trends in a speech, the best visual aid to use would probably be a pie graph. 15. T F A pie graph should ideally have 2 to 5 segments. 16. T F Because it is so colorful, a pie graph of 8 to 10 segments is usually an excellent visual aid. 17. T F If you wanted to show the relationship among parts of a whole, the best visual aid would probably be a bar graph. 18. T F If you wanted to compare two or more items, the most effective visual aid would probably be a bar graph. 19. T F If you wanted to summarize the steps of a process in a speech, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be a chart. 20. T F If you were showing statistical trends in a speech, the best visual aid to use would probably be a chart. 21. T F You can be your own visual aid. 22. T F One advantage to doing a demonstration during your speech is that it reduces nervousness by providing an outlet for extra adrenaline. 23. T F If you want to demonstrate a process that takes longer to complete than the time allotted for your speech, you will probably have choose a different topic. 24. T F One advantage of PowerPoint is that it enables you to integrate different kinds of visual aids in the same speech. 25. T F If PowerPoint is allowed to dominate a speech, it can divert attention from the speaker s message. 26. T F Your textbook recommends that you make a PowerPoint slide for every point in your speech. 27. T F As your textbook states, it is usually a good idea to write your entire speech on PowerPoint slides so your audience can read along with you. 28. T F One advantage of using PowerPoint in a speech is that it requires very little planning. 29. T F As your textbook explains, you should use PowerPoint only where it is needed to clarify or strengthen your ideas.
3 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS T F One advantage of preparing your visual aids well in advance is that doing so allows you to use them while practicing your speech. 31. T F It is usually enough to practice your speech just once using your visual aids. 32. T F You should include in a visual aid only what you need to make your point. 33. T F When using PowerPoint, you need to limit the amount of information you put on each slide. 34. T F When you design a visual aid, you should keep in mind the size of the room in which you will be speaking. 35. T F Printing your visual aid in ALL CAPITAL letters is a good way to make sure it will be easy for the audience to read. 36. T F According to your textbook, you should usually include lines of text on a PowerPoint slide. 37. T F According to your textbook, a general rule when using PowerPoint is to include no more than a half-dozen lines of type on a single slide. 38. T F The more words you write on your PowerPoint slides, the more effective your speech will be. 39. T F Giddyup would be a good font to use for a PowerPoint slide in a speech about horseracing. 40. T F According to your textbook, it is usually a good idea to use a different font for each PowerPoint slide in your speech. 41. T F According to your textbook, you should usually use the same fonts consistently for all your PowerPoint slides. 42. T F As your textbook explains, you should usually use four different fonts on a PowerPoint slide to increase audience interest. 43. T F Almost any combination of colors works well on a visual aid. 44. T F Red and green is usually a poor color combination for a visual aid. 45. T F According to your textbook, blue text on a green background is usually a good choice of colors for a visual aid. 46. T F When making visual aids, you should use colors that can easily be distinguished from one another.
4 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS T F According to your textbook, when making a PowerPoint slide, you should try to use at least five colors so the slide will be visually appealing. 48. T F As your textbook explains, using the same color scheme for all of your PowerPoint slides is one way to make the slides look unified and professional. 49. T F Research shows that using PowerPoint images where they are not needed in a speech interferes with listener comprehension. 50. T F As your textbook explains, research shows that using PowerPoint images for every idea in a speech increases listener comprehension. 51. T F Visual aids should usually be displayed from the left side of the lectern. 52. T F Visual aids should usually be displayed from the right side of the lectern. 53. T F Passing visual aids among the audience during a speech is helpful to a speaker because it allows listeners to inspect the aids at their own pace. 54. T F In most circumstances, a speaker should avoid passing visual aids among the audience. 55. T F When you are going to give an audience material to take home from a speech, you should usually distribute the material at the beginning of the speech. 56. T F When you are giving an audience material to take home from a speech, you should usually distribute the material in the middle of your speech. 57. T F When you are going to give an audience material to take home from a speech, you should usually distribute the material after you finish speaking. 58. T F In most circumstances, you should keep your visual aids on display throughout your speech. 59. T F Visual aids should be displayed only while you are discussing them. 60. T F Once you have finished discussing a visual aid, you should leave it on display until you get to the next visual aid. 61. T F When you finish discussing a PowerPoint slide, you should leave it on screen until you get to the next slide. 62. T F One advantage of using PowerPoint is that you can leave your slides on screen even when you are not discussing them. 63. T F A visual aid is only as useful as the explanation that goes with it.
5 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS T F One of the advantages of using visual aids in a speech is that their meaning is instantly clear to the audience. 65. T F Visual aids usually should be used only in informative speeches. 66. T F It is important to maintain strong eye contact with your audience when you are presenting a visual aid. 67. T F As your textbook explains, you need to allow more time for rehearsal when using PowerPoint than when using other kinds of visual aids. 68. T F As your textbook explains, it is usually a good idea to put up a blank slide when you are finished talking about each of your PowerPoint slides. 69. T F When you plan to use PowerPoint in your speech, you should always bring a backup copy of your slides on a flash drive. 70. T F Because technology has become so advanced, it is seldom necessary to bring a backup of your PowerPoint slides on the day of your speech. Multiple-Choice Questions (Students are to indicate the best answer for each question by circling the correct letter.) 1. Which of the following does your textbook mention as an advantage of using visual aids in a public speech? a. Using visual aids enhances the clarity of the speaker s message. b. Using visual aids reduces the need for eye contact with the audience. c. Using visual aids can help combat the speaker s stage fright. e. a and c only 2. According to your textbook, which of the following is an advantage of using visual aids in a speech? a. Using visual aids can increase the clarity of a speaker s message. b. Using visual aids can increase the audience s retention of a speaker s message. c. Using visual aids can increase the persuasiveness of a speaker s message. e. a and b only 3. Visual aids can be very useful to a speaker because they a. often take the place of statistics. b. enhance the clarity of a speaker s ideas.
6 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 275 c. can be passed among members of the audience. d. do not require a great deal of explanation. e. all of the above. 4. Visual aids are often helpful to a speaker because they can a. enhance the clarity of a speaker s ideas. b. make information more interesting to listeners. c. help listeners retain a speaker s ideas. e. a and b only. 5. If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available, the next best option ideally is a a. model. b. chart. c. slide. d. photograph. e. drawing. 6. As your textbook explains, if you plan to use a photograph as a visual aid in a speech, you should usually a. display the photograph with PowerPoint. b. pass the photograph among the audience so everyone can look at it. c. use a photograph in an oversize book and hold it where it can be seen. e. b and c only. 7. are especially valuable for showing an audience statistical trends and patterns. a. Models b. Diagrams c. Transparencies d. Blueprints e. Graphs 8. If you were discussing statistical trends in a speech, what kind of visual aid would probably work best to clarify the trends for listeners? a. a chart b. a map c. a diagram d. a graph e. a model
7 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS A graph is best suited for showing changes in statistics over time or space. a. pie b. line c. distributive d. parallel e. ratio 10. If you wanted to compare the changes over the last 10 years in the number of people who get their news from newspapers and the number of people who get their news from the Internet, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a a. pie graph. b. diagram. c. chart. d. line graph. e. wave graph. 11. Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to illustrate the rising cost of a college degree? a. a line graph b. a chart c. a diagram d. a bar graph e. a pie graph 12. Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to show changes in the homicide rate in Washington, D.C., over the past twenty years? a. a diagram b. a line graph c. a chart d. a bar graph e. a pie graph 13. A graph is best suited for illustrating simple distribution patterns. a. pie b. line c. parallel d. ratio e. bar 14. A graph is best suited for illustrating the relationship among parts of a whole. a. parallel
8 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 277 b. ratio c. bar d. pie e. line 15. While working on his speech, Lebron decided to use a visual showing the proportions of the U.S. federal budget spent in four major areas defense, entitlement programs, nonentitlement programs, and miscellaneous spending. What type of visual aid should he use? a. a pictogram b. a line graph c. an illustration d. a photograph e. a pie graph 16. Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to show the proportion of deaths last year that resulted from accidents, illnesses, natural causes, and homicides? a. a line graph b. a chart c. a photograph d. a pie graph e. a diagram 17. Which of the following would probably be the best visual aid to demonstrate the distribution of grades for a class? a. a pie graph b. a quota graph c. a longitudinal graph d. a partition graph e. a line graph 18. A graph is best suited for showing comparisons between two or more items. a. picture b. parallel c. distributive d. ratio e. bar 19. If you wanted to demonstrate the comparative spending of the United States and Canada on four different kinds of social services, which type of visual aid would be most effective?
9 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 278 a. a bar graph b. a drawing c. a line graph d. a chart e. a pie graph 20. If you wanted to compare the number of men and the number of women who earned bachelor s degrees in engineering, science, and the humanities in 2010, you would probably use a a. parallel graph. b. drawing. c. ratio graph. d. bar graph. e. pictogram. 21. If you wanted to compare the current infant mortality rate, average lifespan, and cost of living in the United States and Denmark, which type of visual aid should you probably use? a. a ratio graph b. a chart c. a bar graph d. a drawing e. a line graph 22. A(n) is a visual aid that summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form. a. diagram b. chart c. pictogram d. illustration e. graph 23. According to your textbook, charts are especially useful as visual aids when a speaker needs to a. summarize the steps in a process. b. illustrate changes in statistics over time. c. include more categories than can be presented in a pie or bar graph. e. a and c only.
10 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS While working on her speech, Xiu decided to use a visual aid summarizing the steps in applying for a visa to study in the United States. The best kind of visual aid for her to use would probably be a(n) a. chart. b. photograph. c. pictogram. d. illustration. e. graph. 25. If you wanted to summarize the steps of a process in a speech, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be a a. model. b. chart. c. diagram. d. photograph. e. graph. 26. If you wanted to compare the military spending of the United States to that of eight other nations, what type of visual aid should you probably use? a. a map b. a chart c. a line graph d. a pie graph e. a diagram 27. Which of the following would probably be the best kind of visual aid to summarize the major types of agricultural crops grown in the United States? a. a chart b. a model c. a photograph d. a drawing e. a map 28. Alain is planning to use video as a visual aid in his persuasive speech. According to your textbook, he should a. limit the video to about 30 seconds in length. b. edit the video to illustrate his point clearly and precisely. c. make sure the video will project clearly on a large screen or monitor. e. a and c only.
11 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS Jasmine plans to show a video of an explosion in her speech. According to your textbook, she should a. make sure the video is sharp enough for a large screen or monitor. b. cue the video to start exactly where she wants it. c. wait until the end of her speech to show the video. e. a and b only. 30. If you were giving a speech about how to execute basic karate moves, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be a. yourself. b. a photograph. c. a chart. d. a drawing. e. a painting. 31. According to your textbook, which of the following is an advantage of using PowerPoint in a speech? a. PowerPoint enables you to combine a variety of visual aids. b. PowerPoint is an excellent way to display photographs. c. PowerPoint allows you to display large amounts of text. e. a and b only 32. According to your textbook, when using PowerPoint in a speech, you should a. try to come up with a slide for every point in the speech. b. use PowerPoint only where it is needed to communicate your ideas. c. write your points on the slides so the audience can read along with you. e. a and b only. 33. As your textbook explains, if you are going to use PowerPoint in a speech, you should a. allow extra time to prepare your visual aids. b. plan where you can employ PowerPoint to greatest advantage. c. use decorative fonts to give your slides more visual appeal. e. a and b only. 34. When you use PowerPoint in a speech, you should a. allow extra time to prepare your visual aids. b. run quickly through your slides when you rehearse. c. bring a backup of your slides to the speech.
12 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 281 e. a and c only. 35. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for preparing PowerPoint slides? a. Limit the amount of text to no more than six lines per slide. b. Use all capital letters so the words will be easy to read. c. Stick to a limited number of colors and use them consistently. e. a and c only 36. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for preparing PowerPoint slides? a. Use images strategically. b. Use a limited amount of text. c. Use colors consistently. e. b and c only 37. Which of the following does your textbook present as a guideline for preparing visual aids? a. Keep visual aids simple. b. Use a minimum of three fonts on each PowerPoint slide. c. Write words in all capital letters. e. a and c only 38. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for using visual aids? a. Prepare visual aids well in advance of your speaking date. b. Create a visual aid to illustrate each point in your speech. c. Display visual aids only while discussing them. e. a and c only 39. According to your textbook, when selecting fonts for a visual aid, you should usually use a. a wide variety of fonts. b. decorative fonts. c. a different font for each line. d. italicized fonts. e. no more than two fonts. 40. When using fonts on a PowerPoint slide, you should usually use a. all capital letters so the lettering will be easy to read. b. a minimum of four fonts to provide visual variety. c. decorative fonts because they are fun to experiment with.
13 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 282 e. none of the above. 41. Serena is creating visual aids on her computer. According to your textbook, when she selects fonts, she should plan to use a. decorative fonts to keep the audience interested. b. all capital letters so the words will be easy to read. c. no more than two fonts on each slide. e. none of the above. 42. According to your textbook, when using color in PowerPoint slides, you should a. use colors that can easily be differentiated from each other. b. use the same colors consistently throughout your slides. c. display major ideas in red or green. e. a and b only. 43. What does your textbook say you should do when presenting visual aids in a speech? a. Pass visual aids among the audience. b. Include visual aids only in informative speeches. c. Display each visual aid for an equal amount of time. e. none of the above 44. According to your textbook, when using visual aids in a speech, you should a. keep visual aids on display throughout the speech. b. set up visual aids to the left of the lectern. c. practice with the aids when rehearsing the speech. e. b and c only. 45. When using visual aids in a speech, you should a. display visual aids only while discussing them. b. maintain eye contact with listeners when showing visual aids. c. avoid passing visual aids among the audience. e. a and c only. 46. Each of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for presenting visual aids except a. Display visual aids where listeners can see them.
14 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 283 b. Talk to your audience, not to your visual aid. c. Display visual aids only while discussing them. d. Explain your visual aids clearly and concisely. e. Pass small visual aids among the audience. 47. When using a visual aid in a speech, you should display the aid a. on the left side of the lectern. b. so everyone in the room can see it. c. throughout the speech. e. a and b only. 48. As your textbook explains, visual aids are most effective when they are displayed a. throughout the speech. b. during the introduction of a speech. c. just before the conclusion of a speech. d. only while the speaker is discussing them. e. from the right side of the lectern. 49. According to your textbook, visual aids are most effective when they are a. explained clearly and concisely. b. circulated among the audience. c. presented early in the speech. e. a and c only. 50. According to your textbook, visual aids are most effective when they are a. integrated with the rest of the speech. b. explained clearly and concisely. c. passed among the audience. e. a and b only. 51. Leo is planning to use visual aids for his informative speech. Which of the following recommendations will he find in your textbook? a. Pass small visual aids among the audience. b. Display visual aids only when discussing them. c. Display visual aids where listeners can see them. e. b and c only
15 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS Bryn is planning to use visual aids for her informative speech. Which of the following recommendations will she find in your textbook? a. Keep visual aids simple. b. Use visual aids strategically. c. Display each visual aid for an equal amount of time. e. a and b only 53. Kumar gave his informative speech on meteorology. As part of the speech, he displayed an excellent drawing to indicate the temperatures in different layers of the atmosphere. When he got to the drawing, he said, As you can see, each layer has a different temperature. He then covered up the drawing and quickly moved on. What should Kumar have done to present his visual aid more effectively? a. He should have created a handout and passed it among the audience. b. He should have explained the visual aid more fully. c. He should have displayed a photograph instead of a drawing. e. a and b only 54. According to your textbook, when you are going to give an audience material to take home from a speech, you should usually distribute the material a. as the audience arrives for the speech. b. at the beginning of the speech. c. at the time you discuss it during the speech. d. during the conclusion of the speech. e. after the speech. 55. Rosalie will be giving a persuasive speech on organ donation and wants to distribute organ-donor cards to her listeners. When should she distribute the cards? a. before she starts the speech b. after she reveals her topic in the introduction c. while telling how organ-donor cards work during the body of the speech d. while urging her audience to take action during the conclusion of the speech e. after she has finished speaking 56. Elisa is giving a speech on women s athletics and has brought a petition for her listeners to sign. When should she circulate the petition? a. before she begins her speech b. as soon as she reveals the topic of her speech c. after explaining the problems faced by women s athletic teams d. while urging the audience to take action during her conclusion e. after she has finished speaking
16 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS On the morning of his classroom speech, Jonah felt that he needed more visual interest in the speech. On his way to class, he bought poster board and a marker and wrote down his main points for the audience to see. Did Robert follow the guidelines for visual aids presented in your textbook? a. No. Robert should have prepared more visual aids than a single chart. b. Yes. Robert showed quick thinking under pressure by making the chart. c. No. Robert should have prepared the chart ahead of time and rehearsed with it. d. Yes. Visual aids always heighten the audience s interest and attention. e. No. The chart will distract the audience s attention from Robert s main points. 58. Zach will be using PowerPoint in a speech he is giving to the local Rotary Club. According to your textbook, Zach should a. check the equipment and setup of the room in which he will be speaking. b. distribute handouts of his slides for the audience to look at during his speech. c. bring a flash drive with a backup of his slides. e. a and c only. 59. If you are planning to use PowerPoint in a speech, you should a. assume that all the equipment in the room will work fine. b. bring a backup copy of your slides on a flash drive. c. use your PowerPoint slides when you practice. e. b and c only. 60. Camille prepared excellent PowerPoint slides for her speech about education reform, but the speech didn t go as well as she had hoped. She had trouble finding the Enter key on her computer to advance her slides, and sometimes she skipped a slide because she held the key down too long. According to your textbook, Camille could have presented her slides more effectively if she had a. set up her slides to advance automatically. b. practiced using the keyboard until she could advance the slides easily. c. checked the equipment in the room to make sure it worked properly. d. used her mouse to advance the slides instead of using the Enter key. e. borrowed someone else s computer for her speech. 61. During her speech about sailboats, Louise gave each member of her audience a detailed drawing showing the different parts of a sailboat. Did Louise follow the guidelines for visual aids presented in your textbook? a. No. The drawing could have been boring to many members of the audience. b. Yes. Giving the audience a handout during the speech is usually a good idea. c. No. Diane should have passed one copy of the drawing through the audience.
17 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 286 d. Yes. The detail of the drawing probably heightened the audience s interest. e. No. Diane risked losing attention by passing out the drawing during her speech. 62. Gillian prepared beautiful photographs in PowerPoint to illustrate various parts of her speech about the Milky Way. When Gillian finished explaining each photograph, she left it on the screen for her audience to study until it was time for the next slide. Did Gillian make any mistakes in her use of visual aids? a. Yes. She should have used drawings instead of photographs. b. No. She explained her visual aids to the audience as the book recommends. c. Yes. She should have displayed blank slides between the photographs. d. No. PowerPoint is an excellent way to display photographs. e. Yes. Photographs usually don t require explanations when used as visual aids. Short-Answer Questions 1. If the object you want to use as a visual aid is not available to you, the next best option ideally is a. model 2. A(n) is usually the best kind of visual aid for clarifying statistics. graph 3. If you wanted to illustrate the increase in the number of people in the U.S. who have earned college degrees since 1970, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a(n). graph 4. While a graph is best for illustrating simple distribution patterns, a graph is best for showing comparisons between two or more items. pie; bar 5. If you wanted to summarize the events that led to the outbreak of World War I, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a. chart 6. If you wanted to list the steps of a process to help your audience remember them better, the best kind of visual aid to use would probably be a. chart
18 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS If you wanted to summarize the steps in treating a sprained ankle, the best kind of visual aid would probably be a. chart 8. List five of the guidelines discussed in your textbook for preparing visual aids. a. b. c. d. e. The textbook discusses seven guidelines for preparing visual aids: Prepare visual aids well in advance. Keep visual aids simple. Make sure visual aids are large enough. Use a limited amount of text. Use fonts effectively. Use color effectively. Use images strategically. 9. List five of the guidelines discussed in your textbook for presenting visual aids. a. b. c. d. e. The textbook discusses seven guidelines for presenting visual aids: Display visual aids where listeners can see them. Avoid passing visual aids among the audience. Display visual aids only while discussing them. Explain visual aids clearly and concisely. Talk to your audience, not to your visual aid. Practice with your visual aids.
19 CHAPTER 14 USING VISUAL AIDS 288 Essay Questions 1. Explain the major advantages of using visual aids in a speech. 2. If a picture is worth a thousand words, why should a speaker worry about explaining visual aids to the audience? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using PowerPoint in a speech? 4. What are the three kinds of graphs discussed in your textbook? Give an example of each. 5. What kind of visual aid would probably be most effective for explaining each of the following? Explain your choice of visual aid in each case. a. the basic equipment and techniques of scuba diving b. the projected growth in the U.S. population between now and 2050 c. the markings on different species of poisonous spiders d. where to obtain information about career opportunities available to college graduates with degrees in engineering 6. Explain each of the following guidelines for using visual aids in a speech: a. Prepare visual aids well in advance. b. Avoid passing visual aids among the audience. c. Display visual aids only while discussing them. d. Talk to your audience, not to your visual aid. 7. Explain four things you can do to use PowerPoint effectively in a speech.
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