1 1 TORONTO NUCLEAR EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (TNERP) Nuclear Emergency at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) Prepared by City of Toronto Office of Emergency Management Version 1.0 September 2012
2 2 About this document This document is the official City of Toronto Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (TNERP). The TNERP conforms with: the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA); the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Master Plan (PNERP) ; the Implementing Plan for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS); City of Toronto Emergency Plan; 1 City of Toronto Operational Support Functions (OSF).0F The TNERP describes what the City of Toronto will do in response to a Nuclear Emergency at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). The TNERP conforms to all requirements of the PNERP, the Implementing Plan for PNGS, the City of Toronto Emergency Plan and applicable Operational Support Functions (OSF) and, for the purpose of full clarity and understanding, is to be read in conjunction with those documents. History of the development of the Toronto Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Previously, the City of Toronto responded to any concerns from the potential hazard at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station under the auspices of a document referred as the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plan, (PNEP).To meet compliance with the PNEP, the City of Toronto authored the Toronto Nuclear Emergency Plan, (TNEP). In 2009 the Province of Ontario updated the PNEP and replaced it with the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP) resulting in the City of Toronto having to update and revise its plans to the Toronto Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (TNERP). This document has new and specific roles as responsibilities for the City of Toronto, and this 1 Operational Support Functions (OSFs) are supporting documents to the Council approved Emergency Plan and are updated on a regular basis. They contain the structure and framework for integrated support by lead and supporting agencies to respond to emergencies. The OSFs can be stand-alone documents or grouped depending on the nature of the emergency
3 3 TNERP replaces all previous City of Toronto response plans to a Nuclear Accident at the Pickering Nuclear Power Generating Station. The TNERP is administered by the City of Toronto, Office of Emergency Management
4 4 FIGURE 1: PROVINCE OF ONTARIO NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING STRUCTURE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AND CIVIL PROTECTION ACT (EMCPA) PROVINCIAL NUCLEAR EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (PNERP) MASTER PLAN PROVINCIAL NUCLEAR EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (PNERP) IMPLEMENTING PLANS MAJOR NUCLEAR SITES OTHER RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCIES TRANSBORDER EMERGENCIES MAJOR ORGANIZATIONAL PLANS PROVINCIAL MINISTRIES, AGENCIES, BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS MUNICIPALITIES TORONTO NUCLEAR EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (TNERP) NUCLEAR ORGANIZATIONS OTHER PROCEDURES CHECKLISTS
5 5 PROVINCE OF ONTARIO NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING STRUCTURE The structure for nuclear and radiological emergency response planning in Ontario, which is illustrated in the Figure 1 on the previous page, consists of the following components: The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA) requires and authorizes the formulation of the plan. The Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP): Developed pursuant to Section 8 of the EMCPA and subject to Cabinet approval: The Master Plan: sets out the overall principles, policies, basic concepts, organizational structures and responsibilities. The Implementing Plans: the elements of the Master Plan are applied to each major nuclear site, transborder emergencies and other types of radiological emergencies, and detailed provincial implementing plans developed. The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans. Major Organization Plans: Each major organization involved develops its own plan to carry out the relevant roles, responsibilities and tasks agreed to by them and consistent with their mandate. These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans. Procedures: Based on all of the above plans, procedures are developed for the various emergency centres to be set up and for the various operational functions required. Checklists: The culmination of the planning process is the development of checklists based on the requirements of the procedures, e.g., individual position or function-specific checklists. It is necessary that everyone involved in the preparation and implementation of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan employ common terminology. The terminology contained in the Nuclear/Radiological Glossary, Annex C, of the Implementing Plan for Pickering Nuclear Generating Station should be used for this purpose by all concerned.
6 6 Toronto Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: GENERAL AND LEGAL Aim of Plan Scope of Plan Municipal Plans Joint Traffic Control Plan Other Plans and Procedures... 9 CHAPTER 2: PLAN DATA AND ORGANIZATION Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) The Potential Hazard Protective Measures Planning Zones Response Sectors Planning Data Emergency Organization Contingency Provisions Emergency Facilities Telecommunications...17 CHAPTER 3: NOTIFICATION AND INITIAL RESPONSE Initial Notification Initial Provincial Notification and Municipal Response Internal Notifications External Notifications Public Alerting...26
7 7 3.6 Emergency Bulletins Activation of Emergency Plans Immediate Actions...27 CHAPTER 4: OPERATIONAL RESPONSE General Overview of Operations Partial Activation Venting of Containment for a Delayed Emission Full Activation Entry Control Evacuation Thyroid Blocking Traffic Control Radiation Monitoring Ingestion Control Measures Emergency Worker Safety Public Direction Emergency Information...56 Annex A: Response Sector Boundaries...59 Annex B: Planning Data...61 Annex C: Emergency Level Notifications OSF...63 Annex D: Emergency Operations Centre OSF...64 Annex E: Incident Management System OSF...65 Annex F: Emergency Information OSF...66
8 8 CHAPTER 1: GENERAL AND LEGAL 1.1 Aim of Plan The Toronto Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (TNERP) outlines the roles and responsibilities of the City of Toronto, including its Agencies, Boards, Commissions, and Divisions (ABCDs), with respect to provisions of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (PNERP), as well as the Implementing Plan for Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). 1.2 Scope of Plan The TNERP must be read and applied in conjunction with the Implementing Plan for PNGS, the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Master Plan, the City of Toronto Emergency Plan, and the City of Toronto Operational Support Functions In the case of any apparent discrepancies between the provisions of the Implementing Plan for PNGS and the TNERP, the Implementing Plan for PNGS takes precedence Together, these five plans (TNERP, Implementing Plan PNGS, the PNERP Master Plan, City Emergency Plan, and City of Toronto Operational Support Functions) describe how provincial decisions are implemented by the City of Toronto in response to a nuclear emergency. 1.3 Municipal Plans The City of Toronto and the Regional Municipality of Durham are designated Primary Zone municipalities with respect to PNGS (PNERP Master Plan, Annex A) The City of Toronto is the Designated Host municipality with respect to Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) (PNERP Master Plan, Annex A) The City of Peterborough is also a designated Host municipality with respect to DNGS and PNGS (PNERP Master Plan, Annex A).
9 Municipal Plans for dealing with a PNGS emergency shall be developed by these designated municipalities, as per the PNERP Master Plan, section Municipal Plans shall cover the offsite emergency response arrangements and activities of the designated municipalities, municipal departments, boards, and police services and shall assign them roles and responsibilities, consistent with the provincial plans The plans prepared by the designated municipalities and by these other organizations, are collectively referred to as municipal plans in this document In this document the terms municipal and municipality shall include, unless the context indicates otherwise, the designated municipality, as well as the local police services and local boards whose area of operation includes the area covered by the municipal plans. 1.4 Joint Traffic Control Plan The City of Toronto will conform to all provisions of the Joint Traffic Control Plan as established by the Joint Traffic Control Committee (JTCC) for a PNGS emergency. In its response to the provisions of the Joint Traffic Control Plan (JTCP), the City of Toronto will be guided by its existing Operational Support Functions to manage evacuating traffic under the City of Toronto Emergency Plan. 1.5 Other Plans and Procedures The roles and responsibilities of the City of Toronto, including its ABCDs, with respect to an emergency at the PNGS are outlined in the TNERP and its associated Annexes.
10 10 CHAPTER 2: PLAN DATA AND ORGANIZATION 2.1 Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is located 36 km east of Toronto City Hall. The most easterly City of Toronto border is situated 4 km west of the nuclear station. 2.2 The Potential Hazard The main hazard to people would be from external exposure to, and inhalation of airborne radionuclides, radioiodines and particulates that are emitted from the nuclear generating station. Depending on the severity of damage and/or malfunction of the nuclear generating station, radioactive emissions to the environment could continue for weeks and may cover a relatively small or large area around the nuclear station. Levels of radioactivity emitted from the station may range from low to higher amounts. 2.3 Protective Measures The protective measures available for minimizing the radiation hazard in a nuclear emergency include entry control (restricting the public from entering specific areas), sheltering (staying indoors), evacuation (leaving the area when directed), thyroid blocking (consumption of KI pills made available to members of the Pickering Primary Zone), the use of protective equipment and selfdecontamination (cleaning oneself of any exposure to the "dust"). Each of these measures are defined in the Nuclear/Radiological Glossary, Annex C, of the Implementing Plan for The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The operational use of these measures is prescribed in appropriate sections of this plan as well as in procedures and checklists.
11 Planning Zones There are three types of planning zones: Contiguous Zone: is the area immediately surrounding the nuclear installation out to an approximate radius of 3 kilometres. See Annex A Primary Zone: Includes an area of Toronto from the Durham-Toronto boundary west to Morningside Avenue and extending to Finch and Steeles Avenues in the north. The zone extends out into Lake Ontario to a radius of approximately 10 km from PNGS. The exact boundaries of the zone can be determined from Annex A. Sectors within the City of Toronto are highlighted in grey in Annex A. The Primary Zone for PNGS is shown in Figure 2.1. It includes an area of the Regional Municipality of Durham bounded generally by Lynde Creek to the east, the 5th Concession to the north, and the Durham-Toronto boundary to the west, but excluding Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The Primary Zone which includes the Contiguous Zone, is the area around the nuclear installation within which detailed planning and preparedness is carried out for measures against exposure to radioactive emission. The approximate radius is 10 kilometres Secondary Zone: The Secondary Zone encompasses all areas of the City of Toronto, Regional Municipalities of Durham, York and Peel and City of Kawartha Lakes within a 50 km radius of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The Secondary Zone is shown in Figure 2.2 and includes both the Contiguous and Primary Zones. Figure 2.2 also shows the sub-zones of the Secondary Zone.
14 Response Sectors The Primary Zone for PNGS is divided into 25 Response Sectors which fall into the following sector rings around the station: Inner Ring (Contiguous Zone) - Sectors P1 and P2 and Lake Sector P23 Middle Ring - Sectors P3 through P14 and Lake Sector P24 Outer Ring - Sectors P15 through P22, and Lake Sector P25 The boundaries of all 25 Response Sectors are detailed in Annex A. The Response Sectors that are located in within the City of Toronto are: P3, P15, P16, P17, P18, P19, on Lake Ontario, P24, P25. They are bolded in grey in Annex A. 2.6 Planning Data Planning Times for Radioactive Emissions The time interval between the occurrence of an accident at PNGS and the commencement of an emission depends on the condition and functioning of the station containment system and on the effectiveness of the actions taken by station operators to delay repressurization of the vacuum structure thus prolonging the holdup of radioactive material within containment: a) For a normally functioning containment system, a minimum interval of 2 days (between the occurrence of the accident and the commencement of an emission) can be used for planning purposes. b) When venting does commence, it could be intermittent, with the emission lasting for many weeks. c) If however, the containment system is impaired, breached or bypassed, an emission could commence much earlier; in some cases very soon after the accident. With an impaired containment, the emission may be continuous.
15 Population Data of the Primary Zone for the City of Toronto are: (based on 2006 Census Data: P3-4,656, P15-10,703, P17-14,260, P18-22,376 P19, 8,025. For planning purposes, it should be assumed that there will be transient boaters in lake sectors P24 and P25, depending on the time of year. Estimates of the entire Primary Zone sector population are contained in Annex B. The population data for the Sectors that are located in within the City of Toronto are bolded in grey in Annex B. 2.7 Emergency Organization The provincial emergency response organization for dealing with a Pickering Nuclear Generating Station emergency is shown in Figure 2.3. Overall coordination is provided by the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC). The PEOC directs the entire response for the duration of the incident. Although the municipalities within the Primary Zone operationalize their response plans, the PEOC initiates, directs and coordinates the response through Toronto Emergency Operations Centre. The following organizations have been identified in the TNERP: Toronto Fire Services (TFS) Toronto Police Service (TPS) Toronto Public Health (TPH) Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) Shelter Support and Housing Administration (SSHA) Office of Emergency Management (OEM) York University, Keele Campus Seneca College, Newnham Campus Centennial College, Progress Campus Marine Emergency Worker and Reception Centre at Bluffers Park Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC)
16 Liaison Arrangements a) To ensure liaison and coordination between different elements of the emergency response organization, the following arrangements and agreements shall be made at the time of the emergency Provincial staff to be deployed to join the City of Toronto Emergency Operations Centres (EOCs). PNGS to provide a liaison officer to the City of Toronto EOC b) The role of the PNGS liaison officer at the City of Toronto EOC will be to act as a link to the station in respect of the following types of issues: OPG support to the municipalities e.g. Monitoring & Decontamination Units and Emergency Worker Centres. Requests for mutual assistance (e.g. for additional personal monitoring resources, stable iodine tablets, fire or Emergency Medical Services at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station etc.) Emergency Services Mutual Assistance request will be made through existing Emergency Service channels. Facilitating the work of the offsite field monitoring teams. Providing situational updates related to the emergency at the nuclear facility. Providing technical briefings to the City of Toronto EOC staff in order to clarify the context within which the operational situation may be understood Joint Traffic Control Centre Toronto Nuclear Local Traffic Control Plan The City of Toronto will manage evacuation-related traffic by imposing traffic controls when instructed by the Joint Traffic Control Centre (JTCC), according to arrangements under the Joint Traffic Control Plan. These measures are described in the Toronto Nuclear Traffic Control Plan to implement Stage 1, 2 and 3 traffic measures when directed by the JTCC.
17 Contingency Provisions The PEOC shall normally coordinate the emergency management and response organization through the centres in the tier below it (see Figure 2.3). However, if for any reason any of these centres are not functioning or are not responsive, the PEOC may issue directions directly to any element of the emergency response organization Likewise, in the absence of contact with the PEOC, these organizations are responsible for taking appropriate actions, according to plans, procedures and the requirements of the situation and, as far as possible, in coordination with other responding organizations. 2.9 Emergency Facilities Activation of the Toronto Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) at a Level Three Response (Notifications OSF Annex C: Emergency Incident) may include establishment of emergency facilities at the following locations when instructed to do so by the PEOC. Marine Emergency Worker Centre at Scarborough Bluffs Reception / Evacuation Centre at Seneca College Procedure Reception / Evacuation Centre at York University Procedure Emergency Worker Centre at Centennial College Procedure 2.10 Telecommunications The City of Toronto's Emergency Operations Centre is equipped with a dedicated landline which is linked with Ontario Power Generation's Corporate Emergency Operations Facility (CEOF) in Whitby, Ontario. In the event of a telecommunications failure, Toronto EOC will use two-way radio communications with Metronet radios that are pre-established and regularly tested through Toronto Police Service and with Amateur Radio operators.
18 18 FIGURE 2.3: PROVINCIAL NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE ORGANIZATION LGIC & Premiere Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management Cabinet Office Deputy Minister of Community Safety Commissioner of Emergency Management Emergency Information Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) Command Federal Government Operations Centre Operations Planning Science Logistics Finance & Admin. Nuclear Installation EOC Ministry Emergency Operations Centre (MEOC) Host/Support Municipality EOC Community Emergency Operations Centre Joint Traffic Control Centre MDU Reception/ Evacuee Centres Emergency Worker Centre Emergency Information Centre Emergency Site
19 19 CHAPTER 3: NOTIFICATION AND INITIAL RESPONSE 3.1 Initial Notification According to responsibilities under the federal legislation (see PNERP, Master Plan paragraph 5.5.1) and regulations and/or under agreement with the provincial government, the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) shall notify the pre-designated contact points (paragraph below) in provincial and municipal emergency organizations as soon as conditions arise at the facility which require such initial notification under the criteria prescribed in Table 3.1 and, as incorporated in facility procedures. Municipal Contact Points The City of Toronto's Contact Point is through the Toronto Police Service Communications Centre to receive initial notification of a nuclear emergency from the PEOC and Ontario Power Generation on a 24 hour/day, 7 day/week basis. The On-Call Coordinator from the Toronto Office of Emergency Management is available on a 24 hour basis, seven days a week to receive notification from the Toronto Police Service of a nuclear emergency PNGS shall complete this initial notification to the provincial contact point within 15 minutes of the requirement for notification being recognized.
20 Initial Provincial Notification and Municipal Response The initial provincial response to a notification from PNGS shall depend on the category (and other relevant information) contained in the notification message Within 15 minutes of the receipt of an initial notification, the PEOC shall decide on the initial response level to be adopted, and inform the City of Toronto municipal contact point (Section 3.1.1) The provincial response level adopted can be changed to another level, if considered appropriate, by the PEOC. Such a change can include termination of the provincial response. All concerned shall be notified of any such change The initial (and any subsequent) response level to be adopted by the City of Toronto and other organizations shall be communicated by the PEOC (paragraphs above). The general City if Toronto response for each level is outlined in Table 3.1; the specific responses are described in the Section 4.3 and Section 4.4 of this plan.
21 21 Sequence of Action The following sequence of action has been established by the City of Toronto in the event of initial notification from Ontario Power Generation and the PEOC 1. OPG will contact Toronto Police Service Communications Centre by telephone accompanied by documentation. 2. Within 15 minutes of the receipt of an initial notification from PNGS, the PEOC will decide on the initial response level to be adopted and inform the Toronto Police Service, as the City's municipal contact 3. Toronto Police Communications Centre will contact the on-call officer at the Public Safety Unit (PSU) 4. The PSU will contact the Office of Emergency Management (OEM) on-call Coordinator and inform them of the event or emergency, as described in the notifications from EMO and OPG. 5. The OEM on-call Coordinator will notify the Manager(s), who in turn notifies the Director of the Office of Emergency Management to determine the appropriate response. If a Partial or Full Activation by the PEOC is communicated to the City of Toronto step 6 will occur. 6. The City of Toronto will issue internal notifications according to the Emergency Level Notification OSF (Annex C). 7. The Emergency Operation Centre will be activated (Annex D) 8. The COT will initiate the mobilization of the three or four City emergency Centres as directed by the PEOC 9. The Office of Emergency Management will notify o York University Security office o Seneca College Security office o Centennial College Security office o Toronto Police Service during the boating season, to inform the Marine Unit
22 22 Table 3.1: Initial Provincial and Municipal Response INITIAL NOTIFICATION REPORTABLE EVENT ABNORMAL INCIDENT INITIAL PROVINCIAL RESPONSE ROUTINE MONITORING 1. Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) shall notify the municipal contact point(s), Ontario Power Generation (OPG), and others as appropriate, and shall monitor the situation. 2. Scientific staff is consulted, if appropriate. 3. If and when appropriate, PEOC Emergency Information (EI) staff issues news release(s). ENHANCED MONITORING 1. PEOC shall adopt Enhanced Monitoring, and shall so inform the municipal contact point(s), OPG, and any other organizations affected. 2. External notifications to Michigan, New York, Ohio and Quebec are made. 3. PEOC to set up a duty team consisting of operations staff, scientific staff, OPG representative(s), EI staff, and others as required. 4. If and when appropriate, PEOC EI staff issue news release(s). 5. Provincial staff are notified to remain available to report in for duty. City of Toronto INITIAL RESPONSE ROUTINE MONITORING 1. Public Safety Unit (PSU) of Toronto Police Service (TPS) shall be notified by PEOC 2. PSU shall notify Office of Emergency Management (OEM) 3. Emergency response staff, (TPS and OEM) will remain in contact with the PEOC and monitor event. ENHANCED MONITORING 1. Public Safety Unit (PSU) of Toronto Police Service (TPS) shall be notified by PEOC 2. PSU shall notify Office of Emergency Management (OEM) 3. Emergency response staff will monitor the event via the OEM. The OEM will activate the Emergency Operations Centre (EOC).
23 23 INITIAL NOTIFICATION ONSITE EMERGENCY (No emission occurring) INITIAL PROVINCIAL RESPONSE PARTIAL ACTIVATION 1. PEOC shall adopt Partial Activation response (for details, see paragraph 3.7.3), and shall initiate the appropriate internal and external notifications (see sections 3.3 and 3.4 respectively), including the municipal contact points and the host communities. 2. PEOC shall be fully staffed. Consideration shall be given to issuing an Emergency Bulletin and/or news release (see Section 4.13 and 4.14). 3. Ministry EOCs and Joint Traffic Control Centre (JTCC) to be established and appropriately staffed. City of Toronto INITIAL RESPONSE PARTIAL ACTIVATION 1. OEM will issue notifications to place municipal emergency response organization on standby. 2. Toronto EOC will be fully activated. 3. Emergency Information function at Toronto EOC is operational 4. OEM will call Emergency Human Services (EHS) to activate emergency centres to become operational without undue delay. 5. EHS will activate it's EHS OSF. ONSITE EMERGENCY (Emission Ongoing or expected within 12 hrs) FULL ACTIVATION 1. PEOC shall notify and require the municipal contacts to activate the public alerting system (paragraph 3.5.3). 2. PEOC shall adopt Full Activation (for details, see section 3.7.4), and shall initiate the appropriate internal and external notifications (see sections 3.3, 3.4, respectively), including the host community. 3. PEOC shall issue the appropriate Emergency Bulletin (paragraph 3.6 and ). 4. PEOC shall issue operational directives implementing the following operational measures, unless there are good reasons for modifying this response, for: (a) sheltering in the Contiguous Zone (b) suspension of road and rail traffic through the Contiguous Zone (c) the clearance of all boaters in Lake Sector P23 5. PEOC shall assess the situation for FULL ACTIVATION 1. Public Alerting will be initiated via Toronto EOC 2. Toronto OEM will issue notifications to activate municipal emergency response organization 3. Toronto EOC, including Emergency Information function (Annex F) and other centres will be activated and fully staffed. 4. Toronto EOC will implement operational directives, as issued by the PEOC. 5. Toronto EOC will activate all 4 Emergency Response Centres, York, Seneca, EWC and Bluffer's Park
24 24 INITIAL NOTIFICATION INITIAL PROVINCIAL RESPONSE further action (see section 4.3.4)). 6. PEOC shall issue further Emergency Bulletins, as appropriate (paragraph ). 7. PEOC EI section shall issue news releases, as appropriate (section 4.14) 8. JTCC and Ministry EOCs to be established. City of Toronto INITIAL RESPONSE GENERAL EMERGENCY (Emission ongoing or expected within 12 hrs) FULL ACTIVATION 1. PEOC shall notify and ensure that the municipal contacts have activated the public alerting system (paragraph 3.5.2). 2. PEOC shall issue the appropriate Emergency Bulletin (Sections 3.6 and ). 3. PEOC shall issue operational directives implementing the following operational measures for: (a) suspension of road, rail and air traffic throughout the Contiguous Zone (b) the evacuation of the Contiguous Zone and Lake Sectors P23 through P25 unless there are good reasons for modifying this response. 4. If emission is ongoing or, if evacuations will not be completed prior to emission, issue operational directives implementing the operational measures for: (a) evacuees to report for radiation monitoring or, if not possible, to evacuate to a destination beyond the PZ and to undertake self-decontamination. (b) the ingestion of KI pills in the Contiguous Zone (paragraph (d)). (c) sheltering in the rest of the Primary Zone. Otherwise, take this action 4 hours (or, at a time deemed appropriate) before the expected time of commencement of the FULL ACTIVATION 1. Public alerting will be initiated via Toronto EOC 2. Toronto OEM will issue notifications to activate municipal emergency response organization 3. Toronto EOC, including Emergency Information function (Annex F) and other centres will be activated and fully staffed. 4. Toronto EOC will implement operational directives, as issued by the PEOC. 5. Toronto EOC will activate all 4 Emergency Response Centres, York, Seneca, EWC and Bluffer's Park
25 25 INITIAL NOTIFICATION INITIAL PROVINCIAL RESPONSE emission. 5. PEOC shall adopt Full Activation (for details, see paragraph 3.7.4), and shall initiate the appropriate internal and external notifications (see sections 3.3 and 3.4 respectively), including the host community. 6. PEOC shall assess the situation for further action (see paragraph 4.5.4). 7. PEOC shall issue further emergency bulletins, as appropriate (paragraph ) 8. PEOC EI section shall issue news releases, as appropriate (section 4.14). 9. Ministry EOCs and JTCC to be established. City of Toronto INITIAL RESPONSE
26 P to Internal Notifications If a Partial or Full Activation by the PEOC is communicated, the City of Toronto will issue internal notifications according to the Emergency Level Notification OSF and activate the Emergency Operation Centre. (Annex C) 3.4 External Notifications Upon adoption of an Activation Response (Partial or Full) by the PEOC, external notifications shall be according to the Emergency Level Notification OSF (Annex C). This notification includes the following external agencies: Toronto District School Board, Toronto District Catholic School Board, Local Utilities (Hydro, Gas, Telecommunications), Local branches of voluntary organizations Refer to Emergency Level Notification OSF (Annex C) for the full list of external notification recipients. 3.5 Public Alerting Once notified of an ongoing or imminent emission or as directed by the PEOC, the City of Toronto will alert the public located in the Toronto-portion of the 2 Pickering Primary Zone with a warning on an area-wide basisp1f the population in all of the response sectors within that part of the Primary Zone. 2 The system installed in the 3-10 km zones must provide within 15 minutes of initiation, warning on an area-wide bases to the population within that part of the Primary Zone. The term area wide basis means that the alert signal will cover that geographical area as defined, but does not presume that practically 100% of all persons within that geographical area will necessarily hear the public alerting signal. This public alerting requirement is being lead by Emergency Management Ontario to ensure compliance is with standard.
27 Emergency Bulletins Emergency Bulletins will be issued by PEOC Emergency Information Section to broadcast media and shared with the City of Toronto. To assist with the dissemination of provincial emergency information, The City will distribute the same information and key messages provided by the PEOC using its Emergency Information OSF (Annex F) Marine Notification and Public Direction The Toronto Police Service Marine Units will assist in notifying and evacuating marine craft that do not have radios on board as per the Marine Emergency Worker Centre at Scarborough Bluffs Procedure. 3.7 Activation of Emergency Plans Immediate Actions All jurisdictions and organizations identified in the TNERP which receive a notification of the activation of that plan should immediately activate their own plans, procedures and checklists. These plans should be fully or partially activated as indicated in the notification received.
28 28 CHAPTER 4: OPERATIONAL RESPONSE 4.1 General Operational response activities of the City of Toronto depend on the notification category received from PEOC. The City of Toronto will respond accordingly based on the directions received from the PEOC or appropriate authority This chapter deals with emergency response operations for an accident at PNGS which results in, or has the potential to result in, an emission of radioactive material to the atmosphere. Therefore a Partial or Full Activation response by the PEOC and an activation of the City of Toronto Emergency Operation Centre to a Level Three (Highest Level) Emergency Incident may be directed. 4.2 Overview of Operations The PEOC receives notification of an emergency from PNGS The PEOC notifies the City of Toronto and other contact points and passes on the initial provincial response, based on the notification category received as outlined in Section 3.2 of this plan The response from the PEOC will be either: a) Partial Activation for a Delayed Emission (expected in more than 12 hours); or b) Full Activation for an Ongoing/Imminent Emission (either ongoing or expected in 12 hours or less) as a result of a non-reactor emergency. Regardless of the Partial Activation or Full Activation notification by the PEOC the City of Toronto will activate and manage its Emergency Operation Centre to a Level 3: Emergency Incident. The general City if Toronto response for each level is outlined in Table If a General Emergency notification is received by the PEOC, the response adopted by the PEOC will be Full Activation (public alerting will
29 29 be initiated) as the (reactor) emission, by definition, will either be ongoing or expected within 12 hours or less In the event of a Full Activation, the PEOC will advise the provincial government whether declaration of a provincial emergency is warranted.
30 Figure 4.1 Onsite Emergency Notifications 30
31 Figure 4.2 General Emergency Notifications 31
32 Partial Activation General The most probable scenario, for an accident at PNGS, which could result in the partial activation of the PNERP, would include holdup within the station containment system of any radioactive material released from damaged fuel. This would delay the emission of radioactivity to the environment, providing the City of Toronto and community sufficient time to implement protective actions The general sequence of actions required to be taken by the City of Toronto for a Partial Activation in response to direction from the PEOC is: a) The City of Toronto will: Issue notification placing municipal emergency response organizations on stand-by according to the Emergency Level 3 Notifications OSF (Annex C)P2F Fully activate the EOC to a Level Three: Emergency Incident according to Emergency Operations Centre OSF (Annex D) Place City of Toronto members of the Joint Traffic Control Committee on stand-by to report to the Joint Traffic Control Centre if asked; notify City of Toronto staff to standby to implement Toronto Nuclear Local Traffic Control Plan Establish the Emergency Information Centre according to the Emergency Information OSF (Annex F) Ready emergency centres to become operational with undue delay according to the following procedures: Marine Emergency Worker Centre at Scarborough Bluffs Reception/Evacuation Centre at Seneca College Reception/Evacuation Centre at York University Emergency Worker Centre at Centennial College 3 Includes external notifications to agencies/organizations as defined under Section 3.4.4
33 33 b) The PEOC will conduct technical assessments (Section 4.3.3) of the accident situation, its projected effects and will make a decision on whether or not precautionary and protective measures are required in the City of Toronto as it relates to protective measures. Based on these assessments, the City of Toronto will follow operational directives issued by the Province regarding the implementation of protective measures Technical Assessments The Scientific Section of the PEOC shall undertake the following assessments for input into the Command Section of the PEOC decision making process. o Accident and its Prognosis o Repressurization Time o Venting Data and Projections o Evacuation Distance o Other Protective Measures Provincial orders or operational directives are based on technical assessments at the PEOC and determine what protective actions are appropriate. The City will implement operational directives or orders issued by the PEOC once a provincial emergency has been declared Implementation of Protective Measures a) The PEOC will upgrade to a Full Activation response prior to directing the City of Toronto to implement protective measures and/or evacuate at least 36 hours prior to the emission time, if possible. b) Assessment of Protective Measures The technical assessment of the situation will produce a projection of the maximum distance from PNGS at which the lower protective action levels for evacuation, sheltering and KI ingestion is likely to be reached during the anticipated duration of the emission. Evaluating
34 34 this, and taking into account operational and public policy considerations, a preliminary assessment shall be prepared regarding the need to implement these measures and if needed, the ring of response sectors out to which these measures should take place. This technical assessment and the assessment of the protective measure area shall be continually updated and, as soon as a reasonably certain picture of the evacuation (and/or other protective measures) distance is achieved, the PEOC, through the Command Section, shall provide directions, regarding the operational directives (or, in the event of a declared emergency, shall advise that such orders have been made) to the designated municipalities, host and support municipalities and the nuclear facility. c) Emergency Bulletins Protective Measures Once all relevant stakeholders have been informed and implementation of the necessary actions may begin, the PEOC shall issue an Emergency Bulletin informing the affected public of the timing and extent of the expected emission as well as the timing and extent of the protective actions that will likely be required. If the emission is not expected for 36 hours, or more, at the time that the initial Emergency Bulletin is issued, that bulletin should include the following information: a) date/time of expected emission b) sectors (by geographical description) which may be affected c) if/when precautionary and protective measures will be ordered and what those measures are for each affected sector/area (see (d) and (e)) d) public inquiry phone number(s) e) evacuation instructions (see section 4.7 below) As successive Emergency Bulletins are issued, as much additional information as possible should be provided which may serve to encourage those who can leave early, to make that decision to evacuate. While the Emergency Bulletins issued 36 hours or more before an emission is expected to occur will be informative and permissive, the Emergency Bulletins issued less than 36 hours before the expected
35 35 emission time will be increasingly directive issuing actual operational directives (or, in the event of a declared emergency, advising that such orders have been made) for evacuations. Emergency Bulletins will be issued by PEOC Emergency Information Section to broadcast media and shared with the City of Toronto. To assist with the dissemination of provincial emergency information, The City of Toronto will distribute the same information and key messages using its Emergency Information OSF (Annex F) d) Emergency Bulletins Sheltering The need for sheltering as a protective measure should be broadcast through the Emergency Bulletin as soon as that need is identified. The timing to actually issue an operational directive for sheltering (or, in the event of a declared emergency, advise that such orders have been made) shall be ultimately made by the PEOC (as a general guidance, however, the Emergency Bulletin to direct this protective measure should be issued at least 4 hours prior to the expected emission time). Emergency Bulletins will be issued by PEOC Emergency Information Section to broadcast media. To assist with the dissemination of provincial emergency information, the PEOC will share the Bulletins with the City. The City will disseminate the same information and key messages using its Emergency Information OSF (Annex F) e) Precautionary Measures The PEOC shall consider the advisability of issuing operational directives (or, in the event of a declared emergency, advising that such orders have been made) for any or all of the following precautionary measures in the Primary Zone (or part thereof) and adjacent areas. Consideration shall also be given to the most suitable timing for the measures (in the case of a delayed emission it may be appropriate to delay the application of some of them), and issue the necessary bulletin(s) and directions for their implementation. These measures are: Closing of beaches, recreation areas, etc. Closing of workplaces and schools Suspension of admissions of non-critical patients in hospitals
36 36 Entry control (Section 4.6) Clearing the milk storage of dairy farms Banning consumption of any item of food or water that may have been exposed outdoors Banning consumption and export of locally-produced milk, meat, produce, milk-and-meat producing animals The City of Toronto will follow operational directives issued by the Province regarding the implementation of precautionary measures. 4.4 Venting of Containment for a Delayed Emission The holdup within the station containment structure (e.g. vacuum building) of any radioactive material released from damaged fuel would create the possibility of venting such contained radioactivity in a controlled manner and in a safe direction, i.e., over the lake (refer to PNERP Master Plan, Annex G) PNGS/OPG shall include, in each hourly report to the PEOC, an estimate of the time at which the vacuum building pressure would reach the minimum level at which the filtered air discharge system can be operated The time interval between the occurrence of the accident and containment pressure reaching this minimum level will depend on the condition and behaviour of the containment system. With no impairment to containment, this time interval is expected to be about 48 hours (an impaired containment could significantly reduce that time) The PEOC should consider, in consultation with Ontario Power Generation (OPG), the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), City of Toronto and Region of Durham, whether venting according to the considerations in the PNERP Master Plan, (Annex G), would be feasible and/or advisable. Detailed procedures for such decision- making should be developed in consultation with the above agencies and incorporated in the PEOC procedures for the Scientific, Operations and Command Sections, as appropriate.
37 To assist with venting decisions, the City of Toronto will collect, collate, evaluate and develop situational awareness of outstanding issues that should be communicated to the PEOC. 37
38 Full Activation A Full Activation response of the PEOC will be considered or initiated under the following circumstances: a) Automatically upon receipt of a General Emergency notification. b) Automatically upon receipt of an Onsite Emergency notification where an emission is ongoing or imminent. c) At a later stage of an emergency due to a sudden deterioration. d) The repressurization time has reached 36 hours or, a time as determined by the PEOC as appropriate. e) If the PEOC is activated, the COT EOC will also activate For a situation such as paragraph (a) & (b) there will be an urgent need to take protective measures for the public likely to be affected. It is unlikely that there will be time to assemble adequate information and carry out a detailed assessment. Action shall be taken based on the best information readily available and according to the guidelines given below:
39 39 USequence of Action If the Full Activation response of the PEOC is initiated as a result of an escalation of an event in progress, the sequence of action will be as per paragraph (a) with the exception being that the operational directives being issued (or, in the event of a declared emergency, advice that such orders have been made) will be based on the ongoing technical assessments of the Scientific Section. The general sequence of actions required to be taken by the City of Toronto for a Full Activation response by the PEOC is as follows: Upon receipt of a Full Activation notification from the PEOC the City of Toronto will: Fully activate the EOC to a Level Three: Emergency Incident according to Emergency Operations Centre OSF (Annex D) Issue notification activating all municipal emergency response organizations 4 according to the Emergency Level Notifications OSF (Annex C)P3F P. Initiate public alerting Deploy City of Toronto representatives to the Joint Traffic Control Centre Establish the Emergency Information Centre according to the Emergency Information OSF (Annex F) Implement operational directives, as issued by the PEOC. Ready emergency centres to become operational with undue delay according to the following procedures: Marine Emergency Worker Centre at Scarborough Bluffs Reception/Evacuation Centre at Seneca College Reception/Evacuation Centre at York University Emergency Worker Centre at Centennial College 4 Includes external notifications to agencies/organizations as defined under Section 3.4.4
40 Technical Assessments a) The main Issues to be assessed are: If an emission is not occurring, when is it likely to commence? Which response sectors are likely to be affected by the ongoing or imminent emission, and thus may require the application of immediate protective measures? The Scientific Section procedures in the PEOC shall detail how these assessments will be made. b) Condition of Station Systems Table 4.1 gives four main categories for the condition of station systems along with some examples of each baseline protective measures best matches the current conditions The City of Toronto will implement all operational directives issued by the PEOC
42 Immediate Protective Measures a) Decision-making The Command Section, PEOC will consider the implementation of immediate precautionary and protective measures and the appropriate operational directives (or, in the event of a declared emergency, advice of such order(s)) will be communicated via Emergency Bulletin. The City of Toronto will implement all operational directives issued by the PEOC Emergency Bulletins will be issued by PEOC Emergency Information Section to broadcast media and shared with the City of Toronto. To assist with the dissemination of provincial emergency information, the City will distribute the same information and key messages using its Emergency Information OSF (Annex F) Some guidance on the implementation of these measures is given below. b) Precautionary Measures The PEOC will upgrade to a Full Activation response prior to directing the implementation of protective measures and/or at least 36 hours prior to the emission time, if it is known. Protective measures could include: o Evacuation o Sheltering o KI Ingestion o Emergency Bulletins Protective Measures o Emergency Bulletins Sheltering o Precautionary Measures could include: o Closing of beaches, recreation areas, etc. o Closing of workplaces and schools o Suspension of admissions of non-critical patients in hospitals o Entry control o Clearing the milk storage of dairy farms o Banning consumption of any item of food or water that may have been exposed outdoors o Banning consumption and export of locally produced milk, meat, produce, milk-and meat-producing animals o Removing milk- and meat-producing animals from outside pasture and exposed water sources.
43 43 c) Evacuation and Personal Monitoring and Decontamination Where evacuations are being undertaken during an emission, the first priority shall be to leave the affected area as quickly as possible. Evacuees will be advised (via an operational directive) to go to a facility for monitoring and decontamination or to self-decontaminate. Details for decontamination shall be provided through the Emergency Bulletins as will the location of facilities where evacuees may go for follow-up assurance monitoring. d) Thyroid Blocking The decision for thyroid blocking will be made by the MOHLTC, in coordination with the PEOC. KI pills are pre-stocked at the Emergency Worker and Reception-Evacuee Centres in the City of Toronto. Once notified of the need for thyroid blocking, the City of Toronto will notify staff located in the Primary Zone using the procedures defined below. When the City is notified of a nuclear emergency, it will only implement protective actions that are directed by the Province. If and when the Chief Medical Officer of Health issues direction to the public to ingest a dose of KI, the City will undertake the following actions to notify or confirm that staffs working in the Pickering Primary Zone are informed to take this protective measure, if they so choose The Toronto Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) will inform the following organizations of provincial direction to ingest KI Parks, Forestry & Recreation Transportation Services Toronto Water Toronto Zoo Toronto Library Toronto Police Service Toronto Emergency Medical Services Toronto Fire Services Toronto Transit Commission Toronto Hydro Toronto Public Health
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