1 INTEGRATED SUPPORTS FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE WRAPAROUND PROCESS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY June 2010
2 1 INTEGRATED SUPPORTS FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE WRAPAROUND PROCESS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Alberta Education, Edmonton Public Schools and the University of Alberta created a partnership to build capacity and knowledge related to a wraparound approach in provincial schools. These partners developed a Research Project with three phases: 1) review of existing research on wraparound approaches; 2) research on the use of wraparound approaches in Alberta schools; and 3) development of resource materials to assist school authorities and their partners in establishing or strengthening wraparound approaches designed to support vulnerable children, youth and their families. This Literature Review completes phase 1 of the Research Project. The Executive Summary highlights research- related information about the definition and principles of wraparound, high fidelity wraparound, clients of wraparound, implementation of wraparound, wraparound in schools, evidence of outcomes and a critical examination of the body of literature. The literature review includes publications from a broad range of sources including non peer- reviewed publications, peer- reviewed articles, government reports, training guides and social agency reports. The majority of peer- reviewed literature is from the United States, with a few articles from other nations, most notably Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. Although the agencies utilizing wraparound and the populations participating in wraparound may differ, international literature cites the same core components and practices advocated within the United States- based literature. While the body of literature is growing in breadth, practical application and academic study, there is some ambiguity around the terminology of wraparound- type approaches in the literature. WHAT IS WRAPAROUND? Wraparound is presented as a definable planning process, first applied in the field of mental health for children and youth presenting emotional and behavioural needs, that results in a unique set of community services and natural supports that are individualized for a child or youth and his or her family to achieve a positive set of outcomes. 1 Wraparound is a progressive mental health intervention and a positive alternative to traditional mental health services for children and youth with emotional and behavioural needs. 2 Wraparound is a process that builds on the premise that collaboration between families, community- based agencies and governmental bodies facilitates improved outcomes for children, youth and families with multiple or complex needs. Wraparound has gained momentum over the last 20 years, moving beyond simple collaboration and a mental health intervention, toward a more robust integration of traditionally separated sectors such as education, health, and children and youth services.
3 2 PRINCIPLES OF WRAPAROUND The philosophy and practice of wraparound is fundamentally different from traditional paradigms of care. Wraparound is characterized as a mechanism through which the multifaceted needs of children and youth are matched to integrated services and supports through a team- created individualized plan of care for a child or youth whose vulnerabilities or needs require services from more than one system or sector. 3 Families of these children participate as equal partners in creating the plan, which is focused on strengths- and asset- based practice as opposed to deficit- based practice. The plan should be designed by the family in collaboration with a team consisting of both professionals and nonprofessionals. Wraparound seeks improved buy- in from the youth and his or her family through collaborative decision- making and equal participation, leading to an iterative feedback loop that facilitates greater empowerment. 4 Experienced practitioners, professional researchers and other experts came to a consensus on the 10 core principles fundamental to all wraparound processes: 1) family engagement characterized by voice and choice ; 2) team driven; 3) natural supports; 4) collaborative; 5) community based; 6) culturally competent; 7) individualized; 8) strengths based; 9) unconditional; 10) outcome based. 5 Some experts of wraparound in the literature claim that adherence to all 10 principles, is a necessary requirement for use of the term wraparound. 6 Wraparound often results in the need for multisectoral collaboration, which requires system level mechanisms, collaboration agreements and shared structures to ensure that services between systems and sectors are provided in an integrated way. 7 HIGH FIDELITY WRAPAROUND The evolution of wraparound theory documents the need to articulate implementation guidelines that can both ensure consistent quality and fidelity to the philosophical foundations and be adaptable to numerous contexts and populations. 8 There is an emphasis in the literature on the adherence to the values of wraparound and 10 principles, which require teams to be sensitive to the unique environment and to build an individualized plan that promotes adaptive and supportive relationships among the individual family, community and services providers. 9 Instruments, such as the Wraparound Fidelity Index, have been developed to measure the propagation of and fidelity to the values and principles of high fidelity wraparound. 10 Some of the 10 principles represent a moral implication regarding the value of the individual and the individual s right to quality of care; e.g., family voice and choice, cultural responsiveness, and unconditional commitment. It is this fundamental humanistic stance that proponents of wraparound do not want diluted.
4 3 WHO RECEIVES WRAPAROUND SERVICES? Wraparound is an intervention process, or approach that can be applied to situations in which individuals have significant needs impacting several life domains; especially when such needs require support from numerous service agencies and/or government ministries. In most of the literature, wraparound is based on interventions for children and youth with severe emotional and behavioural needs, although literature suggests the utility of this approach with recent immigrants, those with significant disabilities, teen mothers, youth in gangs, the unemployed and victims of torture. 11 IMPLEMENTATION OF WRAPAROUND The literature focuses on four phases of implementation: 1) engagement and team preparation; 2) initial plan development; 3) implementation; and 4) transition, with a focus throughout the phases on what needs to happen and how the work is to be accomplished. 12 Along with the phases and activities, there are guidelines that indicate system readiness for wraparound. The following are the Requirements for Practice presented in 1999 by Burns and Goldman: 1) community collaborative structure to manage the overall process; 2) a lead organization to manage implementation; 3) referral mechanisms; 4) resource coordinators: to facilitate the wraparound process, to conduct assessment of strengths and to work with the child and family to form a team; 5) successful functioning of child, family, natural supports and facilitator as a team; 6) a crisis plan; 7) outcomes- based, measurable goals with progress monitored on a regular basis; and 8) community collaborative structure to review the plans. 13 These requirements emphasize the necessary structures and protocols that support high fidelity wraparound and the fundamental steps required to maintain the philosophical nature of wraparound. WRAPAROUND TEAM The functioning of the wraparound team is foundational to wraparound; however, little is published on team functioning. An exception by Walker, Koroloff and Schutte emphasizes that teams need to act on the following to maximize the probability of effectiveness: 1) support high quality planning; 2) consider multiple alternatives before making decisions; 3) counteract power imbalances between and among providers and families; 4) lead all team members to feel their input is valued; 5) build agreement around plans; 6) build an appreciation of strengths; and 7) have planning reflect cultural competence. 14 Walker s 2008 article demonstrates how the theory and practice of wraparound are dependent upon each other, especially at a team level. 15 Familial buy- in is a critical element of wraparound. Supporting families to feel comfortable as fully participating members of the team should be a primary goal. To support family participation and to increase the sustainability of change, a family s natural supports should be included on the wraparound team. On the Vroon Vandenberg website, the authors emphasize that a good wraparound team is comprised of not more than 25% formal services and supports and 75% natural supports. 16
5 4 Wraparound teams optimize efficiency by avoiding the duplication of services. True collaboration between service agencies requires a level of system support that can facilitate changes such as the softening of service mandates, shared confidentiality agreements, consensual decision making and team ownership of decisions and outcomes. IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES When practicing high fidelity wraparound the following challenges, as identified in the literature, are found at all levels of practice, ranging from team level to the highest level of government, including at the policy level: 1) the term wraparound is used too loosely; 2) true partnerships between the professional team and families of the child/youth is difficult; 3) only about one- quarter of wraparound teams clearly articulate team goals; 4) policies, organizational cultures and funding structures work against a single comprehensive plan; 5) collaborating agencies do not follow strengths- based models of practice; 6) wraparound team plans can lack creativity and individualization; 7) lack of natural supports on the team is problematic; 8) gathering, organizing and accessing data is difficult; 9) sustainability of trained and competent team facilitators is a continual problem; 10) wraparound requires consistent internal evaluation; and 11) personnel time too limited. Supervision of Wraparound Successful wraparound requires shifts in standard attitudes, programming and funding, 17 and requires the support and cooperation of the participating organizations that the wraparound team and collaborative partners operate within. 18 A three- tiered structure for wraparound includes: (1) team level; (2) organizational level (agency, school or body taking the lead); and (3) systems level (the larger service policy and economic context that surrounds the teams and team members agencies). 19 Support for wraparound is required from all levels of leadership. Leadership needs to consciously focus on program and mandate flexibility, bidirectional communication, flexible funding and accountabilities for both the wraparound process and the individual outcomes. Systems- level policy Systems- level barriers can derail wraparound implementation before it begins. Governmental ministries responsible for vulnerable populations requiring wraparound may have to alter policy or administrative practice. Systems- level leadership should provide the structural framework and sectoral linkages for wraparound. Wraparound literature emphasizes that achieving meaningful change at the level of agency delivery requires extensive support from the organizational level, as well as from the system level. 20 Communication channels need to be open and bidirectional amongst wraparound teams, organizations and decision and policy makers.
6 5 WRAPAROUND IN SCHOOLS Implementing wraparound in mainstream schools is more than just providing professional supports in school; rather the culture of the school, jurisdiction and community partners must evolve to achieve sustainable change for vulnerable children and youth and to make collaboration productive. 21 Research suggests that youth who receive wraparound in school are more likely to maintain community- based educational placements, demonstrate improved classroom performance and experience fewer residential placements. 22 According to Lucille Eber, one of the foremost authors on wraparound in education, for wraparound to be successful and sustainable in the school environment, schools must adopt more universal preventative approaches for establishing behavioural standards, such as the School- Wide Positive Behavioural Intervention System (SW- PBIS). 23 These approaches often require significant changes in how schools respond to students with complex needs, including application of research- based behavioural practices, and integration of community/family supports with school- based services. 24 SW- PBIS is a preventative system that addresses the behaviour of the entire student body in a three- tiered system of behavioural support: 1 ) primary (preventative); 2) secondary (group intervention focusing on the 5 15% students who do not respond to the primary intervention and demonstrate risk factors associated with school- failure); and 3) tertiary (individual intervention, including wraparound, for 1 7% of students who do not respond to secondary interventions and who demonstrate a persistent pattern of behavioural and/or learning problems that will affect their school outcomes and a lifetime of poor outcomes). 25 In literature on SW- PBIS and wraparound in schools, data based decision making is a core component to a wraparound practice. PBIS results in a proactive- rich environment; however, without a school- wide behavioural system in place, the third tier is very difficult to maintain, as it will feel too much like a burden for staff to sustain. 26 EVIDENCE OF OUTCOMES Wraparound is difficult to evaluate because wraparound addresses more than one specific type of concern in broad populations, originates out of a grassroots model without any protocols, and is intended to be multifaceted and individualized. Attempts have been made to present a unified and rigorous assessment of wraparound outcome studies. Suter and Bruns conducted a meta- analysis of current publications presenting wraparound outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioural disorders. Interpretation of the evidence was complicated by the lack of fidelity controls, comparative data, contextual variability across target populations, differences in goals, and a variety of methodological concerns. Yet in this rigorous meta- analysis the authors still demonstrated modest evidence for positive outcomes and a small positive effect for wraparound effectiveness. 27
7 6 According to the Institute of Medicine, evidence- based practice is a combination of three factors: 1) best research evidence; 2) best clinical experience; and 3) consistent with patient values. 28 Wraparound is not yet eligible to be labeled as an evidence- based practice; due to, in part, the lack of control group studies, which are very difficult to conduct with a practice as individualized as wraparound. Qualitative evidence for the success of wraparound is available from the stories and informal reports of numerous service agencies. 29 Evidence for outcomes of wraparound might benefit from a rethinking of the type of evidence that best reflects the process- oriented nature of wraparound at both individual and systems levels. CRITICAL BODY OF LITERATURE The body of literature, both research- based and informal, on wraparound is growing. The current research focus seeks to demonstrate a stronger association between fidelity to wraparound principles and positive outcomes in more rigorous studies. 30 The body of literature on wraparound is relatively self- referential with many articles by the same authors and the majority of authors citing the same references. However, it appears that the literature is on the brink of introducing more critical and practical publications, including critiques of wraparound theory, implementation and outcomes. 31 NATIONAL ORIGIN OF LITERATURE The majority of peer- reviewed wraparound literature originates from the United States and focuses on children and youth with emotional and behavioural needs, although other nations, including Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia, have respectively regarded wraparound as a promising practice for more diverse populations (e.g., immigrants, those transitioning from institutional to community living), children and youth with disabilities, and out- of work individuals. There is a critical need for universities and other research bodies to publish more peer- reviewed literature on the use of wraparound internationally. GAPS IN LITERATURE Although the literature is developing, the following are areas that need to be more thoroughly addressed in future wraparound literature: information about wraparound entrance and exit thresholds criteria for a child or youth and greater clarity about the differences between preventative and crisis intervention wraparound the structural and organizational changes resulting from new collaborative structures and functioning social critiques of the impact of wraparound on the children, their families and their communities.
8 7 CONCLUSIONS Wraparound is a field with enormous potential and application. The available literature on wraparound presents a process for addressing the needs of individuals with high vulnerabilities and complex needs through shared planning and accountabilities. Anecdotal accounts indicate that the process is positive and effective. Evidence supports that fidelity to the core principles of wraparound is the difference between achieving and not achieving positive outcomes. 32 Both practitioners and families consider wraparound to be an effective intervention. 33 An aspect about wraparound that should be addressed is the use of the term wraparound. There are other interrelated and, at times, interchangeable terms that capture processes akin to wraparound, such as network meeting, integrated care, individualized service support plan, and collaborative services. The literature presents a tension with the labeling of certain interventions as either wraparound or not wraparound. Looseness of terminology creates ambiguity in the specificity of the wraparound procedures and the evaluation and measurement of the expected outcomes for wraparound. The expanding body of wraparound literature is helping inform policy makers of the essential elements and necessary requirements that make wraparound a successful practice for addressing the difficult needs of certain children and youth. Nations, states, provinces, municipalities and human service agencies are applying this extensive body of knowledge and creating successful programming that captures the spirit and goals of wraparound: a family- oriented, democratic practice that demonstrates a faith that individuals with complex needs can be served in the best possible practice when they have their own voice and choice and partners are willing to collaboratively wrap around them. When comparing wraparound to the siloed, deficit- based, expert- led and non- participatory interventions, common in traditional case management, it is evident that wraparound represents far more than another case management style wraparound s inclusive, process- oriented nature is, in itself, a positive outcome of this type of intervention. 34
9 8 Endnotes 1 Burns, B., & Goldman, S. K. E. (Eds.) (1999). Promising practices in wraparound for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families (Vol. IV). (Systems of Care Promising Practices in Mental Health, 1998 Series). Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research. 2. Eber, L., Phillips, D., Upreti, G., Hyde, K., Lewandowski, H., & Rose, J. (2009). Illinois positive behavioral interventions & supports (PBIS) network: progress report. Retrieved January 4, 2010, from 3 VanDenBerg, J., E., & Grealish, E. M. (1996). Individualized services and supports through the wraparound process: Philosophy and procedures. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5(1), Burns, B., & Goldman, S. K. E. (Eds.) (1999). Promising practices in wraparound for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families (Vol. IV). (Systems of Care Promising Practices in Mental Health, 1998 Series). Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research. 4 Walker, J. (2008). How and why, does wraparound work: A theory of change. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Portland State University. 5 Bruns, E. J., Suter, J., Force, M., & Burchard, J. (2005). Adherence to wraparound principles and association with outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(4), Bruns, E. J., Walker, J., & The National Wraparound Initiative Advisory Group. (2008). Ten principles of the wraparound process. In E. Bruns & J. Walker (Eds.), The resource guide to wraparound. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center for Family Support and Children's Mental Health. Burns, B., & Goldman, S. K. E. (Eds.) (1999). Promising practices in wraparound for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families (Vol. IV). (Systems of Care Promising Practices in Mental Health, 1998 Series). Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research. 6 Kendziora, K., Bruns, E., Osher, D., Pacchiano, D., & Mejia, B. (2001). Vol. 1: Wraparound stories from the field. Systems of care: Promising practices in children s mental health Series. Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research. 7 Schmied, V., Brownhill, S., & Walsh, P. (2006). Models of service delivery and interventions for children and young people with high needs. Australia: NSW Department of Community Services, New South Wales. 8 Bruns, E. J.(2008b). Measuring wraparound fidelity. In E. J. Bruns & J. S. Walker (Eds.), The resource guide to wraparound (Vol. 1). Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center for Family Support and Children's Mental Health. Bruns, E. J. Burchard, J., & Emold, J. (2001). The wraparound fidelity index: Results from an initial pilot test. In C. Newman, C. Liberton, K. Kutash & R. M. Friedman (Eds.), The 13th annual research
10 9 conference proceedings: A system of care for children s mental health. Tampa, FL: Florida Mental Health Institute Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health. 9 Burchard, J. D., Bruns, E. J., & Burchard, S. N. (2002). The wraparound approach: An overview of the wraparound process. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burns, B. J., Schoenwald, S.K., Burchard, J. D., Faw, B. S. & Santos, A. B. (2000). Comprehensive community- based interventions for youth with severe emotional disorders: Multisystemic therapy and the wraparound process. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9(3), Walker, J. (2008). How and why, does wraparound work: A theory of change. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Portland State University. 10 Bruns, E. J., Burchard, J. D., Suter, J. C., Leverentz- Brady, K., & Force, M. M. (2004). Assessing fidelity to a community- based treatment for youth: The Wraparound fidelity Index. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(2), Bradley, V., Agosta, J., Smith, G., Taub, S., Ashaugh, J., Silver, J., et al. (2001). The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation self- determination initiative: Final impact assessment report. Cambridge, MA: The Human Services Research Institute. Cailleaux, M., & Dechief, L. (2007). "I've found my voice": Wraparound as a promising strength- based team process for high- risk pregnant and early parenting women. Research Review, 1(2), Freeman, R., Eber, L., Anderson, C., Irvin, L., Horner, B., Bounds, M., et al. (2006). Building inclusive school cultures using school- wide positive behavior support: Designing effective individual support systems for students with significant disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(1), Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (2008). The characteristics and experience of aboriginal, disabled, immigrant, and visible minority students. Pan- Canadian Study of First Year College Students. Gatineau, QC. Retrieved Dec 14, 2010 from hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/learning_policy/sp_890_12_08/page01.shtml Kira, I. A. (2002). Torture assessment and treatment: The wraparound approach. Traumatology, 8(2), Skills Australia (2009). Workforce futures: A paper to promote discussion towards an Australian workforce development strategy. Background paper 2: Powering the workplace: Realizing Australia s skill potential. Canberra: Government of Australia, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. Retrieved January 7, 2010 from Totten, M. (2008). Promising practices for addressing youth involvement in gangs. Vancouver, BC: Ministry of Public Safety. 12 Walker, J. S., & Bruns, E. J., VanDenBerg, J.D., Rast, J., Osher, T.W., Miles, P., Adams, J., & National Wraparound Initiative Advisory Group (2004). Phases and activities of the wraparound process. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children s Mental Health, Portland State University.
11 10 13 Burns, B., & Goldman, S. K. E. (Eds.) (1999). Promising practices in wraparound for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families (Vol. IV). (Systems of Care Promising Practices in Mental Health, 1998 Series). Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research. 14 Koroloff, N., Schutte, K., & Walker, J. S. (2003). Assessing the necessary agency and system support. Focal Point: A National Bulletin on Family Support and Children s Mental Health: Quality and Fidelity in Wraparound, 17(2), Walker, J. (2008). How and why, does wraparound work: A theory of change. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Portland State University. 16 Vroon VanDenBerg (2010). Natural supports and faith- based. Retrieved January 4, 2010 from 17 McGinty, K., McCammon, S., & Koeppen, V. P. (2001). The complexities of implementing a wraparound approach to service provision: A view from the field. Journal of Family Social Work, 5(3), Bruns, E. J., Walker, J., & The National Wraparound Initiative Advisory Group. (2008). Ten principles of the wraparound process. In E. Bruns & J. Walker (Eds.), The resource guide to wraparound. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center for Family Support and Children's Mental Health. Koroloff, N., Schutte, K., & Walker, J. S. (2003). Assessing the necessary agency and system support. Focal Point: A National Bulletin on Family Support and Children s Mental Health: Quality and Fidelity in Wraparound, 17(2), Walker, J. S., Koroloff, N. & Schutte, K. (2003). The context of services for effective individualized service/support planning: Assessing the necessary agency and system support for wraparound. Retrieved January 22, 2010 from 20 Clark, H. B., Lee, B., Prange, M. E., & McDonald, B. A. (1996). Children lost within the foster care system: Can wraparound service strategies improve placement outcomes? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5, Koroloff, N., Schutte, K., & Walker, J. S. (2003). Assessing the necessary agency and system support. Focal Point: A National Bulletin on Family Support and Children s Mental Health: Quality and Fidelity in Wraparound, 17(2), Cooper, J. L. (2008). The federal case for school- based mental health services and supports. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(1), Epstein, M., Nordness, P., Gallagher, K., Nelson, J. R., Lewis, L., & Schrepf, S. (2005). School as the entry point: Assessing adherence to the basic tenants of the wraparound approach. Behavioral Disorders, 30(2), Eber, L., Breen, K., Rose, J., Unizycki, R. M., & London, T., H. (2008). Wraparound: As a tertiary level intervention for students with emotional/behavioral needs. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(6), Epstein, M., Nordness, P., Gallagher, K., Nelson, J. R., Lewis, L., & Schrepf, S. (2005). School as the entry point: Assessing adherence to the basic tenants of the wraparound approach. Behavioral
12 11 Disorders, 30(2), Eber, L., Hyde, K., Rose, J., Breen, K., McDonald, D., & Lewandowski, H. (2009). Completing the continuum of schoolwide positive behavior support: Wraparound as a tertiary- level intervention. In W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Behaviour Support (pp ). New York: Springer. p Scott, T. M., & Eber, L. (2003). Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, Epstein, M., Nordness, P., Gallagher, K., Nelson, J. R., Lewis, L., & Schrepf, S. (2005). School as the entry point: Assessing adherence to the basic tenants of the wraparound approach. Behavioral Disorders, 30(2), Eber, L. Personal communication. November 24, Suter, J. C., & Bruns, E. J. (2009). Effectiveness of the wraparound process for children with emotional and behavioral disorders: A meta- analysis. Clinical Care and Family Psychology Review, 12(4), pp Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 29 Burns, B., & Goldman, S. K. E. (Eds.) (1999). Promising practices in wraparound for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families (Vol. IV). (Systems of Care Promising Practices in Mental Health, 1998 Series). Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research. Burchard, J. D., Burchard, S. N., Sewell, R. & VanDenBerg, J. (1993). One kid at a time: Evaluation case studies and description of the Alaska Youth Initiative Demonstration Project. Washington, DC: CASSP Technical Assistance Center, Georgetown University. Cailleaux, M., & Dechief, L. (2007). I've found my voice: Wraparound as a promising strength- based team process for high- risk pregnant and early parenting women. Research Review, 1(2), Kendziora, K., Bruns, E., Osher, D., Pacchiano, D., & Mejia, B. (2001). Vol. 1: Wraparound stories from the field. Systems of care: Promising practices in children s mental health Series. Washington, DC: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, American Institutes for Research. 30 Cox, K., Baker, D., & Wong, M. A. (2010). Wraparound retrospective: Factors predicting positive outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(10), Cox, K., Baker, D., & Wong, M. A. (2010). Wraparound retrospective: Factors predicting positive outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(10), Eber, L., Phillips, D., Upreti, G., Hyde, K., Lewandowski, H., & Rose, J. (2009). Illinois positive behavioral interventions & supports (PBIS) network: progress report. Retrieved January 4, 2010, from
13 12 Forkby, T. (2009). The power and ethics of social network intervention in working with at- risk youth. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work. Retrieved from 32 Bruns, E. J., Suter, J., Force, M., & Burchard, J. (2005). Adherence to wraparound principles and association with outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(4), Bruns, E. J. (2008a). The evidence base and wraparound. In E. J. Bruns & J. S. Walker (Eds.), The resource guide to wraparound. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Research and Training Center for Family Support and Children s Mental Health. 34 Walker, J. (2008). How and why, does wraparound work: A theory of change. Portland, OR: National Wraparound Initiative, Portland State University.
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