2 Goals Understand OpenStack purpose and use cases Understand OpenStack ecosystem o history o projects Understand OpenStack architecture o logical architecture o components o request flow Get enough theory for hands-on lab
3 What is OpenStack? "Open source software for building private and public clouds"
4 OpenStack capabilities VMs on demand o o provisioning snapshotting Volumes Multi-tenancy o o quotas for different users user can be associated with multiple tenants Object storage for VM images and arbitrary files
5 OpenStack History July Initial announcement October Austin Release April Cactus Release October Diablo Release April Essex Release October Folsom Release
6 OpenStack Projects Nova (Compute) Glance (Image Service) Swift (Object Store) Keystone (auth) Horizon (Dashboard)
7 OpenStack Projects: Relationship
8 OpenStack: Deployment Topology
9 OpenStack Projects: Detailed View
10 Horizon "The OpenStack Dashboard (Horizon) provides a baseline user interface for managing OpenStack services."
11 Horizon notes "Stateless" Error handling is delegated to back-end Doesn't support all API functions Can use memcached or database to store sessions Gets updated via nova-api polling
12 Horizon internals 2 subprojects o horizon - generic Django libraries and components to work with REST-based back-end o openstack-dashboard - web app itself, with styles, locale, etc. Dashboard for each entity (like instances or images) - nested Django app
13 Keystone "Keystone is an OpenStack project that provides Identity, Token, Catalog and Policy services for use specifically by projects in the OpenStack family."
14 Keystone Architecture
15 Keystone data model User: has account credentials, is associated with one or more tenants Tenant: unit of ownership in openstack, contains one or more users Role: a first-class piece of metadata associated with many user-tenant pairs. Token: identifying credential associated with a user or user and tenant Extras: bucket of key-value metadata associated with a user-tenant pair. Rule: describes a set of requirements for performing an action.
16 Keystone: auth flow
17 Keystone: populating auth data Add tenants Add users Add roles Grant roles to users Add endpoint templates Map endpoint templates to zones
18 nova-api "nova-api is a RESTful API web service which is used to interact with nova"
19 nova-api characteristics Exposes REST API Provides system for managing multiple APIs on different sub-domains o EC2-compatible - will be deprecated o OpenStack Compute API - all innovation happens here The only "allowed" way to interact with nova Stateless - HA-ready
20 nova-api clients
21 nova database "nova database stores current state of all objects in compute cluster."
22 nova database Can be any relational database nova-api talks to DB via SQLAlchemy (python ORM) Most of the deployments are done with MySQL or PostreSQL DB HA should be done via external tools (like MMM for MySQL)
23 Message queue "Message queue is a unified way for collaboration between nova components."
24 OpenStack messaging 2 modes: rpc.cast - don't wait for result rpc.call - wait for result (when there is something to return)
25 Messagings notes OpenStack uses multiple queues within single RabbitMQ instance OpenStack messages traffic is not intensive OpenStack doesn't send broadcast messages HA for MQ should be configured separately
26 nova-scheduler "nova-scheduler is a daemon, which determines, on which compute host the request should run."
27 nova-scheduler: users' demand provision VM to particular host provision VMs of the particular tenant to isolated hosts provision all VMs on different hosts provision VMs to "higher density" hosts
28 nova-scheduler: available schedulers Scheduler Description Chance Simple Filter Multi Picks a host that is up at random Picks a host that is up and has the fewest running instances Picks the best-suited host which satisfies selected filter A scheduler that holds multiple subschedulers
29 nova-scheduler: filtering
30 nova-scheduler: filters Filter affinity availability zone core ram json Description Same host or different host Least cost inside selected availability zone Least CPU core utilization Only return hosts with sufficient RAM Allows simple JSON based grammar. Can be used to build custom schedulers.
31 nova-scheduler: filters Filters are statically configured in nova.conf Multiple filters can be specified It is possible to create custom filter o o Inherit from BaseHostFilter class override host_passes(self, host_state, filter_properties)
32 nova-scheduler: weights and costs
33 nova-scheduler: weights and costs Cost - integer value Every compute host can have several cost functions associated with it If no cost functions associated - use default from nova.conf weight = sum(cost i + weigth_fn i )
34 nova-scheduler: summary Allow to tweak provisioning by adjusting filters, cost and weights Still doesn't cover all customer demands - exposes framework for building custom schedulers instead
35 Questions How does OpenStack understand that specific request can be executed by the user? How to get a status for a requested server? Where it will come from? What is the difference between rpc.call vs rpc.cast? How to create a filter, which will determine servers with 8GB to 16GB RAM available?
36 nova-compute "nova-compute is a worker daemon, which primarily creates and terminates VMs via hypervisor API."
38 nova-compute: drivers Functionality is not 100% similar Exact "run_instance" flow depends on driver implementation Most of the features are tested on KVM
39 Glance "The Glance project provides services for discovering, registering, and retrieving virtual machine images."
40 Glance summary Image-as-a-service Can use multiple back-ends for image storage Supports multiple image formats
41 Glance architecture
42 Glance capabilities CRUD images Search images via filters o o o o o name container format disk format size_min, size_max status Caches images o o o o o uses SQLite or FS that supports xattrs for caching queues images for prefetching prefetches images prunes images cleans invalid cache entries
43 Glance image formats Disk Format raw vhd vmdk vdi iso qcow2 aki ari ami Description This is an unstructured disk image format This is the VHD disk format, a common disk format used by virtual machine monitors from VMWare, Xen, Microsoft, VirtualBox, and others Another common disk format supported by many common virtual machine monitors A disk format supported by VirtualBox virtual machine monitor and the QEMU emulator An archive format for the data contents of an optical disc (e.g. CDROM). A disk format supported by the QEMU emulator that can expand dynamically and supports Copy on Write This indicates what is stored in Glance is an Amazon kernel image This indicates what is stored in Glance is an Amazon ramdisk image This indicates what is stored in Glance is an Amazon machine image
44 Fetching image from glance 1. GET 2. If image can be found, API returns image-uri 3. nova-compute passes image-uri to hypervisor driver 4. hypervisor driver fetches image directly from glance back-end store using image-uri
45 Custom image creation 1. Get installation ISO 2. Create VM (qemu-img create) 3. Start VM and connect to it via VNC console a. Install image without LVM b. Create default iptables rules c. Install and configure cloud-init d. With cloud-init configure image 4. Prepare image for OpenStack a. Extract root partition, kernel and ramdisk b. cleanup c. package
46 Network configuration flow 1. Allocate MAC addresses 2. Allocate IPs (for each network) 3. Associate IPs with VMs (DB) 4. Setup network on host a. Update DHCP config b. Initialize gateway c. VPN configuration (optional) 5. Update networking info in DB
47 nova-network "nova-network is a worker daemon which performs tasks to manipulate network via external commands."
48 nova-network responsibilities Allocate and configure network via network manager o o o FlatManager FlatDHCPManager VlanManager Manage Floating IPs Manage Security groups
50 FlatManager Supports only single network Doesn't do any bridge/vlan creation The bridge needs to be manually created on all hosts Compute host attempts to inject network settings into /etc/network/interfaces
52 FlatDHCPManager Improvement of FlatManager Stars up 1 DHCP server to give out addresses Never injects network settings into guest Manages bridges
54 VlanManager features Creates host-managed VLAN for each project Requires switch that supports VLAN tagging (IEEE802.1Q) Each project gets own subnet (VPN is required to access VMs via private IPs) DHCP server is running for each subnet All instances belonging to one project are bridged into the same VLAN for that project
56 Floating IPs Shared pool of public IP addresses Each user gets a quota of how many IPs to use Managed by admin
57 Floating IPs traffic
58 Assigning Floating IPs OpenStack Admin Dedicate floating IPs to cluster OpenStack User 1. Allocate public IP for tenant within given quota 2. Associate public IP with VM a. Find host b. Add IP address to public network interface of the host c. NATting all network traffic via associated floating IP
59 Security Groups
60 Security Groups Security group is a named collection of network access rules User can select multiple security groups during VM creation If no security groups specified - default is selected Security groups are applied on the host node
61 nova-volume "nova-volume manages the creation, attaching and deattaching of persistent volumes to compute instances"
62 nova-volume summary Optional iscsi solution which uses LVM Volume can be attached only to 1 instance at a time Persistent volumes keep their state independent of instances Within single OpenStack deployment different storage providers cannot be used
63 nova-volume drivers iscsi Xen Storage Manager Nexenta NetApp SAN
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