Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 storage overview and HP storage options

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1 Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 storage overview and HP storage options Technical white paper Table of contents Exchange Server 2010 storage is all about options... 2 Exchange technology changes... 2 Microsoft requirements and recommendations... 8 Exchange high availability Drive technologies Storage controller technologies HP storage platforms Other considerations Summary For more information... 31

2 Exchange Server 2010 storage is all about options With Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, Microsoft has made possible the cost-effective implementation of large mailboxes for messaging environments. Whether you want to better manage Microsoft Office Outlook personal storage (PST) files in your company, add voic capability to your Exchange Server implementation or simply give your users enough capacity to keep and access years of historical information, it is now easier to implement and less expensive. In the past, Exchange had rigid storage requirements for the use of high performance storage devices. During the development of Exchange Server 2010, Microsoft has rewritten Exchange, changing the manner in which data is accessed on disk. The focus of these changes increased the per mailbox storage capacity providing the average user with a large multi-gigabyte mailbox which performs well while lowering the overall cost of storage. With the increased amounts of data being stored in Exchange, additional high availability features have been added to maintain each user s access to Exchange data. This document gives an overview of the storage changes Microsoft has made in Exchange Server 2010 and presents an overview of the various HP storage devices and their use in an Exchange 2010 implementation. This document is not a recommendation of a particular type of storage but describes the range of options that HP provides which should be considered when designing a storage solution for Exchange 2010 and yes, Exchange 2010 is still supported on a Storage Area Network (SAN). All messaging environments are unique to a particular company and are created to fulfill business requirements and meet service level agreements (SLA). Exchange Solution Reviewed Program Microsoft makes available the Exchange Solution Reviewed Program 3.0 (ESRP 3.0) for vendors to test their Exchange Server 2010 storage configurations and publish test results. The ESRP program shows sample configurations developed by vendors and can offer a variety of design ideas to provide input into the planning phase of Exchange Server 2010 implementation. HP publishes ESRP test results for solutions on each of our storage products and the configuration information for a particular type of storage is published in the ESRP with the test results. The information provided in the ESRP configurations should not be used in place of testing a configuration prior to deploying it. Further information is available from: Exchange technology changes In order to store large amounts of Exchange data in a cost-effective manner, Microsoft has enabled the use of larger capacity, lower cost hard disks which do not have the performance of enterprise class storage. The use of larger hard drives with a slower rotational speed required a change to the manner in which Exchange reads and writes data to the database. While it is possible to effectively use slower midline serial-attached SCSI (SAS) or serial-attached ATA (SATA) drives, they may not be appropriate for all situations. With Exchange Server 2007, Microsoft focused on making more efficient use of storage by reducing the performance demands on disks using features such as an increased amount of database cache and larger database page size. Exchange Server 2010 continues this optimization process resulting in a further reduction of storage I/O up to 70%. For Exchange Server 2010, the average per mailbox performance requirement is now 0.12 IOPS. 2

3 Note The heavy workload profile for Exchange Server 2010 is 100 messages sent and received per user per day. This workload is the same as the 20 sent and 80 received workload in Exchange 2003 and Exchange The average message size in Exchange 2010 is 75KB. Figure 1. Exchange IOPS per mailbox by version (using heavy workload profile) Exchange IOPS by version Exchange 2003 Exchange 2007 Exchange 2010 The 0.12 IOPS figure is for Exchange 2010 user workload only and does not include other performance requirements like Desktop Search and BlackBerry Enterprise Server (BES) or other add-ins or applications. Exchange store I/O optimization The Exchange store schema which determines the organization of data internally to the Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) database has been rewritten to perform fewer large sequential I/Os compared to shorter random I/Os. The use of a higher amount of sequential I/O matches the best performance profile of midline drives. When using a sequential I/O pattern, the disk head moves less allowing higher IOPS compared to using random I/O which requires a higher rate of disk head movement necessary to access data. Throughout a 24-hour cycle, the disk I/O varies in Exchange and is demanded by different sources ranging from user load to maintenance and backups. In the past, the highest load was usually due to online maintenance that resulted from housekeeping tasks Exchange performed to clean and update the database. By default, database maintenance now occurs on a 24 x 7 basis as data is written to disk to ensure that the database is constantly maintained in an optimal state. Database maintenance can be set to occur during specific time periods like it has been scheduled in previous versions of Exchange. For more information on the Exchange database performance factors, see: 3

4 Exchange Server 2010 high availability With the ability to hold an increased amount of data in Exchange comes the need to protect it from loss or failure and to make it quickly accessible in the event of a problem. To meet this need, high availability features have been added to Exchange Server 2010 that build on the technology released in Exchange Server With Exchange Server 2010 database resiliency is implemented at the individual database level and failovers (unplanned) or switchovers (planned) are expected to take approximately 30 seconds at the mailbox database level. Since all client connections in Exchange Server 2010 are made to the Client Access Server (CAS), the mailbox database failover or switchover (referred to as *over) is transparent to the user. The use of multiple copies of the database permit additional features such as page patching the ability to replace a corrupt page in the database from another database copy when encountering a logical corruption (-1018) error or on a lost flush where data is not properly written to disk. The use of a lag copy of a database enables recovery to a specific point in time by creating a delay in committing transaction logs to the database lag copy for up to 14 days. Dumpster 2.0 In Exchange Server 2010, a new version of the Dumpster (2.0) has been implemented which allows for better control and recovery of deleted items. The need to recover deleted items results from many causes ranging from end user requests to compliance or legal hold requirements. With Dumpster 2.0, messages and calendar item versions are maintained for easy recovery. A feature of Dumpster 2.0 ensures that the contents of the dumpster move with the user in the event that their mailbox is moved within the Exchange organization. This ensures that data needed for compliance searches is available. Part of the Dumpster feature is the retention of items under legal hold. When a mailbox is placed in legal hold status, items are retained and cannot be deleted by the user and the dumpster continues to grow until legal hold is removed from the mailbox. When using legal hold, the dumpster has a hard limit of 30 GB of data per mailbox. This can cause a significant increase in the amount of storage required to hold mailbox data for the mailboxes where legal hold is turned on. With the ability to move mailboxes and include their dumpster data, the mailboxes under legal hold can be placed in databases where storage has been allocated to allow the mailboxes to grow to these large sizes. Storage Groups With Exchange Server 2010, the Storage Group object has been removed and each individual database is associated with its own dedicated transaction log stream. The use of a one to one ratio of database to log stream was used for Exchange 2007 Continuous Replication implementations and is standard for all Exchange 2010 deployments. Another difference for Exchange 2010 is that all database objects are stored at the organization (ORG) level and database names must be unique throughout the ORG. Since a copy of the database can be activated on any server participating in a Database Availability Group (DAG), it is recommended that the database name not be tied to a server name. Each database can be moved to another site or server as needs require, presenting a flexible deployment and allowing for adjustment fine tuning. The portability of databases and mailboxes permits the administrator to balance storage capacity and performance needs throughout the lifecycle of Exchange. LUN design Exchange Server 2010 makes available the use of a variety of LUN design options. From the operating system and application perspective, regardless of the underlying physical storage, a LUN is presented to hold the various types of Exchange data. When determining the LUN layout, there are three commonly used models: One LUN per Database 4

5 Two LUNs per Database Two LUNs per Backup Set The use of one of the three models is recommended for simplicity and each of the three models has particular benefits and design constraints. The single LUN per database model is commonly used with Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD) designs when using Exchange 2010 Database Availability Groups (DAGs) for high availability. JBOD configurations are recommended to have three or more copies of each database to prevent data loss or interruption of client access to mailbox data. The single LUN per database model places the Exchange database and transaction logs on the same LUN. The use of the single LUN per database model isolates the database and its associated transaction logs on a single LUN. In the event that the LUN is compromised, only a single database and log set is affected. The two LUN per database model is typically used with RAID and SAN designs and separates the database LUN from the transaction log LUN. One driver for this method is the use of hardware-based Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) to back up and restore individual Exchange databases. The two LUN per database model separates the transaction log I/O and database I/O as well as only affecting a single database if either volume is lost. The two LUN per backup set model is intended for use when grouping all of the databases that are included in a daily or weekly Exchange full backup. All databases are grouped together on one LUN and the transaction logs for those databases on the second LUN. This model generally uses fewer LUNs and is easier to manage but the loss of either the database LUN or the transaction log LUN will take all of the databases associated with that LUN offline. With the possibility of up to 100 databases per Exchange 2010 mailbox server, mount points can be used to deploy the volumes that hold Exchange data. A critical piece to identify when using mount points is the mount point root (MPR). The mount point root serves as the base for all mount points and if the MPR goes offline, all mount points under it will fail. For this reason it is recommended to place the mount point root on the RAID protected C: drive which holds the operating system files. When using DAGs, if the MPR is on the C: drive and the C: drive fails then all of the databases on that server will be activated elsewhere. Personal Archive Exchange Server 2010 makes available a new feature called Personal Archives. The Personal Archives feature makes a secondary online mailbox available to the user to store messages that are not needed as frequently and can be managed by retention policies. The Personal Archive appears as another mailbox in the Outlook 2010 Client or in Outlook Web Access (OWA) similar to how a personal folder (PST) looks. The user must be online with Outlook 2010 Client or OWA to access the Personal Archive which is stored on the Exchange server. The use of Personal Archives allows for the implementation of smaller primary mailboxes since historical messages can be moved into the archive. This will benefit mobile users that use offline mode in Outlook who will not need to synchronize a large amount of data in their mailbox with the offline copy of their mailbox (OST). The information will still be available to them when they are connected to Exchange. The use of a smaller primary mailbox in combination with a Personal Archive permits a smaller OST file which is stored on the user s laptop which can reduce the need to provide users with new laptops with larger hard drives. When using Exchange Server 2010 RTM (released to manufacturing), the Personal Archive mailbox is located in the same database as the user s mailbox. Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 1 will change some of the behavior relating to Personal Archives. The Personal Archive with SP1 can be stored on a different database from where the user s mailbox resides and can be placed onto a different server entirely. This option is helpful since a server could be dedicated to the storage of Personal Archive files with a different type of storage attached since the Personal Archive would not 5

6 be accessed as frequently as the user s production mailbox. Another change with Exchange 2010 SP1 is the addition of the Outlook 2007 client to the list of clients that can access the Personal Archive which will open up the number of users for whom Personal Archives can be deployed. Source: The features contained in Exchange Server 2010 Service Pack 1 have not been released and are subject to change. RAID-less storage With Exchange Server 2010 a new storage model, RAID-less storage, also known as Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD), is available for use when Exchange is deployed using the Database Availability Group (DAG) high availability model. A JBOD configuration consists of a single physical disk spindle hosting a data volume without RAID. When using the JBOD model a different storage design can be used that places the Exchange transaction logs on the same spindle with the Exchange database and content index files. For most JBOD implementations it is acceptable to put a single database with its associated transaction log stream and content index files on a single spindle. In the event that a spindle is lost, that database fails over to another server in the DAG that holds an up-to-date copy of the database, logs and content index until recovery is performed for the failed disk. Below is a figure that illustrates the data types hosted on a single spindle in this configuration. Figure 2. Exchange data content per spindle (example) Data by type Database Logs Content Index Free Space 63% 7% 20% 10% It is important to ensure that sufficient free space is maintained on each spindle in a JBOD configuration to prevent shut down due to unexpected volume growth. When using JBOD, the HP Smart Array controller is used to configure each disk as a single member RAID0 set also called a logical volume or logical drive. When using this configuration a single physical disk is configured as a logical volume and presented to Microsoft Windows and Exchange. When implementing a JBOD solution, no hot spare can be used and recovery is a manual 6

7 process that requires an administrator to replace the failed disk and to recreate the volume before making it available for Exchange to use and initiate the seeding process to recreate all of the data on the new volume. Figure 3. RAID-less storage configuration Raid-less JBOD LUN01 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN04 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN07 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN10 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN02 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN05 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN08 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN11 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN03 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN06 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN09 -DATABASE -LOGS LUN12 -DATABASE -LOGS When using a JBOD configuration, it is important to review the HP QuickSpecs for each array controller to determine the number of logical drives that are supported by the array controller. A logical drive is a unique volume that is presented to the host from the array controller. Most array controllers support a higher quantity of physical drives than logical drives. For example, the HP Smart Array P812 Controller supports 64 logical drives according to Typically, array controllers are used to provide the ability to build RAID sets of multiple drives but Exchange Server 2010 mailbox resiliency makes available the use of a single spindle in a JBOD configuration. It is important to ensure that the correct number of array controllers is implemented to host the required number of logical drives. With an Exchange JBOD configuration, data in the Exchange databases is copied to other DAG members resulting in database redundancy being implemented at the Exchange application layer in place of the storage layer with RAID. These considerations have a direct impact on the capacity and performance required to design a storage platform to support Exchange Server Exchange storage is typically discussed in terms of Storage Area Network (SAN) or Direct Attached Storage (DAS) both of which use RAID. With Exchange Server 2010 a new option is available that uses DAS but in a RAID-less (JBOD) configuration. When using a DAS configuration, it can be configured to use RAID or to run RAID-less. 7

8 Note Smart Array controllers use RAID when creating volumes. To configure a single spindle as a volume (JBOD) it must be configured as a one-disk array with a RAID0 logical drive. Microsoft requirements and recommendations Designing storage for Exchange has always involved striking a balance between the capacity and performance needed to support the expected load on the storage subsystems. This continues to be true in Exchange Server In implementations with large mailboxes, capacity is the most likely constraint and the use of larger but slower midline hard drives will drive the design. The first step in determining storage environment requirements is the measurement of existing messaging systems to determine a baseline for accurate planning. The analysis of actual production data from an existing system is the best method to ensure a predictable result. Tools are available from Microsoft and third-party vendors that make the process of collecting and analyzing data easier. Microsoft Exchange Server Profile Analyzer Quest software MessageStats When looking at the performance required to support an Exchange storage configuration, several factors are important to identify: User workload (average message size, and messages sent and received per user per day) Number of users User concurrency (users active at a given time) Third party applications: BlackBerry Enterprise Server and desktop search for online clients Disaster Recovery (DR) protection strategy and number of database copies Edge and Hub Transport queue storage and load to be processed daily Message tracking and other types of transport logging Use of anti-virus on Edge and Hub Transport or mailbox server Performance of hard drives used in design including their type (SAS or SATA), speed and RAID configuration When looking at the capacity required to support an Exchange 2010 storage configuration, several factors are important to identify: size Average message size Number of database copies Backup method and space required Number of days to tolerate backup or replication failure logs continue to be stored until truncated Use of continuous replication circular logging (CRCL) Single item recovery and/or calendar version storage Size of content index files Edge and Hub Transport Queue and logging Restore LUN size Deleted items retention window 8

9 Personal archive size Legal hold expectations Microsoft recommends a set of best practices for the implementation on Exchange storage and these guide the design of the best solution for a particular configuration. RAID levels and recoverability With Exchange Server 2010, RAID is optional depending on the high availability model used. If the DAG feature of Exchange Server 2010 is used and there are three or more copies of each database available, the use of RAID-less JBOD is possible. RAID storage is still a viable option for Exchange Server 2010 storage and does have advantages, such as the ability to use a hot spare which allows the rebuilding of data in the event of a disk spindle failure, and the ability to spread I/O over more disks. Without RAID, it is up to the Exchange application to fail over to another database copy in the event of a disk problem. Microsoft has updated guidance for using RAID with slower speed drives (5.4K or 7.2K RPM) that recommends using JBOD, RAID1 or RAID10 only, to ensure that sufficient performance is provided to Exchange during normal operations as well as during a drive failure or rebuild event. As with any recommendation, the use of the proper RAID level is intended to protect storage and user availability from impact due to unexpected failures. If choosing to use RAID5 on these slower drives it is important to consider performance during normal operations, performance with a failed drive and during the rebuild process, and the impact it could have on user perception of Exchange responsiveness. Another recommendation from Microsoft surrounds the choice of stripe size for RAID sets. The new recommendation is to set the stripe size to 256 KB to maximize performance for Exchange. Testing of Exchange 2010, shown in figure 3, demonstrates the increase in Average Disk Bytes per Read up to 256KB during the time period when Database Maintenance is running. When database maintenance finishes its run; the Average Disk Bytes per Read decreases. In Exchange 2010, database maintenance is configured to run continually (24x7) by default and during the time database maintenance is running a large amount of sequential I/O is generated while the database is read. 9

10 Figure 4. Impact of database maintenance on database read I/O size During normal Exchange user operations the Average Disk Bytes per Read stayed in the 32K range as shown in the above figure. Storage configuration With the availability of larger drives, the proper configuration of storage is important to get the best performance from Exchange. The following table outlines storage recommendations from Microsoft for Exchange. Table 1. Microsoft Storage Recommendations RAID Logical Disk Type Item Count Recommended for stand-alone servers which do not use DAG and some high availability configurations with less than three database copies Optional: Depends on the high availability configuration used Basic: Recommended Dynamic: Supported Up to 100,000 items per mailbox folder 10

11 Disk Alignment NTFS formatting: Allocation Unit Size BitLocker Encryption Partition Type RAID Stripe Size 1 MB (Windows Server 2008 default) 64 KB Supported (database and log) GPT: Recommended MBR: Supported 256 KB Storage configuration is also driven by backup design. Microsoft makes available a new type of backup called Exchange Native Data Protection that relies on a combination of Dumpster, database copies and lagged copies for recoverability of data in the event of loss. Typical backup procedures make use of the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) framework and can be implemented with either hardware or software providers. Working in conjunction with backup is the recovery volume which is used to hold Exchange data during recovery operations. Additional information on storage recommendations from Microsoft are available from: Exchange 2010 storage calculators Both HP and Microsoft provide calculators to assist with Exchange storage design. The sizing tools provide a design resource allowing an engineer to input Exchange-specific information and calculate a best fit solution using parameters such as client load, server and storage type, high availability and backup solutions. Different types of designs can be generated to perform What if comparisons. It is recommended to use both the HP and Microsoft tools and compare the results to generate the best configuration. The HP sizer is available from: From the HP ActiveAnswers page, click on the Tools link in the left pane and scroll down to the link HP Sizer for Microsoft Exchange Server The Microsoft calculator is available from: which includes instructions on the use of the calculator and links to additional information pertaining to sizing. Exchange high availability With Exchange Server 2010, Microsoft built on the continuous replication feature introduced in Exchange 2007 and further refined its capabilities. The continuous replication model is used for Exchange 2010 and provides more granularity than was possible in Exchange 2007 while being easier to implement. It is now possible to perform a failover or switchover (referred to as *over) on a single database. The *over of a database to activate a passive copy takes approximately 30 seconds and is transparent to the user. The Database Availability Group (DAG) feature of Exchange Server 2010 features a collection of up to sixteen Exchange mailbox servers that participate in a single DAG and each of those servers can host a mix of active, passive and lagged database copies. In the event that you need to deploy more databases and copies than can be held in a single DAG, additional DAGs can be deployed. Each Exchange 2010 mailbox server can host up to 100 combined (active plus passive) database copies. 11

12 Licensing and database copies When deploying Exchange Database Availability Groups, the Enterprise version of Windows Server 2008 (SP2 or later) or Windows Server 2008 R2 is required since the DAG makes use of the failover clustering feature. The choice between the Standard and Enterprise version of Exchange Server 2010 for the mailbox server that will participate in the DAG is driven by the number of database copies that the server will host. If using five or less (active plus passive) databases per server, the Standard version can be used. Active and passive copies are combined together when counting the number of databases that reside on a server. For deployments with more than five database copies then the Enterprise version of Exchange 2010 needs to be used. DAG implementation The implementation of the DAG is a straight-forward process with Exchange managing the cluster configuration for the servers participating in the DAG. The configuration of the quorum resources is also managed by Exchange. The selection by Exchange of the proper quorum configuration is dependent on the number of mailbox servers participating in the DAG. When an even number of mailbox servers are members of the DAG, Exchange configures a File Share Witness (FSW) on an available Hub Transport server, unless you specify a server for this use when creating the DAG. As nodes are added or removed from the DAG, Exchange automatically switches between using the FSW when there is an even number of mailbox servers and using the node-majority quorum model when there are an odd number of servers in the DAG. Database copies and sites The implementation of the Exchange DAG high availability feature enables creation of additional copies of each protected database. The number of copies required depends on specific requirements and is typically based on service level agreements (SLA). When designing storage for an environment where Exchange DAGs are to be used, understanding the SLA requirements and business requirements are useful to ensure that an effective design is put into place. When using three or more copies of a database, the use of a JBOD storage configuration is possible. The extension of a DAG to include multiple sites also affects storage design. The best way to show this is to describe a possible production datacenter design. A company has two physical datacenter locations and each location is a different AD site. The company requests that the Exchange design is capable of sustaining two server failures in the primary site and that in the event the primary location is unavailable, the secondary site is able to mount and run the databases so that users are able to access their . From this starting point the mailbox and storage design can be generated that provides three copies of each database in the primary datacenter with one additional copy in the secondary datacenter. Since the primary datacenter has three copies of the database, JBOD will be used to provide the lowest cost storage. In the secondary datacenter, RAID will be used to ensure that the data is available even if a single spindle is lost. 12

13 Figure 5. Exchange Server 2010 DAG design in two sites DAG01 AD Site 1 AD Site 2 Server 1-1 Server 1-2 Server 1-3 Server 2-1 RAID1 Set Passive database Active database Passive database Passive database Once the above design is presented to the customer, they request that a lagged copy of the database be added to the primary datacenter. The lagged database copy is added to the design in the primary datacenter and is placed on RAID disks. Figure 6. Exchange Server 2010 DAG design in two sites with Lag database copy DAG01 AD Site 1 AD Site 2 Server 1-1 Server 1-2 Server 1-3 Server 1-4 Server 2-1 RAID1 Set LAG database RAID1 Set Passive database Active database Passive database Passive database 13

14 Note The use of RAID is recommended for any database copy that could represent the only remaining or surviving copy including lagged and single offsite copies. Exchange 2010 RAID and JBOD Exchange Server 2010 high availability features do require investigation into the impact that maintaining additional database copies has on the overall design. Microsoft recommends keeping Exchange on RAID-based storage when less than three database copies are used. The recommendation to use RAID1 (or RAID10) when using the larger capacity, lower performance hard drives is to protect from performance issues when using RAID5 especially during times of rebuild to recover from a spindle failure. The RAID1 design uses four disks to hold the database volumes as shown in figure 7. Figure 7. Database copies when using RAID1 DAG01 RAID1 Server 1 Server 2 RAID1 Set RAID1 Set Active database Active database Passive database Passive database 14

15 When three or more database copies are used then JBOD storage becomes an option. By adding the third copy and using JBOD it is possible to remove one of the four disks used for RAID1 mirror copies of the database. This configuration reduces the number of disks used for storage and adds a mailbox server as shown in figure 8. Figure 8. Database copies when using JBOD DAG01 - JBOD Server 1 Server 2 Server 3 Active database Passive database Passive database Exchange high availability and database paths When using the Exchange DAG feature, it is necessary to ensure that the filesystem path to the database and logs on each server is consistent across all DAG members. This requires planning to ensure that the directory path structure and naming convention provides a flexible structure and provides for future growth. Remember that databases have unique names, are stored at the ORG level and can be moved to any server in the ORG. The inclusion of a site or server name in the naming convention would tie the database to a particular server or site and if the database was moved to another server or site the naming convention would give inaccurate information. Databases can be moved into or out of DAGs which means that the inclusion of DAG information in the naming convention would have similar results as the use of server or site. Since each of the copies of a particular database could become active at any time, it is best to leave the active or passive designation out of the naming convention. A simple naming convention which denotes the database name only (DB001, DB002 and so on), works well. The ability to use up to 100 databases per server requires the use of mount points. When using mount points, use something similar to ExchMPR for the empty mount point root on the C: drive. Then use a standardized naming scheme which denotes the database identity (DB001). The use of a naming scheme makes the paths to each instance of a database consistent on all servers that have copies of that particular database. The next database would be C:\ExchMPR\DB002 and so on. Since the naming scheme is consistent on all servers, the creation of the initial C:\ExchMPR empty mount point root folder can be standardized across all members of a DAG. A sample of two mount point layouts is shown in figure 9 and includes the two LUNs per database and one LUN per database models. 15

16 Figure 9. Exchange 2010 mount points DAG01 Two LUNs per Database or Backup Set DAG01 One LUN per Database C: Drive OS C: Drive OS Server 1 C:\ExchMPR Mount Point Root DB001 Mount Point Server 1 C:\ExchMPR Mount Point Root DB001 Mount Point C: Drive OS DB001-Log Mount Point C: Drive OS DB002 Mount Point Server 2 C:\ExchMPR Mount Point Root DB001 Mount Point Server 2 C:\ExchMPR Mount Point Root DB001 Mount Point DB001-Log Mount Point DB002 Mount Point Consistent naming across all storage objects including Exchange database, filesystem folder and volume helps to make sure that each object is in its intended location and makes troubleshooting easier. Before implementing a copy on a secondary server, ensure that the appropriate matching mount point has been assigned for the database being replicated. If using the single LUN per database model, each of the disk spindles that is configured as a mount point will contain the transaction logs as well. When using the two LUNs per database or backup set, ensure that the relative paths are the same before trying to add the database copy, if using a two LUN model then both paths need to be created first. Exchange with JBOD and BitLocker The use of Exchange high availability in combination with a JBOD storage configuration presents a unique situation where the database and transaction logs may be stored on a single disk and since RAID is not used to stripe the data across multiple spindles, a complete set of data is present on one disk. In this situation the use of drive encryption like BitLocker is available to ensure that in the event a drive is removed from the server, only encrypted data is present on that disk. Microsoft supports the use of BitLocker for Exchange 2010 data and HP ProLiant G6 (and later) servers can be ordered with a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) which is enabled by Microsoft BitLocker in Windows 2008 to store keys for encrypted volumes. Details on the configuration of the TPM module and the implementation of BitLocker are available from: 16

17 Note When using BitLocker, it is recommended to back up the encryption keys to a USB drive or file and keep them in a safe place. BitLocker encryption keys can also be stored in Active Directory. Exchange Native Data Protection The implementation of DAGs makes available the use of the Exchange 2010 Native Data Protection feature. Exchange Native Data Protection relies on having multiple copies of each database available in the event that recovery is required. With Exchange 2010 database sizes of up to 2 TB, the ability to use another copy of the database that is up to date decreases the amount of time needed to recover from a failure. A common recovery task that administrators perform is the recovery of items that the user has accidentally deleted. In Exchange Server 2010, features such as calendar versioning and single item recovery make this a straight forward process that can be accomplished without a typical recovery of a database using a backup application. Another situation where recovery work was needed in the past is fixing a database due to logical corruption. One of the signs that logical corruption has occurred is the generation of a error in the event logs which signals that Exchange has identified a corrupt page. Exchange 2010 automatically places a request into the log stream asking that a copy of the page from another replica of the database be sent to patch the bad page that caused the error. Similar to this is the ability of Exchange 2010 to recover from a lost flush where a page gets missed on the write to disk; the page is requested and is placed into the active database copy. A different type of recovery requires the restoration of an Exchange database to a specific point in time. When using the DAG mechanism, database copies are kept as up to date as possible through the use of continuous replication. Exchange 2010 makes it possible to create a lagged copy of any active database in the DAG and allows for a configurable delay of up to 14 days before transaction logs are played into the lagged database. This feature gives the administrator the ability to use the lagged copy and play the transaction logs up to a specified point and then use the database without the remainder of the logs being applied to it. The use of the DAG high availability feature impacts storage requirements for Exchange Server 2010 since each copy of the database and its associated logs need to be maintained. When using lagged database copies, additional space is required to store the transaction logs until they are committed to the database. With lagged copies, Microsoft recommends that RAID-based storage be used so that the database and logs are always available in the event that a single spindle is lost. Drive technologies When Microsoft wanted to increase the amount of data stored per mailbox while keeping the cost as low as possible, they chose to re-write Exchange to take advantage of slower SATA drive technology. SATA performs quite well when a sequential I/O workload is used. Does this mean that you should always choose slower and larger midline SATA drives? No, the choice of the appropriate disk drive technology is based on several factors such as: Is my storage performance bound? Is my storage capacity bound? Are you adding to an existing solution (SAN or DAS) or adding new storage technology? What mailbox size is appropriate for your Exchange deployment? 17

18 Are you using third-party applications that have a significant impact on performance? Are you frequently using the legal hold feature of Exchange? Changes in hard drive technology have caused many questions to arise especially when considering storage options for Exchange Server Exchange Server 2010 makes use of the latest drive technology effective. The proper design of storage is dependent on choosing the right tool for the job that you are asking Exchange to perform. Below are answers to questions common to deploying Exchange Server 2010 on new drive technology. What is the difference between types of midline drives? The main difference between midline SAS and SATA drives is the electronic interface package used to connect the drives with the drive shelf and Smart Array controller. There is a minimal cost difference between the two types of drives and the midline SAS drives support dual port/dual domain configuration and a faster transfer rate. Table 2. SAS and SATA 2 TB Midline drives 2 TB SAS Midline 2 TB SATA Midline Capacity 2,000,398 MB 2,000,398 MB Size 3.5 inch 3.5 inch Rotational Speed 7,200 RPM 7,200 RPM Interface SAS Serial ATA Transfer Rate 6 Gb per second 3 Gb per second Seek Time: Average 8.5 ms 8.2 ms Seek Time: Full Stroke 16.2 ms 16.9 ms Bytes per Sector Dual Port Drive Yes No Warranty 1 Year 1 Year 18

19 Figure TB SAS and SATA Midline drives When considering the use of drives for Exchange storage, the use of higher capacity but slower drives is appropriate because the application has been designed to perform well with this drive technology. While Microsoft is enabling organizations to deploy very large mailboxes at a reasonable cost through the use of large capacity, slower drives, not every organization will require or benefit from using drives in the same manner. What is the difference between MDL, ENT and ETY or SFF and LFF drives? HP classifies drives as Enterprise (ENT), Midline (MDL) or Entry (ETY) and the designation does not refer to SAS and SATA. The designation of ENT, MDL or ETY refers to the expected use of the drives within a storage infrastructure. Enterprise drives are designed to be used to provide the highest performance available while midline and entry drives offer higher capacity with lower performance. The warranty on entry and midline drives is one year while enterprise drives have a three year warranty. When choosing a drive to fit into a server or external drive shelf, drives are classified by Small Form Factor (SFF) which is a 2.5-inch drive or by Large Form Factor (LFF) which is a 3.5-inch drive. Both the Small Form Factor (SFF) and Large Form Factor (LFF) drive sizes can contain either enterprise (ENT), midline (MDL) or entry (ETY) drives. Additional information on HP SAS hard drives is available from: and for HP SATA drives: Are midline SAS and SATA drives suitable for use in the enterprise? For many years, SATA drives have been available for use in workstation and datacenter environments but a concern with using them in the datacenter has been their perceived failure rate. Drive failure rates are expressed in Annual Failure Rate (AFR). The AFR is the probable percent of failures based on a manufacturers total number of installed units of a similar type 1. It is important to note that the AFR is not stated for individual drives. 1 Seagate: Hard disk drive reliability and MTBF / AFR [174791] 19

20 The usage of midline drives is changing with the increase in reliability of newer drives and with the input of studies performed on drive populations with a large amount of disks. One of the largest studies on disk drive failure rates in a production environment has been performed by Google and is available from: s/disk_failures.pdf. The Google study concluded that SATA drives are suitable for use in enterprise environments and have an AFR ranging from 1.7% in the first year to 8.6% in the third year. When designing storage for Exchange 2010, the use of midline drives that provide high capacity can be a cost effective tool that allows for the implementation of large mailboxes. Exchange Server 2010 has been designed to take advantage of larger drives and when implemented with multiple database copies, user availability remains in the event that a drive needs to be replaced. Can I use SSD drives for Exchange storage? Solid State Drives (SSD) are available for use and supported with Exchange SSD drives provide extremely high performance but lower storage capacity. SSD drive cost per GB is high and typically does not provide a cost effective solution for Exchange 2010 storage. How do Fibre Channel and FATA drives fit into the drive picture? Fibre Channel drives (Enterprise) and Fibre Attached Technology Adapted (FATA) drives (Midline) use a Fibre Channel based interface to connect the drive to the controller. Fibre Channel based drives typically have similar capacities and performance as SAS or SATA drives but are placed into storage arrays and work together with advanced features like redundant controllers, multi-path I/O and storage management offered by the array controller to provide shared storage to servers using Fibre Channel host bus adapters (HBAs). What is the difference between dual port and Dual-Domain? Dual port refers to a hard drive s capability to support a secondary path to the drive for data. Dual- Domain requires dual port drives and adds the ability to implement use of a secondary channel for data communication through a separate physical path to the drive. Not all array controllers, drive shelves and drives support the use of dual domain for multiple data paths and it is important to ensure that all components in the data path from the server to the drive support this feature if it will be used. Smart Array controllers like the P700m and the HP StorageWorks 600 Modular Disk System (MDS600) offer support for the Dual-Domain feature. Before placing a dual domain configuration into production it is important to test the implementation to ensure that the configuration has been properly implemented and documented. Additional information on configuring redundancy in dual domain SAS configurations is available from: Where can I find more information on HP disk drives? The Drive technology overview discusses the drive technology used in HP hard drive products and is available from: Storage controller technologies When choosing storage systems, storage controllers are used to connect the hard drives to the server and to provide additional features such as cache, RAID and online spare disks. Controller features vary depending on the storage technology used for a given solution. The common types of storage controllers for use in ProLiant servers are: Smart Array controllers to interface using SAS protocols with drives internal to the server or with external drive shelves containing drives. 20

21 Fibre Channel host bus adapters (HBA) to interface with Storage Area Networks (SAN) using Fibre Channel. HP iscsi storage technology to interface with iscsi-based storage. Smart Array controllers The Smart Array controller family provides storage interface options for ProLiant servers. Both PCI- Express (PCIe) and BladeSystem mezzanine cards are available with a full range of features and cache sizes. One of the new features implemented in recent Smart Array controllers is flash-backed write cache (FBWC) with a super-capacitor power supply that allows indefinite data retention compared to two days for battery-backed write cache. The capacitors charge faster (minutes versus hours) than batteries which is an advantage since the controller disables write caching while charging is underway. Figure 11. Smart Array Controllers (left to right: P411 with FBWC and SuperCap, P212 and P700m) In comparing the features provided by the Smart Array controllers, it is important to select a controller that will provide the required capabilities. Each Smart Array controller supports a stated number of physical drives as well as a stated number of logical drives. When implementing a JBOD configuration where every individual spindle will become a logical drive, choose a Smart Array controller that has sufficient logical drive capacity. For example, the P812 Smart Array controller supports 108 physical drives and 64 logical drives. For additional information on the use and specifications of Smart Array controllers see: When using HP BladeSystem ProLiant servers with the P700m array controller the HP StorageWorks 3 Gb SAS BL Switch is required. The SAS switch is installed in the BladeSystem enclosure and provides a zoned or shared SAS solution which connects with external storage shelves like the MDS600 and D2000. Fibre Channel host bus adapters The Fibre Channel host bus adapter (HBA) family provides Fibre Channel storage interface options for ProLiant servers. Both PCI-Express (PCIe) and BladeSystem mezzanine cards are available. HP provides HBA cards from multiple vendors allowing customers the choice of features to meet their needs. The cards are available in single and dual channel models for use with HP s Fibre Channel based array solutions. 21

22 Figure 12. HP StorageWorks PCIe 8Gb Host Bus Adapters group SAN-based Exchange storage solutions provide the option to utilize Multi-path I/O (MPIO) which enables multiple data paths to storage arrays preventing a single point of failure. Device specific modules (DSM) are available to download for the various StorageWorks arrays. MPIO works in combination with either dual port HBAs, or multiple single port HBAs in a server. When using BladeSystem ProLiant servers with Fibre Channel HBA mezzanine cards, a SAN switch like the Brocade 8 Gb SAN Switch for HP BladeSystem is required. The SAN switch or switches are installed in the BladeSystem enclosure and provide a SAN solution which connects with external storage arrays like the HP StorageWorks Enterprise Virtual Array (EVA) or XP products. HP iscsi storage technology HP iscsi storage technology can be used with ProLiant servers and multi-function network interface controllers (NICs) to enable access to iscsi-based StorageWorks products with Microsoft Windows 2003 and 2008 operating systems. HP multi-function NICs like the NC382i, NC382T, NC380T, NC373i, NC373F, NC373T, NC371i, NC370F and the NC373T support advanced iscsi technology in ProLiant DL and ML class servers. For ProLiant blade servers the QLogic QMH4062 iscsi adapter provides advanced iscsi initiator technology in a mezzanine card form factor. Other mezzanine adapters that support advanced iscsi for ProLiant blade servers include: NC382m, NC374m, NC373m and NC532m. When choosing a multi-function adapter it is important to review the iscsi-related features required for implementation like iscsi boot and choose an adapter that supports these features. HP provides options to optimize iscsi solutions including the Accelerated iscsi Pack for Embedded Multifunction Server Adapters which enables the ability to offload processing to the NIC, reducing CPU utilization. The Accelerated iscsi Pack supports iscsi storage targets using Microsoft iscsi Software Initiator version 2.0. Additional information on HP ProLiant Accelerated iscsi for Windows is available from: 22

23 Note Always use the latest production firmware and drivers for Smart Array controllers, host bus adapters and network multi-function adapters to ensure that features are available and any patches to fix issues are in place. HP storage platforms Maintaining the proper measures of capacity and performance are critical to a well-designed storage infrastructure for Exchange Server. Most Exchange environments started with direct-attached storage (DAS) and over time moved into storage area networks (SAN) and now the shift is back toward DAS with some customers using JBOD and the use of lower cost disk with large capacity. One of the reasons that SANs were used was to allow the pooling of disks into a shared infrastructure that can be presented to any server needing a particular resource. The previous use of DAS with Exchange servers meant that expensive enterprise class disks were locked into the server that they were attached to and as a result, DAS solutions resulted in islands of storage. At that point in Exchange Server s lifetime, Exchange was designed to effectively use the available disks and the performance of the disks was the same whether they were deployed on SAN or DAS. SAN solutions were used to deploy highly-available Exchange Server solutions and to support the deployment of Windows clusters to support Exchange Server. The use of Database Availability Groups (DAGs) with Exchange 2010 allows the implementation of Exchange high-availability while using DAS. We now step forward to Exchange Server 2010 which is designed specifically to make the most of larger, slower disks to allow large user mailboxes. Due to the shift in design it is important to understand what new options are offered by the changes Microsoft made and not design for previous versions of Exchange. Exchange Server 2010 storage When using ProLiant servers, many options exist for extending storage capacities. These storage options work for stand-alone servers (DL or ML) or for blade servers (BL) providing an integrated solution. It is important to identify the features required in a particular storage situation and select the combination of server, controller card and storage that work together to make the required features available. The following disk-based Exchange storage options are available: StorageWorks XP Disk Array StorageWorks EVA Disk Array StorageWorks P4000 G2 SAN Storage StorageWorks D2000 Disk Enclosure StorageWorks MDS600 Modular Disk System StorageWorks P2000 G3 MSA Array System ProLiant Internal Server Storage StorageWorks SB40c Storage Blade StorageWorks XP Disk Array The StorageWorks XP disk array is a large enterprise class storage system providing a fully redundant platform with data replication capabilities. The XP array allows for 1,152 drives and makes use of drive types including: SSD and Fibre Channel, up to 2 TB in size. Constant uptime is possible for situations that require the highest in availability. 23

24 Figure 13. StorageWorks XP Disk Array StorageWorks EVA Disk Array The StorageWorks EVA disk array line consists of the EVA8400, EVA6400 and EVA4400 models. Each model in the range fills a different position in regard to the capabilities offered, allowing the choice of the array to fit specific performance and capacity requirements. The EVA8400 allows the use of up to 324 drives with either 14 GB or 22 GB of controller cache. The EVA6400 allows the use of up to 216 drives with 8 GB of cache The EVA4400 allows the use of up to 96 drives with 4 GB of cache. Drive sizes up to 1 TB are available for use in the EVA disk arrays and additional features can be added to the EVA arrays by the purchase of licenses. The StorageWorks EVA disk array line supports both Fibre Channel and iscsi connectivity options. 24

25 Figure 14. StorageWorks EVA8400 Disk Array, front and back StorageWorks P4000 G2 SAN storage The StorageWorks P4000 G2 SAN Storage system is an iscsi-based SAN built on LeftHand technology providing solutions based on either performance or capacity with a selection of redundancy options. When choosing a P4000 G2 solution it is important to note that all features are turned on with the initial purchase. The P4000 G2 storage system is implemented in increments called nodes each of which is a twelve (12) drive shelf (P4500) or an eight (8) drive shelf (P4300) with associated controllers. The nodes are combined together to form the storage system and the number of nodes required is based on the performance and capacity required for a particular implementation. If using a 10 Gb Ethernet infrastructure, a module is available that provides CX4 connections to 10 Gb Ethernet switches. Figure 15. StorageWorks P4000 G2 SAN Storage node (left to right: P4500 G2 and P4300 G2) 25

26 StorageWorks D2000 disk enclosure The StorageWorks D2000 disk enclosure is a direct attached solution that uses 6G technology to provide a 6 Gb data path from the server to the drives. Two models of D2000 enclosures are available: the D2600 holds up to twelve (12) large form factor (LFF) drives while the D2700 holds up to 25 small form factor (SFF) drives. Both enclosures provide 6 Gb SAS connectivity and are used with Smart Array controllers. Drive sizes up to 2 TB LFF are available for the D2600, and 500 GB SFF for the D2700. Both SAS and SATA disks are available for use with these enclosures. The StorageWorks D2000 disk enclosures support direct-attach connectivity using HP Smart Array controllers. Figure 16. StorageWorks D2600 Drive Shelf LFF Drives StorageWorks 600 Modular Disk System (MDS600) The StorageWorks 600 Modular Disk System (MDS600) provides high density storage allowing up to 70 large form factor (LFF) hot-pluggable SAS or SATA drives to be implemented within 5U of rack space. The MDS600 works with both stand-alone or blade ProLiant servers but has additional features when used with blade servers. The MDS600 contains two drawers with 35 drives each and 3 Gb SAS connectivity. Up to six MDS600 systems can be connected to a BladeSystem enclosure which provides 420 drives in 30 U of rack space allowing for 840 TB of data storage when using 2 TB drives. Various cabling options are available to support features like Single-Domain or Dual-Domain and wide-port configuration which provides an x8 SAS link to each drawer. Additional deployment and cabling details are documented in the HP Direct-Connect External SAS Storage for HP BladeSystem Solutions Deployment Guide available from: The StorageWorks 600 Modular Disk System (MDS600) supports direct-attach connectivity using HP Smart Array controllers; when used in a BladeSystem ProLiant server the StorageWorks 3Gb SAS BL Switch is also required. 26

27 Figure 17. StorageWorks MDS600 Modular Disk System StorageWorks P2000 G3 MSA Array System The StorageWorks P2000 G3 MSA array system is an iscsi or Fibre Channel attached solution. The P2000 contains either a single or dual controller. Two models of P2000 G3 array systems are available: one holds up to twelve (12) large form factor (LFF) drives while the other holds up to 24 small form factor (SFF) drives. Drive sizes up to 2 TB are available for the LFF array and 500 GB for the SFF array. Both SAS and SATA disks are available for use with these arrays. Expansion of the LFF array is accomplished through the addition of up to seven P2000 drive enclosures for a total of 96 LFF drive bays. Expansion of the SFF array is accomplished by the addition of up to five D2700 drive enclosures for a total of 149 SFF drive bays. Figure 18. StorageWorks P2000 G3 MSA Array System SFF drives ProLiant internal server storage ProLiant servers like the DL370 G6 offer the capability to support up to GB SFF or 14 2 TB LFF SAS or SATA drives. Smart Array controllers can be used to support the internal drives and offer additional features. ProLiant server internal storage configurations support direct-attach connectivity using HP Smart Array controllers. 27

28 Figure 19. ProLiant DL370 G6 server StorageWorks SB40c storage blade BladeSystem ProLiant servers also have the capability to add direct attached storage drives by using a StorageWorks SB40c storage blade. This blade offers the capability to support up to GB SFF SAS or SATA drives. An onboard P400 Smart Array controller with 256 MB battery-backed write cache connects to the adjacent server using a PCI Express connection in the enclosure backplane. Figure 20. StorageWorks SB40c storage blade Other considerations When designing any technology solution, it is important to consider the needs and requirements that have already been defined in this paper. With Exchange Server 2010, most needs can be met in a straightforward manner using features included within Exchange. The area that will provide the largest portion of the framework for your design is that of service level agreements (SLA). SLAs describe the agreement between the technology provider and the business group relating to what the 28

29 services contain and how they will be recovered in the event of a problem. Recoverability for Exchange has always existed but the options have been expanded with Exchange Tiered recovery Exchange Server 2010 provides the ability to have an effective tiered recovery strategy through the use of features like single item recovery, calendar versioning, Database Availability Groups, multiple database copies, lagged copies and legal hold. Each of these features does have an effect on storage. Both the quantity and quality of storage are affected by these design decisions. When using the Exchange Database Availability Group feature, the copies of Exchange that will be used during a failover or switchover (*over) should be placed onto storage designed for production use. This is important since during a *over the same level of service needs to be maintained to end users as they access their Exchange mailboxes. Other performance and capacity demands Exchange makes available a single point of access to many forms of electronic communication information and through the use of BlackBerry, Windows Mobile and other mobile messaging devices the Exchange infrastructure makes it possible for users to access their electronic lives from anywhere and at any time. Each of these capabilities can increase the performance requirements for storage. Exchange is not limited to the storage of only messages. Voic adds to the capabilities of Exchange when using the Unified Messaging features all of which add to the need for a reliable and stable storage design. Some desktop search engines place a higher load on Exchange storage performance as they access and index information for fast retrieval when the user searches for items. Skill level and training The skill level of the administrators who support Exchange should be taken into consideration when designing storage systems. Ensuring that the engineers have the skill set necessary to support the chosen technology is a critical factor in the ability to effectively manage and troubleshoot storage on a daily basis and when problems happen. If the support team is comfortable working with the selected storage technology then the implementation and ongoing support will be a much more positive experience. Depending on organizational structure, the support of Exchange storage may be performed by the Exchange support team, the SAN support team, the server support team or another group. When designing Exchange storage it is important to take this into account to ensure that the capability exists to provide the proper amount and type of storage and its support. If a customer has a large stable SAN implementation in place and wishes to continue using it for Exchange then SAN storage can provide a good solution with support provided by experienced staff members. Validation and monitoring of storage When implementing a storage solution for Exchange, an easily overlooked step is the evaluation of storage after it has been put in place to determine a baseline for that storage. Microsoft makes tools to enable this testing. Jetstress and LoadGen available for Exchange 2010 can be used to test storage or Exchange overall and establish a baseline for future comparison. Jetstress is available from: 48ed-931b-29eb0aa52aa6 LoadGen is available from: CCFC915B29EF&displaylang=en 29

30 The Jetstress tool places stress on the storage aspects of Exchange and will provide a maximum amount of performance that the storage is capable of providing. This is useful when troubleshooting issues in the future as the maximum performance for the storage is a known value and comparison can be made to determine if that maximum is being approached. The LoadGen tool places a user like load on the Exchange infrastructure which tests the Client Access servers, Hub Transport servers and mailbox servers. The LoadGen tool is installed and used with a non-production Active Directory implementation and is capable of testing the servers with antivirus or other third-party applications installed. Once storage has been put into place and is ready for production use, it is important to monitor and maintain it to ensure stability. Many tools are available to perform this work and using information from the testing phases of implementation is helpful in determining the thresholds put in place to signal when a problem is occurring. Performance monitoring of storage has a range of monitoring levels and a good starting point is to determine if the Exchange application s view of storage is healthy or not from a logical perspective. Below that level, Windows has the ability to see the logical and physical performance for storage devices and additional monitoring can be performed at the storage controller or even physical spindle layers. When using a SAN array, additional levels of information may be available to add more detail to the overall health of storage. Summary With Exchange Server 2010, storage is critical to the successful implementation of a messaging infrastructure. Microsoft has made significant changes to Exchange s use of storage in Exchange 2010 which impacts the design process. The presence of multiple HP storage options and features offers the ability to design a solution to meet a wide range of needs. HP ProLiant and StorageWorks solutions provide a platform to implement a SAN, DAS or JBOD solution supported by a single vendor. The ability to offer larger user mailboxes, gain control of PST files and effectively manage storage is enhanced both by the innovations in Exchange Server 2010 and by the technology provided by HP. With the significant changes implemented in Exchange Server 2010 a large number of storage options are available. The identification of implementation-specific design drivers helps refine the options available for each Exchange 2010 design. Storage designs can be analyzed using tools available from Microsoft and HP to compare features and costs. This document presents design drivers and possible storage platforms for use during the design process. The Exchange Server 2010 storage information outlined in this document covers a range of options available for the engineer to use and additional information is available in links throughout the document as well as in the For more information section that follows. 30

31 For more information HP ActiveAnswers for Microsoft Exchange Server, HP ActiveAnswers sizers, HP ProLiant servers, HP BladeSystem, HP storage, HP BladeSystem storage, HP StorageWorks Enterprise Virtual Array, HP StorageWorks Modular Smart Array (MSA) storage systems, Technical specifications (QuickSpecs) and product data sheets, refer to To help us improve our documents, please provide feedback at Copyright 2010 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. Microsoft, Windows and Windows Mobile are U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Google is a trademark of Google Inc. 4AA2-1309ENW, Created June 2010

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