4 HEPATIC BLOOD SUPPLY - 25% to 30% of CO Dual supply Portal V (75%) % of oxygen supply Hepatic A (25%) % of oxygen supply
5 HEPATIC BLOOD FLOW
6 CONTROL OF LIVER BLOOD FLOW 1) 1) HEPATIC ARTERIAL BUFFER RESPONSE most important intrinsic mechanism changes in portal venous flow cause reciprocal changes in hepatic arterial flow mechanism involves the synthesis and washout of adenosine (i.e., a vasodilator) from periportal regions
7 2) AUTOREGULATION Mechanism involves myogenic responses of vascular smooth muscle to stretch Only in postprandial state 3) METABOLIC CONTROL -Decrease oxygen tension or ph of portal venous blood increase hepatic arterial flow whereas postprandial hyperosmolarity increase both hepatic and portal flow
8 B.EXTRINSIC REGULATION 1.NEURAL CONTROL -Fibers of the vagus, phrenic, and splanchnic nerves (postganglionic sympathetic fibers from T6 through T11) -When sympathetic tone : splanchnic reservoir volume increases. -Vagal stimulation : alters the tone of the presinusoidal sphincters -the net effect is a redistribution of intrahepatic blood flow without changing total hepatic blood flow. 2.HUMORAL CONTROL - hepatic arterial bed has α 1 -, α 2 -, and β 2 -adrenergic receptors - portal vein has only α-receptors Glucagon induces relaxation of hepatic arterial smooth muscle. angiotensin II constricts the hepatic arterial and portal venous beds. Vasopressin elevates splanchnic arterial resistance, but it lowers portal venous resistance.
9 SPECTRUM OF LIVER DISEASE PARENCHYMAL - Acute infectious or non infectious Chronic Hepatitis alcohol, autoimmune,drugs, inherited(wilson, alpha 1 antitrypsin),nash, viral Hepatic Cirrhosis (+ portal hypertension) CHOLESTATIC Intrahepatic viral hepatitis drug induced Extrahepatic (Obstructive jaundice) Calculi, stricture, growth.
10 CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER A chronic progressive disease Extensive degeneration & destruction to the liver parenchymal cells Cell necrosis scar tissue nodular structure impedes blood flow hypoxia
12 Pathophysiology Alcoholic cirrhosis accumulation of fat and scar formation in the liver cells Postnecrotic cirrhosis broad bands of scar tissue resulted from viral, toxic, or autoimmune hepatitis Biliary cirrhosis diffuse fibrosis with jaundice from chronic biliary obstruction Cardiac cirrhosis from long standing right sided heart failure
13 Clinical Manifestations Early GI disturbances, dull pain in RUQ/epigastrium, fever, malaise, enlargement of liver & spleen Late Jaundice, skin lesions (spider angiomas, palmar erythema), hematologic problems, endocrine disturbances, peripheral neuropathy
15 Pathophysiology of End Stage Liver Disease Predominant pathophysiological manifestation of liver disease is portal hypertension. Normal portal pressures are usually in the range of 5 12 mmhg. Portal hypertension is generally defined when any 2 of the following 3 criteria are met: splenomegaly, ascites or bleeding esophageal varices. Portal pressures at this time are usually > 20 mmhg
16 Varices Due to portal hypertension Varicosities develop where collateral & systemic circulations communicate esophageal & gastric varices, caput medusae, & hemorrhoids most common gastroesophageal varices Painless massive haematemesis with or without melena & other features of PH. Endoscopy best for evaluation
18 STANDARD TREATMENT OF PORTAL HYPERTENSION 1. Pre primary prophylaxis EGD, no treatment for PH, treat cause of cirrhosis. 2. Primary prophylaxis non selective b blockers (propranolol, nadolol) are as effective as Endoscopic variceal ligation(evl) depending upon risk 3. Controlling acute variceal hemorrhage Safe vasoactive drugs are started as soon as possible, prior to diagnostic endoscopy.evl is the procedure of choice if source confirmed, Sclerotherapy second line. TIPS recommended when everything fails 4. Secondary prophylaxis if TIPS performed consider for transplant. If TIPS not performed combination of pharmacological (NSBB alone or NSBB + ISMN) plus EVL is associated with lower rebleeding rates than either therapy alone
19 Ascites Accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneum OVERFLOW MODEL excessive renal retention of sodium intravascular volume to expand, causing (1) plasma oncotic pressure decreases, with the liver unable to produce sufficient (2) portal hydrostatic pressure increases The combination of low oncotic pressure and portal hypertension accelerates the formation of edema and ascites. UNDERFILL MODEL cirrhosis causes the effective plasma volume to decrease, which activates homeostatic mechanisms to retain sodium and water.
20 Tense ascites may decrease functional residual capacity (FRC), adversely affect pulmonary gas exchange and increase risk of aspiration. Hydrothorax or pleural effusions may produce atelectasis. Secondary hyperaldosteronism may manifest as hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. There is intra and extra pulmonary shunting, elevated mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), altered lactate metabolism. Treatment diagnostic paracentesis, salt restriction to 2000mg/day, diuretics( furosemide or spironolactone ), Large volume paracentesis,tips
21 COAGULOPATHY All coagulation factors except for VIII are markedly reduced in patients with liver disease CLD patients have thrombocytopenia due to splenomegaly and decreased thrombopoeitin Antithrombin III (AT III) levels fall due to reduced synthesis and/or increased consumption due to fibrinolysis Hemostatic changes associated with surgical bleeding are 1. thrombocytopenia, 2. platelet function defects, 3. inhibition of platelet aggregation and adhesion by nitric oxide and prostacyclin, 4. decreased levels of coagulation factors: II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of fibrinogen, 5. low levels of α2 antiplasmin, Factor XIII and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and elevated tpa.
22 Hemostatic changes associated with thrombosis : 1. Elevated vwf, decreased levels of ADAMTS 13 (a vwf cleaving protease), 2. Decreased levels of anti coagulants: ATIII, Protein C and S, α2 macroglobulin, elevated levels of heparin cofactor II, elevated VIII, decreased levels of plasminogen, normalor increased PAI Hypercoagulability can occur in patients with liver disease, especially those with cholestatic disease.
23 Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome with vascular obstruction and increased resistance to pulmonary arterial flow It occurs due to pulmonary endothelial/smooth muscle proliferation, vasoconstriction and in situ thrombosis. The development of POPH has not been demonstrated to correlate with the severity of liver disease The diagnostic criteria for POPH include a mean pulmonary artery pressure(mpap) greater than 25 mmhg at rest and a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of > 240 dynes.s.cm. A better measure is a transpulmonary gradient > 12 mmhg (mpap PAOP) as this reflects the obstruction to flow (PVR)
24 Female gender and autoimmune hepatitis have been reported to be risk factors. In cases confirmed by right sided heart catheterization, treatment with epoprostenol or bosentan may reduce pulmonary hypertension and thereby facilitate liver transplantation; Liver transplantation is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary pressure > 35 mm Hg).
25 Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) Characterized by arterial hypoxemia caused by intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. The clinical triad of 1) portal hypertension; 2) hypoxemia; and 3) pulmonary vascular dilatations
26 European Respiratory Society (ERS)/European Association for Study of the Liver(EASL) Task Force have certain set diagnostic criteria for hepatopulmonary syndrome(hps). These include : Diagnosis of liver disease, An A a oxygen gradient > 15 mmhg, Pulmonary vascular dilatation documented by positive" delayed, contrast enhanced echocardiography with left heart, Detection of microbubbles for > 4 cardiac cycles after right heart opacification of microbubbles Brain uptake > 6% following 99mTc macroaggregated albumin(maa) lung perfusion scanning
27 TREATMENT Medical therapy has been disappointing Experimentally, iv methylene blue, oral garlic powder, and oral norfloxacin may improve oxygenation by inhibiting nitric oxideinduced vasodilation Pentoxifylline may prevent hepatopulmonary syndrome by inhibiting production of tumor necrosis factor. Long term oxygen therapy is recommended for severely hypoxemic patients The syndrome may reverse with liver transplantation, although postoperative mortality is increased in patients with a preoperative arterial oxygen tension < 50 mm Hg or with substantial intrapulmonary shunting. TIPS may provide palliation in patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome awaiting transplantation.
28 Hepatorenal syndrome Pre renal acute kidney injury that occurs in decompensated cirrhosis. The syndrome is classified into two types: Type 1 is characterized by a doubling of the serum creatinine level to greater than 2.5 mg/dl in less than 2 weeks Type 2 is characterized by a stable or slower progressive course of renal failure
29 The International Ascites Club has suggested FIVE major criteria to confirm the diagnosis of HRS: (1) chronic or acute liver disease with advanced hepatic failure and portal hypertension; (2) a low GFR as assessed by serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl or creatinine clearance below 40 ml/min; (3) absence of shock, ongoing bacterial infection, fluid losses, or treatment with nephrotoxic drugs; (4) no sustained improvement in renal function after oral diuretic withdrawal and plasma volume expansion; and (5) less than 500 mg/day proteinuria with no ultrasonographic evidence of parenchymal renal disease or urinary obstruction
30 MANAGEMENT IV infusion of albumin + vasoconstrictor regimens for 7 14 days: 1. IV vasopressin or ornipressin (ischemic s/e); 2. IV ornipressin plus dopamine; 3. IV terlipressin (preferred agent); 4. IV norepinephrine; 5. oral midodrine, an adrenergic drug, plus the somatostatin analog octreotide, s/c or iv. MARS(molecular adsorbents recirculating system ), a modified dialysis method that selectively removes albuminbound substances. I TIPS Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice.
31 Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Consists of fever, leukocytosis, abdominal pain, and decreased bowel sounds gut wall permeability growth of bacteria in peritoneal fluid Associated macrophage func on Risk factors low protein in ascitic fluid, variceal bleeding Antibiotic prophylaxis in Pts with GI haemorrhage is recommended. High mortality ( 20 50%)
32 Hepatic Encephalopathy Pathophysiologic phenomena that contribute to the syndrome include (1) hepatobiliary dysfunction, (2) decreased hepatic blood flow, and (3) extrahepatic diversion of portal venous flow through collateral vessels Euphoria, irritability, confusion, slurred speech, slow & deep respiration, hyperactive reflexes, positive Babinski sreflex Asterixis, fetor hepaticus, deep coma
33 Factors That May Precipitate Hepatic Encephalopathy Excessive dietary protein Constipation Gastrointestinal bleeding Infection Azotemia Diarrhea and vomiting Diuretic therapy Paracentesis Increased ammonia production Dehydration with electrolyte and acid base imbalance, increased ammonia generation, and decreased hepatic perfusion Hypoxia Hypotension Anemia Hypoglycemia Adverse effect on liver and brain function Sedatives/hypnotics Action at the GABA A /benzodiazepine receptor complex Creation of portal systemic shunt Reduced hepatic metabolism
34 MANAGEMENT Dietary protein withheld or limited to g/d; vegetable protein better Control GI bleed and purge blood out. 120 ml of magnesium citrate orally or NG tube 3 4hrly until the stool is free of gross blood, or by administration of lactulose (two or three soft stools per day ) Oral antibiotic ;nonabsorbable agent rifaximin, 400 mg orally three times daily, is preferred. Other agents metroinidazole or neomycin Flumazenil is effective in about 30% of patients with severe hepatic encephalopathy, but the drug is short acting requiring iv administration. Branched chain amino acids unnecessary except patients who are intolerant of standard protein supplements. Treatment with acarbose (an alpha glucosidase inhibitor) and L carnitine (an essential factor in the mitochrondrial transport of longchain fatty acids) is under study
35 connection.lww.com/ Products/morton/Ch41.asp
36 PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES 1. Assess the type and degree of liver dysfunction. 2. Type of surgery 3. Assess effect on other system. 4. To ensure post operative facilities (High risk patient).
38 PREOPERATIVE INVESTIGATIONS A)TO ASSESS GENERAL CONDITION OF PATIENT 1) Haematological Hb TLC, DLC Platelet Count Clotting factors (PT, PTTk) 2) Cardiorespiratory Chest X ray ECG Pulmonary.fn.tests Blood gases Echocardiography 3) Metabolic Serum proteins Serum glucose Electrolyte Urea / Creatinine
39 B) TO KNOW THE PATTERN OF DISEASE S. Bilirubin SGOT, SGPT 90% predictive Alk. phosphatase Single Marker Glutathione S transferase drug induced Glutamyl transpeptidase alcohol/drug induced
40 C) TO JUDGE THE SYNTHETIC ABILITY OF LIVER Serum albumin < 2 5 gm% - severe damage Albumin/globulin ratio reversed. Prothrombin time > 1 5 sec. Over control INR - > 1.3 C) OTHER TESTS (DONE ONLY FOR MAJOR SURGERY) - liver biopsy - screening for hepatitis - α feto protein Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Antinuclear antibodies prim. biliary cirrhosis - Copper & Ceruloplasmin level Wilson's disease ferritin and transferritin Haemochromatosis
41 Cardiac assessment of End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD) patients May develop cirrhotic cardiomyopathy Increased CO and compromised ventricular response to stress leads to cardiac depression and repolarization abnormalities Low systemic vascular resistance and bradycardia Increase QT interval, electrical and mechanical dyschrony,chronotropic incompetence Can develop CAD if cardiac risk factors present Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO)
42 ROLE OF ECHO Preop echo 1. Ventricular function, size 2. Valvular function 3. Pulmonary artery pressure 4. Exclude any LVOTO or pericardial effusion 5. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure calculation
43 TEE and/or pulmonary artery catheterization may be used intraoperatively to allow for realtime hemodynamic monitoring and volume management. Stress testing of ESLD patients can be done to detect CAD. Coronary angiography is the gold standard for detecting CAD Rt heart catheterization role to measure PAP,PCWP and TPG
44 GRADING OF SEVERITY OF DISEASE Mild Hepatic dysfunction Cl. History + evidence of liver pathology normal plasma albumin, but enzymes Moderate Hepatic dysfunction Limited impairment of synthetic function PT not > 2 5 sec. above normal Plasma albumin at least 3 gm%. Severe hepatic dysfunction More impairment of synthetic function.
45 Surgical Risk. Elective surgery is contraindicated when the patient has acute viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, severe chronic hepatitis, is a Child Pugh C patient or has other manifestations of end stage liver disease. Two risk stratification schemes developed to assess theperioperative risk of patients with cirrhosis: 1. Modified Child Turcotte Pugh Scoring System 2.The Model of End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score
46 Modified Child Turcotte Pugh Scoring System S. Bilirubin < 2 gm% 2 3 gm% > 3 gm% S. albumin > 3 5 gm% g% < 2.8 gm% Ascites None slight moderate tense Encephalopathy None Grade I & II Grade III & IV Prothrombin time Sec prolonged < >6 INR < >2.3
47 Modified Child Turcotte Pugh Scoring System CLASSES SCORE MORTALITY A % B % C %
48 MELD Objective assessment in predicting 3 month mortality Primarily used to select patients for liver transplant X ln (bilirubin mg/dl) X ln (INR) ln (creatinine mg/dl) Best outcomes : MELD score < 14. For patients with a MELD score of Clinical judgment Further discussion with the family and the patient
50 Preoperative approach: Patient with Known/ Suspected liver disease
51 PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION (1) Childs Group A Elective Surgery recommended B acceptable after correction C only for emergency (2) Assess hydration status. (3) Correct Anemia / Coagulation / hypoalbuminemia (4) Arrange appropriate blood / blood products. (5) Inform postoperative complications
52 PREMEDICATION If neuro. status normal anxiolytic (oral) oral H2 antagonist Vit. K (Obst. J) 10 mg B D X 3 day If Bilirubin > 8 mg% Mannitol 100 ml of 20% 2 hrs preop
53 ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Minimize physiological insult to liver & kidney Maintain O2 supply demand relationship in liver. Adequate pulmonary ventilation and cvs fn. Maintain renal perfusion Avoid Hypotension, hypoproteinemia & hypoxia Meticulous fluid balance Choose appropriate anaesthetic agent Metabolism of drugs + Effect on HBF
54 General anaesthesia Induction agent Thiopentone / propofol Given in slow tirated dose Avoid hypotension Avoid sympathetic stimulation Propofol : Thiopentone : Highly lipid soluble High extraction ratio However kinetic profile similar to normal patients Low extraction ratio Elimination half life unaltered secondary to increased Vd
55 Muscle relaxants Decreased S. Alb Increased free drug concentration Drugs with hepatic clearance avoided Vecuronium Rocuronium Pancuronium Mivacurium (infusion avoided) Atracurium/Cis atracurium Non specific ester hydrolysis Succinylcholine For RSI After screening for the usual contraindications Prolonged immobility Critical illness Hyperkalemia Severe liver dysfunction decrease cholinesterase activity May prolong the effect of succinylcholine somewhat Rarely causes a clinical problem.
56 Morphine Reduced metabolism Prolonged elimination half life Inc. Bioavailability Inc. Sedative and Respiratory depressant effects Administration interval should be increased 1.5 to 2 fold in these patients Meperidine 50% reduction in clearance Doubling of the half life In addition, clearance of normeperidine is reduced Patients with severe liver disease may experience neurotoxicity
57 Fentanyl and Sufentanil No significant change in pharmacokinetics Repeated administration or continuous infusions, accumulation may occur and lead to prolonged effects Alfentanil Shows decrease in plasma clearance Half life is almost doubled in patients with cirrhosis Remifentanil Elimination is unaltered in patients with severe liver disease
58 Spasm Of Sphincter Of Oddi Opioids can cause spasm of sphincter of oddi Increase common bile duct pressures More with morphine, fentanyl, meperidine Avoided if intraoperative cholangiogram to be done Treatment Opioid antagonists (naloxone) Smooth ms.relaxant(nitroglycerine) Glucagon
59 Sedatives Midazolam : Reduced protein binding and increased free fractions Reduced clearance in patients with end stage liver disease Produces prolonged elimination half lives Enhanced sedative effect especially after multiple doses or prolonged infusions Dexmedetomidine Primarily metabolized in the liver with minimal renal clearance. Patients with hepatic failure of varying severity have Decreased clearance Prolonged half lives Lower bispectral index values Hence dose adjustments indicated
60 Voltaile Anesthetics Useful & well tolerated Can be entirely eliminated Sevoflurane : Most effective in maintaining HBF Hepatic O2 delivery Isoflurane /: Very good maintainance of Desflurane HBF Hepatic O2 delivery O2 delivery to consumption ratio
61 Halothane Halothane (avoided) Detrimental reductions in Hepatic oxygen delivery HBF by alterations in Cardiac output MAP Halothane hepatitis(rare)
63 Clinical Features of Halothane Hepatitis Mild Form Fulminant Form Incidence, 1 : 5 Incidence, 1 : 10,000 Repeat exposure Multiple exposures not Mild elevation of Marked elevation of, ALT,AST ALT, AST,bilirubin, Focal necrosis Massive necrosis Self limited Mortality rate, 50% Antibodies present
64 Xenon : Considered to be an ideal inhaled anesthetic Nonexplosive and nonflammable Rapid induction and recovery profiles Cardiac stability It does not alter HABF Does not alter the results of liver function tests Animals exposed to xenon : Higher hepatic venous oxygen content levels Secondary to a possible reduction of plasma catecholamine levels Subsequent reduced hepatic metabolism Xenon may prove to be an ideal anesthetic relative to hepatic perfusion.
65 Intraoperative considerations IV access using large bore peripheral catheters as well as central venous access catheters. RSI in tense ascites pt risk of aspiration Preventing circulatory cllapse by administration of IV colloid solutions because intravascular volume re equilibrium occurs 6 to 8 hrs after removal of larger volumes of ascitic fluid. Large volumes of colloids/crystalloids maybe given within a few minutes with the assistance of commercially available rapid infusion devices. Red cell salvage should be facilitated with use of Cell savers with/without leukocyte filters. Blood administration may be associated with hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia.
66 Bleeding during liver surgery could be either surgical, due to previous or acquired coagulation disturbances, or both. The preoperative INR has no predictive value FFP role debatable Intraoperative hemostasis panels consisting of INR, fibrinogen and platelet count, and platelet function assays for both platelet count and function.
67 ROLE OF THROMBOELASTOGRAPH Thromboelastograph (TEG) useful intraoperative test for coagulation Net effect of pro and anti coagulant and pro and antifibrinolytic factors and the resulting clot tensile strength. Rate,strength of clot formation and clot stability/fibrinolysis. For detecting intraoperative hypercoagubility. TEG facilitate specific goal directed therapy. Fibrinolysis diagnosed on the TEG causing clinically significant microvascular ooze,small doses of epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) or tranexamic acid (TA) are suitable antifibrinolytics. Factor VII has been used to control massive bleeding during liver surgery;
68 Intra Operative Monitoring Routine NIBP ECG Et CO2 SPO2 Urine output N/ms monitoring Longer and extensive surgeries CVP ABG Invasive blood pressure monitoring S. Electrolyte, Blood sugars TEG
69 POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT 1)Minor Surgery or mild mod. liver dysfn. N/ms block reversed Extubate 2)Major surgery / severe liver dysfn. Continue IPPV in P.op. period Fluid & Electrolyte imbalance corrected CVS stability achieved Hypothermia corrected Urine Output 1 ml/kg/hr 3)Adequate analgesia (Small doses) 4) Blood / blood product replaced.
70 Postoperative pain relief Thoracic epidural analgesia provides excellent analgesia for liver resections but restricted due to coagulation defects The catheter is usually inserted at the T6 T9 space. Ropivacaine or bupivacaine are common local anesthetics used with or without the addition of small amounts of opioids such as fentanyl,sufentanil, hydromorphone or morphine. It also reduces the gastrointestinal paralysis compared with systemic opoids NSAIDS risk of GI bleeding, platelet dysfunction and nephrotoxicity ;avoided. Paracetamol is sometimes used Fentanyl PCA is generally well tolerated Morphine PCA can also be used but a lower bolus dose may be needed, again to avoid accumulation.
71 POSTOPERATIVE JAUNDICE Incidence < 1% - Cause - Overproduction or under excretion of bilirubin - direct hepatocellular injury - extrahepatic obstruction - Mild < 4mg/dl - Severe > 4mg/dl
74 Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Percutaneously created intrahepatic connection of the portal and systemic circulations 1.Stent is passed through the IJV over a wire into the hepatic vein 2.Dilated EV are apparent. The wire and stent are then advanced into the portal vein 3.Blood can pass through the PV into the HV and bypass and decompress dilated esophageal veins
75 Typically used in patients with end stage liver disease To decrease portal pressure Attenuate the complications Variceal bleeding Refractory ascites Complications Encephalopathy Stent stenosis and occlusion
76 Hepatic resection Preoperative considerations Involve risk assessment : MELD classification. Severe thrombocytopenia or large varices : Major perioperative risk Fluid management : Controversial. Liberal use : Goal of increasing intravascular volume as a buffer. Low central venous pressure : Minimize blood loss from Major veins Intravenous fluids Supplemented sodium or potassium phosphate
77 Hepatic cryotherapy Treat nonresectable malignant hepatic tumors Involves usage of subzero temperature Multiple lumen probes positioned under USG guidance Heat conservation instituted during the procedure With continual monitoring of core temperature. Cryoshock syndrome : Postoperative Pulmonary Renal Coagulation problems
78 Liver transplantation: Advances and perioperative care
79 LIVER TRANSPLANT INDICATIONS CONTRAINDICATIONS HEPATITIS SEPSIS ALD CARDIOPULMONARY DISEASE HEMOCHROMATOSIS EXTRA HEPATIC MALIGNANCY PBC AIDS PSC ANY SUBSTANCE ABUSE CF UNFAV PSHYCHOSOCIAL WILSON CIRCUMSTANCE AMYLOIDOSIS MALIGNANCY BUDD CHIARI
80 STAGES Preanhepatic from start of surgery to clamping of hepatic artery Anhepatic from clamping to reperfusion of new liver Postanhepatic from reperfusion to end of case
81 Order of reconstruction Standard method suprahepatic ivc followed by infrahepatic ivc anastomosis PV anastomosis arterial reconstruction biliary drainage Piggy back method only one ivc anastomosis Test clamp maneuver Used in standard method to assess resilience of circulatory system Suprahepatic ivc clamped arterial pressure,co decrease If excessive circulatory depression proceedings delayed,reassess volume status,cardiac performance,metabolic state. Venovenous bypass if still circulatory depression
82 Intraoperative Monitoring and Management Haemodynamic monitoring standard cardiovascular monitors (electrocardiogram, pulseoximetry, invasive and non invasive blood pressure) Additionally requires CO monitoring Pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) is the gold standard used in haemodynamic monitoring Monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation and mixed venous oxygen saturation during liver transplantation is of little value
83 Hemodynamic management During the different stages of liver transplantation, i.e. pre anhepatic phase, anhepatic phase and neohepatic phase, there are rapid fluid shifts due to blood loss, inferior vena cava clamping and reperfusion. Decreasing central venous pressure (CVP) either by phlebotomy or avoiding plasma transfusion during the pre anhepatic phase have shown to reduce red cell transfusions
84 Vasopressin is often added intraoperatively to maintain the systemic vascular resistance. Vasopressin reduces portal blood flow by selective splanchnic vasoconstriction and hence may be useful in reducing the intraoperative blood loss. Methylene blue at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight over 10 min rescue to treat hypotension due to vasopressor resistant vasoplegic shock. Phenylephrine is often used to tide over acute hypotensive episodes
85 Fluid management Liver transplant surgery massive fluid shifts both from intravascular volume depletion and large surgical blood loss. Albumin can be used as pts are hypoalbuminaemic and hypovolaemic ;cost factor limits it use Crystalloids use depends on their ph, electrolyte composition, osmolarity and metabolism
86 No ideal crystalloid solution 0.9% NS causes hyperchloremic acidosis while the lactate in Ringers Lactate (RL) requires liver metabolism for its elimination. RL is a hypotonic solution and may increase the intracellular fluid. Plasmalyte has a ph near normal, electrolyte and osmolarity similar to plasma and acetate, which is metabolised extrahepatically to bicarbonate, but it is proinflammatory and potentially cardiotoxic.
87 Coagulation monitors PT and APTT limited role Thromboelastogram (TEG), rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and Sonoclot provide a detailed assessment Blood component management Pre anhepatic phase is associated with blood loss The aim at this stage is to avoid large volume of transfusion and dilutional coagulopathy Antifibrinolytics are used in the liver transplantation to prevent the hyperfibrinolytic state during the anhepatic and neohepatic phases The neohepatic phase is associated with a multifactorial coagulopathy of hyperfibrinolysis, dilutional coagulopathy, heparin like effect, platelet dysfunction, hypothermia and hypocalcaemia
88 Ischemia reperfusion injury Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with primary graft dysfunction and delayed graft function N acetyl cysteine (NAC) is being used in liver transplantation patients to prevent renal failure and IRI of the new liver. NAC, in addition to its direct antioxidant property, replenishes glutathione and acts as a free radical scavenger. Inhalational anaesthetics, especially sevoflurane, have been shown to offer protection against IRI in the myocardium in cardiac patients
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