1 BOOKLET 1 HEP C INFO Understanding hepatitis C and staying safe
2 Understanding hepatitis C and staying safe Writers: Danny Morris and Magdalena Harris Editor: Magdalena Harris Design: Mark Bunegar, flukedesign.com 2015 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London Joint Working Group, Harris & Morris Thanks to all who helped in the development of this resource. Particularly: Members of the Hep C Resource focus groups Participants of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Hep C research projects Martin McCusker and members of the Lambeth Service Users Forum Andrew Preston, Exchange Supplies Ashley Brown, Consultant Hepatologist at St. Mary s and Hammersmith Hospitals Janet Catt, Kath Oakes and Jo Schultz, Viral Hepatitis Clinical Nurse Specialists Chris Ford, Clinical Director IDHDP Emma Ward, Jim Conneely and Samantha May, The Hepatitis C Trust Eliot Albers, INPUD Emma Burke and Helen Harris, PHE LJWG, Dovetail, Lumieres and Gilead Sciences This booklet has been developed through a joint working initiative between The London Joint Working Group on Substance Use and Hepatitis C (LJWG), Gilead Sciences Ltd, Addaction and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust. Gilead Sciences had no influence over the content of this resource. This booklet draws on work by Dr Magdalena Harris at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Dr Harris is funded by a National Institute for Health Research postdoctoral fellowship [NIHR-PDF ]. All quotes are genuine (all names have been changed) and are the result of Dr Harris interviews with service users and people living with hepatitis C.
3 Introduction 3 Introduction This booklet is about hepatitis C (hep C). It explains what hep C is, how it is transmitted, and how to avoid it. If you think you might have hep C, there are sections on testing and disclosure decisions. Making choices about your health is easier when you have the information you need. If there is anything you would like to discuss or don t understand, it can be helpful to go through this booklet with a healthcare worker or someone from a hep C organisation (see resources section). Although this booklet has been produced for people who have or might be at risk of contracting hep C, it can also be useful for partners, friends, family members and anyone else who wants to know more. HEP C CARE BOOKLET 2 Living with hepatitis C and treatment options This booklet is the first of two. You can find out more about living with hep C and treatment options in booklet 2: Hep C Care.
4 4 What is hep C? What is hep C? Hepatitis means swelling (inflammation) of the liver, and it has many different causes. Hepatitis can be caused by liver toxic chemicals, heavy drinking (alcoholic hepatitis), some immune conditions or by one of a group of viruses, known as the hepatitis viruses, including hep A, B, and C. The hepatitis C virus (hep C) is carried in the blood, and affects the liver by preventing it from working properly, and causing the liver cells to die. Over time, the virus can cause inflammation, scarring (fibrosis) and, sometimes, significant damage to the liver (cirrhosis). Cirrhosis increases the risk of developing liver cancer, which can be fatal. Hep C can be treated and, in most cases, it can be cured.
5 What is the liver? 5 What is the liver? The liver is one of the largest and hardest working organs in the body, with over 500 vital functions. It is located behind the ribcage on the right side of the body. The liver is wedge-shaped, divided into left and right lobes, weighs around 1.5 kg and measures approximately 13cm by 18cm Why is it so important? The liver has many functions relating to digestion, metabolism, filtering the blood, fighting infection and the storage of nutrients in the body. It has a vital role in supporting almost every other organ of the body and is essential for maintaining good health. Liver The liver has an incredible capacity for regeneration, but permanent scarring and/or damage to the liver tissue can limit its function, cause poor health, and potentially lead to liver cancer.
6 6 How is hep C different from hep A and hep B? How is hep C different from hep A and hep B? Hep A and hep B are caused by other viruses that also affect the liver. These viruses can cause similar problems but they are passed on in different ways. Hep C is blood-borne, which means it is transmitted through direct blood to blood contact. Hep A can be transmitted through contaminated water or food. It is also found in the faeces of people who have the virus. Hep B is transmitted through direct blood to blood contact or unprotected sex with a person who has the virus. Anna I thought hepatitis was a generic illness. I said to my GP, But I can t have hep C, I ve been vaccinated against it. From having travelled, I assumed I d had a hep C vaccine. You can be vaccinated against hep A and hep B there is no vaccination for hep C. A B C
7 How common is hep C? 7 How common is hep C? Hep C is a global health issue: It is estimated that around 180 million people worldwide (approx. 3%) have hep C. In the UK: Approximately 216,000 people have chronic hep C Only 50% of people with hep C have been tested and diagnosed Most new cases of hep C result from using contaminated injecting equipment Around 50% of people who have ever injected drugs have hep C People who received blood products before 1987 or a blood transfusion prior to 1991 may be at risk People who have had medical or dental treatment in a country where hep C is common and infection control is inadequate may have been at risk.
8 8 The progression of hep C The progression of hep C Acute stage Acute hep C occurs after infection, and lasts for about six months. Most people do not experience symptoms during the acute phase Some people may have flu-like symptoms, including fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, stomach pains, nausea and vomiting and, occasionally, jaundice Around 20 to 25% of people will clear hep C during the acute stage Clearing the virus will not protect you against getting hep C again. Chronic stage The second stage is chronic (long-lasting) infection, where hep C remains in the body The 75 to 80% of people who don t clear the virus in the acute phase will develop chronic hep C Having hep C doesn t automatically mean you ll experience symptoms or develop serious liver disease.
9 Hep C and liver damage 9 Hep C and liver damage The longer you have lived with hep C, the more likely it is that you will experience some liver damage. This can range from mild to severe. There is a higher risk of liver damage if you are: male; over 40 when you contracted hep C; overweight; also living with HIV, hep B or diabetes; a regular or heavy alcohol user. Approximately one in five people with chronic hep C will develop cirrhosis (severe liver scarring) within 20 years. Liver cirrhosis is a slowly progressing condition in which the healthy liver becomes scarred, eventually preventing the liver from functioning properly. The scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and slows the processing of nutrients, hormones, drugs and toxins. Untreated, cirrhosis can lead to end stage liver disease, liver failure and liver cancer. Kai It [cirrhosis] means I ve got a scarred liver so it s not processing any blood like it should be. Smaller, all shrivelled and bumpy, hasn t got the smooth, glossy surface like it should have. Healthy liver Cirrhotic liver
10 10 What happens if I get hep C? What happens if I get hep C? Everyone s experience will be different, but for most people hep C develops slowly. Hep C is known as a silent disease because the symptoms aren t always obvious. Symptoms may begin months or even years after getting hep C, and can come and go. What are the symptoms of chronic hep C? Symptoms can be mild to severe and can include: Loss of energy and fatigue, much more than usual tiredness Low mood, depression and irritability Headaches Disrupted sleep Memory loss and difficulty concentrating brain fog Night sweats and chills Loss of appetite, nausea and weight loss Muscular pain and achy joints Pain in the abdominal and liver area Sam I reckon I ve had hep C for over 30 years. I was essentially symptom free until 2012 when I started to feel weak and it just went on and on. Eventually I had a battery of tests and hep C came up. Dry and itchy skin
11 What happens if I get hep C? 11 Some hep C symptoms, particularly poor sleep, difficulty concentrating or brain fog and general aches and pains are easily overlooked. These symptoms can be attributed to drug and alcohol use, age or overwork, rather than hep C itself. Many people only realise how they were affected by symptoms once they clear hep C and begin to feel better. Making lifestyle changes can help reduce symptoms and slow down the development of liver disease. These changes may include reducing the amount of alcohol you drink, eating a healthy diet, drinking plenty of water, exercising, managing stress and getting enough rest. More information about living with hep C and managing common symptoms can be found in the second booklet in this series: Hep C Care. Adam Brain fog stuff, I can deal with it. But the fatigue is really, really draining. I give myself a hard time because I think am I being lazy or am I genuinely tired? Alex The hep C is clear. I didn t realise how ill I was. It affected my brain, it affected my sex drive, it affected all parts of my body.?
12 12 Have I been at risk? Have I been at risk? Hep C is a blood-borne virus: it is only spread when blood from someone with hep C enters someone else s bloodstream. Only tiny amounts of blood are needed to transmit the virus. Highest risk: Using a needle or syringe that has been used by someone else with hep C Sharing other injecting equipment including cookers, filters and water is also high risk. Other causes of hepatitis C transmission: Having medical or dental procedures in countries where hep C is common and infection control is inadequate Brad I was annoyed because I was thinking, how the hell did that happen? I wasn t a heavy user, it was just for about three months. Just weekends, just messing around. Receiving blood products in the UK before 1987 or a blood transfusion prior to 1991 Acupuncture, tattooing, piercing or cosmetic injection procedures if any equipment is reused or inadequately sterilised Occupational exposure for healthcare workers, for example through a needlestick injury
13 Have I been at risk? 13 Sharing crack pipes or straws to snort drugs Transmission from mother to baby during birth Sexual activity where there is a risk of blood to blood contact Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes. Hep C cannot be spread by: Sharing cups, cutlery or dishes Kissing or hugging Holding hands Sneezing or coughing Taj My sister-in-law advised me: your shaver and blades, keep them away from everyone, till you get cleared. Hep C is not transmitted through semen or vaginal fluids It is not transmitted in food or water. It is not transmitted by blood sucking insects such as mosquitos.
14 14 Testing for hep C Testing for hep C What do I do if I think I may be at risk? If you think you might be at risk, then the only way to tell if you have hep C is to get tested. You cannot rely on symptoms or how you are feeling. Getting a hep C positive test result can help you to: Understand symptoms you might have been feeling for some time, such as fatigue Make lifestyle changes (such as reducing alcohol consumption) to reduce your chance of developing advanced liver disease Abel I did say to her, There is a chance I could have hep C. I hadn t had my results and she actually pushed me to go get the results, she said, No, you need to go and get the results babe, if not for yourself but for me as well. Get support from your GP and referral to a specialist to monitor your liver health Get expert advice around your treatment options Reduce transmission risk to others Get support from loved ones
15 The tests 15 The tests Hepatitis C testing is a two-stage process requiring a blood sample. Often the same blood sample can be used for both the antibody and PCR test. Traditionally collected by needle and syringe, some areas can offer dried blood spot (finger-prick) testing or oral swab testing (antibody test only). 1. The antibody test This will show if you ve ever been exposed to hep C. If you ve been exposed to hep C, your immune system will have produced antibodies to try and fight it off. These antibodies remain even if the virus is no longer active. We offer free hep C testing Ask any member of staff for details If you have recently been at risk but the antibody test is negative you will need another test in a few months. Hep C can take 6 to 12 weeks to show up in the blood after infection (this is known as the window period). A positive antibody test does not mean automatically you have current and ongoing (chronic) hep C. You will need a second (PCR) test to confirm if you ve developed chronic hep C.
16 16 The tests 2. The PCR test A PCR (also known as HCV RNA) positive test result will show if you have active (chronic) hep C. If your PCR test is positive you should be offered a referral to a specialist service to check your liver health and discuss your treatment options. Abel She was outside waiting for me, she took one look at my face and she went, It is isn t it? and I went, Yeah, and then I started crying and she went, It s alright, don t worry about it, I ll do the test now and see if I ve got it. If I have we ll both start treatment and we ll do this together.
17 Your rights to hep C testing and GP care 17 Your rights to hep C testing and GP care If you ve been at risk, you have the right to have a hep C test at a location that suits you. Free and confidential tests are available at most GP services, sexual health clinics, drug treatment services and some pharmacies. You may need to specifically ask for a hep C test, as this is not usually tested for in routine health checks. Everyone is entitled to see a specialist to discuss hep C treatment options. If you have been diagnosed with hep C and would like a referral, ask your local healthcare worker or GP. What if I don t have a GP, or want to change the one I have? Alec I thought because I d had tests, blood tests and everything else from the doctor, that they would pick it up and they never did cos they weren t actually testing for it were they? You don t need to be registered with a GP to get a hep C test or treatment referral, but they can be a good source of support and help manage any hep C health concerns. If you live in the UK, you have the right to be registered with a GP practice close to where you live and to receive free NHS treatment when you need it.
18 18 Your rights to hep C testing and GP care If you re not registered with a GP or want to change the one you have, visit the GP surgery you want to join and ask them to register you as a patient. They ll ask you to complete a short form and provide documents showing your name and address, proving who you are and where you live. You are entitled to register with a doctor if you are homeless. You can use a temporary address, such as a friend s place or a day centre. It can be worth asking friends, drug treatment workers or hep C organisations if they can recommend a GP who has an interest in hep C. GPs who care for people who use drugs or work in partnership with drug treatment services, often know more about hep C and can be a good choice if you want a new doctor. The NHS Constitution sets out your rights as an NHS patient. These rights cover how you access health services, the quality of care you should receive, the treatments and programmes available to you, confidentiality, information and your right to complain if things go wrong (see resources section). Anna My GP phoned me up and said, I need to see you straightaway. I went straight over and she said, You ve got it. She was young and just really clued up. I think I was so lucky to have her rather than one of the older GPs who perhaps wasn t so aware.
19 If I test positive for hep C, who should I tell? 19 If I test positive for hep C, who should I tell? You are generally under no obligation to disclose that you have hep C but telling people close to you can provide a valuable source of support. There is no guarantee they will respond as positively as you like, which can make disclosure decisions difficult. Some healthcare professionals can provide good guidance, but you may want to also talk to people who have hep C about their experiences. Hep C organisations can provide a helpful link to support groups as well as confidential information and advice (see resources section). Sam I still feel stigmatised by it. I don t know why. I shouldn t but I do, I don t feel that I can tell people just off the cuff.
20 20 If I test positive for hep C, who should I tell? Family and friends Practical and emotional support from your family and friends can be important. You cannot pass on hep C to your family and friends through everyday activities, such as sharing utensils, hugging or kissing although they may not understand this at first. Providing your loved ones with this booklet or putting them in touch with hep C organisations to get information and guidance (see resources section) can help reduce any fears or concerns. Taj I think it does make a difference if you have a good family, friends, a good environment. It won t bring you down and I m lucky to have that. Work You are under no obligation to tell your employer you have hep C (unless you are a healthcare worker who conducts exposure-prone procedures). Some people find it easiest to say they have a liver condition or other non-specific illness if they need to take time off work due Taj I don t really have an issue telling anybody. Only I don t really want to discuss it with anybody at work... to their hep C symptoms, hospital appointments or treatment. You can ask your doctor not to specify hep C on any appointment letters or medical certificates when you need to have time off work.
21 If I test positive for hep C, who should I tell? 21 Finance When applying for life insurance you are required to give consent for the release of your medical information from your GP. If you already have life insurance you are generally required to tell the insurance providers if you have hep C if you don t, it may invalidate your insurance. Healthcare providers There is no legal obligation to disclose your hep C to anyone providing you with healthcare, including dentists. This is because all NHS healthcare workers are required to comply with universal infection control precautions designed to ensure the safety of everyone regardless of whether an infection is known about or not. However, it might be in your best interests to let healthcare workers know about your hep C so they can provide care that takes into account any liver disease. Disclosure requirements There are only a few situations when you are required by law to disclose if you have hep C. These include: when applying for life insurance, blood-bank questionnaires (you cannot donate blood if you have hep C), if donating sperm, and if you are a healthcare worker who conducts exposure-prone procedures (e.g. surgery or dentistry). If you are unsure about any disclosure decisions or requirements, organisations such as The Hepatitis C Trust can provide confidential advice.
22 22 Staying safe Staying safe Injecting drugs Hep C is spread when blood from someone with the virus gets into someone else s bloodstream. Most new cases of hep C in the UK result from the use of contaminated drug injecting equipment. When injecting drugs (including heroin, crack or cocaine, speed, mephedrone, crystal meth and steroids) the best practice is to use new equipment and dispose of it safely to avoid catching hep C or passing it on. Your local drug service should be able to provide you with sterile injecting equipment and disposal bins. Many areas also have pharmacy based needle exchanges, which supply injecting equipment. The National Needle Exchange sign has been used to discreetly signpost free and confidential needle exchange services in the UK for over 20 years.
23 Staying safe 23 Good injecting technique and using clean works can not only prevent hep C, hep B, HIV and bacterial infections, but can also help to reduce vein damage and injecting discomfort. If you have damaged veins or difficulties injecting, using new sharp works can make injecting easier, less stressful and less painful. Ford Even if I was having one hit and I didn t get it in the first time, I d throw that syringe away and use another one. As soon as it penetrated my skin, it s blunt, it s useless. Harm reduction tips If you re homeless and have to inject in public places adopting best practices can be more difficult. Below are harm reduction tips that provide a number of options for different situations: If possible, be prepared. Get more injecting equipment than you think you might need. Consider stashing sterile sealed equipment if there are safe places to do so. Ideally use a sterile needle and syringe for every injection. If that s not possible, thoroughly clean your works before using them. See page 27. This needle has been through the skin a few times in the search for a vein. Images taken using a scanning electron microscope at the Department of Medical Microscopy Sciences, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff. With thanks to Dr Jan Hobot.
24 24 Staying safe If possible, don t share any equipment (e.g. spoons, water containers, water, swabs, tourniquet) when preparing and injecting drugs. If you have to reuse cookers clean with soap and water or bleach solution first. Use sterile or freshly boiled water to prepare your drugs. If you don t have access to sterile water amps or boiled water, tap water is probably the next best thing. Bottled water should be avoided unless it s freshly opened and not been drunk from. Never use water wherever it comes from if it s previously been used to flush out works. If possible, wipe down surfaces where your injection is being prepared: keep things as clean as possible. If you can t clean a surface for preparing your hit or if you re injecting outside, use a layer of tissue, toilet paper, or newspaper to lay your injecting equipment on. Try not to rush your drug preparation or injecting, as this can lead to more risks and a greater chance of discomfort, pain and vein damage. Jeff That s why I always inject in a calm environment, because it f ing hurts **** if you get it wrong.
25 Staying safe 25 If withdrawing ( clucking ) try smoking or snorting a little heroin to settle you before having a hit. It s easy to rush your preparation and injecting when withdrawing. If you don t have any clean equipment, smoking or snorting some heroin can hold you until you get new works. If possible, find a safe and warm place to prepare and inject your drugs. It s harder to find a vein if you re cold. If you are cold allow yourself a few minutes to warm up jumping up and down can help! Wash your hands before and after injecting, preferably using soap and water or if running water isn t available, try baby wipes or alcohol gel. If you need to use an acid (like citric) to prepare your drugs, use as little as possible. Using too much acid increases discomfort and damage to your veins. Alice Even if I m withdrawing really badly I would never share works, I d put it on a bit of foil instead. Jeff I d sooner sit there stirring for hours trying to get it down because citric burn is awful. I always use as little citric as possible even if it involves putting a few sprinkles at a time and a little bit more and a little bit more. Those sachets that they hand out, I get about three or four uses out of one of these.
26 26 Staying safe After injecting, firmly apply a clean, dry swab or tissue to the injecting site for a few moments to stop bleeding and bruising. Don t use alcohol swabs as this prevents blood clotting and encourages bleeding. Immediately after use, dispose of needles and syringes in a Sharps Bin. If you don t have a Sharps Bin, hold on to your works until you can dispose of them safely. Or put the used works in an empty drinks can. Crush the can to prevent them being removed and put it in a rubbish bin. This is a safer way of disposing works than throwing them in the rubbish unprotected. If you ve got a heroin habit consider getting a methadone or buprenorphine script from your doctor or drug service. This can help you manage your drug use, prevent withdrawal and help reduce any urgency around injecting.
27 Staying safe 27 Cleaning syringes The best advice is to use a sterile needle and syringe for every injection. However, if you find yourself without clean injecting equipment, cleaning a used needle and syringe with bleach and water can reduce the risk of getting hep C, hep B, HIV and bacterial infections. Get two clean cups. Fill them with clean cold water (not hot). Pour out a capful of thin bleach. 1 Flush once with water Draw up water from the first cup (Fill the syringe completely to rinse and clean it) Empty the syringe into the sink 2 Once with bleach Draw up the thin bleach (Make sure the outside of the needle gets dipped in bleach to kill any virus that is on the outside) Empty the syringe into the sink Draw up water from the second cup 3 Once with water Empty the syringe into the sink Carefully put the cap back on the syringe Pour the contaminated water and bleach down the sink
28 28 Staying safe Tattoos and body piercing If you get a tattoo or body piercing, you could be at risk of contracting hep C and other blood-borne viruses unless clean, sterile equipment is used every time. Stay safe To reduce this risk, don t get tattoos or piercings in unlicensed premises (especially in private homes or prisons). When choosing a tattoo or body-piercing studio, look for clean, hygienic, well-lit premises and where they use new needles and inks each time. If they re-use needles, check that they are properly sterilised. Birth and breastfeeding There is a small chance (around 5%) that hep C can be passed from mother to baby at birth (vertical transmission). Babies are often born with their mother s hep C antibodies, but this does not mean they have active hep C. It is not until a baby is around 6 months old that a test will tell if they have hep C or not. Breastfeeding is considered safe for women with hep C. However, if your nipples are cracked or bleeding you should stop breastfeeding temporarily (express and discard your milk during this time). Sex The risk of catching hep C through sex is low. Unlike HIV, hep C is not classed as a sexually transmitted infection. Hep C is not transmitted in semen or vaginal fluids, only through blood. When there is little risk of blood-to-blood contact during sex, there is usually no need to adopt safer sex practices.
29 Staying safe 29 Blood to blood contact during sex is more likely to happen if you are having rough sex, having sex for a long time, if you are living with HIV or have a sexually transmitted infection such as herpes, genital warts or syphilis. In these circumstances using condoms and dental dams can reduce risk. Men who have sex with men seem to have a higher risk of catching hep C through sex. Adopting safer sex practices is recommended, especially if one of the partners is HIV positive. Preventing transmission around the home The hep C virus is transmitted in blood. While there is a very low risk of transmission, care should be taken not to share your razors or toothbrushes as they could carry small amounts of blood. First aid precautions The risk of getting hep C from cleaning up spilt blood is low. Healthcare professionals will use universal infection control procedures for all blood spills. To reduce any risk when cleaning up blood: Wear disposable rubber gloves or cover any cuts, abrasions or skin rashes Clean surfaces with detergent and water or mild bleach Use disposable materials such as paper towels. Place them in a plastic bag and dispose in the rubbish after use. Hep C is not passed on through social contact such as: kissing hugging sneezing/coughing sharing utensils Because of this there is no need for separate crockery, cutlery, towels or other household items or to wash your clothes separately.
30 30 Treating hep C Treating hep C Hep C is treatable and curable. Recent advances in hep C drug therapy have resulted in much better cure rates for most people. Treatment durations are becoming shorter with fewer side effects. Many people will be able to benefit from these new drugs in the future, but at the moment they are not widely available for all. Choosing whether or not to start treatment is not always an easy decision. Factors to consider include: the treatments available; the health of your liver; how hep C currently affects your life; if you are pregnant or trying for a baby; how much support you have; and how any treatment side effects might impact your mood, work and relationships. Brad As I soon as found out about it, that s when I started looking, what is it, what does it do, how do you catch it, how do you get rid of it? I wanted to get rid of it straightaway. I d read about the side effects and I thought, I don t care. I just said [to the nurse] get me on treatment. Now!
31 Treating hep C 31 Hep C treatment is changing fast and even if you decide treatment isn t right for you now, keep in contact with your doctor or nurse. This way they can monitor your health and liver function and let you know when new treatments become available. To find out more talk to a doctor or nurse about treatment options, and whether it s better for you to be treated now or to wait until newer drugs are available. People who have been through treatment themselves can provide support and guidance, as can support groups and hep C organisations (see resources section, page 32 33). You can find out more about living with hepatitis C and treatment options in the second booklet in this series: Hep C Care. Jake In the long run your priority is for your health, but you ve got to weigh the pros and cons up. If I ve got four or five years to wait until a kinder treatment becomes available, it suits me to take the easiest option available. HEP C CARE BOOKLET 2 Living with hepatitis C and treatment options
32 32 Support and resources Support and resources The Hepatitis C Trust Helpline: Run by people with personal experience of hepatitis C, The Hepatitis C Trust runs a confidential helpline and provides information, support and representation for people with hep C. They also provide a directory of local hep C support groups and help for people wishing to start their own support group. The British Liver Trust Working to reduce the impact of liver disease through awareness, care and research, the British Liver Trust has an extensive range of factsheets and information leaflets on a range of liver conditions including hep C and cirrhosis. The NHS Constitution The NHS Constitution sets out your rights as a patient. It covers how patients access health services, the quality of care you ll receive, the treatments and programmes available to you, confidentiality, information and your right to complain if things go wrong. Harm Reduction Works A range of harm reduction materials and resources including information on HIV, hepatitis B & C, overdose prevention and safer injecting practice, aimed at drug users and drug service providers. Injecting Advice Support and advice for people working in harm reduction services and for injecting drug users. The International Network of People who Use Drugs (INPUD) People who use drugs (current and former) working together to ensure that the human rights of people who use drugs are respected, and for the implementation of effective harm reduction measures.
33 Support and resources 33 PHE/ RCGP Hepatitis C: Enhancing Prevention, Testing and Care This e-learning module provides an understanding of hepatitis C and its prevalence. It also gives an overview of the liver and its function, and the stages and natural history of untreated hepatitis C liver disease. The course was written for non-medical workers and also peers. You do not have to be a medical professional to register for access to the site. Release Help and advice line: Release provides a free confidential and non-judgmental national information and advice service in relation to drug use, drug laws and human rights. The telephone help and advice line is open from 11am to 1pm and 2pm to 4pm Monday to Friday. A message service is available 24 hours and you can also contact by Safer heroin injecting (YouTube) A film designed to help people to identify ways to reduce potential injecting-related harms. The film is aimed at people who inject heroin, but many of the steps shown can be applied to the injection of other drugs. FRANK FRANK is a website and a confidential telephone helpline service offering drug related advice, information and support to users, their families, friends and carers. FRANK s support section provides details of local and national drug and alcohol treatment services. infohep infohep is an online resource providing up to date hepatitis treatment news. Its aim is to increase awareness of viral hepatitis, its treatment, and the needs of people living with viral hepatitis in Europe.
34 34 Notes and local information Notes and local information Use this page for adding local contacts, peer support groups and any other services that might be helpful.
36 Understanding hepatitis C and staying safe A booklet about hepatitis C (hep C) that explains what hep C is, how is transmitted, and how to avoid it. If you think you might have hep C, there are sections on testing and disclosure decisions. To order free hard copies of Hep C Info and Hep C Care please contact This booklet draws on work by Dr Magdalena Harris at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Dr Harris is funded by a National Institute for Health Research postdoctoral fellowship [NIHR-PDF ]. This booklet has been developed through a joint working initiative between The London Joint Working Group on Substance Use and Hepatitis C (LJWG), Gilead Sciences Ltd, Addaction and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust. Gilead Sciences had no influence over the content of this resource. Updated June 2015 HCV/UK/15-01/MM/1028(1)
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What Is HIV? HIV/AIDS: General Information & Testing in the Emergency Department HIV is the common name for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is a retrovirus. This means it can enter the body s own
Perth and Smiths Falls District Hospital Attention: Manager, Quality 60 Cornelia Street, West Smiths Falls, Ontario K7A 2H9 CYTOTOXIC PRECAUTIONS A GUIDE FOR PATIENTS & FAMILIES This guide has been prepared
english facts about hepatitis A, B and C What is hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Many viruses can cause liver inflammation, including the hepatitis A, B and C viruses. Some people
Tuberculosis and You A Guide to Tuberculosis Treatment and Services Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease that can damage the lungs or other parts of the body like the brain, kidneys or spine. There are
What I need to know about Hepatitis B U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What I need to know about Hepatitis
Web Sites Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/index.html Your Local Health Department http://www.azdhs.gov/diro/lhliaison/countymap.htm What Is Ocument dn Norovirus?
Newly Diagnosed: HEPATITIS C American Liver Foundation Support Guide T he American Liver Foundation's mission is to facilitate, advocate, and promote education, support, and research for the prevention,
Get the Facts About TB TUBERCULOSIS Disease What s Inside: 3 PAGE Get the facts, then get the cure 4 PAGE 9 PAGE 12 PAGE Learn how TB is spread Treatment for TB disease Talking to family and friends about
DO YOU WORK AROUND BLOOD OR BODY FLUIDS? Cal/OSHA s New Rules Labor Occupational Health Program University of California, Berkeley 1994 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This booklet is a publication of the Labor Occupational
Adapted from TB and You: A Guide to Tuberculosis Treatment and Services with permission from Division of Public Health TB Control Program State of North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
Table of Contents Why it is Important to Talk with Young People about HIV and AIDS 2 Facts about HIV and AIDS 3 How to Get Started 7 What to Say to Your Children About HIV and AIDS 8 Talking with Young
Heroin Introduction Heroin is a powerful drug that affects the brain. People who use it can form a strong addiction. Addiction is when a drug user can t stop taking a drug, even when he or she wants to.
Frequently asked questions about whooping cough (pertussis) About whooping cough What is whooping cough? Whooping cough is a highly contagious illness caused by bacteria. It mainly affects the respiratory
Hepatitis C treatment What to expect. Anne Glass Hepatitis Clinical Nurse Consultant Liver Clinic SSWAHS Bankstown and Liverpool Hospital Contact 87384074 Monday -Friday What s hepatitis? Hepatitis means
Beginner's guide to Hepatitis C testing and immunisation against hepatitis A+B in general practice Dr Chris Ford GP & SMMGP Clinical Lead Kate Halliday Telford & Wrekin Shared Care Coordinator Aims Discuss:
Treating Chronic Hepatitis C A Review of the Research for Adults Is This Information Right for Me? Yes, this information is right for you if: Your doctor* has told you that you have chronic hepatitis C.
Getting help for a drug problem A guide to treatment Who we are The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse is part of the National Health Service. We were set up in 2001 to increase the numbers
What I need to know about Hepatitis C U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What I need to know about Hepatitis
Cocaine Introduction Cocaine is a powerful drug that stimulates the brain. People who use it can form a strong addiction. Addiction is when a drug user can t stop taking a drug, even when he or she wants
Chlamydia Looking after your sexual health 2 Chlamydia Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is very easy to treat and cure. Up to one in 10 sexually active young
XI. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO HEPATITIS B AND C RECOMMENDATION: When an occupational exposure occurs, the source patient should be evaluated for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C. (AII) The risk of transmission
Healthcare Worker exposure to a patient s blood What is a healthcare worker exposure? Patient Information Sheet Occasionally, health care workers come into contact with the blood or body fluids of their
Blood borne Pathogens What Are Blood borne Pathogens? Blood borne pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria that are carried in blood and can cause disease in people. Types of Blood borne
TB Get the Facts About Tuberculosis Disease What s Inside: Read this brochure today to learn how to protect your family and friends from TB. Then share it with people in your life. 2 Contents Get the facts,
Specialist Alcohol & Drug Services in Lanarkshire This brochure describes what help is available within Lanarkshire s specialist treatment services. These include the North Lanarkshire Integrated Addiction
Genital warts Looking after your sexual health 2 Genital warts Genital warts are the most common viral sexually transmitted infection (STI). They are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) which can
Information Booklet HEPATITIS C A Guide for Drug Users and their Families providing adapting nurturing developing leading Informing Dr. Shay Keating, MB, PhD. Information Booklet HEPATITIS C A GUIDE FOR
Cytotoxic Precautions at Home A Guide for Cancer Patients and Families Your cancer treatment... 1 What are cytotoxic precautions?... 1 What body fluids are cytotoxic?... 1 How do I handle my body wastes?...
Introducing hepatitis B 1 Introducing hepatitis B: Contents To jump to the section you require, click on the page number below. Introducing hepatitis B: 10 things you (probably) didn t know about the virus
The facts about... Alcohol and the Liver Five key things you need to know This is a part of your body that regularly works overtime. The liver is our largest organ and it has 500 different roles. One of
What is TB? Do many people get tuberculosis (TB)? Yes, Tuberculosis is a serious problem all over the world. Between 6 and 10 million in South Africa are infected by the TB germ. It is infectious, so it
Preface The purpose of this CDC Hepatitis C Counseling and Testing manual is to provide guidance for hepatitis C counseling and testing of individuals born during 1945 1965. The guide was used in draft
Information for patients receiving short-term hormone treatment and radiotherapy for prostate cancer Northern Centre for Cancer Care (NCCC) Freeman Hospital Introduction This leaflet has been written to
Methamphetamine Introduction Methamphetamine is a very addictive stimulant drug. People who use it can form a strong addiction. Addiction is when a drug user can t stop taking a drug, even when he or she
The flu vaccination Winter 2013/14 Who should have it and why Includes information for pregnant women Introduction This leaflet explains how you can protect yourself against flu this coming winter, and
Trichomonas vaginalis Looking after your sexual health 2 3 Trichomonas vaginalis Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It is sometimes referred to as trichomonas or trichomoniasis,
1. What is herpes? 2. How common is herpes? 3. Is there a cure for herpes? 4. What is oral herpes (cold sores)? 5. How is oral herpes spread? 6. What is genital herpes? 7. How is genital herpes spread?
READ THIS LEAFLET VERY CAREFULLY, AND KEEP IT IN A SAFE PLACE. FLU IS SPREADING IN IRELAND, AND THIS INFORMATION IS IMPORTANT FOR YOU AND YOUR FAMILY. Information and medical advice for the public on Pandemic
HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C BLOOD EXPOSURE DISEASE 101 ONLINE CONFERENCE SARAH WENINGER, MPH VIRAL HEPATITIS.STD.HIV PREVENTION COORDINATOR DECEMBER 3, 2015 OBJECTIVES Describe the populations that should
The Natural Progression of Hepatitis C The natural history of hepatitis C looks at the likely outcomes for people infected with the virus if there is no medical intervention. However, the process of trying
Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection that makes the tiny air sacs in your lungs inflamed (swollen and sore). They then fill with liquid. People with mild (not so bad) pneumonia can usually be treated at
What is acute HIV infection? Acute HIV infection is the very early stage of infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the virus that causes AIDS. This is also called primary HIV infection. Acute
Influenza (Flu) What is the flu? The flu is an illness caused by flu viruses. The flu may make people cough and have a sore throat and fever. They may also have a runny or stuffy nose, feel tired, have
12 High Dose Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Treatment of Thyroid Cancer Please arrive 15 minutes early to allow for parking and registration. If you have questions or need to cancel your appointment
Stamford Health System Having MRSA means what? Living healthy with MRSA Discharge information for patients and families WASHING YOUR HANDS IS THE KEY!!! Staph aureus is a bacteria that lives on your skin
HIV & AIDS What is HIV? A virus that reduces the effectiveness of your immune system, meaning you are less protected against disease. What does HIV stand for? Human Immunodeficiency Virus Where did HIV
Staying on Track with TB TUBERCULOSIS Medicine What s Inside: Read this brochure to learn about TB and what you can do to get healthy. Put it in a familiar place to pull out and read when you have questions.
Information about Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver, caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is now thought to be the most common cause
Oral sex Looking after your sexual health 2 What is this booklet about? This booklet gives you information about oral sex, the risk of getting and passing on sexually transmitted infections through oral
Introduction The Infection Control Department Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Ennis, wrote this booklet with Clare Primary Community and Continuing Care and C-Diff Patients and Families Group. This booklet
Tuberculosis the disease, its treatment TBand prevention TUBERCULOSIS TB (tuberculosis) is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs, although it can affect almost any part of the body. About
How can I keep myself healthy? Hand washing and use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer are the primary way to prevent acquiring or transmitting bacteria. If you get a cut or scrape, wash it well with soap
How can you protect yourself from infections? Your Infection Prevention Guide www.esrdncc.org Table of Contents Preventing an infection is an important part of your kidney care...3 Things you can do...4
CARDIFF COUNCIL CODE OF GUIDANCE VACCINATIONS / IMMUNISATION AGAINST INFECTIOUS DISEASES 1. This Code of Guidance provides advice from the Council s Occupational Health Service and Health and Safety Advisers
Methotrexate What is methotrexate? Methotrexate is a mild immunosuppressant that also exhibits antiinflammatory activity. Methotrexate is commonly used for the treatment of certain cancers including but
What I need to know about Hepatitis A U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What I need to know about Hepatitis
AIDS Knowledge Test Instructions This survey has True/False questions. For example: Pittsburgh's hockey team is the Bruins. We want you to do two things: First, answer the question. In this example, you
BOOKLET 2 HEP C CARE Living with hepatitis C and treatment options Living with hepatitis C and treatment options Writers: Danny Morris and Magdalena Harris Editor: Magdalena Harris Design: Mark Bunegar,
Diseases that can be spread during sex Did you know... over 65 million people in the United States have a chronic, incurable sexually transmitted disease (STD)? and that every year another 19 million persons
Alcohol & Other Drugs GETTING STARTED 4 This is Booklet 4 in the Getting Started Series. Getting Started is a guide for people leaving prison. Booklets 1 The First Week 2 Housing 3 Identification 4 Alcohol
your guide to Helping you choose the method of contraception that is best for you I the IUD 2 3 The intrauterine device (IUD) An IUD is a small plastic and copper device that is put into your uterus (womb).
HEPATITIS A, B, AND C INTRODUCTION Hepatitis is a medical term that means infection and inflammation of the liver, and hepatitis is caused by infection with a virus. There are seven types of hepatitis,
Safe Tattooing How is it done? A tattoo consists of pigmentation that is inserted into the second layer of the skin. A vertical vibrating instrument is used to inject the pigment 50 to 3000 times per minute.
C. difficile Infections Introduction C. difficile is a type of bacteria that can cause diarrhea and infection of the colon. This bacterium is more likely to infect patients at hospitals and other healthcare
Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine mouths or noses of people who are nearby. Less often, a person might also get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching
Chemotherapy What It Is, How It Helps What s in this guide If your doctor has told you that you have cancer, you may have a lot of questions. Can I be cured? What kinds of treatment would be best for me?