Republic of Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development

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1 Republic of Botswana Ministry of Education and Skills Development NATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY REALISING OUR POTENTIALS SEPTEMBER 2009

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Ministerial Foreword, Hon. Jacob Nkate... 2 Background... 5 The Strategic Change Imperative... 6 From a Factor to an Efficiency Driven Economy... 6 From Natural Resource to Human Resource Development From an Individual to an Integrated Life Cycle Model From Manpower Planning to National and Sector HRD Planning From a Fragmented to a Strategically Integrated Approach Strategic Intent National Human Resource Development Value Proposition Vision Statement and Strategic Goals Strategy Road Map Strategic Theme 1: System Level Strategic Capacity Strategic Theme 2: Sector Driven National Human Resource Development Planning Strategic Theme 3: Strategic Change Initiatives

3 Ministerial Foreword, Hon. Pelonomi Vensopn-Motoi I am excited to share this Strategy with you as it represents the collective national thinking (Government, Private Sector, Civil Society) on the issues facing the development of Botswana s human resource capacity and capabilities and how they should be addressed. It deals with macro level issues forests not trees, wars not battles - and is informed by strategic thinking and analysis. It provides a detailed justification for the development of Botswana s first comprehensive National Human Resource Development Strategy, a coherent and compelling picture of the key elements of that strategy set out in terms of vision, mission, values strategic goals and a road map for implementation delivered through a series of strategic themes, objectives, indicators and actions. This Strategy sets out an approach to national human resource development so that we can: Proactively anticipate the future and then match Botswana s human resource development strengths with the opportunities in the external environment; Address national human resource development through a complex and holistic systems level understanding which is embedded in the broader national development strategy of change, transformation and diversification; Take the whole human resource development life cycle as a unit of analysis which is not biased towards or confined to any particular element (e.g. primary education, tertiary education, employment). This Strategy builds on and compliments the progress and achievements in developing Botswana s human resource capacity over the last four decades. It acknowledges that since Independence human resource development has been a first line priority and from a broad range of perspectives whether it be educational attainment, skills training and development, quality of life issues, or the expansion of the labour market, considerable progress has been made. Notwithstanding these achievements this Strategy will take Botswana to the next stage of human resource development by: Raising the vision and understanding of the nation by encouraging its citizens to creatively reflect and engage in the development of Botswana through the realisation of their individual capacities and potentials; Providing a strategic framework to guide the direction Botswana should take to develop those capacities and achieve those potentials; Ensuring a better alignment between the nation s ambitions and individual capabilities and potentials. 2

4 This Strategy should not be like a ritual rain dance that is undertaken and then forgotten about. Nor will it just be launched with fanfare and then relegated to the far recesses of our office bookshelves. It is far too important to suffer such a fate as it represents an important milestone for the nation. The implementation agenda will be large and complex and the work before us challenging, but the citizens of Botswana deserve nothing less. The future of this country and the realisation of their potentials require us to succeed as its realisation will assure the delivery of a range of national, societal, government, private sector, civil society and institutional reforms that are necessary to guarantee Botswana s status as a winning nation. This Strategy will also require a co-ordinated effort across a number of Government ministries, departments, functions and individual portfolios, and just as crucially the involvement of the private sector and civil society. It is only through such a partnership that we will be able to realise the strategy s ambitions. This will require effective leadership, strong and clearly accountable structures and systems, ownership by all Batswana, a willingness to change, a sustained commitment to transformation and the collective, creative energy of all of us. This Strategy will be implemented by the Ministry of Education and Skills Development as the lead agency supported by the Tertiary Education Council (TEC) which was key in formulating and driving the Strategy to the point of implementation. The TEC will be transformed along with the Botswana Training Authority into the Human Resource Development Council. This will be the single support agency for national human resource development and will be our Think Tank, our national point of reference, our information hub, our policy and planning advisor with delegated responsibility in certain key areas for strategy execution. The role and mandate of the Human Resource Development Council is to: Provide a single, connected integrated approach to human resource development that is strategic, focused and long term; Ensure the policies of Government, the desires of civil society, the programmes of educational institutions, and the initiatives of business and industry are better aligned and work together in a coordinated way to enhance overall human resource capabilities; Achieve a better cohesion within the education sector; Establish a better link between the supply side of human resource development (education and training) with the demand side (work); 3

5 Link both of these to the economic development strategy which inter-alia, includes diversifying and transforming the economy, attracting foreign investment and international entrepreneurs, and ensuring a better strategic fit between citizen involvement and empowerment, immigration policies, skills requirements and needs and workforce productivity; Connect all of the above to social development and demographic issues such as health and wellness, population trends, societal advancement, social cohesion and the general albeit equally important issue of the quality of life. The critical outcome of this Strategy is set out in the vision statement. It is to ensure that by 2022 it will be universally accepted that the quality, productivity and motivation of its people will be Botswana s single greatest and valuable resource. Ensuring such an outcome must therefore be a fundamental and explicit component of our national agenda for change. It is on this basis, that on behalf of His Excellency the President and the Government of Botswana I commend this Strategy to you as it meets the test of securing the future of Botswana as a prosperous, productive and innovative nation for all its citizens. Jacob Nkate Minister of Education and Skills Development September

6 Background In January 2009, the National Human Resource Development Strategy (NHRDS) was presented to the Cabinet and approved by His Excellency the President for implementation. The NHRDS is a macro level initiative that provides the key strategic link to enable the successful attainment of the seven Vision 2016 pillars and is a key component of Botswana s transformation and diversification agenda. It highlights the important perspective that for Botswana to successfully deal with a rapidly changing national context as well as a highly competitive global market place will depend on the endeavours of its people. It recognises that to be acknowledged as a winning nation hinges on the development of each citizens individual potential. It further recognises the strategic role of human resource development so that each citizen can play a meaningful role in their community, society and the world. Through successive national development plans, the importance of developing Botswana s human resource capacity has been a first line priority and from a broad range of perspectives whether it be educational attainment, skills training and development, quality of life issues, or the expansion of the labour market, considerable progress has been made. Notwithstanding this broad range of achievements, there has been a growing recognition that the absence of a National Human Resource Development Strategy (NHRDS) is a key impediment to achieving the realisation of Botswana s long term ambitions. The genesis of the idea of a national human resource development strategy can be traced back to Vision 2016 which calls for a fundamental national transformation across the broad spectrum of the social, economic, entrepreneurial, political, spiritual and cultural lives of Batswana to ensure prosperity for all. The recently concluded National Development Plan 9 ( ) recognised the importance and significant role of human capital as a key element in achieving economic development and identified the need for a national human resource development strategy as an issue of some primacy. Work on the NHRDS commenced during the latter part of NDP9 when the Government requested the Tertiary Education Council to lead and manage the preparation of a study to formulate a national human resource development strategy. The formulation study which was undertaken during was informed by an extensive nation-wide consultation exercise and underpinned by detailed research and data analysis. Stakeholder workshops took place around the country and a series of focus group meetings engaged public sector and business leaders as well as civil society representatives. In sum the advice, guidance and direction received from across the nation provided the basis for the approval by His Excellency the President of this Strategy, Realising our Potentials: National Human Resource Development Strategy. (2009) 5

7 The Strategic Change Imperative From a Factor to an Efficiency Driven Economy The advancement of Botswana over the forty year period since independence has been nothing short of outstanding. During that period of time there has been a remarkable economic transformation, testified by the fact that between 1965 and 1998 Botswana achieved the fastest per capita growth in the world. Consequently it has emerged from being one of the ten poorest countries during the 1960s to its current World Bank classification as an Upper Middle Income country. The key driver of this impressive performance has been the mining sector which since the 1980s has contributed on average 35 per cent to GDP, accounted for 82 per cent of export earnings, and made up 53 per cent of government revenues. Although a levelling off of diamond mining is anticipated, nevertheless with new explorations about to come on stream such as the massive coal bed methane deposits, Mmamabula, other base metal projects that are currently taking off as well as beneficiation in the diamond sector, mineral resources and mining will inevitably still drive growth in the coming years. Accordingly Botswana s current position as a successful natural resource led economy looks set to continue for the foreseeable future. Botswana s natural resource endowment is however not just about minerals as it also enjoys a natural beauty, specifically the Okavango, which has led to the emergence of tourism as a strategic sector for generating foreign exchange, attracting FDI (foreign direct investment), creating employment and reducing poverty particularly in the rural areas. Tourism currently represents Botswana s second key natural asset after mining and has the potential to become one of the primary drivers of the future economy including possibilities for strategic high value product differentiation through eco, historical, cultural and adventure tourism. A third exemplary feature of Botswana s development strategy has been its progressive economic incentives and institutional regime. This includes a broad range of strategic drivers such as: Political Stability; Macro-economic stability; Regulatory quality, accountability and the rule of law; The tax regime, tariff and non-tariff barriers; Independence of the judiciary, civil liberties and political freedom; 6

8 Protection of financial assets and property, openness and transparency, the minimal influence of crime and corruption on business transactions, the role of government and the proper exercise of political authority; International creditworthiness with low risk spreads, and its consistency in achieving high investment grade ratings mainly due to low public debt, very strong liquidity and a firm commitment to prudent fiscal and monetary policy. In sum this combination of rich natural resources and a sound fiscal and institutional regime have led Botswana s growth over a long period of time and represent the competitive advantages on which to base a future development strategy. However the question that needs to be posed is, will this be Botswana s destiny? Will Botswana in the 21st century continue to be a country that specialises in natural resources underpinned by good institutions? On their own are these sufficient or is it necessary, or, even possible, to build new endowments? The Government recognised the case more than a decade ago acknowledging that despite the rapid transformation that was taking place, continued specialisation in natural resources was in the long term neither desirable or sustainable. The concern was that the country s success was dependent on a single sector economy (mining) with a high level of vulnerability due to its exposure to a single natural resource (diamonds). Also, adherence to sound economic policies and a reliable institutional regime was starting to be emulated by other countries and thus in the long term would be diminished as a source of competitive advantage. The most worrying aspect of the development strategy that Botswana had adopted was that while the economy was booming, it was not operating at or near a level of full employment nor was it creating sufficient high level jobs to match the growing level of educational attainment of Batswana. This clearly posed a significant threat to the record of social and economic development that Botswana had worked so hard to achieve since independence. It was clearly evident that a fundamental change in Botswana s development strategy would be necessary so as to move beyond a narrow commodity based economy to one that was more secure and sustainable which could pull an increasing proportion of the potential workforce not just into the labour force but more importantly into employment in high value jobs. The first approach to making a successful transition that took off during the 1990s was an effort to develop the manufacturing sector as a means of both diversifying the economic base and also absorbing large numbers of workers albeit, at the low end in terms of skills distribution. The intention was to follow the Asian manufacturing successes and emulate the rapid pick up of industrialisation in such countries by moving a significant number of the workforce into export oriented manufacturing. This strategy to date has not been as successful as anticipated, at least in terms of its overall contribution to GDP. Nor has it contributed to raising levels of employment or to the creation of good jobs with a 7

9 static figure of 10% of the labour force being employed in this sector, in what are essentially poor quality jobs. The key challenge that is clearly working against this strategy is Botswana s inability to compete with the low skilled low cost manufacturing economies of East Asia and in particular China. This is not unique as many countries around the world have similarly struggled to match the rate and scope of industrialisation being experienced in these countries. A second reason why Botswana has perhaps not been able to capitalise on the growth and job opportunities through an expansion of manufacturing has been due to the rising social and economic aspirations amongst Batswana who on the tide of a surging economy, not unnaturally have set their expectations on being employed in high skill, high quality and high wage jobs in line with Botswana s standing as a successful upper middle income economy.. At an aggregate level Botswana s export profile has changed remarkably little since the 1980s and the fact that it will for the foreseeable future remain an exporter of goods intensive in natural resources raises concerns about the long term future. This is a concern that in fact dates back centuries, long before Botswana s modern-day existence as a nation state when in 1776 Adam Smith cautioned that mining was the worst means to increase the capital of a nation. This early critique of natural resource based development came to the fore during the 1950s and 60s, and still holds sway in modern times with prominent economists such as Jeffery Sachs recently arguing that resource rich countries grew more slowly during the late 20th century than their industrialised counterparts. On this basis Botswana s rich natural resource endowments could be viewed as a long term curse rather than a strategic asset. The fundamental concern is that if Botswana cannot follow the successful Asian manufacturing development trajectory, then apart from continued specialisation in natural resources, what else will Botswana be doing in the 21st century? This has led to a new thinking emerging in Botswana during the last decade around the requirements necessary to build a globally competitive nation and to position Botswana within the broadly proclaimed global knowledge economy. This new understanding of Botswana s path to future success was first evidenced with the release of Vision 2016 a multifaceted strategy that charts a future up to the point of the 50th anniversary of the country s independence. The essential thrust of Vision 2016 is to use the platform of Botswana s natural resource endowment, to first of all consolidate its traditional strengths of a peaceful political system, sound governance and institutional regime, macroeconomic stability and financial discipline and then to create the conditions for high quality growth. National Development Plan 9 ( ) translated the broad objectives of Vision 2016 into operational policy goals, supplemented by a raft of subsequent sector level studies, policies and plans. There has emerged over the period a 8

10 growing understanding of what needs to be done to fundamentally transform the structure of the economy and the institutional framework. This is evidenced by the emergence of a variety of strategies and plans to develop a high-tech infrastructure, the implementation of policies to facilitate the growth of the private sector, the introduction of a range of initiatives to encourage economic development, to develop an integrated national knowledge and innovation capability, and to develop human resource capacities. The formulation of National Development Plan 10 ( ) which coincides with the timeline set for the achievement of the national Vision 2016, has witnessed an exceptionally firm compact around these issues. This has resulted in Botswana being classified in the World Economic Forum Africa Competitiveness Report (2008) as being in transition from Stage 1 Factor Driven to a Stage 2 Efficiency Driven economy. Figure 1: Botswana in Transition Source: Global Competitiveness Report (2008) The first, Factor Driven stage of development is where countries rely on their basic factor endowments, primarily unskilled labour and natural resources. The second development stage is termed Efficiency Driven characterised by higher wages, more efficient production processes, increased product quality, efficient markets, higher levels of education and training and the ability to harness the benefits of existing technologies. South Africa and Mauritius have reached this stage of development while Botswana and Namibia have been classified as 9

11 transitional economies moving from Stage 1 to Stage 2. Finally, there are the third stage countries whose economies are Innovation Driven which provide a sustainable high standard of living for their citizens and associated high wages, by producing new and innovative goods, developing sophisticated production processes and educating and training high level knowledge workers. Currently there are no African countries which have reached this stage of development. Figure 2: Key Characteristics of the Three Stages of Development Basic Requirements Institutions Infrastructure Macro economy Health and Primary Education Key for Factor driven Economies Efficiency Enhancers Higher Education and Training Market Efficiency Technological Readiness Innovation and Sophistication Factors Business Sophistication Innovation Key for Efficiency driven Economies Key for Innovation driven economies Source: Global Competitiveness Report (2008) In sum the emergence of this new thinking now represents the explicit approach of the Government to move Botswana from being a successful natural resource based-economy to a new economy characterised by high level skills, technology transfer, productivity and innovation. This has led to a new and fundamental shift in focus, which has brought to the fore issues which previously were deemed to be of secondary importance. These include public sector reform, privatisation, citizen economic empowerment, private sector development, information and communications technology, knowledge absorption and development, research, science and technology, innovation, human capital formation and development. From Natural Resource to Human Resource Development Over the last forty years, the World has witnessed an increasing bimodal distribution of prosperity and success. What has become unmistakably evident is that those countries that concentrated their development strategy around their natural resource endowments fared less well than those who recognised the need for an explicit strategic and sustained build up of their human resource capacity. Evidence available from around the world has clearly demonstrated the 10

12 increasing divide of rich and poor countries, with the latter almost universally characterised in terms of their sole reliance on natural resource endowments while a growing number have prospered by investing in the development of their people. A number of countries stand out as exemplars of this understanding-south Korea, Singapore, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Netherlands, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, the newly industrialised countries of Asia and closer to home, Mauritius. This has led to a dramatic build up of the human resource endowment in these countries over the last three decades which has in turn dramatically improved living standards both in terms of economic prosperity and personal well-being. Their success has been underpinned by a combination of quality educational systems and high quality jobs. This has been based upon a fundamental understanding that skilled workers create jobs. Studies show that for every skilled worker, a further two to several hundred jobs are created. Singapore recognised this fact more than two decades ago and has created a city state with a sustained growth solely based on educating its people. For Singapore, and others who have adopted a similar strategy, this in turn has created for them new comparative advantages and has ensured that they are not doomed to remain as old economies but instead are part of the global market promise of the knowledge economy. The fundamental question is whether Botswana can also emulate these success stories and develop its human resource capacity to leverage its natural resource endowment and make a successful transition to the next stage of development. To take two examples, the modern day success of Australia and the Scandinavian countries as knowledge intensive economies is based on the downstream development of their natural resources and investing in their people. Wool and more recently mining provided the staple ingredient of Australia s early development, with the latter proving to be a spectacular and enduring success. This is based not only on the discovery of new deposits but also on the development of derivative industries and equally importantly the generation and export of mining related knowledge in mineral detection, environmentally sound mining practices and processing. The Scandinavian countries provide yet another example of how a foundation of natural resource based development can be leveraged into a high skills economy. The most interesting examples are how Volvo, Saab and latterly Nokia all emerged as a consequence of backward linkages of the forestry industry. Based on a strategy that built upon their strengths in natural resources, Scandinavia provides clear proof that if the right strategies are adopted a combination of human and natural resources can be the key to development. 11

13 What clearly distinguishes these successful resource abundant countries, from those that have been unable to take advantage of their natural resource endowments, is their focus on: (1) Economic incentives and institutional regime; (2) Research and innovation; (3) Information and communications technology; (4) Human resource development. The message for those concerned with charting Botswana s development trajectory, with its traditional staple of cattle, and its rich natural endowments in diamonds and other mineral resources as well as its unique environmental assets, is clear and unmistakable. Natural resource based activities can lead growth over long periods of time and in addition can provide the foundation for high skill knowledge industries. Mining is highly knowledge intensive and can provide the national learning experience that leads to a strong technological downstream manufacturing system being put in place. Mineral resources are not necessarily predetermined as their reserve is a function of knowledge with satellite technology for example leading to the discovery of new deposits previously unknown. Then of course there is the example of what is currently happening in Botswana with the establishment of the new Diamond Park for diamond beneficiation and other related processing activities. Similarly the natural resource endowments associated with tourism can be augmented significantly with the additional application of human capital, information and communications technology, knowledge, research, and an enabling institutional regime. A further example of Botswana playing to its strengths and seeking to build upon its natural advantages is in the area of banking and financial services, using the foundation of its sound institutional regime to develop new and good jobs. The essential point is that a successful natural resource strategy cannot solely be based on natural resources but also needs a set of additional ingredients that can promote the innovation potential and unleash new possibilities. The key issue is to understand what these key ingredients are and how they can be leveraged to create a new and successful development trajectory for Botswana. Botswana clearly stands at a cross-road in terms of its future and national human resource development is at the centre of determining that future. It is vital for a number of reasons. It is now globally recognised as the means to a competitive, sustained and vibrant economic development which in turn is linked to better jobs for a majority of the population, resulting in the overall advancement of society and better lives for the individual members of society. The development of the capacity and capabilities of their people has been the key ingredient of success of those resource abundant countries that have been able to achieve dramatic 12

14 increases in living standards and free themselves from the overspecialisation in natural resources. From an Individual to an Integrated Life Cycle Model The platform for building Botswana s strategic human resource potential has to be based on the current level of educational attainment of its people and the labour market in which they are employed. As shown below in Table 1 while at the time of independence Botswana faced a critical deficit in terms of the size of its educated populace, it has since made significant strides to overcome this through a considerable investment in the formal education system in order to upgrade the level of education of Batswana. Table 1 The Human Resource Development Progress Model EDUCATION LIFE CYCLE Early Childhood (Enrolment) 0> 20,860 Primary (Enrolment) 71, ,417 Secondary (Enrolment) 1, ,201 Tertiary (Enrolment) 42 (1971) 47,889 Adult Literacy (% of10-70 years age group) 68.9% (1993) 81% (2003) Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) The path followed by Botswana was to upgrade from the bottom since the 1970s by first rapidly maximising (and sustaining) the base of primary school attainment to 100% and then more gradually shifting the mass of educational attainment to ensure an increasing number exit the secondary level system either at Form 3 or Form 5. More recently this goal has been raised further to fatten the middle by moving a larger proportion to senior secondary with a target of 80% being set for the conclusion of NDP10. This approach has been complemented by a concerted effort to raise the levels of adult literacy and skills training and development, while the Government has also invested considerably in terms of tertiary education. The distribution of educational attainment (primary-secondary-tertiary) can be represented in the form of a steep pyramid, with a fat base and a relatively low but broadening coverage at the top. There are however major challenges of access, quality and relevance across the entire education life cycle. A summation of these key issues is outlined in Table 2 below. 13

15 Table 2: Botswana s Education Life- Cycle Problem analysis Education Life Cycle Problem Analysis Early Child Hood Development Low levels of access and low level of participation outside urban areas. No national curriculum and poor articulation of what is taught with primary level. Inadequate resources funding, facilities and staff. Primary Uneven levels of participation for children who live outside urban areas and geographical disparities in terms of student performance. Pupil performance negatively impacted particularly in specialised subjects such as English, Mathematics and Science. Children s individual abilities not adequately identified and addressed. Secondary Uneven levels of participation for children who live outside urban areas in small villages. Minima target of 100% transition to senior secondary still to be achieved Pupil performance negatively impacted by automatic progression from primary which leads to many being inadequately prepared. Children insufficiently guided in terms of future career choice and poorly equipped for employment with lack of relevance of curriculum to job market. Tertiary Limited levels of opportunity, highly selective and restrictive access. Poor quality due to programmes being too theoretical and failing to develop students critical individual workbased and life long learning competencies. Students are poorly equipped in terms of skills and competencies to take up employment and create their own employment opportunities due to lack of relevance of curriculum to real life. Mismatch between supply and demand leading to deficits in the labour market and growing levels of graduate unemployment Skills Training and Development Limited levels of opportunity, highly selective and restrictive access. Poor quality of institutions, students lack critical individual and work-based skills weak recognition by employers. Negative perceptions of students and parents of the critical value of vocational skills training and poor linkages to labour market needs. Life Long Learning Limited levels of opportunity, highly selective, restrictive access due to lack of facilities and opportunities especially in non-urban areas. Lack of personal commitment and recognition of the need for self-development. Lack of appreciation that learning is a life-long activity. Source: Realising our Potentials. A Formulation Study to Develop a National Human Resource Development Strategy for Botswana. Final Report. Deloitte (2007) 14

16 Two areas in particular require to be highlighted. These are early childhood development and tertiary education. With an estimated pre-primary school enrolment ratio of 17% (UNDP: 2004/5) Botswana trails behind its main peer country comparators on the continent with South Africa at 31% and Mauritius at an impressive 95%. While access (gross enrolment ratio) at the tertiary level has increased rapidly during the NDP9 plan period from 7.7% (2003) to 11.4% (2007) it is still far behind the average for Upper middle income countries across the world which currently stands at 40%. It is in this context that in April 2008 the National Assembly approved a comprehensive policy on tertiary education, Towards a Knowledge Society (Government White Paper No: 37) which is complementary in many respects with many of the details of this Strategy. Just as the supply side of Botswana s human resources has improved since independence at least in terms of the numbers enrolled so has the number of jobs that have been created. The 1964 population census recorded a working population of , of which 90% were engaged in agricultural activities. A labour force survey in 1966 recorded workers in formal sector (salaried) employment, or around 11% of the labour force. By 1975, formal sector employment had risen to , of which around 30% were employed in government. By 2008, formal sector employment had risen to 308,617, with 37.9% employed in Government (central and local) and 44.7% in the Service Sector. This represents an average annual growth rate over this period, which is much faster than the rate of population and labour force growth. The structure of the labour force has changed considerably over the post- Independence period. The broad trends have seen a steady decline in the share of the workforce employed in traditional agriculture (lands and cattle posts), a steady increase in the proportion of the labour force in formal sector employment, and an increasing share of skilled workers in the economy. By 2008 the structure of the labour force had reached a level where 47.2% of the labour force had jobs in the formal sector which is high by the standards of African economies. Within the formal sector, the fastest growing sectors by employment have been finance and business services, manufacturing, trade, transport and communications, and government, all of which grew at an average annual rate of over 7% between 1975 and Over the same period, the skill level of the workforce has also risen. According to the 1981 Population Census only 1.6% of the population aged 24 years and above had attained a post secondary education. This had increased to 3.2% by 1991 and had grown considerably by 2003 to 46.53% with having obtained a tertiary level qualification (diploma/degree) reflecting the rapid expansion of the education and training system over this period. Notwithstanding these positive trends in the rapid growth of formal sector employment, unemployment has remained a persistent challenge. The 1991 census recorded an unemployment rate of 14%, which had risen to 20% by the 15

17 2001 census. Similar trends are shown in the Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES), which recorded unemployment rates of 21% in 1993/94 and 24% in 2002/03 while the most recent 2005/6 Labour Force Report (CSO 2008) puts the figure at 17.5 % The reason for these two apparently contradictory trends rising formal sector employment along with rising unemployment is the decline of employment in the traditional agricultural sector as well as the capital intensive nature of the main engine of growth (mining). As noted previously, 90% of the labour force was occupied in agriculture back in 1964, which has declined sharply to 9% by the 2001 census which recorded workers in agriculture. Although non-agricultural employment has grown rapidly, it has not been sufficient to absorb the exodus of workers from the agricultural sector, hence unemployment has risen. Unemployment is more acute among the youth, (12 24 age group) as defined by the United Nations. The unemployed youth account for about 51.7% of the total unemployed. Top on the list among the youth who are affected by unemployment is the age group, with an unemployment rate of 48.9% followed by age group with an unemployment rate of 38.0% and the years with an unemployment rate of 23.9%. The female youth dominate the unemployed youth category at 54.8% of the total unemployed youth. As evidenced from the 2003 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) the key issue is that not only is overall unemployment acceptably high but increasingly the educational level of the unemployed population is being raised, with for the first time university graduates joining the ranks of job seekers. Tertiary level graduates as of 2003 represented 16% of the labour force, with an unemployment rate of 15% within that category and 2.4% of the entire labour force. With the rapid expansion of tertiary education over the intervening period ( ) these figures clearly represent an underestimation of the current situation. Chart 1: The Education/Unemployment Nexus (2003) 450, , , , , , , ,000 50,000 0 Unskilled Post Secondary (Certificate) Tertiary (Diploma/Degree) Unemployed 90,037 39,956 14,826 Labour Force Total 324, ,153 98,701 Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) 16

18 Life Long Learning - There are clear signs that the graduate output of the national education system and outbound (external placement in other countries) student population is exceeding the ability of the economy to absorb them into jobs that meet their expectations and abilities. This is a reflection of the high levels of investment in education that have been made over a sustained period, which has not addressed the need to absorb the flow of new educated workers into the labour market The challenge is to deal with a situation where the level of educational attainment will continue to rise through to 2016 and beyond and the need to provide high value jobs. Accordingly a national human resource development strategy which better links together economic growth, societal advancement and the skills and knowledge of the population has now been recognised by Government as an essential requirement to move Botswana s development trajectory forward. This represents the essential importance of national human resource development and calls for an explicit, strategically focussed and sustained approach which seeks to link social, cultural, political and economic strategies in a more holistic and integrated manner around human capabilities and opportunities. The adoption of a strategic approach to national human resource development necessitates a conceptual model that will provide the basis for the definition of the strategy and its subsequent performance and evaluation. The conceptual model that has been adopted by Botswana is depicted in Figure 3 below. Figure 3: The National Human Resource Development Conceptual Model Life Cycle Model Early Child Hood Development Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development Source: Realising our Potentials. A Formulation Study to Develop a National Human Resource Development Strategy for Botswana. Final Report. Deloitte (2007) 17

19 The key components are that of a series of continuous life cycle stages from early childhood development through formal education to skills training and employment. It is derived from the understanding that the development of an individual begins with the establishment of a solid foundation from which the person can grow. Typically this takes place during Early Childhood, Primary and Secondary Education. This foundation may then be added to through further education (Tertiary or Skills based), and supplemented on an ongoing basis through the process of life long learning. An individual continues to develop as they enter the employment sector (formal or informal), developing skills and on the job learning that may not be available through other means. These factors all combine to influence not only the individual, but also the surrounding community, the society at a national level, and ultimately the world. The model is used to identify those areas that can be influenced by a comprehensive National Human Resource Development Strategy (NHRDS) and the nature of the interventions that may impact on it. It also serves to highlight the fact that the development of a nation's human resources is not the sole preserve of a single government entity or department. A brief description of the individual components of the model follows. The Individual Life Cycle: This component of the model is intended to represent the various stages where development can potentially take place. While development is in reality a continuum that can occur at any time in a person s life, for the purposes of this Strategy it is necessary to delineate and define discrete aspects of this process. A major feature of the Life Cycle is the link between education and skills development and employment. In Botswana years are currently spent educating the next working generation only to see the skills wasted or lost due to a mismatch with employers needs. It is not simply a question of how many are educated and trained- the Life cycle demands that education without employment be seen as a crisis that must be addressed by understanding and exploiting the linkages between education, training and employment. Early Childhood Development: Early Childhood Development (ECD) is defined in terms of this Strategy as the period from birth to before entry into primary school (the official school entry age is 7 years). While much of the development that occurs at this point is not directly driven by the individual concerned it is still important to include this stage in the NHRD model. The impacts of factors at this stage in a person s development can have far reaching implications on a person s later development, and as such this component is crucial to the total understanding of an individual s development. 18

20 Primary Education: Primary education has been defined as the first seven years of formal schooling. This is a critical stage in a person s education, as it provides the foundations for all future learning. Botswana has invested heavily in Primary Education and much has been achieved. This investment will not pay off if the other stages of the Life cycle do not receive the same level of focus. Secondary Education: Secondary education builds on the foundations laid by primary education. The understanding, and the intention of this level of schooling is to provide a person with a level of education that will prepare them for employment should they not pursue further education. Significant investment has taken place in secondary education in recent years but issues of relevance, quality and access are creating problems further down the life cycle process. There is a failure in the system in that persons not getting an opportunity for vocational training or tertiary education have few practical skills needed for meaningful employment. Tertiary Education: Tertiary education is defined as being all formal education that takes place after secondary education. It provides participants with detailed theoretical understandings of the nature of the world around them. The Tertiary Education Policy (2008) provides the following definition Tertiary Education shall comprise all formal education programmes beyond the level of senior secondary embracing technical and occupational specific programmes and those with a strong theoretical foundation through to advanced research qualifications." There is a critical leakage of human potential that does not have access to Tertiary Education in Botswana. Economic diversification is critically tied to having the right skills in place for the diversification to take place. Employment: Employment both formal and informal is a key and integral component of the human life cycle. If the education system cannot produce the right calibre of skills in the right areas, many will fail to find employment which limits their chances of reaching their full potential. Graduate unemployment is a great concern within the Nation. It is important the NHRD planning addresses the mismatch between supply of graduates and the demand, both locally and internationally. Skills Training and Development: Skills training and development embraces apprenticeship work based learning and general skills development both in and outside the work place. It is an 19

21 essential component of the national human resource development strategy and a key determinant of a nation s competitive advantage. Life Long Learning: Life long learning is perceived as being those learning activities that an individual will engage in throughout their life. The process is usually self driven, and can be initiated at any time in a person s life and can include formal education or informal learning. Community Sphere: The community sphere represents those factors that interact with an individual on a more personal and local level. This would include groupings like the local school, municipality and neighbourhood. In essence the NHRD strategy recognises that it is the skills, knowledge and attitudes of a nation s people that will create community wealth and success. Societal Sphere: This sphere represents those factors that operate at a national or country level. This would include the Government, national bodies, policies or industries that influence or affect Botswana as a whole. For NHRD to succeed in Botswana the process must be seen to be relevant to the needs and aspirations of the Nation and that the efforts of government must be in enabling them to realise the national human resource development capacity that can develop and drive the national economy. Global Sphere: The global sphere represents the broadest context of the model and it refers to the global economy in particular the search for talent. This sphere is absolutely critical to the NHRD Strategy. HRD in Botswana has historically revolved around the concept of self sufficiency or meeting local needs. Whilst this still remains relevant, the absence of seeing NHRD in a broader context has in fact negatively impacted on the goal of self sufficiency as the system has produced an over supply of skills that can neither be absorbed locally and are not adequately prepared to compete for opportunities internationally. Two key principles are clear with regards to this concept of the human resource life cycle. The first is that its starting point must be the individual where HRD is experienced at a personal level by providing access to a high quality and relevant education system and the opportunity to access high quality and fulfilling jobs. The second is that by adopting a global perspective it changes the focus away from counting the number of people with skills that are deemed to be necessary for producing the country s goods and services, to developing a human resource capability that can serve a global as well as a national need.the life cycle model 20

22 highlights the important understanding that for Botswana to deal with a rapidly changing national context as well as a highly competitive global market place will depend on an integrated and outward focussed strategy to develop the capacities and capabilities of its people and to ensure they are subsequently employed in high-skill, high-value jobs in their communities, nationally and globally. This new understanding of human resource development leads us naturally to the next question; how do we plan to optimally develop these potentials and provide these job opportunities, and is the approach currently in use an appropriate way to deliver the national human resource development strategy? From Manpower Planning to National and Sector HRD Planning The approach used by the Government of Botswana for planning its human resource interventions has since the time of independence been manpower planning. Commencing with the Transitional Plan for Social and Economic Development produced in the late 1960s, and the plans developed over the subsequent four decades, with the most recent being the Manpower Development Planning Report (MFDP: 2004), there have been a number of efforts to forecast future labour requirements and then to use that data to determine future education and training needs. What has characterised these efforts has been an essential consistency in approach which has sought to determine the national economy s labour requirements over time (labour market demand) and then try to ensure the necessary responsiveness from the education and training system to deliver an adequate supply. Figure 5: Traditional Manpower Planning Conceptual Model Manpower Forecasting CONCEPTUAL MODEL OVERVIEW JOBS STUDENT LOANS GRANTS EDUCATION AND TRAINING CORE OBJECTIVES FILL VACANCIES LOCALISE EXPATRIATE 22 FILLED POSTS 50 Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) 21

23 The specific goal as articulated in Botswana s first manpower plan Manpower and Employment produced in 1972 by Dr. C. Colclough has been to achieve labour market self sufficiency by ensuring a link between supply and the filling of existing and predicted job vacancies including the localisation of expatriate held positions. The technical understanding which underpins this approach is currently referred to as traditional manpower planning which involves making a prediction on output up to some year in the future (usually years) and then apply a manpower coefficient to arrive at a forecast of projected labour requirements. The intended outcome of this approach is to provide an estimate of the numbers required for each occupation over a planned period, the nature of the imbalances between the current and the projected workforce, the outputs of the educational and training system, the localisation effort required to ensure self sufficiency, and then, in theory, data as to how the educational system should respond to meet these requirements. Although traditional manpower planning as described above sounds logical and rational (you must match supply and demand) pessimism started to take root from the early 199ich has subsequently grown over the intervening period. The key flaws and risks associated with traditional manpower planning are outlined in Table 3 below: Table 3: Manpower Planning Flaws & Risks of Traditional Manpower Planning It is not strategy driven and fails to contextualise the broader policy environment. It ignores substitution possibilities and new ways of managing, organising and delivering services and new approaches to work. It ignores the cost of educating and training one type of labour relative to another. It relies on manpower input classifications that are either out of date or not relevant. It fails to consider resource deployment and utilisation as well as ensuring an optimum mix of human and non human resources (finance, equipment, technology). It relies heavily on formal sector employment. It emphasises occupation specific education and training programmes and 22

24 ignores generic skills and competencies. It focuses on a highly specialised division of labour and has a narrow understanding of jobs. It is a top down command approach to human capital development. It reduces people to a cost factor rather than a source of creative, innovative sourced of value add outcomes and benefit realisation. It has a time horizon that fails to respond to rapid change. It fails to respond effectively to national and global pressures and opportunities. It has resulted in cycles of under and over supply particularly in small states. It has been developed from a single isolated industry/organisational perspective rather than a broad integrated sectoral approach. It has resulted in either unemployment or competition for scare skills. It leads to a mismatch between demands, needs and supply. It leads to costly duplication amongst educational institutions Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) As a consequence the status quo approach to traditional manpower planning has been challenged as posing a number of significant risks. It has also been determined that such risks are more pronounced in developing economies and small states where the potential of financial, political and economic uncertainty are potentially high. Cognisant of these risks the Government of Botswana s determination to rethink its approach to manpower planning was first signalled in the Revised Incomes Policy of 1990 and then reiterated in the Revised National Policy on Incomes, Employment Prices and Profits (2005) which stated the need for strengthening and speeding up progress for the national manpower planning and human resource development systems of the Ministries of Finance and Development Planning; Education; Labour and Home Affairs; Local Government and the State President. (Government of Botswana, 2007). The urgent need to accelerate the development of a new approach to human resource development planning became increasingly evident during NDP9 23

25 ( ) when for the first time in its history the country witnessed a growing number of unemployed tertiary level graduates unable to be absorbed by a labour market that was paradoxically characterised by a skills deficit. This pressure coupled with an unacceptable level of unemployment in the general population as well as high levels of youth unemployment whose level of educational attainment is rising dramatically required a fundamental rethink of Botswana s approach to manpower planning. Critical to the success of the National Human Resource Development Strategy will be the introduction of a systems-based integrated collaborative national HRD planning approach driven by Sectoral Committees and Sectoral HRD Plans. Sectoral committees represent key and strategic sectors of the economy and are partnerships that work together to form a strategic collaborative alliance. Their purpose is to provide a single nexus which focuses on determining the human resource development needs and skills and designing collaborative actions that will serve the long term needs of the sector. The membership comprises sector specific representatives from a wide range of constituencies and organisations including: Business and Employers; Employees and Labour Unions; Educators and Educational institutions; Advisory, Steering, Support and Regulatory Agencies; Skills Training and Development Specialists and Institutions; Professional, Employer and Employee Associations; Relevant Civil Society Stakeholders; Central and Local Government Representatives. The sectoral level HRD planning approach for Botswana has been determined on the basis of identifying the key sectors that are a national priority in terms of Botswana s drive towards becoming an investment and innovation economy, their strategic importance to the economy and the rapid pace they are forecast to grow and develop. They have been categorised as 1) Driving Sectors which are currently leading Botswana s growth and development and 2) Enabling Sectors which currently play a supporting role but which have the potential to become strategic drivers of the future. 24

26 Ten sectoral committees will be established as outlined in Figure 6 below. The primary purpose of the Sectoral Committees is to provide a single nexus which focuses on determining the human resource development needs and skills and designing collaborative actions that will serve the long term HRD needs of the sector. Figure 6: Sectoral and National Human Resource Development Plan Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) The selected sectors will provide a balance between those which are strategic in terms of their contribution to the national output and those whose importance is in terms of employment creation. The selected sectors will also address of the need to consider all the stages of the life cycle and their role and contribution to driving each facet of Botswana s of economic development whether it is - Stage 1 Factor Driven-Stage 2 Efficiency Driven, or Stage 3 Innovation Driven. The establishment of the Sectoral Committees will ensure that there is a direct linkage between the skills developed and the needs of the fast changing 25

27 Life Long Learning - economy. The development of the Sectoral HRD Plans and the subsequent development of the National Human Resource Development Plan will also provide an excellent opportunity for a pan-sector collaborative approach to human resource development planning which will strengthen the commitment of each partner (Government, Employers, Workers, Educators, and Civil Society) to work together in addressing Botswana s HRD challenges. This is an approach that has been adopted with some success in Mauritius, Singapore, Hong Kong and notably Canada which currently has 30 pan-canadian sectors involving over half of Canada s labour market. Figure 7: Integrating Human Resource and Economic Development Linking the HRD pipeline to the national development agenda Early Child Hood Development Factor driven Sector of the economy Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Efficiency driven Sector of the economy Employment Skills Training & Development Innovation driven Sector of the economy 8/17/ Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) The outcome of this sector specific approach is that citizens will be in a position to exploit the employment opportunities of these key growth so that they are centre stage in delivering the high quality services and products that future 26

28 generations of Batswana will expect and require. Of equal importance is to ensure the knowledge and learning experience of the development projects that are being implemented in each sector is retained within the country. The approach will also ensure that the national strategy to diversify the economy through these key sectors is not compromised as a consequence of a serious mismatch between the current citizen endowment in terms of skills and competencies and the demand for skilled employees. The conceptual model for HRD planning is outlined in Figure 8 below. Figure 8: Sectoral Human Resource Development Conceptual Model Planning Model POLITICAL ECONOMC \ ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES I M SECTOR STRATEGY SYSTEM SERVICE DESIGN SYSTEM HRD NEEDS DESIGN HRD PROGRAMME SUPPLY DESIGN HRD INSTITUTION SUPPLY DESIGN P A C T GENERAL EDUCATION GLOBAL NATIONAL Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) 27

29 The elements of the conceptual model are described below. Sector wide Global and National Focus A sector level approach is essential to ensure that business, industry, workers, government and educators work together to ensure that the human resource needs that meet the quality standards required are in place that will enable the sector to be successful. It also ensures that the individual components are not in competition for human resources with themselves. A national focus is essential to ensure that the national effort is not compromised as a consequence of a serious mismatch between the current citizen endowment in terms of skills and competencies and the demand for skilled employees. A global perspective is required for two reasons. Firstly Botswana increasingly has to compete in a global market place that is applying pressures on the national economy. This requires Batswana to possess the high level knowledge skills and confidence that can meet the global challenge and respond to international opportunities. Secondly for Botswana to be an effective member of the global market place it is essential that its citizens can access quality jobs and opportunities within that market place in order to gain skills, knowledge and experience that when they return can be harnessed to drive Botswana s development agenda. Political Economic Social Technological- Environmental (PESTE) PESTE analysis is a macro level strategy framework that is a helpful method in understanding the external environment and the influences that the HRD planners and policy makers will need to take into account. Political influences would include for example employment policies and laws. Economic aspects would include the diversification strategy for example. Social aspects could include population demographics while technological would consider the rate of technological change and absorption that is taking place. Sector Strategy It is essential for HRD planners and policy makers to have a clear picture of the sector level strategy. This is a macro level description of the sector in terms of its challenges, responses and future shape and direction. The sector level strategy drives the definition of HR needs and subsequent supply factors. Changes in strategy will have major implications for the workers required and the jobs they undertake and will pose important challenges for the education and training sector in the development of the appropriate human resource capacity. 28

30 System Design The system level design, organisation and delivery of services impacts directly on human resource needs. Centralisation vs. decentralisation, the level of service delivery, what services will be outsourced, and who does what all have a key influence and impact on the design of HR strategies and the development of HRD interventions. These inevitably change over time and need to be factored into the HRD planning model. Often these changes are a result of the external environment, a change in policy or technology or as a consequence of internal initiatives to improve performance. Demand Side Design This involves determining the occupations, jobs, numbers, and mix of personnel that is appropriate for the level and type of service required and which can effectively deliver the sectoral level strategic result. While at one level this may appear to be traditional manpower planning it is the influence of the elements and variables in the conceptual model which makes human resource planning a more robust forecasting approach. There are three common approaches that are employed to forecast HRD needs as summarised below. Demand forecasting assumes the status quo will remain and that the strategy and service delivery will remain unchanged and makes a forecast of simple head counts and population projections. Utilisation forecasting builds on the former approach but factors in new approaches to system design and service delivery. Needs forecasting attempts to look forward and to factor in strategic issues as well as the future outcomes and end state thinking of the sector. The most common approach is supply based due to its simplicity and minimal data requirements. The conceptual model combines the three approaches together to ensure a comprehensive and holistic understanding of human resource needs at sector level will be available. Supply Side Response This represents the supply side part of the human resource equation and considers a range of issues such as embracing the entire educational pipeline from early child hood development through secondary and tertiary, to skills training and development and life-long learning. It requires consideration of issues such as programme architecture, entry levels, curriculum, teaching and learning, student throughput and graduation rates, skills and competency 29

31 development (value add) employment and behavioural changes (outcomes). It is also about the quality, relevance, and the shape, size, level and mandate of education and training institutions as well as the qualifications they offer and the resources they require. The key is to ensure a strong linkage with HRD planning. In Botswana this has been a fundamental weakness over the past two decades and the strengthening of this relationship will be a key outcome of the implementation of the sectoral HRD planning model. Resources Financial resources represent a key influencer on both sides of the HR planning equation HR planning forecasting and education and skills planning. The major issue to be addressed is affordability and what level of financial resources the sector is willing and able to allocate to its HR resources and their development. This includes the proportion of the total budget to be allocated to human as well as capital expenditures. This involves very careful choices being made between the strategy, the system and service delivery model, the size and mix of the HR population, the type and level of education and skills development that will be required and current and future fiscal realities. Data, Analysis, Forecasting A key underpinning that will determine success or failure of the NHRDS will be the availability of data and the development of a strong analytical and forecasting capacity and capability. At present this represents a critical weakness in Botswana and the development of a comprehensive HRD enabling system to support national HR planning has been identified as a key project that will be initiated during the NDP10 plan period. Impact The bottom line is that the end state of designing and developing human resource interventions is that they must lead to some impact. At sectoral level the impact must be visible in terms of the effective execution of the sector level strategy. At a national level there needs to be clear evidence of impact in terms of the successful attainment of the Vision Getting the nation s human resources right will help to deliver on all of the vision pillars and will in the long term ensure long term prosperity for all. Benefits of Sector Driven Planning Sector based human resource development planning is an integrated collaborative approach which represents a fundamental shift in focus from the counting heads of traditional manpower planning to a more comprehensive, inclusive, holistic and strategic process of human resource development planning. It is informed by an essential recognition of the interdependencies between the economic and social sectors of society and how quality human 30

32 resources play the cross cutting anchor role in their development and success. Its roots can be found in strategy which has been combined with a number of current approaches to human resource planning (supply, utilisation and needs based forecasting) which have been combined to produce an integrated holistic HRD model. It is essential to ensure that developments in one sector are not undertaken at the expense of another sector and that the entire HRD sector approach is firmly anchored within the broader national goals of Vision A systemic view will ensure that different sectors and organisations will understand their broad roles in not only promoting human resource development but also economic and social development. The benefits of this approach are set out in Table 4 below: Table 4: Human Resource Development Planning Benefits & Strengths of Human Resource Development Planning It is strategy driven and properly contextualises the broader policy environment. It builds sustainable economic growth based on the nation s human resource endowment. It links economic, social, technology, environmental issues nationally and globally. It embraces the whole HRD life cycle. It links national economic and HRD strategies with global competitiveness and development. It recognises substitution possibilities and new ways of managing, organising and delivering services and new approaches to work. It recognises the cost of educating and training one type of labour relative to another. It recognises resource deployment and utilisation as well as ensuring an optimum mix of human and non human resources (finance, equipment, technology). It not only considers occupation specific education and training programmes but also focuses on generic skills and competencies. 31

33 It provides for a broad understanding of occupational clusters. It is flexible and adaptive and can respond easily to rapid change. It recognises that people are a source of creativity and innovation. It ensures a strategic approach to issues of unemployment or competition for scare skills. It militates against costly duplication amongst educational institutions. It matches labour market and education programme profiles. It focuses on raising national productivity, innovation. It focuses on issues of quality and relevance of human resource development. Focuses on developing good quality jobs for a high skills society Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) The individual sector level plans that are developed will then be aggregated to produce a National Human Resource Development Plan. This is to ensure that there is balance and linkages not only within individual sectors but across all of the sectors that make up the national economy. From a Fragmented to a Strategically Integrated Approach The existing Government and support agency structures that have been established to deal with human resource development can be characterised in terms of fragmentation, duplication, over lapping mandates and suffer from a lack of both vertical and horizontal integration. While they each singly address individual components of the HRD Life Cycle they do not do so in a cohesive and focussed manner. Because the existing structures address individual components of the Human Resource Life cycle they do so in a manner that is not sufficiently cohesive and focused to achieve significant change. Their modus operandi ensures that effective policy coordination is made more difficult in that human resource development straddles several ministries and agencies. This in turn impacts on equitable and appropriate resource allocation across the entire Human Resource Development Life Cycle. The biggest challenge that is currently faced is that HRD is subsumed into other focus areas of each line ministry and supported by a number of different agencies reporting to a different ministry. Manpower planning is the responsibility of Finance and Development Planning, the Tertiary Education Council is under 32

34 the Ministry of Education and Skills Development, the Botswana Training Authority falls under Labour and Home Affairs yet at the same time has a direct relationship with Vocational Education and Training (Ministry of Education and Skills Development). The National Economic, Manpower and Incomes Council (NEMIC) is another forum where HRD is discussed and then there exists a separate national body which advises the Ministry of Education and Skills Development on education policy, the National Council on Education. The latter was a recommendation of the Revised National Policy on Education (Government White Paper no. 2:1994) to provide advice to the Government on the education system and to oversee the implementation of the RNPE and educational policy review. Such a fragmented approach makes policy coordination extremely difficult and leads to inequitable and inappropriate resource allocation. The lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, performance indicators and an integrated data capability to manage human resource development is another symptom of the lack of co-ordination. The proposed conceptual model for HRD in Botswana calls for a much stronger linkage between skills development and employment not only from a national perspective but also within a global context. This in turn calls for better and strengthened strategic direction and management capacity, governance and leadership of national human resource development. The Tertiary Education Policy (Government White Paper no.37) which was approved by the National Assembly in April 2008 already includes the necessary structure in the form of a Human Resource Development Council as set out in Figure 9 below. Figure 9: Functional Structure of the Human Resource Development Council 33

35 Human Resource Development Council Ministry of Education & Skills Development Qualifications Agency Exams Council Human Resource Development Council Sectoral Committees Skills & Training Tertiary Education HR Planning Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) This provides a structure capable of coordinating the implementation of the strategy and the required systems. Structure refers to the policy frameworks, high level legislative changes and the organisational bodies that will be required to bring the strategy to life. The systems are supportive tools, processes and solutions that are put in place to support both the structure and the strategy to achieve the intended goals. Each of these areas is needed for successful implementation of the NHRD strategy. If one component is not present the ability of the others to deliver any real value is severely undermined. In this new integrated single agency approach the Ministry of Education and Skills Development will be responsible for strategic oversight of the HRD lifecycle as well as direct control of General Education (ECD, Primary and Secondary). It will be directly supported by three separate authorities. These are the recently established National Credit and Qualifications Framework and the Botswana Examinations Council. Reporting separately to the Ministry will be the proposed 34

36 Human Resource Development Council which will have a responsibility for skills training and development, tertiary education and national HRD planning. The establishment of the Human Resource Development Council as a high level single support agency acting on behalf of the Government with regards national human resource development as well as the establishment of the National Credit and Qualifications Framework and the work of the Botswana Examinations Council will inevitably require a review of the mandates of existing Councils and Advisory Bodies with a view to eliminating overlapping functions. This review will also need to consider the functions and structures of the Ministry of Education and Skills Development and those of other Government agencies and jurisdictions that deal with Human Resource Development. The functional responsibilities of the Ministry of Education and Skills Development, the NCQF, BEC and the single support agency - Human Resource Development Council will be as follows: Table 5 Strengthened System Level Capacity and Capability STRATEGIC INTEGRATED ACCOUNTABILITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES (A) Ministry of Education and Skills Development Strategic oversight of NHRD. Represent HRD at Cabinet and National level. Approve policy and budgets relevant to HRD. Use HRDC advice and specialist input into the development of the Education Sector. Responsible for General Education. (B) Supporting Agencies National Quality Assurance and Credit Transfer Body Ensure quality across the Educational Life Cycle to ensure consistency of results. Botswana Examination Council Ensure general education examinations meet both local and global needs 35

37 (C) Human Resource Development Council 1. Advising Government on all aspects of National Human Resource Development. Including policy, strategy, and implementation. monitoring and evaluation. 2. Coordination of policy between the supply side (education and training) and demand side (employment). 3. Production of a National HRD plan and forecast. 4. Development of sector specific HRD plans. 5. Coordination of a national HRD database that will assist the forecasting process and employment of skilled citizens. 6. Addressing the inefficiencies in the life cycle where significant Government spending is not achieving the level of benefit that it should through policy, monitoring and budget recommendations. 7. Addressing unemployment through a re-training function and a national internship programme. 8. Active assistance in the employment of local skills abroad. 9. Administration of the Training Levy. 10. Undertaking the HRD Impact Assessment Studies. 11. Oversight of a Skills Migration and Reverse Migration Strategy. 12. Oversee the conduct and implementation of review studies. 13. Review of legislation that may impede HRD. 14. Development of a NHRD communication and marketing strategy. 15. Publishing an annual performance report on National Human Resource Development. Supporting the work of the Council will be three professional functions as follows: Skills Training and Development will include training standards, quality assurance, and the proposed national training levy and promote work-based 36

38 learning, vocational skills training and development and related VET programmes. Tertiary Education will focus on providing policy advice and coordinate the management of tertiary education through planning, funding, budgeting and quality assurance. National Human Resource Development Planning will be responsible for global and local labour market monitoring, labour observatory, HRD Impact Assessments, HRD data base and information systems and national HRD policy analysis planning and development. Sectoral Committees a) To serve as a liaison between the HRD Council and its sector. b). To provide a forum for constant dialogue and consensus building among stakeholders in the sector on all matters relating to HRD. c). To advise the Council on emerging economic trends and relevant training needs in its sector. d). To work with relevant Ministries/Agencies to develop and periodically review sector specific HRD plans. e). To initiate and oversee the conduct and implementation of sector specific consultancy studies. f). To advise the Council on appropriate measures to deal with any mismatch between demand and supply of human resources in the sector. g). To identify legislation that impedes HRD and advise the Council accordingly. h). To work with education and training institutions and employers to ensure that there are linkages between the education and training systems and the work place. i). To monitor the implementation of appropriate skills development and apprenticeship schemes and programmes for the sector. j). To work with employers in developing on the job training programmes for their employees. k).to identify job areas that are becoming redundant and recommend 37

39 appropriate retraining and multi-skilling schemes to the Council. l). To encourage employers in the sector to invest in the training of their employees. m). To identify planned major projects that require human resources impact assessment studies and make recommendations to the appropriate Ministries through the Council. n). To advise on appropriate policies for importation of skills that are in short supply. o) To provide a sounding board for the educational sector with respect to curriculum development and the quality of students emerging from the supply side. p) Produce sector specific HRD plans that define skills needs and strategies for their development within a sector. q) Advise HRDC on potential future labour market issues that need attention. r) Ensure that HRD issues are woven into the national development agenda. s) Provide a practical view on the real HRD needs of employers. t) Review spending on HRD and advise on the effectiveness of the expenditures. u) Help identify job areas that are becoming redundant so that re-training is provided to limit potential unemployment. v) Ensure that there is cohesion within the education sector and linkages to all other sectors of society and the economy. w) Initiate HRD Impact assessments for new projects within a sector. 38

40 Strategic Intent National Human Resource Development Value Proposition National human resource development has been inspired in large part by the pioneering work of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It represents a fundamental shift away from conventional economic orthodoxy that promotes the view that a country s economic growth depends on its natural resources. Instead it challenges such an approach by placing human resources at the cornerstone of a country s social and economic development. As illustrated in Figure 10 below it is based on a fundamental understanding that the key to long term success is by building up a new endowment and a new high skills competitive advantage around human resources. It has been recognised by governments throughout the world as being far more relevant for policy planning and far more responsive to the dynamic context of change. Figure 10: Human Resources as the driver of national development Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) 39

41 This approach ensures that human resource development is at the centre of the ensemble of elements that make up Botswana s macro level transformation agenda. These include; National development; Research and innovation; Science and technology; Population demographics; Labour market issues; Business and economic strategy; Information technology; Income polices; Wealth distribution; Poverty; Innovation and entrepreneurship; Employment and immigration policies; Social development and civil society strategies and programmes; Human development issues; Gender; Health; HIV and AIDS; Citizen empowerment; Education and training; Efficiency and financially sustainability. This represents the first value proposition or unique value add that this Strategy provides to Botswana and its future development. The second value proposition is around people. The citizens of Botswana are its greatest asset and the guarantor of the nations long term prosperity. Their key aspiration is to have the critical capacities to realise those potentials. They wish to utilise these potentials to lead full and better and productive lives that are of benefit to themselves as individuals, the family structures they support and the communities in which they live and the nation they belong to. They wish to have a high quality education, to possess the right knowledge, skills and competencies that will enable them to be employed in the high quality jobs that will benefit them as individuals and drive the development of a competitive, sustained and vibrant national and global economy. This requires high quality, effective and efficient human resource development structures and systems that can ensure the realisation of the potentials of each citizen of Botswana. It is also about strengthening the foundations of education which bridge people into skills training and development, tertiary education or into the world of work. It starts from the point of early childhood education and embraces the various learning pathways of the entire human resource development life cycle through 40

42 to life long learning. Lastly it is about access, quality, relevance, excellence and developing a high performance culture. It also takes human resource development to the centre piece of the national reform agenda based on the understanding that the national human resource development strategy cannot be viewed in isolation from other policies, strategies and sectors. It also has a broader and more outwardly focussed approach than has hitherto been the case in Botswana through its goal of building a human resource development capacity that can meet the future needs of the nation as a knowledge society and which in addition has a global dimension. These three value propositions constitute the key anchor which informs the Vision, the Strategic Goals and the Strategic Themes of the National Human Resource Development Strategy. The vision provides direction by focussing not on the current but provide a compelling and desirable picture of the future. The vision will unite Batswana from all walks of life in a common effort to change the destiny of the nation through maximising individual and collective potential. The vision captures the reality that the full impact of the changes made in HRD today reaches beyond Vision 2016 and will be a legacy left for the future generations of this nation. The Strategic and Life Cycle Goals provide the focus for the national ambition and individual aspirations of human resource development. The realisation of the vision and goals is then subsequently guided by three high level strategic themes. These are broad focus areas which are derived from the value proposition. They are described in terms of a desired strategic result and a set of mutually reinforcing objectives, actions and indicators. These link together a set of broad high level strategic issues into a single, seamless, connected and comprehensive matrix. The result is a Strategy that will ensure the delivery of the Value Statement and the realisation of the Vision and which recognises the integral connections between economic and employment growth; social policies and programmes; labour market, employment and immigration issues; enterprise, innovation, and entrepreneurship; education, skills training and development, and human development issues. 41

43 Life Long Learning Life Long Learning Life Long Learning - Vision Statement and Strategic Goals REALISING OUR POTENTIALS VISION Early Child Hood Development Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development By 2022 it will be universally accepted that the quality, productivity and motivation of its people will be Botswana s single greatest and most valuable resource. Early Child Hood Development MISSION Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development Botswana s national human resource development mission will be to encourage each citizen to realise their individual potentials, through an approach which balances need and capability, to enable them to play a full and meaningful role in their community, society and the world. Early Child Hood Development VALUES Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development The following values will underpin each goal, objective and programme activity: Equity Quality High performance standards Accountability. 42

44 Life Long Learning - STRATEGIC GOALS Early Child Hood Development Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development 1. Our collective goal as a nation is to: Harness the full human resource capacity of the nation by providing opportunities for Batswana to realise their full potential across all stages of the human resource development life cycle so as to build a stable, prosperous and globally competitive nation. 2. Our personal goal as individuals is to: Achieve my full potential as an individual by assuming a personal responsibility for my own self-development through determination, courage, self sacrifice, and by recognising that I am ultimately answerable for ensuring the maximisation of my own abilities. 43

45 Life Long Learning - LIFE CYCLE GOALS Early Child Hood Development Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development Strategic Goals INDIVIDUAL LIFE CYCLE ELEMENTS Early Childhood Development Strategic Goal To ensure that parents of children 0-3 are encouraged to enrol their child in some form of ECD programme (parenting, community based programme) and that all children aged 3-5 years should be required to receive between 1-3 years good quality formal preparation through a nationally agreed curriculum and in a well established quality assured ECD nursery or pre-primary institution. Primary Education Strategic Goal To ensure that all children 6 years and older receive a good quality primary education through a relevant curriculum taught by well trained and highly skilled teachers in well established and quality assured primary schools. Secondary Education Strategic Goal To ensure that all children 12 years and older receive a good quality secondary education to at least the level of senior secondary (Form 5) through a relevant curriculum taught by well trained and highly skilled teachers in well established and quality assured secondary schools. Strategic Indicators INDICATORS Strategic Indicator A comprehensive and quality Early Childhood Development system which provides the opportunity to those 6 years and below to lay the basis for realising their future potentials, which by 2022 is comparable to the average of peer comparator middle income countries Strategic Indicator A comprehensive and quality Primary Education system which provides opportunity to those 6 years and older to establish a firm foundation for realising their future potentials, which by 2022 is comparable to the average of peer comparator middle income countries Strategic Indicator A comprehensive and quality Secondary Education system which provides opportunity to those who graduate to have acquired the full range of competencies and understandings to go on either through employment, tertiary education or skills training to realise their future 44

46 Tertiary Education Strategic Goal To ensure that Batswana have equitable access to a quality tertiary education system that is responsive to every element of their personal well-being, social progress and economic development and which advances to the fullest extent possible their potentials for learning, their individual capacities, their future aspirations so they can contribute to the development of a globally connected prosperous nation. Employment Strategic Goal To ensure that Batswana have equitable access to a wide range of employment opportunities both nationally and globally so as to advance to the fullest extent possible their aspirations for personal, social and economic progress and so they can contribute to the development of a globally connected prosperous nation. Skills Training and Development Strategic Goal To ensure that Batswana have equitable access to quality skills training and development opportunities system that are responsive to every element of their personal well-being, social progress and economic development and which advances to the fullest extent possible their potentials for training, their individual capacities, their future aspirations so they can contribute to the development of a globally connected prosperous nation. potentials, which by 2022 is comparable to the average of peer comparator middle income countries Strategic Indicator A comprehensive and quality Tertiary Education system which provides opportunity to those who graduate to have acquired the full range of competencies and understandings to go on, either through employment, or skills training to realise their future potentials, which by 2022 is comparable to the average of peer comparator middle income countries. Strategic Indicator Access to a wide range of quality jobs, both nationally and globally, which provide employment opportunities to those 16 years and older to further maximise their life potentials, which by 2022 is comparable in terms of employment levels and the quality of jobs to the average of peer comparator middle income countries. Strategic Indicator A comprehensive Skills Training and Development system which provides opportunity to those 16 years and older to further maximise their skills potentials, which by 2022 is comparable to the average of peer comparator middle income countries 45

47 Life Long Learning - Life Long Learning Strategic Goal To ensure that Batswana have equitable access to quality life long learning opportunities that are responsive to every element of their personal well-being, social progress and economic development and which advances to the fullest extent possible their potentials for learning, their individual capacities, their future aspirations so they can contribute to the development of a globally connected and prosperous nation. CROSS CUTTING GOALS Strategic Indicator A comprehensive Life Long Learning system which provides opportunity to those 24 years and older to further maximise their learning potentials, which by 2022 is comparable to the average of peer comparator middle income countries Early Child Hood Development Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development Community The realisation of the NHRD Strategy will place a premium on programmes and activities which play a constructive part in contributing to the needs, contexts and prosperity of the community in which they are situated National The realisation of the NHRD Strategy will place a premium on programmes and activities which play a constructive part in responding to national needs and priorities. Global The realisation of the NHRD Strategy will place a premium on programmes and activities which play a constructive part in contributing to Botswana s role as a globally connected and globally competitive nation 46

48 Strategy Road Map The implementation framework logically links the Value Proposition, Vision Mission and Strategic Goals to a series of Strategic Themes that will produce the key deliverables and realisable outcomes. Communication, stakeholder engagement, change management and capacity development provide a key underpinning of the entire strategy. Value Proposition Vision Goals Strategic Themes Vision Strategic Theme 1 System Level Strategic Capacity Strategic Theme 2 Sector Driven Planning Strategic Theme 3 Strategic Change Initiatives Human Resource Development Structures Sector Level Plans Generation and Incubation Human Resource Development Systems National Human Resource Development Plan Acceleration and Mainstreaming COMMUNICATION STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT - CHANGE MANAGEMENT CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT 47

49 Strategic Theme 1: System Level Strategic Capacity Value Proposition The National Human Resource Development Strategy cannot be achieved without strengthening the strategic capacity and capability of the system as a whole. While there are many talented and committed people who are making major contributions to the national human resource development agenda, their effort is dispersed and fragmented. The system as presently organised is not cohesive or coherent and does not have the capability to provide the human resources that Botswana s future requires. Key structural changes are needed in order to ensure: Alignment of human resource development with national economic and societal goals; Integration of human resource development within the national transformation and diversification agenda. This requires the development of a system level strategic organisational capacity and capability that is characterised in terms of: Strategic and future focussed leadership; Clear understanding of roles, responsibilities and accountabilities; High quality programme and service delivery; High quality well resourced organisational infrastructures, systems and processes that can deliver on the system level mission and mandate; High quality people who embrace diversity and strive to lead to success; Strong linkages between government, business, labour, civil society and the education, skills training and development sectors of Botswana; Effective engagement and partnerships that pulls together people, ideas and resources to capitalise on emerging opportunities; Flexibility and responsiveness in which new ideas are nurtured and supported; A culture that encourages innovation and creativity. 48

50 STRATEGY FRAMEWORK STRATEGIC RESULT New, improved and reformed high level national level structures and strengthened system capability with the strategic capacity to drive national human resource development and ensure that Botswana has the human resource endowment that its future requires. OBJECTIVE INDICATORS & TARGETS Optimal structures and systems in place, in terms of effectiveness and efficiency that are aligned in terms of strategic focus, accountabilities and responsibilities and which collectively can deliver the National Human Resource Development Strategy. Process (Inputs and Activities) Indicator: Structures and systems established, staffed, resourced and functioning. Targets: 1) Start up Phase Presidential directive establishing the Human Resource Development Advisory Council (HRDAC) including Chair and membership. Launch of HRDAC and Strategy (2009) 2) Consolidation Phase HRDAC established and operational (2010), statutory base of the Council and transition of TEC and BOTA (2011) and structures and systems comprehensively established and functioning (2016). Outcomes (Outputs and Impacts) Indicator: Structures and systems delivering on their mandates. Targets: 1) Operational Phase structures and systems comprehensively delivering on the fulfilment of mission and mandate by ) Optimal Phase structures and systems delivering high performance results in terms of their mandate with benefit realisation and value add for stakeholders by 2022 Source of Verification: HRD Council and supporting structures Organisational Capacity and Performance Assessment Studies undertaken in 2012, 2016 and

51 Initiation Phase ACTIONS Short Term ( ) 1. Presidential Directive forming the Human Resource Development (Advisory) Council (HRDAC) and appointing national leader to chair the HRDAC and membership. 2. Launch of Human Resource Development Advisory Council and Strategy. 3. Appointment induction and capacity development of Council and Sectoral Committees. 4. Induction, orientation and capacity development. Start Up Operational Phase Medium Term ( ) 1. Human Resource Development Council Establishment Review of the mandates of existing and proposed Councils and Advisory Bodies (National Council on Education, LMO, TEC, BOTA, NEMIC, etc.) with a view to eliminating overlapping functions. Diagnoses, design, build, and operate to level of start up. - Mandate - Legislation; - Strategic and Business Plans - Budgets - Reporting and Performance Measurement systems - Strategic Positioning; - Organisational culture - Organisational functions and structures - Operational roles and responsibilities; - Organisational HR strategy - Organisational infrastructure and process - Programme and service definition; - Transition. 2. Sectoral Committees needs assessment, diagnosis, design, build, operate.. 3. Human Resource Development Planning Systems needs assessment, diagnosis, design, build, operate. Long Term ( ) Consolidation Phase (2016) - deepening of capacity to deliver of mandates Optimisation Phase (2022) - benefit realisation and value add in terms of capacity to deliver on mandates. 50

52 Strategic Theme 2: Sector Driven National Human Resource Development Planning Value Proposition Botswana needs effective human resource development planning to meet public expectations and to ensure a successful transition from a resource driven to an efficiency driven economy and to lay the foundation for a subsequent transition to a knowledge based, innovation economy. This requires a collaborative integrated systems approach to human resource development planning that links together national policies and strategies, education and skills development, the labour market and the economy and which cuts across separate jurisdictions to ensure a pan-botswana National Human Resource Development Plan. The approach to human resource development planning that is currently in place does not match these expectations and does not have the capability to provide the human resources that Botswana s future requires. Key structural changes are needed in order to ensure: Alignment of human resource development planning with national economic and societal goals and the needs of the global market place; Integration of the planning of the post secondary and labour market sectors to ensure the right mix of graduates, in the right place at the right time, with the necessary skills and competencies and employed in the right jobs who can drive the national transformation and diversification agenda and ensure Botswana s transition to becoming a successful Efficiency Driven and subsequently Knowledge Driven Economy. This requires the development of a new sector level approach to national human resource development planning that is characterised in terms of: Developing human resource development plans for key sectors of the economy which represent national priorities given their strategic importance and rapid pace of growth; Partnerships that bring together the leadership from various jurisdictions (Government, business and employers; employees and unions, civil society; education and skills training and development) to form a single nexus in planning and designing collaborative actions around human resource development; Adopting a common template to human resource development planning which will be holistic, integrated and strategic and based on delivering the sector and service delivery needs rather than the current approach which is supply driven. 51

53 STRATEGY FRAMEWORK STRATEGIC RESULT New, improved and high level macro understanding of Botswana s strategic and long term human resource requirements from a national and global perspective and an alignment of the institutional capacity and capability to respond effectively to meet those needs and demands. OBJECTIVE INDICATORS & TARGETS Sector driven National Human Resource Development Plan that aligns capacities and capabilities to national priorities and global demand. Process (Inputs and Activities) Indicator: Formulation and implementation of HRD plans for driving and enabling sectors and macro level National HRD Plan. Target: 2 Sector Level Plans completed (2010) 4 additional plans by 2011 and 4 further plans by 2014 and the National HRD Plan formulated, approved and ready for implementation by 2015 and progressively implemented, monitored, evaluated and refreshed through to Outcomes (Outputs and Impacts) Incorporation of National Human Resource Development Plan into mid term review of NDP10 and subsequent NDP11 Plan. Source of Verification: Short Term ( ) Mid Term review of NDP10 and approved NDP11. ACTIONS 1. Development of Sectoral and National HRD Planning framework. 2. Initiation of Sectoral Planning, orientation of key Sectoral Committees and capacity development. Medium Term ( ) Development of sector specific and National HRD plans: 1. Identification of sector specific HRD needs; 2. Research on global and regional sector specific needs; 3. Identifying skills sets and required competencies ; 4. Comparison with local supply and skills being produced; and 5. Recommendations for HRD development and interim expatriate needs (if required) with skill transfer plans; 52

54 6. Undertaking of HRD Impact Assessments; 7. Synthesis of sectoral HRD plans into National HRD Plan; 8. Identify the competencies and job clusters for which there will be a skills demand; 9. Review of potential global and regional demand for these skills and job clusters; 10. Prioritisation of those competencies and job clusters for matching with the supply side of the HRD plan either through a) local skills emerging from training institutions or b) permission to hire expatriates till such time as the skills needs will be addressed by the institutions. and c) the implementation of a Reverse Migration Strategy that will target the return of skilled and experienced citizens to enter new jobs and set up new businesses within Botswana; 11. Breakdown across the NHRDS Life Cycle of specific goals, targets and actions by ministries and agencies; 12. Prioritisation of competencies and job clusters where there is a local, regional and international demand with priority given to developing those skills which satisfy local needs and are capable of being exported; 13. Alignment of tertiary education, skills development and training institutional, shape and size and programme and qualifications mix. Long Term ( ) Comprehensive drive towards realising the NHRDS vision and optimisation, benefit realisation and value add in terms of the NHRDS planning value proposition. 53

55 Strategic Theme 3: Strategic Change Initiatives Value Proposition Botswana s National Human Resource Development Strategy has both an expansive and an inclusive scope that embraces the work of various ministries, government support agencies, non government organisations and the cross section of private enterprises in the country. The entire population is the target of the strategy and the outcomes will determine Botswana s future. The Strategy and the HRD Council should not bee seen as a means of micro-managing every HRD related programme and activity that is taking place in those organisations. Instead its role is to identify and implement a series of strategic interventions and focused actions that will provide the leverage for ensuring significant strategic change of the national HRD agenda and to drive strategic change. To shape this new approach to the nation s approach to human resource development requires a complete new thinking and mindset change. Thinking and activities should be oriented towards strategic innovation rather than being inward looking and pre-occupied with routine and tactics. The leaders of our organisations that are driving national human resource development should not be laden with the weight of short term operational activities which are focussed on delivering the goals and objectives of yesterday and today. Their concentration should be focused on dealing with the challenges of tomorrow. What are required are new creative and innovative approaches to national human resource development which welcome and reward new ideas and paradigms, which will inform and influence new policies, strategies, programmes and actions and which will provide tomorrows payoffs and guarantee Botswana s future. This needs a dynamic and continuous strategic thinking process that embraces the entire national human resource development life cycle and cuts across organisational jurisdictions to become part of the National Human Resource Development DNA. To make this happen the Human Resource Development Council will be responsible for initiating, accelerating and mainstreaming a series of strategic change initiatives that will ensure the long term NHRDS vision is kept at the forefront of decision making and action across the entire national enterprise. This will seek to tap into the collective brain of the nation to ignite positive strategic change with the goal of building a national human resource capability that can make a real and substantial difference to Botswana s future development. Each of the Sectoral Committees will identify and propose strategic change initiatives which will be reviewed and considered by the HRDC and after approval be consolidated into the National Human Resource Development Plan. The strategic change initiatives that are identified will address all aspects of the HRD life cycle model and will ensure that each stage of the life cycle is dealt with 54

56 Life Long Learning - in a holistic manner that links together the key issues of 1) Strategy, Structure and Systems and 2) Access, Quality, Relevance and Efficiency. The consolidation of the initiatives in the National Human Resource Development Strategy will be through a Strategic Change Initiative Process Model, as outlined below. This will guarantee a proper linkage between all the elements of the life cycle and ensure a unity of purpose for national human resource development. Figure 11 Strategic Change Initiative Process Model Strategy Efficiency Structure Early Child Hood Development Relevance Strategic Initiatives Systems Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary Education Employment Skills Training & Development Quality Access Source: Tertiary Education Council (2009) The implementation of the Strategic Initiatives will be a key responsibility of the Human Resource Development Council. The task will be to ensure that the entire HRD sector is influenced and benefits from the work of the Council and that the strategy is refreshed and implemented on a continuous basis. An annual NHRD Conference will be convened by the Council of all key stakeholders to share and communicate the strategic thinking of the Council around new approaches to HRD and to ensure take up of these new initiatives across all sectors of the country. 55

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