Shtokman Development AG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Shtokman Development AG"

Transcription

1 Shtokman Development AG Integrated Development of the Shtokman Gas- Condensate Field. Phase 1 SDAG Standard EPC Contract. Main Principles.

2 EPC Contracts What is an EPC contract? - Contract for Engineering, Procurement and Construction. Why EPC contracts? Types of EPC Contracts EPSC EPSCC EPCI

3 SDAG EPC CONTRACT (1) SDAG EPC Contract Structure: Articles + Annexes + Exhibits

4 ARTICLES OF THE AGREEMENT: Preamble SDAG EPC CONTRACT (2) Chapter I Subject Matter of the Contract and Definitions Chapter II General Chapter III The Performance of the Work Chapter IV Conditions for the Performance of the Work Chapter V Financial Conditions Chapter VI Liabilities and Insurances Chapter VII Industrial Property Rights Title Confidentiality Chapter VIII Defective Performance Convenience Force Majeure; Suspension Termination Take-over Chapter IX Governing Law Conflict of Interests Liens Disputes Notices Chapter X Effective Date Provisions Surviving the Contract Chapter XI Limitation of Liability

5 ANNEXES TO THE AGREEMENT: SDAG EPC CONTRACT (3) Annex 1 - Guarantees 1/A - Form of Bank Guarantee (Performance Guarantee) 1/B - Form of Bank Guarantee (Advance Payment Recovery) 1/C - Form of Demand 1/D - Form of Parent Company Guarantee Annex 2 - Form of Final Account Certificate Annex 3 - Deeds of Mutual Indemnity and Waiver Of Recourse 3/A - Form for Contractor 3/B - Form for Subcontractors Annex 4 - Deed of Liability and Insurance from Subcontractors Annex 5 - Assignment Agreement Annex 6 - Certificate of Endorsement of Design Dossier Annex 7 - Interim Certificates (Load-out, Commissioning, Hand-over) Annex 8 - Provisional Acceptance Certificate Annex 9 - Final Acceptance Certificate Annex 10 - Contractor s Insurance Status ALL ANNEXES FORM AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE CONTRACT. WHEN SIGNED, DOCUMENTS BASED ON ANNEXES BECOME STAND-ALONE DOCUMENTS.

6 EXHIBITS TO THE CONTRACT: SDAG EPC CONTRACT (4) Exhibit A - Exhibit B - Exhibit C - Exhibit D - Exhibit E - Exhibit F - Exhibit G - Exhibit H - Scope of Work and Services to Company Schedule of Prices Work Time Schedule Performance Guarantees Project Description and Design Dossier Particular Conditions for the Performance of the Work Co-ordination Procedure Quality Assurance and Quality Control Exhibit I - Company Items and Early Contracts Exhibit J - Exhibit K - Exhibit L - List of Subcontractors and Vendors Contractor's Organisation and Key Personnel Health Safety and Environment Requirements THE EXHIBITS FORM AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE CONTRACT.

7 ED Example of EPSCC Contract Scheme E, P, S, C, C HAND OVER TO SDAG Start Up and PAC FAC Performance Tests Bank guarantee down, release of last payment INTERIM CERTIFICATES Warranty Period READY FOR LOAD OUT READY FOR TRANSPORTATION READY FOR COMMISSIONING HAND OVER LDs Care of the Plant by Contractor

8 Main Specificities of EPC Contracts (1) Endorsement of Design Dossier Documents to be endorsed and not to be endorsed Interim Certificates Hand-over PAC Warranty FAC Surviving Obligations Bank Guarantees (advance payment, performance) Parent Company Guarantee Liquidated Damages Care of the Plant Damages to Property/Personnel/Third Parties Consequential Losses

9 Main Specificities of EPC Contracts (2) Principle of Waiver of Recourse + Indemnity and Hold Harmless Company Insurance and Contractor Insurance Confidentiality Suspension/Termination by Company for Contractor Default Force Majeure Company Convenience Suspension by Contractor Force Majeure Termination by Contractor Force Majeure Long Suspension for Company Convenience English Law ICC Arbitration in Stockholm English Language all neutral

10 Subcontracts and Subcontractors Subcontracting requires prior approval by Company Pre-approved Subcontractors and Vendors listed under the Contract Terms and Conditions of main subcontracts to be similar to those of the EPC Contract Contractor is solely liable for subcontracting, and indemnifies and hold harmless Company from any consequences thereof

11 FINANCIAL CONDITIONS The Contract Price is on a lump sum basis with some elements under provisional sums (concept of reimbursable basis: time rates, unit rates, at cost plus fee) Contract Price is established net of Russian VAT and is deemed to include all other taxes and Customs Duties. Russian VAT is payable by COMPANY (as applicable) Amount to appear on invoices Payment of invoices within 30 days from end of the month of receipt Bank Guarantees and Parent Company Guarantees Liquidated Damages (delays, substitution / late mobilisation of keypersonnel, performance)

12 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES FOR DELAYS - PRINCIPLES LDs for delays under English Law are deemed to be a genuine preestimate of the damages suffered by the Client as a result of the delays to the works / services ( liquidated and ascertained damages ) LDs should then apply at milestones when Company eventually needs the result of the works / services for further use i.e. at interfaces with other tasks under Company s responsibility, such as: EFFECTIVE DATE DELIVERY OF DOCUMENTS: - FOR APPLYING TO AUTHORITIES - FOR INTERFACED CONTRACTORS HAND-OVER OF PLANT UNIT X TO COMPANY HAND-OVER OF CERTAIN PARTS OF THE PLANT TO COMPANY s OTHER CONTRACTOR

13 LIABILITIES AND INSURANCES. BASIC PRINCIPLES Types of Risks: Damage to the facilities in course of construction (Plant) Personal injury/disease/death of Parties personnel Damage to or loss of Parties property Damage, loss, injury or death to Third Parties Liabilities as per oil & gas industry practice: Knock for knock for the other Party property, the other Party personnel, damage to third parties, own consequential losses Applicable Law for damage / loss to third parties Insurances in accordance with: Worldwide insurance programmes (e.g. Welcar 2001) Insurance market and its cycles and trends

14 KNOCK FOR KNOCK Party A Damage X Party B No recourse Party A Insurers X Party B Insurers FAULT BASED Party A Damage Party B Recourse Party A Insurers Party B Insurers

15 KNOCK FOR KNOCK PRINCIPLE Contractual obligation of one party (the indemnitor) to indemnify another party (the indemnitee) for damage/losses the indemnitee may cause or for which he may be held liable due to his fault or even his negligence Duty to get insured: a promise to indemnify from a non-solvent indemnitor (or his insurer) is worthless Advantages: No disruption of performance of contracts as avoiding the burden of claims between the Parties More effective management of key areas of risks, and potential for reduced insurance premiums

16 LIABILITIES AND INSURANCES CLAUSES (1) Each Party remains liable for: Damages to its personnel (injury, disease, death, property), Damages to its property Damages it caused to third party, and Each Party carries its own consequential losses irrespective of the cause Each Party remains liable for damage to Third Parties

17 LIABILITIES AND INSURANCES CLAUSES (2) Contractor liable for the Care of the Plant Contractor has the benefit of Company s Insurance Construction All Risk Insurance Policy (CAR) for the Plant Subject to deductibles, payable by Contractor Company liable for damages to existing property owned or operated by Company other than the Plant Deductibles payable by Contractor if damage/loss to Company s existing facilities are caused by Contractor Contractor liable for damages to his equipment

18 LIABILITIES AND INSURANCES CLAUSES (3) Between Company and Subcontractors Through execution of «Deeds of Liability and Insurance» to be signed by subcontractors Between Contractor & his Subcontractors, and Company other contractors Through execution of «Deeds of Mutual Indemnity and Waivers of Recourse»

19 MIWRA The Mutual Indemnity and Waiver of Recourse Agreements (MIWRA) system has been proven This system is in place with most offshore operators worldwide, extended to onshore in complex Projects, especially involving sea transportations Widespread implementation in UK Oil & Gas Industry - Industry Mutual Hold Harmless (IMHH)

20 MIWRA BETWEEN CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS SDAG CTR 2 CTR 1 CTR 3 Sub-CTR 1 Sub-CTR 2

21 CONTRACTOR INSURANCES Contractor to take insurances: Workmen s compensation / employer s liability All risk insurance for his equipment (e.g. cranes, ) Comprehensive General Third party liability insurance Hull and Machinery All risk insurance for Contractor Items up to Worksites Automobiles, aircrafts Underwriters to waive their rights of subrogation against Company and Company s underwriters Company to be Additional Assured Contractor to provide insurance certificates

22 COMPANY CAR INSURANCE «All risk» insurance Contractor Indemnified Parties are additional assureds Waiver of insurers rights of subrogation Includes third party liability but solely at Site and up to PAC only Effective date of CAR policy as of commencement of the works Deductibles to be borne by Contractor when he has caused the damage to the Plant at Worksite

23 CONFIDENTIALITY All information and data issued by SDAG constitute confidential information Such confidential information can only be disclosed to third parties with prior SDAG consent, and against a similar undertaking of confidentiality from the recipient third party Confidentiality Agreements have to be signed by Tenderers prior to receiving call for tender documents

24 SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION Defective Performance Company's Convenience Force Majeure (3 conditions: events unforeseeable, insurmountable and outside of the control of the Party which invokes it)

GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS

GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS Contents A. SCOPE...3 B. CONFIDENTIALITY, NAME, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND TAX EXEMPT STATUS OF THE WTO...3 B.1. Confidentiality...3 B.2. Use of the name, logo or official seal

More information

Asset Protection Agreement Templates - Customer Explanatory Notes. Explanatory Notes on Asset Protection Agreement

Asset Protection Agreement Templates - Customer Explanatory Notes. Explanatory Notes on Asset Protection Agreement Asset Protection Agreement Templates - Customer Explanatory Notes Explanatory Notes on Asset Protection Agreement Clause Heading Background The Asset Protection Agreement is intended for use where the

More information

IMPORTANT! - Please use the attached Application for Payment. All payment requests must be submitted on our form. Thank you!

IMPORTANT! - Please use the attached Application for Payment. All payment requests must be submitted on our form. Thank you! ` SUBCONTRACTOR: PHONE PROJECT: LOCATION: Page 1 of 6 SUBCONTRACT (SHORT FORM) JOB NO.: COST CODE: PRICE: This agreement is made and effective, by and between SUN CONSTRUCTION & FACILITY SERVICES, INC.

More information

SECTION 2 THE BOEING COMPANY GENERAL PROVISIONS FIXED PRICE SERVICES CONTRACT GP2

SECTION 2 THE BOEING COMPANY GENERAL PROVISIONS FIXED PRICE SERVICES CONTRACT GP2 SECTION 2 THE BOEING COMPANY GENERAL PROVISIONS FIXED PRICE SERVICES CONTRACT GP2 SECTION 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS THE BOEING COMPANY GENERAL PROVISIONS FIXED PRICE SERVICES CONTRACT - GP2 1. FORMATION OF CONTRACT.

More information

PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS

PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS The COMPANY wishes to procure; and the CONTRACTOR is able to supply certain GOODS all as described in the PURCHASE ORDER. Such GOODS shall be supplied in accordance

More information

CONTRACT TO BUILD A HOUSE AT

CONTRACT TO BUILD A HOUSE AT CONTRACT TO BUILD A HOUSE AT I. Contract Parties Now comes (builder s name) (address) and (buyer s name) (address) to hereby agree to build a house on property located at (common address) and legally described

More information

RBI ASSET MANAGEMENT STANDARD CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS

RBI ASSET MANAGEMENT STANDARD CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS RBI Asset Management (Pty) Ltd P O Box 7192 Halfway House 1685 Tel: 011 805 7933 Fax: (086) 675-9194 E-mail: geoff@rbi.co.za RBI ASSET MANAGEMENT STANDARD CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS 1. DEFINITIONS These Conditions,

More information

SHORT FORM PRIME CONTRACT BETWEEN OWNER & CONTRACTOR

SHORT FORM PRIME CONTRACT BETWEEN OWNER & CONTRACTOR SHORT FORM PRIME CONTRACT BETWEEN OWNER & CONTRACTOR This Agreement ( Contract ) is made this day of, 20, between ( Contractor ) and ( Owner ) at The work described in Section 1 below shall be performed

More information

MASTER AGREEMENT FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES

MASTER AGREEMENT FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES MASTER AGREEMENT FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES THIS AGREEMENT is made and entered into this day of, 2007, by and between the University of Washington ( Owner ) and, ( Project

More information

The amount to be included in any such application shall be the amount due to the Sub-Contractor from Cardy which shall be:

The amount to be included in any such application shall be the amount due to the Sub-Contractor from Cardy which shall be: Page 1 of 9 1. Initial Works/ Letter of intent (1) Until such time as the Principal Contract has been signed or executed (notification of which will be provided by Cardy to the Sub-Contractor), Cardy will

More information

4.1 The property and any copyright or other intellectual property rights in any Input Material shall belong to the Subscriber.

4.1 The property and any copyright or other intellectual property rights in any Input Material shall belong to the Subscriber. 1 Interpretation 1.1 In these Conditions: THE SERVICE PROVIDER means Cutec Remote Backup Terms and Conditions THE SERVICE PROVIDER S STANDARD CHARGES means the charges shown in the Order Sheet or other

More information

AGREEMENT FOR FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING CONSULTATION SERVICES

AGREEMENT FOR FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING CONSULTATION SERVICES AGREEMENT FOR FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING CONSULTATION SERVICES THIS AGREEMENT is made as of December 1, 2003, by and between the San Francisquito Creek Joint Powers Authority, a body corporate and politic

More information

Welcome to the Model Residential Construction Contract Lump Sum

Welcome to the Model Residential Construction Contract Lump Sum Welcome to the Model Residential Construction Contract Lump Sum The Council for the Construction Law Section of the Washington State Bar Association prepared this Model Residential Construction Contract

More information

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

TERMS AND CONDITIONS Page 1 of 14 TERMS AND CONDITIONS 1. TERMS OF APPLICATION The tenderer accepts all terms and conditions printed on this form and all other attachments herewith. 2. TENDER AMOUNT The amount tendered by

More information

THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY AUTHORITY OF IRELAND PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF PURCHASE

THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY AUTHORITY OF IRELAND PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF PURCHASE THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY AUTHORITY OF IRELAND PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF PURCHASE WHEREAS The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (hereinafter called SEAI ) of Wilton Park House, Wilton Place,

More information

SAMPLE SERVICES CONTRACT

SAMPLE SERVICES CONTRACT SAMPLE SERVICES CONTRACT The parties to this contract are the SAN DIEGO COUNTY WATER AUTHORITY, a county water authority, (the Water Authority) and, [a / an], having its principal place of business at

More information

CONTRACT FOR CONSTRUCTION SERVICES

CONTRACT FOR CONSTRUCTION SERVICES STATE OF TEXAS } } COUNTY OF McLENNAN } } BRAZOS RIVER AUTHORITY } CONTRACT FOR CONSTRUCTION SERVICES In consideration of the mutual promises set forth below, the Brazos River Authority ("BRA"), a river

More information

Mako Networks Sales & Marketing, Inc. Terms & Conditions for End User System Access, Use & Service Supply

Mako Networks Sales & Marketing, Inc. Terms & Conditions for End User System Access, Use & Service Supply Mako Networks Sales & Marketing, Inc. Terms & Conditions for End User System Access, Use & Service Supply 1. Introduction a. Binding Terms: These terms and conditions constitute a legally binding agreement

More information

This Agreement is made between Barnard College and

This Agreement is made between Barnard College and AGREEMENT FOR CONSULTING SERVICES This Agreement is made between and contractor located at, an independent ( Consultant ). 1. General Provisions: Consultant agrees to perform the services set forth in

More information

LAS VEGAS VALLEY WATER DISTRICT

LAS VEGAS VALLEY WATER DISTRICT LAS VEGAS VALLEY WATER DISTRICT INSURANCE/INDEMNITY REQUIREMENTS TO PROVIDE PROFESSIONAL SERVICES Contacts Under $25,000 Page 2 Contracts over $25,000 and under $100,000. Page 3 Contacts Over $100,000

More information

Purchase Order Terms and Conditions

Purchase Order Terms and Conditions Purchase Order Terms and Conditions BGC Contracting Date As per Purchase Order 1. Definitions BGC means the BGC entity named in the Purchaser Order its authorised agents, employees, heirs and successors.

More information

T: +43-(0)590900-3540 F: +43-(0)590900-3178 e-mail: ubit@wko.at http://www.ubit.at

T: +43-(0)590900-3540 F: +43-(0)590900-3178 e-mail: ubit@wko.at http://www.ubit.at Professional Association of Management Consultancy and Information Technology (Fachverband Unternehmensberatung und Informationstechnologie) Wiedner Hauptstraße 63 A-1045 Vienna T: +43-(0)590900-3540 F:

More information

Welcome to the Model Residential Construction Contract Cost Plus

Welcome to the Model Residential Construction Contract Cost Plus Welcome to the Model Residential Construction Contract Cost Plus The Council for the Construction Law Section of the Washington State Bar Association prepared this Model Residential Construction Contract

More information

BROOKFIELD GLOBAL INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS STANDARD PURCHASE ORDER TERMS FOR SUPPLIES

BROOKFIELD GLOBAL INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS STANDARD PURCHASE ORDER TERMS FOR SUPPLIES BROOKFIELD GLOBAL INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS STANDARD PURCHASE ORDER TERMS FOR SUPPLIES Entire Agreement: These standard terms and any Purchase Order will together comprise the complete contract between Brookfield

More information

THE LAW OF BIOMASS Setting Up Shop: Design, Engineering, and Construction of Biomass Projects

THE LAW OF BIOMASS Setting Up Shop: Design, Engineering, and Construction of Biomass Projects THE LAW OF BIOMASS Setting Up Shop: Design, Engineering, and Construction of Biomass Projects Karl F. Oles Stoel Rives LLP 600 University Street, Suite 3600 Seattle, WA 98101-4109 206-386-7535 kfoles@stoel.com

More information

WINTERSHALL NORGE AS GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS I FOR ONSHORE GOODS. Table of Content

WINTERSHALL NORGE AS GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS I FOR ONSHORE GOODS. Table of Content WINTERSHALL NORGE AS GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS I FOR ONSHORE GOODS Table of Content Page 1. APPLICATION... 2 2. DEFINITIONS... 2 3. PURCHASE ORDER; ORDER CONFIRMATION... 2 4. THE GOODS... 2 5. QUALITY

More information

Web Hosting Terms & Conditions

Web Hosting Terms & Conditions Web Hosting Terms & Conditions Please read these web-hosting terms carefully, as they set out our and your rights and obligations in relation to our web hosting services. AGREEMENT: Whereas: (1) The Ruby

More information

RWE Innogy UK Ltd General Conditions of Contract for Mobile Crane (with operators) for Contract Lift Operations. Version 1.3

RWE Innogy UK Ltd General Conditions of Contract for Mobile Crane (with operators) for Contract Lift Operations. Version 1.3 RWE Innogy UK Ltd General Conditions of Contract for Mobile Crane (with operators) for Contract Lift Operations Version 1.3 Date 09/06/2015 Document Control Procurement Revision History Version Date Changes

More information

TERMS AND CONDITIONS MAINTENANCE SERVICES. Value Added Asset Management Pty Ltd shall hereinafter be referred to as "Value Added Asset Management".

TERMS AND CONDITIONS MAINTENANCE SERVICES. Value Added Asset Management Pty Ltd shall hereinafter be referred to as Value Added Asset Management. TERMS AND CONDITIONS MAINTENANCE SERVICES 1. DEFINITIONS (e) Value Added Asset Management Pty Ltd shall hereinafter be referred to as "Value Added Asset Management". The person, firm or company with whom

More information

SCHEDULE 9: INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS

SCHEDULE 9: INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS SCHEDULE 9: INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS Part 1: General Requirements 1 Public Liability and Products Liability 1.1 Cover Legal liability of the Insured Party (being the parties listed in paragraph 1.2 of this

More information

California Civil Code 2782.05

California Civil Code 2782.05 California Civil Code 2782.05 (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), provisions, clauses, covenants, and agreements contained in, collateral to, or affecting any construction contract and amendments

More information

Minimum Insurance Requirements for Construction, Non- Construction, Consultants and Professional Design Contracts

Minimum Insurance Requirements for Construction, Non- Construction, Consultants and Professional Design Contracts Minimum Insurance Requirements for Construction, Non- Construction, Consultants and Professional Design Contracts Highlights This site is informational. It does not supersede our construction contract.

More information

Exhibit D CRANE AUCTION INDEMNIFICATION AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS

Exhibit D CRANE AUCTION INDEMNIFICATION AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS Exhibit D CRANE AUCTION INDEMNIFICATION AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS The insurance requirements below are dependent on the actions to be taken by the successful vendor(s) following the Port of Los Angeles

More information

Article 1: Subject. Article 2: Orders - Order Confirmation

Article 1: Subject. Article 2: Orders - Order Confirmation GENERAL CONDITIONS OF PURCHASE Article 1: Subject 1.1 The following general conditions of purchase (the "General Conditions") establish the contractual conditions governing the purchase of raw materials,

More information

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CITY OF BEVERLY HILLS AND VENDOR TBD FOR PURCHASE AND INSTALLATION OF AUTOMATED LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CITY OF BEVERLY HILLS AND VENDOR TBD FOR PURCHASE AND INSTALLATION OF AUTOMATED LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CITY OF BEVERLY HILLS AND VENDOR TBD FOR PURCHASE AND INSTALLATION OF AUTOMATED LICENSE PLATE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS NAME OF CONTRACTOR: RESPONSIBLE PRINCIPAL OF CONTRACTOR:, Vendor

More information

7.4.1 Be required to make exhaustive or continuous on-site reviews;

7.4.1 Be required to make exhaustive or continuous on-site reviews; SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS TO THE CANADIAN STANDARD FORM OF CONTRACT FOR ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DOCUMENT SIX 2006 EDITION RAIC 6 2006 FRASER HEALTH PROJECTS The following Supplementary Conditions are specific

More information

General Terms and Conditions for Ziviltechniker (Architects and Chartered Engineering Consultants) Services (hereafter: Terms)

General Terms and Conditions for Ziviltechniker (Architects and Chartered Engineering Consultants) Services (hereafter: Terms) Stand: 1. 11. 2010 General Terms and Conditions for Ziviltechniker (Architects and Chartered Engineering Consultants) Services (hereafter: Terms) I. Definition and Interpretation The services and offers

More information

CONSULTING SERVICES AGREEMENT

CONSULTING SERVICES AGREEMENT CONSULTING SERVICES AGREEMENT THIS AGREEMENT ("Agreement") is entered into on / /, between SCWOA ("Consultant"), a CA corporation with its principal place of business located at PO Box 1195, Pacifica,

More information

Terms and Conditions of Offer and Contract (Works & Services) Conditions of Offer

Terms and Conditions of Offer and Contract (Works & Services) Conditions of Offer Conditions of Offer A1 The offer documents comprise the offer form, letter of invitation to offer (if any), these Conditions of Offer and Conditions of Contract (Works & Services), the Working with Queensland

More information

INSURANCE AND INDEMNIFICATION REQUIREMENTS. RE: CCTV system for bus shelters at the Economy Lot PAGE 1 OF 4

INSURANCE AND INDEMNIFICATION REQUIREMENTS. RE: CCTV system for bus shelters at the Economy Lot PAGE 1 OF 4 1THE PHILADELPHIA PARKING AUTHORITY RE: CCTV system for bus shelters at the Economy Lot PAGE 1 OF 4 Prior to commencement of the contract and until completion of your work, shall, at its sole expense,

More information

GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA STANDARD FORM OF DESIGN & BUILD / TURNKEY CONTRACT (PWD FORM DB/T)

GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA STANDARD FORM OF DESIGN & BUILD / TURNKEY CONTRACT (PWD FORM DB/T) GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA STANDARD FORM OF DESIGN & BUILD / TURNKEY CONTRACT (PWD FORM DB/T) CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT FOR DESIGN & BUILD AND TURNKEY PROJECTS (PWD FORM DB/T) This form has been approved by Attorney

More information

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER AT SAN ANTONIO and PROJECT ARCHITECT for A PROJECT OF LIMITED SIZE OR SCOPE

AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER AT SAN ANTONIO and PROJECT ARCHITECT for A PROJECT OF LIMITED SIZE OR SCOPE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS HEALTH SCIENCE CENTER AT SAN ANTONIO and PROJECT ARCHITECT for A PROJECT OF LIMITED SIZE OR SCOPE This Agreement is made as of, 20 (the Effective Date ), by and

More information

Schedule 11. The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006

Schedule 11. The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 Schedule 11 The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 1 Definitions 1.1 In this Schedule 11 the following definitions apply: Contractor Personnel means any employee, worker,

More information

Purchase Order Terms and Conditions 1. ACCEPTANCE

Purchase Order Terms and Conditions 1. ACCEPTANCE Purchase Order Terms and Conditions 1. ACCEPTANCE In the absence of written acceptance of the purchase order, Seller's commencement of work on the services or goods subject to this purchase order, or the

More information

COLOCATION SERVICE SCHEDULE

COLOCATION SERVICE SCHEDULE COLOCATION SERVICE SCHEDULE 1. DEFINITIONS AND INTERPRETATION 1.1 Definitions Capitalised terms in this Service Schedule not otherwise defined here have the meaning given in the Standard Terms and Conditions:

More information

ELECTRICITY NORTH WEST LTD GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT (BUSINESS)

ELECTRICITY NORTH WEST LTD GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT (BUSINESS) ELECTRICITY NORTH WEST LTD GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT (BUSINESS) 1. Definitions In these Conditions: "Acceptance Form" means the acceptance form provided by Us to You with the Contract Documentation;

More information

PURCHASE ORDER GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS

PURCHASE ORDER GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS PURCHASE ORDER GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS 1. COMPLETE AGREEMENT: This Purchase Order which includes any supplementary sheets, schedules, bid documents, exhibits, riders, and attachments annexed hereto

More information

INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR SERVICES AGREEMENT

INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR SERVICES AGREEMENT INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR SERVICES AGREEMENT THIS AGREEMENT is entered into as of this day of, 2010, by and between the CITY OF MONTROSE, State of Colorado, a Colorado home rule municipal corporation, whose

More information

California Senate Bill 474 Impact on Owners & Contractors

California Senate Bill 474 Impact on Owners & Contractors California Senate Bill 474 Impact on Owners & Contractors Beginning January 1, 2013, project owners, general contractors ( GC ), construction managers ( CM ) and any lower tier contractor who employs subcontractors

More information

Foneo Datacenter General Terms & Conditions 03/01/2012 page 1

Foneo Datacenter General Terms & Conditions 03/01/2012 page 1 Foneo Datacenter General Terms & Conditions 03/01/2012 page 1 Foneo Datacenter General Terms and Conditions. Clause 1 - Definitions... 3 Clause 3 - Fees, Payment Condition, Price change... 4 Clause 4 -

More information

MAJOR EQUIPMENT PURCHASE CONTRACT

MAJOR EQUIPMENT PURCHASE CONTRACT MAJOR EQUIPMENT PURCHASE CONTRACT CONSUMERS ENERGY COMPANY ONE ENERGY PLAZA JACKSON, MI 49201 ( Buyer ) ( Seller ) Date:, 20 Subject to the provisions of this Major Equipment Purchase Contract ( Contract

More information

COLOCATION SERVICE SCHEDULE

COLOCATION SERVICE SCHEDULE COLOCATION SERVICE SCHEDULE 1. DEFINITIONS AND INTERPRETATION 1.1 Definitions Capitalised terms in this Service Schedule not otherwise defined here have the meaning given in the Master Services Agreement:

More information

Contract Terms and Conditions Of Engagement Of Limited Company Suppliers

Contract Terms and Conditions Of Engagement Of Limited Company Suppliers 1. DEFINITIONS In these terms of engagement the following definitions apply:- NP The Client The Company The Contractor The Assignment The Terms means Nationwide People Limited. means the person, firm or

More information

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom of the Netherlands GENERAL GOVERNMENT PURCHASING CONDITIONS 2014 (ARIV 2014) Adopted by order of the Prime Minister, Minister of General Affairs, of 26 March 2014, no. 3132081 I General Article

More information

Network Support Service Contract Terms & Conditions. Business Terms describes this agreement for the provision of support services to the client;

Network Support Service Contract Terms & Conditions. Business Terms describes this agreement for the provision of support services to the client; Network Support Service Contract Terms & Conditions 1. Definitions In these Terms and Conditions: Business Terms describes this agreement for the provision of support services to the client; Service Manager

More information

GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT MINOR WORKS AND SERVICES

GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT MINOR WORKS AND SERVICES GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT MINOR WORKS AND SERVICES GENERAL CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT FOR MINOR WORKS PAGE 1 BASE D ON WA LOCAL GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION MODEL 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTERPRETATION 2 RISE

More information

General purchasing terms and conditions

General purchasing terms and conditions General purchasing terms and conditions 1. Applicability 1.1. These general purchasing terms and conditions ( General Conditions ) apply to all purchases of products and services made by NV Bekaert SA

More information

MINNESOTA STATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES General Insurance Requirements for Contractors & Vendors

MINNESOTA STATE COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES General Insurance Requirements for Contractors & Vendors Certificate of Liability Insurance, Form ACORD25: Following are the insurance requirements of the State of Minnesota acting through its Board of Trustees of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities,

More information

AGREEMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL LAND SURVEYING SERVICES WITNESSETH: ARTICLE 1

AGREEMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL LAND SURVEYING SERVICES WITNESSETH: ARTICLE 1 AGREEMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL LAND SURVEYING SERVICES This Agreement, made as of the 29 th day of January, 1999, by and between the County of Wake (hereinafter, the "Owner") and McKim & Creed Engineers, P.A.,

More information

CARESERV TECHNOLOGIES, LLC SERVICE AGREEMENT COLOCATION SERVICES SCHEDULE. Version 2014.1 (01.01.2014)

CARESERV TECHNOLOGIES, LLC SERVICE AGREEMENT COLOCATION SERVICES SCHEDULE. Version 2014.1 (01.01.2014) CARESERV TECHNOLOGIES, LLC SERVICE AGREEMENT COLOCATION SERVICES SCHEDULE Version 2014.1 (01.01.2014) This Schedule, together with any Order referencing this Schedule or pursuant to which the services

More information

Terms and Conditions for Purchase Orders for Recycling Materials

Terms and Conditions for Purchase Orders for Recycling Materials Terms and Conditions for Purchase Orders for Recycling Materials This Agreement is made by and between AEROJET-GENERAL CORPORATION, an Ohio corporation with a place of business at Rancho Cordova, California

More information

Software Development. Standard Terms and Conditions. V2.0 January 2013

Software Development. Standard Terms and Conditions. V2.0 January 2013 Software Development Standard Terms and Conditions V2.0 January 2013 Elysium Ltd Milton House Whitehill Road Crowborough East Sussex TN6 1LB Tel: 01892 667411 Fax: 01829667433 Email: sales@elysium.ltd.uk

More information

SCHEDULE 5 INSURANCE TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS... 1

SCHEDULE 5 INSURANCE TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS... 1 SCHEDULE 5 INSURANCE TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS... 1 1.1 Project Specific Construction Period Insurance... 1 1.2 Additional Construction Period Insurance... 1 1.3 Operating Period Insurance

More information

SECTION 3 AWARD AND EXECUTION OF CONTRACT

SECTION 3 AWARD AND EXECUTION OF CONTRACT SECTION 3 AWARD AND EXECUTION OF CONTRACT 3.01 CONSIDERATION OF BIDS: After the Proposals are opened and read, the approximate estimated quantity of each item multiplied by the unit price bid for that

More information

Nominated Subcontractors on International Projects: Approaches to Risk Allocation

Nominated Subcontractors on International Projects: Approaches to Risk Allocation Nominated Subcontractors on International Projects: Approaches to Risk Allocation September 5, 2005 (he following outline was used in a presentation to the Overseas Construction Association of Japan, Inc.

More information

GALLAGHER GROUP LIMITED, 181 KAHIKATEA DRIVE, HAMILTON, NEW ZEALAND GALLAGHER

GALLAGHER GROUP LIMITED, 181 KAHIKATEA DRIVE, HAMILTON, NEW ZEALAND GALLAGHER GALLAGHER GROUP LIMITED, 181 KAHIKATEA DRIVE, HAMILTON, NEW ZEALAND GALLAGHER GALLAGHER SECURITY SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE TERMS AND CONDITIONS PLEASE READ THESE SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE TERMS AND CONDITIONS CAREFULLY

More information

STANDARD FORM OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN OWNER AND DESIGN- BUILDER - LUMP SUM

STANDARD FORM OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN OWNER AND DESIGN- BUILDER - LUMP SUM DC STANDARD FORM OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN OWNER AND DESIGN- BUILDER - LUMP SUM Document No. 525 Second Edition, 2010 Design-Build Institute of America Washington, Design-Build Institute of America - Contract

More information

Agreement with Contractor for

Agreement with Contractor for (Form-9) Agreement with Contractor for THIS AGREEMENT (hereinafter, together with the appendices and all the documents annexed hereto and forming an integral part hereof, referred to as the Contract )

More information

STANDARD SUBCONTRACT AGREEMENT FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

STANDARD SUBCONTRACT AGREEMENT FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION STANDARD SUBCONTRACT AGREEMENT FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THIS AGREEMENT made at Columbus, Ohio on by and between Lincoln Construction, Inc., hereinafter referred to as the Contractor, and, hereinafter

More information

Website Hosting Agreement

Website Hosting Agreement Website Hosting Agreement This Agreement is Between: (1) Tutch Media Limited, a company registered in England whose office is at 121c London Road, Knebworth, Herts, SG3 6EX ( the Host ) and (2) The Client

More information

BP NEW ZEALAND PURCHASE ORDER GENERAL TERMS

BP NEW ZEALAND PURCHASE ORDER GENERAL TERMS BP NEW ZEALAND PURCHASE ORDER GENERAL TERMS 1. DEFINITIONS AND INTERPRETATION 1.1 In these General Terms, the following terms shall have the following meaning: BP Affiliate shall mean the BP entity stated

More information

MARIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT 835 College Avenue, Kentfield, CA 94904 SHORT FORM OF AGREEMENT FOR MOVING SERVICES I. SCOPE OF THE SERVICES

MARIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT 835 College Avenue, Kentfield, CA 94904 SHORT FORM OF AGREEMENT FOR MOVING SERVICES I. SCOPE OF THE SERVICES CONTRACTOR: [Contractor Name] [Contractor Address] [Contractor phone and fax] MARIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT 835 College Avenue, Kentfield, CA 94904 SHORT FORM OF AGREEMENT FOR MOVING SERVICES I. SCOPE

More information

PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS

PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS PURCHASE ORDER TERMS AND CONDITIONS This purchase order is subject to the following terms and conditions. The terms and conditions herein set forth constitute an offer by Purchaser and may be accepted

More information

QUOTATION DOCUMENTS TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AGREEMENT

QUOTATION DOCUMENTS TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AGREEMENT Page 1 of 5 INTERPRETATION QUOTATION DOCUMENTS TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF AGREEMENT FOR THE SUPPLY AND DELIVERY OF FOODSTUFF OR AMENITIES ITEM(S) FOR THE PERIOD SPECIFIED IN THE AWARD LETTER In these Terms

More information

PROFESSIONAL SERVICES AGREEMENT BETWEEN UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS SYSTEM AND DESIGN PROFESSIONAL (MORE THAN $100,000.00 IN COMPENSATION)

PROFESSIONAL SERVICES AGREEMENT BETWEEN UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS SYSTEM AND DESIGN PROFESSIONAL (MORE THAN $100,000.00 IN COMPENSATION) PROFESSIONAL SERVICES AGREEMENT BETWEEN UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS SYSTEM AND DESIGN PROFESSIONAL (MORE THAN $100,000.00 IN COMPENSATION) This Agreement made the day of (the Effective Date ), by and between

More information

A. For the consideration agreed below to be paid to Contractor by City, Contractor shall provide

A. For the consideration agreed below to be paid to Contractor by City, Contractor shall provide STATE OF TEXAS CONTRACT FOR SERVICES COUNTY OF DALLAS THIS CONTRACT is made and entered into by and between the CITY OF DALLAS, a Texas municipal corporation, located in Dallas County, Texas (hereinafter

More information

1.1 In these Terms and Conditions, the following words shall have the following meanings:

1.1 In these Terms and Conditions, the following words shall have the following meanings: 1. DEFINITIONS / INTERPRETATIONS 1.1 In these Terms and Conditions, the following words shall have the following meanings: Claims shall mean all causes of action, demands of any kind, court costs and expenses

More information

Purchasing Terms and Conditions

Purchasing Terms and Conditions Purchasing Terms and Conditions ( Terms and Conditions ) Wincor Nixdorf Pte Ltd 1 Purchase Order and Acknowledgement of Order 1.1 These Terms and Conditions shall apply to all orders and/or agreements

More information

LEASE AGREEMENT INSURANCE AND INDEMNIFICATION LANGUAGE

LEASE AGREEMENT INSURANCE AND INDEMNIFICATION LANGUAGE LEASE AGREEMENT INSURANCE AND INDEMNIFICATION LANGUAGE Tenant assumes the liability for damage to its improvements, fixtures, partitions, equipment and personal property therein, and all appurtenances

More information

CITY OF LEAWOOD. Independent Contractor Agreement

CITY OF LEAWOOD. Independent Contractor Agreement #3 Small Indep Contractor Agreement with Ins Optional, for use with small agreements less than $15k [e.g., entertainment, 4 th of July projects, sports] CITY OF LEAWOOD Independent Contractor Agreement

More information

General Terms and Conditions of Assembly:

General Terms and Conditions of Assembly: General Terms and Conditions of Assembly: Contractor within the meaning of 67a of the Austrian Federal General Social Security Act. 1. GENERAL, SUBJECT MATTER OF THE CONTRACT 1.1 Between the Customer and

More information

Contractual Allocation Of Risks / Insurance Requirement FPSO Projects Presentation Lillehammer Energy Claims Conference 2012

Contractual Allocation Of Risks / Insurance Requirement FPSO Projects Presentation Lillehammer Energy Claims Conference 2012 Contractual Allocation Of Risks / Insurance Requirement FPSO Projects Presentation Lillehammer Energy Claims Conference 2012 Homyar Jilla Head of Construction Risk Management Shell Risk & Insurance 28

More information

REQUEST FOR LETTER OF INTEREST For Lobbying Services for City Mayor and Council Office CM 14-019QSP

REQUEST FOR LETTER OF INTEREST For Lobbying Services for City Mayor and Council Office CM 14-019QSP CITY OF AVONDALE Finance and Budget Department 11465 W Civic Center Drive, Suite 250 Avondale, AZ 85323-6807 Phone: 623-333-2029 Fax: 623-333-0200 REQUEST FOR LETTER OF INTEREST For for City Mayor and

More information

Standard conditions of purchase

Standard conditions of purchase Standard conditions of purchase 1 OFFER AND ACCEPTANCE 2 PROPERTY, RISK & DELIVERY 3 PRICES & RATES The Supplier shall provide all Goods and Services in accordance with the terms and conditions set out

More information

BGE/BE/TAC/0710. NQH Business electricity Terms and conditions

BGE/BE/TAC/0710. NQH Business electricity Terms and conditions BGE/BE/TAC/0710 NQH Business electricity Terms and conditions These are our standard terms and conditions of NQH business electricity supply. As a NQH business customer you will be deemed to have accepted

More information

CALIFORNIA Strict Indemnity Language. CALIFORNIA Intermediate Indemnity Language

CALIFORNIA Strict Indemnity Language. CALIFORNIA Intermediate Indemnity Language CALIFORNIA Strict Indemnity Language Contractor (Indemnitor) shall indemnify, defend, and hold harmless Authority, its officers, officials, employees, and volunteers from and against any and all liability,

More information

NORTH CAROLINA WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM SUBCONTRACTOR AGREEMENT - PLUMBING

NORTH CAROLINA WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM SUBCONTRACTOR AGREEMENT - PLUMBING NORTH CAROLINA WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM SUBCONTRACTOR AGREEMENT - PLUMBING This Agreement is hereby entered into by and between Piedmont Triad Regional Council (herein Contractor ) and (Subcontractor)

More information

Business Debt Recovery Terms & Conditions

Business Debt Recovery Terms & Conditions Business Debt Recovery Terms & Conditions Dukes Bailiffs Limited, Dukes Court, 7/8 Newcastle Street, Stone, Staffordshire, ST15 8JT Page 1 of 9 TERMS & CONDITIONS Authorised by: Mr C Naylor TERMS AND CONDITIONS

More information

Doral Mineral Sands Pty Ltd. Standard Terms and Conditions

Doral Mineral Sands Pty Ltd. Standard Terms and Conditions Doral Mineral Sands Pty Ltd Standard Terms and Conditions 1 Definitions Doral Mineral Sands Pty Ltd Standard Terms & Conditions (2002) 1 1.1 In this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires: Agreement

More information

AGREEMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES - ARCHITECTS

AGREEMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES - ARCHITECTS AGREEMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES - ARCHITECTS This Agreement is made this day of 20, by and between Long Island University ( University ), an educational institution incorporated and doing business

More information

Translation from German. GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS of mangoart GmbH Bräuergasse 11, 4470 Enns, Austria +43 7223 / 912 78, office@mangoart.

Translation from German. GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS of mangoart GmbH Bräuergasse 11, 4470 Enns, Austria +43 7223 / 912 78, office@mangoart. Translation from German GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS of mangoart GmbH Bräuergasse 11, 4470 Enns, Austria +43 7223 / 912 78, office@mangoart.at 1. Applicability; Conclusion of contract 1.1 mangoart GmbH

More information

BUSINESS CONSULTING SERVICES TERMS OF BUSINESS IBM

BUSINESS CONSULTING SERVICES TERMS OF BUSINESS IBM BUSINESS CONSULTING SERVICES TERMS OF BUSINESS IBM (China) Co., Limited( IBM ) with its registered office at 7F, Building 10, 399 Keyuan Road, Zhangjiang Hi- Tech Park, Pudong New District Shanghai, People

More information

NORWEGIAN SUBSEA CONTRACT NSC 05 CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT

NORWEGIAN SUBSEA CONTRACT NSC 05 CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT NORWEGIAN SUBSEA CONTRACT NSC 05 Introduction to NSC 05 The Norwegian Subsea Contract 05 (NSC 05) is a set of standard conditions developed for contracting within the subsea segment, on the Norwegian continental

More information

CONSULTANT SERVICES AGREEMENT

CONSULTANT SERVICES AGREEMENT CONSULTANT SERVICES AGREEMENT This Consultant Services Agreement ( Agreement ) is dated [month] [day], [year] ( Effective Date ), and is between the City of Monrovia, a California municipal corporation

More information

EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATORS OF THE TULANE EDUCATIONAL FUND, THROUGH ITS COMMUNITY FOR PUBLIC SERVICE AND

EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATORS OF THE TULANE EDUCATIONAL FUND, THROUGH ITS COMMUNITY FOR PUBLIC SERVICE AND EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATORS OF THE TULANE EDUCATIONAL FUND, THROUGH ITS COMMUNITY FOR PUBLIC SERVICE AND THIS EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION AGREEMENT ( Agreement ) is made by and

More information

General Conditions for Professional Services

General Conditions for Professional Services General Conditions for Professional Services 1. LEGAL STATUS The Contractor shall be considered as having the legal status of an independent contractor vis-à-vis UNDP. The Contractor's personnel and sub-contractors

More information

Printed by The BIMCO Charter Party Editor

Printed by The BIMCO Charter Party Editor 1. Date and Place of Agreement 2. Contractor/Place of Business INTERNATIONAL WRECK REMOVAL AND MARINE SERVICES AGREEMENT (LUMP SUM - STAGE PAYMENTS) CODE NAME: "WRECKSTAGE 99" 3. Company/Place of Business

More information

NON-COMPLIANCE AND DEFECTS

NON-COMPLIANCE AND DEFECTS Purchase Order Terms & Conditions 1. ACCEPTANCE The supplier shall be deemed to have agreed to supply and deliver to buyer the goods and/or services hereby ordered upon: (i) acknowledgement by the supplier

More information

K YROUS R EALTY G ROUP, I NC.

K YROUS R EALTY G ROUP, I NC. K YROUS R EALTY G ROUP, I NC. 263 West 38 th Street Suite 15E New York, NY 10018 Phone: 212.302.1500 Fax: 212.302.3855 500 Greenwich Street Condominium-Alteration Policy The following documents must be

More information