ADVERTISING VS. ARTICLE: EFFECT OF CONTENT TYPE ON ATTITUDINAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE

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1 ADVERTISING VS. ARTICLE: EFFECT OF CONTENT TYPE ON ATTITUDINAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE Serra İnci ÇELEBİ, Senior Instructor Eastern Mediterranean University, NORTH CYPRUS Serra İnci ÇELEBİ (B.A. and M.A., Ege University, Turkey) is an instructor of Public Relations and Advertising Department at the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies at the Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus since She has a Diploma in Marketing from Cavendish College in England. After she had worked for several companies (e.g. Kordon FM, AK-SER Computer Education Center) in Turkey, she also worked as an administrator with Medirest Healthcare Company for two years in the UK. She was honored with a certificate for Good Management Skills by Medirest. She is the co-author of Marketing PR (MediaCat, 1999). Abstract Maintaining an ongoing relationship is related to fulfilling of given promises which, in turn, is related to the capability of a firm to develop trust among its customers and other stakeholders. The source credibility of persuasive communication is important and its investigation is therefore the heart of this study. The purpose of this experiment is to examine whether subjects would respond differently toward content type (advertising vs. publicity) and source credibility (high vs. low) based on product involvement (high vs. low) in North Cyprus. No support was found upon the ELM that low involvement participants would be motivated more by content type and source credibility. On the other hand, the results confirm the superiority of article over advertising for new product introductions. ADVERTISING VS. ARTICLE: EFFECT OF CONTENT TYPE ON ATTITUDINAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE LITERATURE REVIEW Sixty percent of the newspaper space may be filled with advertising, but that advertising does not command sixty percent of the average readerʹs attention. We are inured to most of these advertisements and commercials; they wash over us without even dampening the skin. We often do not stop to even read or watch the ads at all, and when we do, they rarely penetrate or connect with our consciousness, let alone transform our identity. True, we are all persuaded and seduced from time to time by these ads, encouraged to make irrational impulsive consumer choices. But that kind of persuasion and seduction is endemic to social life; we run across it constantly and develop mechanisms to filter it out and fend it off (Smolla, 1993, p. 797). Every year when I ask students in my public relations and advertising classes which automobile is the strongest one? I often get the same answer: Volvo. Then, when I ask how they know about this, they have some difficulty answering this question; and I ask does anybody own one? Most of the time, they say no. Basically this is the result of Volvo s successful communication campaign of creating word-of-mouth. Beyond all communication activities, consumers want to get their own reality by simply experiencing the product; secondly depending on what other people are 35

2 experiencing. What other people are experiencing comes from the power of promotional endorsement often done by a typical consumer in order to make consumer purchase product or use the service. Products and services are also promotionally endorsed by celebrities, professional experts, and company presidents. Promotional endorsers approve products and services in the elements of marketing communications; and the most obvious elements in which promotional endorsement appears are publicity and advertising. Publicity is information from an outside source that is used by the media because the information has news value. It is an uncontrolled method of placing messages in the media because the source does not pay the media for placement (Cutlip, Center, & Broom, 2000, p. 9). Publicity is non-paid-for communication of information about the company or product, generally in some media form (Churchill & Peter, 1995, p. 544). Publicity can appear in a variety of forms which can be found as a press release, the spoken or written word as a result of a press conference, a feature article, an editorial, a radio or television interview, a column item, a captioned photograph in a newspaper or magazine, a video news clip, or a letter to the editor (Henry, 2000). Advertising is, on the other hand, any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor (Kotler & Armstrong, 1996, p. G1). Many authors (Hausman, 2003; Watson, 1997; Sanders, 2002; Harris, 1994; Schrage, 2000; Kolah, 2001; Kitchen, 1993, 1996; O Leary, 2000; Lamons, 2002; Neff, 2002; Fox & Geissler, 1994) have observed that there has been an important shift from advertising to public relations- especially to publicity- to reach consumers as reflected in emphasis and expenditure. Lamons (2002) provides that consumers are skeptical about ads and tend to tune them out. News items, however, are found as helpful and real, therefore, often clipped and sent to a friend. When consumers read a review of some new product or service, their frame of mind is totally different from when they read an ad. Since they know, if the reviewer encounters problems, the article will reflect that, but they suspect that they will only get a part of the story when they read an ad. Watson (1997, p. 26) reports the problems and difficulties of this new business: marketing dollars have migrated heavily into direct marketing, public relations, events, promotions, brand consultancies, and interactive media According to him, once, producing and selling the products were the only required skills. Thus, lack of qualified personnel, new production and communication technologies, heavy competition, and unpredictable consumer attitudes are the issues that demand a new level of management skills. According to Hallahan (1999) the reasons of unfavorable response to advertising by audiences are avoidance, resistance and cognitive response. According to avoidance, people will avoid promotional information by filtering out ads in print media, leaving the room during commercial breaks, or otherwise tuning out ads, if they don t want or cannot afford to buy. Arguments based on resistance suggest that individuals will also resist advertising messages when their freedom is threaded. Finally, cognitive response theory suggests that the positive elaboration of a message (the self-generation of support arguments and source bolstering) is a necessary condition for 36

3 persuasion, but consumers often respond to advertising messages with counter-arguments and source derogations (Hallahan, 1999, p. 333). Crooke (1996) argues about the point which led advertising to lose its credibility. He agrees with the idea of Burt Manning, J. Walter Thompson Worldwide chairman and chief executive, that negative political advertising has damaged the credibility of all advertising (p. 11). For Manning, there is a huge credibility gap due to political advertising that eventually caused massive distrust toward all advertising on the part of consumers. Neff (2002, p. 14) reports that: The Rieses still see a role for advertising, but primarily as a defense mechanism for established brands and products, not as a builder of new ones. Public relations-specifically publicity and the resulting word of mouth- is what really build new brands, they maintain. PR and publicity maximize the other elements of the marketing mix, for instance, by drawing attention to interesting advertising executions or highlighting live events. PR with the combination of publicity creates credibility with third party endorsement which comes from journalists, industry experts or style-leaders. These are accepted as highly credible sources due to being presented through a sort of truth filter (Cowlett, 2000). Schrage (2000) states that in building credibility press and media coverage become more important than commercials. According to him, For marketing executives and brand managers in high-tech, telecom or almost any ultra-competitive marketplace, good editorial coverage matters 10 times more than good advertising (p. 38). The preceding literature shows us that the credibility of source in persuasive communication is crucial and vital element for attitude and behavior formation and modification on consumers. O Mahony and Meenaghan ( ) define source credibility as the extent to which the recipient perceives the source as having relevant knowledge and/or experience and therefore trusts the source to give unbiased information (p. 15). Source credibility includes two components which are trustworthiness and expertise. Trustworthiness is the degree of confidence in the communicator s intent to communicate the assertions he considers most valid (Ohanian, 1990, p. 40). For Goldsmith, Lafferty, & Newell, (2000, p. 43) trustworthiness refers to the honesty and believability of the source. According to O Mohany and Meenaghan ( ) expertise is the perceived ability of the source to make valid assertions (p.15), and to Tripp, Jensen, & Carlson (1994, p. 537), expertise is the extent to which a communicator is perceived capable of making valid assertions. The studies based on source credibility have been primarily searched the relative strengths and weaknesses of the types of promotional endorsement used in advertising. Promotional endorsement can be classified into five groups: professional expert endorsements, company presidents, celebrity endorsements, typical consumer endorsements (Friedman, Termini, & Washington, 1976), and corporate endorsement [also called as non-profit organization endorsement (Gnewuch, 2002), or third party organization endorsement (Dean & Biswas, 2001) or association endorsement (Daneshvary & Schwer, 2000)]. 37

4 The professional expert is an authority on the product class endorsed whose expertise, the result of special knowledge or training, is superior to that acquired by ordinary people (Friedman, Termini, & Washington, 1976, p. 22). Expert endorsers (by extension third party organization endorsements) persuade through the process of internalization (Dean & Biswas, 2001). Belch and Belch (1998, p. 169) explain the process of internalization as in the statement below: One of the most reliable effects found in communications research is that expert and/or trustworthy sources are more persuasive than sources who are less expert or trustworthy. Information from a credible source influences beliefs, attitudes, opinions, and/or behavior through a process known as internalization, which occurs when the receiver adopts the opinion of the credible communicator since he or she believes information from this source is accurate. Once the receiver internalizes an opinion or attitude, it becomes integrated into his or her belief system and may be maintained even after the source of the message is forgotten. The company president is the head of the company whose product is being advertised. He appears in the advertisement and endorses his own product (Friedman, Termini, & Washington, 1976, p. 22). Belch and Belch (1998) note that using company president or CEO (chief executive officer) in the company s advertisements is a good tactic to reinforce source credibility. They believe that those types of advertisements not only increase the sales volume of the company s products but also help the company president turn into a celebrity. The celebrity is known to the public for his accomplishments in areas unrelated to the product class endorsed. The celebrity might be a sports figure, actor, comedian, or another type of entertainer (Friedman, Termini, & Washington, 1976, p. 22). The typical consumer s only knowledge of the product results from normal use of the product. Normally, his name, occupation, and/or city of residence appear in the advertisement (Friedman, Termini, & Washington, 1976, p. 22). Association endorsement is the last type of endorsement and Daneshvary and Schwer (2000) provide information on the success of association endorsement for selling the products as below: Endorsements by an association, to be sure, have led to the successful selling of products. For example, the American Dental Association, after extensive lobbying by a Procter & Gambleassembled team, endorsed Crest toothpaste in Two years later it was the best-selling toothpaste in America (p. 203) Most of the studies on source credibility in advertising have focused on promotional endorsement. Some previous source credibility studies provide information on promotional endorsement, and compare and contrast the types of promotional endorsement in advertising in terms of their credibility, persuasion, and intent to purchase. Those studies have been done on celebrity endorsement (Busler, 2002; O Mahony & Meenaghan, ; Choi, 2002) and others on third party organization endorsement (Dean & Biswas, 2001), on association endorsement (Daneshvary & 38

5 Schwer, 2000), and on non-profit organization endorsement (Gnewuch, 2002). Çelebi (2005) compared the persuasiveness of promotional endorsement in both advertising and publicity in a survey research and found that expertise of promotional endorser performed better in publicity than did in advertising; similarly, attractiveness of promotional endorser performed better in advertising than did in publicity. In this study, two types of promotional endorsement, namely a professional expert (a higher credible source) and a company president (a lower credible source), have been employed and their credibility levels for a high involvement (shampoo) and a low involvement (cornflakes) product have been compared in two content types: advertising and article in North Cyprus. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES The ELM (Elaboration Likelihood Model) was introduced by Petty and Cacioppo in 1986 as a conceptual model in which there is an argument regarding understanding of persuasive information in a message. As peripheral and central route focus on attitude change, the Elaboration Likelihood Model is a useful tool for exploring the psychological dynamics of advertising and publicity messages that influence beliefs and attitudes which are necessary for behavior change. There are central and peripheral routes to attitude change in the ELM. People involve themselves in extensive and intensive thinking in the central route and when an attitude changes as a result of elaboration, it tends to be long-term (Tysinger, 2002). Benoit and Smythe (2003) note that attitudes which have changed as a result of using the central route show greater resistance to counter persuasion and offer predicted behavior. In contrast to central route, little or not attention is paid to the message in the peripheral route (Gilin, 2002) and when an attitude changes resulting from little thought, it tends to be short-term (Tysinger, 2002). The peripheral route is also called an automatic route as it is preconscious, holistic, and primarily nonverbal. Low involvement consumers are more sensitive and responsive to exaggerated or inflated reference price claims (Compeau and Grewal, 1998). Low-involvement readers (e.g. low product involvement) would be expected to use peripheral cues such as source credibility and the style and format of the message (Severin and Tankard, 2001). According to the ELM, it may be the case that a high credibility source and a highly credible format will lead to attitude change through the peripheral route, but will not in central route (Severin and Tankard, 1988). For Baker, Hunt, and Scribner (2002) there is a close relation between consumers product knowledge and construct of involvement. If consumers perceive that the product is important for them, they will tend to search more knowledge and involve themselves in seeking more detailed information about the product category. In this study, low levels of involvement (e.g. low involvement product) motivate audiences to pay more attention to the higher credible source (e.g. an expert) and higher credible content type (e.g. publicity) more than high levels of involvement (e.g. high involvement product). The related hypotheses are as below: 39

6 H1: Under low involvement conditions, high credible source has greater impact on the (a) attitude toward the source, (b) attitude toward the content type, (c) attitude toward the message, (d) attitude toward the brand, and (e) attitude toward the purchase intention than low credible source has. H2: Under low involvement conditions, article has greater impact on the (a) attitude toward the source, (b) attitude toward the content type, (c) attitude toward the message, (d) attitude toward the brand, and (e) attitude toward the purchase intention than advertising has. METHODOLOGY 1. The Pilot Test A pilot test was conducted to determine high and low involvement products. One hundred eleven undergraduate students participated in the pilot test and in the twenty sample product pool cornflakes was determined to be a low involvement and shampoo was determined to be a high involvement product by t-test (p.05). Subjects responded on a 5-point likert scale (1 indicates lowest; 5 indicates highest) to evaluate the statement based on: The product is important for me (Cornflakes: M=2.40, SD=1.24; Shampoo: M=4.63, SD=.70). 2. Subjects Forty eight undergraduate students from the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies of the Eastern Mediterranean University participated in the experiment. Six subjects were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (high vs. low credible source) x 2 (advertising vs. publicity) x 2 (high vs. low product involvement) between participants factorial design. 3. Procedure In order to prevent perceptional bias from an attitude toward the present brands; fictitious brand identities (Shampoo: Four Seasons; Cornflakes: Healthy Choice) and positioning themes (Shampoo that protects hairs in four seasons; Cornflakes that helps to maintain a healthy life) were created. In both advertisement and article text, a higher credible source appeared as an independent expert (Prof. Dr. Sedef Öztürk); whereas a lower credible source appeared as the general manager of the company (General Manager Sedef Öztürk). A subject was informed that he or she would see either advertisement or article that announced a new product. In the experimental study, the subjects in one group were given an A4 paper that includes advertisement in which a high credible source (the expert) appeared about the low involvement product (cornflakes); whereas subjects in another group were received an A4 paper that includes advertisement in which a low credible source (the general manager of the company) appeared about the same product. Similarly, in other experimental groups, the same process was repeated for both high involvement product (shampoo) and article. Experimental studies were conducted in regular university classes. It was assured that testing in the experimental groups were as similar to each other as possible. 40

7 4. Instrumentation and the Variables The questionnaire was first constructed in English and then they were translated into Turkish. In order to enhance translation equivalence of the adjectives, a Redhouse English-Turkish dictionary (1996) was used. The experimental study was administered in Turkish. Reliability of the likert Scale questions was tested and Cronbach s Alpha was found as α= Dependent Variables Subjects responded on a 7-point semantic differential (1 indicates lowest; 7 indicates highest) Source Credibility Subjects rated source credibility based on: unbiased/biased, trustworthy/untrustworthy, informed/uninformed, expert/not expert, persuasive/unpersuasive Content Type Credibility Subjects rated advertisement/article credibility based on: informative/not informative, trustworthy/untrustworthy, accurate/inaccurate, and persuasive/unpersuasive Attitude toward the Message Subjects were asked to rate their attitude toward the message they examined based on: interesting/boring, attention getting/not attention getting, liked it/didn t like it Attitude toward the Brand Subjects attitudes toward the brand were obtained based on: good/bad, high quality/low quality, desirable/ not desirable, like it/don t like it Purchase Intention Subjects purchase intention was gathered based on the following item: Intend to purchase/don t intend to purchase. 4.2 Independent Variables In this study, source credibility (high vs. low), content type (article vs. advert), and product involvement (high vs. low) were considered as independent variables that impact attitude toward the source, attitude toward the content class, attitude toward the message, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. 41

8 5. Data Analysis The data was analyzed with SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) for windows Oneway MANOVA was employed for attitudinal analyses and one-way ANOVA was administered for behavioral analyses of the results. RESULTS 1. Manipulation Check for Content Type Two questions were asked, using a 7-point semantic differential (1 indicates lowest; 7 indicates highest): looked like an ad/didn t look like an ad, was an ad/wasn t an ad. The same questions were asked for article. Result indicated that subjects perceived messages as intended by the researcher (one sample t-tests were significant at p<.05). 2. Overall Findings 2.1 The Effects of Content Type A one-way MANOVA (to evaluate the effects of attitude toward the source, the content type, the message, and the brand) and one-way ANOVA (to assess the effect of attitude toward the purchase intention) were conducted. The results indicated significant interaction for content type and attitude toward the source [F(5,33)=14.99, p=.000], attitude toward the content type [F(4,36)=14.02, p=.000], attitude toward the message [F(3,38)=9.77, p=.000], attitude toward the brand [F(4,37)=6.39, p=.001], and attitude toward the purchase intention [F(1,40)=6.45, p=.010] (See Table 1). 2.2 The Effects of Product Involvement and Source Credibility Hypothesis 1 predicted that under low involvement conditions, high credible source had greater impact on the (a) attitude toward the source, (b) attitude toward the content type, (c) attitude toward the message, (d) attitude toward the brand, and (e) attitude toward the purchase intention than low credible source had. The source credibility x product involvement interaction was not significant for attitude toward the source [F(5,33)=.27, p=.924]; attitude toward the content type [F(4.36)=2.57, p=.054]; attitude toward the message [F(3,38)=1.10, p=.359]; attitude toward the brand [F(4,37)=.35, p=.837]; and attitude toward the purchase intention [F(1,40)=.02, p=.888]. Thus, H1 a, b, c, d, and, e were rejected. 2.3 The Effects of Product Involvement and Content Type Hypothesis 2 predicted that under low involvement conditions, article had greater impact on the (a) attitude toward the source, (b) attitude toward the content type, (c) attitude toward the message, (d) attitude toward the brand, and (e) attitude toward the purchase intention than advertising had. The content type x product involvement interaction was not significant for attitude toward the source [F(5,33)=1.21, p=.325]; attitude toward the content type [F(4,36)=1.50, p=.222]; attitude toward the message [F(3,38)=.33, p=.798]; attitude toward the brand [F(4,37)=.43, p=.785]; attitude toward the purchase intention [F(1,40)=.17, p=.674]. So, H2 a, b, c, d, and e were rejected. 42

9 Table 1. Main Effects for Content Type CONTENT TYPE Article Advert F P M SD M SD Attitude toward the source Unbiased trustworthy informed expert Persuasive Attitude toward the content type Informative trustworthy accurate Persuasive Attitude toward the message Interesting attention getting liked it Attitude toward the brand Attitude toward the purchase intention Good high quality desirable like it intend to purchase Note: Attitudinal measures based on 7-point semantic differential ranging from 1 (low) to 7 (high). The results are significant at p<.05 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE IMPLICATIONS The present research was designed to investigate the relation between the source credibility, content type and product involvement. In the research, content type and source credibility were used as peripheral cues and it was hypothesized that low involvement participants would be motivated more by content type and source credibility. However, no support was found based on the ELM, that individuals with low product involvement would be influenced more by source credibility (high vs. low) and content type (article vs. advertising) and individuals with high product involvement would be influenced less by them. In future research, other interactions such as inflated price claims may be useful to be considered as a peripheral cue, since content type and source credibility were not effective enough to confirm the ELM. A professional expert (Prof. Dr. Sedef Öztürk) and a company spokesperson (General Manager Sedef Öztürk) were used as sources 43

10 of information and their effectiveness were compared in this study. It is possible that the company spokesperson might be observed as a qualified person enough to judge the product and give information about it by the participants who didn t found the difference between a high credible (a professional expert endorser) and a low credible source (a company spokesperson as an endorser). That is, they couldn t see the important difference between the professional expert who is an authority and whose product evaluation must be objective and the company spokesperson who is the head of the company and whose product evaluation could be subjective. Therefore, in other studies, other types of promotional endorser-for instance, a typical consumer- would be useful to be compared to a professional expert in a larger subject in order to expand the credibility gap between the sources of information so that a deeper understanding on the ELM can be achieved. Article scored higher than advertising on the whole aspects of the measure: the attitude toward source, content type, message, brand, and purchase intention. The participants-regardless low and high involvement- were found to be more sensitive to the content type when they were exposed to persuasive messages for new products. The results shed light on content type that may play an important role in the processing of persuasive messages when information is presented as publicity more than advertising for product introductions. REFERENCES A Redhouse English-Turkish dictionary (1996). (24 th ed.). Istanbul: Redhouse Press. Baker T. L., Hunt, J. B., & Scribner, L. L. (2002). The effect of introducing a new brand on consumer perceptions of current brand similarity: The roles of product knowledge and involvement. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10 (4), Belch G. E., & Belch, M. A. (1998). Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. (4 th ed.). New York: Irwin McGraw-Hill. Benoit, W. L., & Smythe, M. J. (2003). Rhetorical theory as message reception: A cognitive response approach to rhetorical theory and criticism. Communication Studies, 54 (1), Busler, M. I. (2002). Product Differentiation, Celebrity Endorsements and the Consumer s Perception of Quality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Drexel University, Philadelphia. Çelebi, S. İ., (2005, April) Media influence on attitudes in cyprus: The importance of televisionfor persuasion. Proceedings of the 5 th International Congress on Cyprus Studies, Famagusta: EMU Press, 2, Choi, S. M. (2002). Attributional Approach to Understanding Celebrity/Product Congruence Effects: Role of Perceived Expertise. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, Michigan. Churchill, G.A. Jr., & Peter, J.P. (1995). Marketing: Creating Value for Customers. Irwin Burr Ridge: Austen Press. Compeau, L. D. and Grewal, D., (1998). Comparative price advertising: An integrative review. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 17 (2), Cowlett, M. (2000, February 24). Using PR to launch into new markets. Marketing, Crooke, R.A. (1996, Fall). How the cult of cost efficiency destroys credible communications. Public Relations Quarterly, 41 (3), Cutlip, S. M., Center, A. H., & Broom, G. M. (2000). Effective Public Relations. (8 th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 44

11 Daneshvary, R., & Schwer, R. K. (2000). The association endorsement and consumers intention to purchase. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17 (3), Dean, H. D., & Biswas, A. (2001). Third party organization endorsement of products: An advertising cue affecting consumer pre-purchase evaluation of goods and services. Journal of Advertising, 30 (4), Fox, R. J., & Geissler, G. L. (1994, December). Crisis in advertising?. Journal of Advertising, 23 (4), Friedman, H. H., Termini, S., & Washington, R. (1976, Summer). The effectiveness of advertisements utilizing four types of endorsers. Journal of Advertising, Gilin, D. A., (2002). Mediation as Persuasion: Central Route Attribution Change as a Conflict Resolution Technique. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, the University of Missouri, Saint Louis. Gnewuch, T. L. (2002). Glitz or Goodness: Assessing the Comparative Effectiveness of Endorsements. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, the University of Wisconsin, US. Goldsmith, R. E., Lafferty, B. A., & Newell, S. J. (2000). The impact of corporate credibility on consumer reaction to advertisements and brands. Journal of Advertising, 29 (3), Hallahan, K. (1999). No, virginia, it s not true what they say about publicity s implied third-party endorsement effect. Public Relations Review, 25 (3), Harris, T. L. (1994, April). PR gets personal. Direct Marketing, 56 (12), Hausman, M. (2003). PR vs. ads: Are you getting what you pay for? [Review of the book The Fall of Advertising & the Rise of PR]. Brandweek, 44 (5), Henry, R. A. (2000). Marketing Public Relations: The Hows That Make It Work. Ames: Iowa State University Press Kitchen, P.J. (1993). Public relations: A rationale for its development and usage within UK fast moving consumer goods firms. European Journal of Marketing, 27 (7), Kitchen P. J. (1996). Public relations in the promotional mix: A three phase analysis. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 14 (2), Kolah, A. (2001, February). Help is on hand for professional practices in PR. Marketing, 18. Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (1996). Principles of Marketing (7 th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Lamons, B. (2002, September 16). Advertising drops ball, new champ is PR [Review of the book The Fall of Advertising & the Rise of PR]. Marketing News, 36 (19), 8-9. Neff, J. (2002, July 15). Ries thesis: Ads don t build brands, PR does [Review of the book The Fall of Advertising & the Rise of PR]. Advertising Age, 73 (28), Ohanian, R. (1990, Summer). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19 (3), O Leary, N. (2000, November/December). Who needs advertising. Print, 54 (6), O Mahony, S., & Meenaghan, T. ( ). The impact of celebrity endorsements on Consumers. Irish Marketing Review, 10 (2), Sanders, L. (2002, September). Is PR marketing light? Not at conglomerates. Advertising Age, 73 (39), Severin W. J., & Tankard J. W. (1988). Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, and Uses in the Mass Media (4 th ed. ). New York: Longman. Severin W. J., & Tankard J. W. (2001). Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, and Uses in the Mass Media (5 th ed. ). New York: Longman. Schrage, M. (2000, May 29). Is Advertising Passé?. Adweek, 41 (22),

12 Smolla, R. A. (1993). Information, imagery, and the first amendment: A case for expansive protection of commercial speech. 71 Texas Law Review, Retrieved September 13, 2004, from the University of Texas at Austin, Department of Advertising Web site: Tripp, C., Jensen, T. D., & Carlson L. (1994). The effects of multiple product endorsements by celebrities on consumers attitudes and intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (4), Tysinger, J. A., (2002). An Empirical Evaluation of the Elaboration Likelihood Model Applied to School Psychology Consultation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, the University of Memphis, Memphis. Watson, T. (1997, October 13). Updating skills in marketing communication: Training begins with managers embedded knowledge. Advertising Age, 68 (41),

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