1 The Development of Advertising and Marketing Education: The First 75 Years by Edd Applegate Professor School of Journalism Middle Tennessee State University Murfreesboro, TN September 2008
2 The Development of Advertising and Marketing Education: The First 75 Years Abstract Advertising and marketing education in colleges began in 1893, when Joseph Johnson of the University of Pennsylvania developed a curriculum in journalism that included information about advertising. Other universities developed curricula in journalism that included advertising in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Courses in marketing were offered in 1902 at the University of Michigan, the University of California, and the University of Illinois. As marketing developed as a discipline, courses in advertising were included. Indeed, courses in advertising could be found in numerous journalism as well as business programs throughout the country before Frank C. Pierson's The Education of American Business was published in Because of Pierson's critique of business programs, many eliminated courses in advertising.
3 The Development of Advertising and Marketing Education: The First 75 Years The first courses that included information about advertising and/or marketing were offered more than a hundred years ago. Needless to say, education in advertising and marketing has changed over the years. The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical development of advertising and marketing as disciplines in colleges and universities from the time the first courses were offered to around 1965, to determine which administrators and/or faculty at which colleges and/or universities realized the need for such disciplines. History of Advertising Education Journalism Programs that Included Advertising: Advertising education has been associated with business, specifically marketing, and journalism from its beginning in 1893, when Joseph Johnson of the Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania, developed one of the earliest curricula in journalism in the country, primarily to train individuals who desired to work as reporters for newspapers. This curriculum contained five courses in journalism, and one of these courses "Journalism-Law of Libel, Business Management, Typographical Union, Cost and Revenue, Advertising, Method of Criticism, etc." contained information about advertising (O'Dell, 1935, p. 48).
4 In 1898 the University of Missouri, which had been offering courses in journalism for at least two decades, offered a course in journalism "Newspaper Making" that provided information about advertising (O'Dell, 1935, p. 89). Four years later the Department of Rhetoric and Oratory offered the first course in journalism at the University of Illinois. Part of the course focused on advertising (O'Dell, 1935, p. 68). In 1908 Walter Williams was named dean of the country's first school of journalism at the University of Missouri. Williams mentioned advertising in "The Journalists' Creed," I believe that advertising, news, editorial columns should alike serve the best interests of the readers; that a single standard of helpful truth and cleanness should prevail for all; that the supreme test of good journalism is the measure of its public service (University of Missouri Bulletin, July 1930, p. 2). Needless to say, advertising became part of the school's curriculum, with "Advertising and Publishing," which was offered in 1908, as the school's first course in advertising (Williams, 1929, p. 80). Courses in advertising continued to flourish in journalism schools. For instance, in 1927, 18 of the 20 schools of journalism offered courses in advertising. Ten years later 30 of the 32 schools of journalism offered courses in advertising (Ford, 1947, p. 81). Programs that Included Advertising Date Who Proposal 1893 Joseph Johnson Advertising as one part of one course in a five Wharton School course proposal.
5 U. of Pennsylvania 1898 U. of Missouri Advertising as one part of one course in a three course proposal U. of Illinois Advertising as one part of one course in a one course proposal School of Journalism Advertising as one course in a 10 course proposal. U. of Missouri Proposals for the Creation of Journalism Programs: The early programs in journalism were based on one of several proposals. The proposal by General Robert E. Lee, who had been the leader of the Confederate Army during the Civil War, was for the first academic program in journalism. In 1869, Lee, who had become president of Washington College (Washington and Lee University) in Virginia, proposed to the college's board of trustees to allow the institution to offer 50 scholarships to young men who desired to become journalists. Lee's proposal would allow young men the opportunity to study the technical aspects of printing. Although the proposal was adopted, the curriculum was not put into effect (The Training of Journalists; A World-Wide Survey on the Training of Personnel for the Mass Media, 1958, pp ). Another proposal was by Joseph Pulitzer. In 1903 Pulitzer, who had become an extremely successful publisher and editor, had desired to endow a school of journalism. He expressed his position on education for journalism in an article that appeared in the North American Review. Pulitzer described a program that focused on (1) style, (2) law tailored for the journalist, (3) ethics, (4) literature, (5) truth and accuracy, (6) history
6 tailored for the journalist, (7) sociology, (8) economics, (9) "the enemies of the republic," (10) arbitration in its broad sense, (11) statistics, (12) modern languages, especially French and German, (13) science, (14) the study of newspapers, (15) the power of ideas, (16) principles of journalism, and (17) the news (May 1904, pp ). In short, Pulitzer recommended a program that "emphasized editorial training in the collection and dissemination of news, with major stress placed on the social sciences. Courses dealing with the business aspect of newspaper publisher were to be carefully avoided" (Sutton, 1945, p. 13). Another proposal was made by Dr. Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University, in Eliot, who had learned of Pulitzer's interest in funding a school of journalism, designed a curriculum that stressed the business side of journalism, as the following courses illustrate: "Newspaper Administration" (The organization of a newspaper office and functions of various departments and services.) "Newspaper Administration" (Study of printing presses and other mechanical devices used in publishing.) "The Law of Journalism" "Ethics of Journalism" "History of Journalism" "The Literary Form of Newspapers" (Approved usages in punctuation, spelling, abbreviations, typography, etc.) "Reinforcement of Existing Departments of Instruction for Benefit of Students in Journalism" (Background courses coordinated with journalism.) (Lee, p.
7 13.) Because of Eliot's emphasis on the business aspects of journalism, Harvard University did not receive Pulitzer's endowment. Columbia University was honored instead. Nonetheless, Eliot's plan, which had emphasized a "practical" education but which was not enacted at Harvard, was adopted at other universities. Today, the curriculum of journalism at most schools of journalism and/or mass communications has combined the two philosophies. Even programs in advertising have embraced these concepts in the kinds of courses offered. Proposals for the Creation of Journalism Programs Date Who Proposal 1869 Robert E. Lee Proposed a program in printing. (Did not include Washington College advertising.) Aborted. (Washington & Lee Univ.) 1875 Andrew Dickson White Proposed a program in journalism. (Did not include Cornell University advertising.) Aborted Bessie Tift College Proposed a program in journalism. (Did not include advertising.) Program offered years later Joseph Pulitzer Proposed a program in journalism. (Did not include advertising.) 1903 Charles W. Eliot Proposed a program in journalism. (Included Harvard University advertising.) Aborted. Business Programs that Included Marketing/Advertising:
8 Although several schools of business existed before 1900, courses in marketing were not offered until According to H. H. Maynard (April 1941, p. 382), the first course, "The Distributive and Regulative Industries of the United States," was offered by the Economics Department of the University of Michigan in The description of the course appeared in the university's catalog: This course which alternates with Course 34, will include a description of the various ways of marketing goods, of the classification grades, brands, employed, and of the wholesale and retail trade. Attention will also be given to those private organizations, not connected with money and banking, which guide and control the industrial process, such as trade associations, boards of trade, and chambers of commerce (Maynard, April 1941, p. 383). Simon Litman (October 1950, p. 220), on the other hand, claimed that the course, "The Technique of Trade and Commerce," which he taught in 1902 at the University of California, was one of the first courses in marketing. Litman also claimed that a similar course was offered the same year at the University of Illinois. One of the first courses with "marketing" in its title was "The Marketing of Product," which was offered at the Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania, in The course emphasized advertising and publicity, as the following description from the university's catalog illustrates: The methods now practiced in the organization and conduct of the selling branch of industrial and mercantile business. The principal subjects in the field are publicity, agency, advertising, forms and correspondence, credit and collections, and terms of sale (Maynard, April 1941, p. 383).
9 The Ohio State University offered courses in marketing as early as 1904; in 1907 it offered "Mercantile Institutions," a course that included advertising, as the description from the specific bulletin on Business Administration and Social Science illustrates: This course considers mercantile organization from two points of view: (1) The evolution of mercantile organizations in the United States and their relation to each other; the origin and development of the various mercantile institutions with special reference to the economic conditions which brought them into existence and perpetuated them. The various methods of marketing goods, and the functions of the various distributors, manufacturers, manufacturers' agents, brokers, jobbers, traveling salesmen, etc. Advertising, its psychological laws, its economic importance and the changes it has introduced in selling goods. The work of stock and produce exchanges. (2) The internal or administrative organization of mercantile concerns. A study of the divisions and subdivisions of mercantile concerns and the relation of the various departments to each other and to the whole. The systems in use of recording and preserving data (Hagerty, July 1936, p. 21). In 1909 the Harvard School of Business Administration offered the course "Commercial Organization and Methods," which included advertising (Hagerty, July 1936, p. 22). As more schools of business opened, more courses in marketing were offered. These courses included advertising as part of their subject matter. The first course devoted exclusively to advertising was offered by New York University in 1905 (Maynard, April 1941, p. 382).
10 In 1908 "Advertising and Salesmanship" was offered by Northwestern University. A year later "Psychology of Business, Advertising and Salesmanship" was offered and was taught by Walter Dill Scott, the president of the university (Maynard, April 1941, p. 384). Courses in advertising were offered by other universities in the years following. The first program in advertising was developed by the School of Journalism at the University of Missouri in 1908 (University of Missouri Bulletin, 1959, p. 10). The first department to include "advertising" in its title was the Department of Advertising and Marketing at New York University (Advertising Age, 1963, p. 224). This department was started in Programs that Included Marketing/Advertising Date Who Proposal 1881 U. of Pennsylvania Wharton School of Finance & Economics 1898 U. of California School of Business founded 1898 U. of Chicago School of Business founded 1902 U. of Michigan Marketing as one part of one course in economics 1902 U. of California Marketing as one part of one course in economics 1902 U. of Illinois Marketing as one part of one course in economics 1904 U. of Pennsylvania Marketing as one course in the Wharton School 1904 Ohio State U. Marketing as one course in the College of Commerce and Administration 1905 New York U. Advertising as one course 1908 Northwestern U. Advertising as one course
11 1908 U. of Missouri Program in advertising founded 1909 Harvard U. Advertising as one part of one course in marketing in the Graduate School of Business Administration 1915 New York U. Department of Advertising & Marketing founded In 1959, Frank C. Pierson's book, The Education of American Business, was published. At the time, courses as well as programs in advertising were found in schools of business and schools of journalism. Pierson's study, which had been sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation, examined the various disciplines, including marketing, offered by schools of business and recommended that courses in advertising be excluded from the undergraduate curriculum. After the study had been read by academicians, action regarding the curriculum was taken at several schools of business. For instance, by 1963 at least 13 schools of business had discontinued their programs in advertising. By 1964 other schools of business that had programs in advertising had discontinued more than 60 courses in advertising (Ross, 1965, p. 28). Subsequently, some of these programs in advertising were adopted by schools of journalism and/or mass communications. This trend continues. Indeed, today only a few programs in advertising are located in schools of business. References: Ford, James L. C. (1947). A Study of the Pre-War Curricula of Selected Schools of Journalism (Doctoral Dissertation). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Hagerty, J. E. (July 1936). "Experiences of an Early Marketing Teacher." Journal of Marketing. 1 (1): "How Colleges and Universities Educate Future Practitioners in Advertising."
12 Advertising Age (January 15, 1963): 224. Lee, James Melvin (1918). Instruction in Journalism in Institutions of Higher Education. Washington: U. S. Bulletin No. 21, Department of Interior, Bureau of Education. Litman, Simon (October 1950). "The Beginnings of Teaching Marketing in American Universities." Journal of Marketing. 15 (2): Maynard, H. H. (April 1941). "Marketing Courses Prior to 1910." Journal of Marketing. 5 (4): O'Dell, De Forest (1935). The History of Journalism Education in the United States. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College Press, Columbia University. Pulitzer, Joseph (May 1904). "The College of Journalism." North American Review. 178 (5): Ross, Billy I. (1965). Advertising Education: Programs in Four-Year American Colleges and Universities. Lubbock: Texas Tech Press. Sutton, Albert Alton (1945). Education for Journalism in the United States from its Beginning to Evanston: Northwestern University Press. "The Journalists' Creed." University of Missouri Bulletin (July 1930, p. 2). Columbia, MO.: University of Missouri. The Training of Journalists: A World-Wide Survey on the Training of Personnel for the Mass Media (1958). Paris: UNESCO. University of Missouri Bulletin (October 15, 1959). Columbia: University of Missouri. Williams, Sara Lockwood (1929). Twenty Years of Education for Journalism. Columbia: E. W. Stephens Publishing Co.
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