Compliance Document for New Zealand Building Code Clause D1 Access Routes Second Edition

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1 Compliance Document for New Zealand Building Code Clause D1 Access Routes Second Edition Prepared by the Department of Building and Housing This Compliance Document is prepared by the Department of Building and Housing. The Department of Building and Housing is a Government Department established under the State Sector Act Enquiries about the content of this document should be directed to: Department of Building and Housing PO Box , Wellington. Telephone Fax Compliance Documents are available from Department of Building and Housing 2011 This Compliance Document is protected by Crown copyright, unless indicated otherwise. The Department of Building and Housing administers the copyright in this document. You may use and reproduce this document for your personal use or for the purposes of your business provided you reproduce the document accurately and not in an inappropriate or misleading context. You may not distribute this document to others or reproduce it for sale or profit. The Department of Building and Housing owns or has licences to use all images and trademarks in this document. You must not use or reproduce images and trademarks featured in this document for any purpose (except as part of an accurate reproduction of this document) unless you first obtain the written permission of the Department of Building and Housing.

2 Status of Compliance Documents Compliance Documents are prepared by the Department of Building and Housing in accordance with section 22 of the Building Act A Compliance Document is for use in establishing compliance with the New Zealand Building Code. A person who complies with a Compliance Document will be treated as having complied with the provisions of the Building Code to which the Compliance Document relates. However, a Compliance Document is only one method of complying with the Building Code. There may be alternative ways to comply. Users should make themselves familiar with the preface to the New Zealand Building Code Handbook, which describes the status of Compliance Documents and explains alternative methods of achieving compliance. Defined words (italicised in the text) and classified uses are explained in Clauses A1 and A2 of the Building Code and in the Definitions at the start of this Compliance Document. D1: Document History Date Alterations First published July 1992 Amendment 1 December 1993 p. 12, Table 5 p. 15, 4.4.2, Amendment 2 19 August 1994 pp. i and ii, Document History p. vii, Contents p. viii, References pp. ix and x, Definitions p. 1, 1.0, 1.0.1, p. 3, p. 4, Figure 2 p. 6, p. 6A, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, pp. 6B, 6C, 6D, Table 1A p. 6D, Amendment 3 1 December 1995 p. ii, Document History p. viii, References p. 30, 12.0, 12.1 p. 7, p. 10, Figure 11 p. 11, p. 12, Table 5, 4.1.4, p. 13, 4.4, p. 14, Figure 17 p. 15, deleted, Figure 18, 4.5, 4.5.1, 4.5.2, 4.6, 4.6.1, p. 10, Table 1A pp. 33 to 35, Index p. 15, Second edition 28 February 1998 Document revised second edition issued Amendment 4 1 July 2001 p. 2, Document History, Status p. 11, References p. 13, Definitions Amendment 5 10 October 2011 p. 2, Document History, Status pp. 3 4, Code Clause D1 p. 9, Contents p. 11, References p. 25, Figure 8 p. 30, Comment p. 41, Comment p. 46, p. 13, Definitions p. 41, D1/AS p. 46, D1/AS pp , Index Note: Page numbers relate to the document at the time of Amendment and may not match page numbers in current document. Document Status The most recent version of this document, as detailed in the Document History, is approved by the Chief Executive of the Department of Building and Housing. It is effective from 10 October 2011 and supersedes all previous versions of this document. People using this Compliance Document should check for amendments on a regular basis. The Department of Building and Housing may amend any part of any Compliance Document at any time. Up-to-date versions of Compliance Documents are available from

3 Clause D1 New Zealand Building Code Clause D1 Access Routes a c c e s s r o u t e s This Clause is extracted from the New Zealand Building Code contained in the First Schedule of the Building Regulations Objective D1.1(c) shall apply only to those buildings to which section 47A of the Act applies. Note: Section 47A is in the Building Act The equivalent section in the Building Act 2004 is section 118. Effective from 29 December 2000 D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 1 0 O c t o b e r

4 a c c e s s r o u t e s Clause D1 Performance D1.3.2 shall not apply to Housing, Outbuildings, backcountry huts, Ancillary buildings, and to Industrial buildings where no more than 10 people are employed. Effective from 31 October O c t o b e r D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G

5 Clause D1 a c c e s s r o u t e s D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 2 8 F e b r u a r y

6 a c c e s s r o u t e s Clause D1 2 8 F e b r u a r y D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G

7 Clause D1 a c c e s s r o u t e s D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 2 8 F e b r u a r y

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9 Contents D1/VM1 & AS1 Contents Page References 11 Definitions 13 Verification Method D1/VM Slip Resistance 15 Acceptable Solution D1/AS General Criteria Location Slope Changes in level Height clearances Obstructions Structural stability Barriers Lighting Level Access Routes Slip resistance Width Protection from falling Ramps Slope Width Landings Kerb ramps Stairways Pitch, risers and treads Width Landings Curved and spiral stairways Stair winders Visibility of stair treads Fixed Ladders General Step-type ladders Rung-type ladders Individual rung-type ladders Handrails 39 a c c e s s r o u t e s Page 7.0 Doors and Openings Places of Assembly Spaces for wheelchairs Access to performance areas Accessible Accommodation 43 Units of Communal Residential Buildings 9.1 Number of units to be provided Facilities to be provided Movement of Vehicles Car parking areas Modifications to AS Other Acceptable Solutions Lifts 46 Index 47 Amend 5 Oct 2011 D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 1 0 O c t o b e r

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11 Amend 4 Jul 2001 Amend 5 Oct 2011 References D1/VM1 & AS1 References a c c e s s r o u t e s For the purposes of New Zealand Building Code (NZBC) compliance, the Standards and documents referenced in this Compliance Document (primary reference documents) must be the editions, along with their specific amendments, listed below. Where these primary reference documents refer to other Standards or documents (secondary reference documents), which in turn may also refer to other Standards or documents, and so on (lower-order reference documents), then the version in effect at the date of publication of this Compliance Document must be used. Amend 5 Oct 2011 Amend 4 Jul 2001 Amend 5 Oct 2011 Standards New Zealand Where quoted NZS/AS 1657: 1992 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and AS ladders Design, construction and installation (known as the SAA Code for fixed platforms, walkways, stairways, and ladders) NZS 3114: 1987 Specification for concrete surface finishes AS1 Table 2 Amend: 1 NZS 3116: 2002 Concrete segmental and flagstone paving AS1 Table 2 Amend: 1 NZS 4121: 2001 Design for access and mobility Buildings and AS , associated facilities Standards Australia AS 2890:- Parking facilities Part 1: 2004 Off street parking AS1 10.1, 10.2 Amend: 1 Part 2: 2002 Off street commercial facilities AS Amend: 1 AS/NZS 3661:- Slip resistance of pedestrian surfaces Part 1: 1993 Requirements VM , AS , 3.1.4, Table 2 Part 2: 1994 Guide to the reduction of slip hazards AS British Standards Institution BS 585:- Wood stairs. Part 1: 1989 Specification for stairs with closed risers for AS domestic use, including straight and winder flights and quarter or half landings BS 5395:- Stairs, ladders and walkways Part 2: 1984 Code of practice for the design of helical and AS spiral stairs D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 1 0 O c t o b e r

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13 Amend 5 Oct 2011 Amend 5 Oct 2011 Definitions D1/VM1 & AS1 Definitions Access route A continuous route that permits people and goods to move between the apron or construction edge of the building to spaces within a building, and between spaces within a building. Accessible Having features to permit use by people with disabilities. Accessible route An access route usable by people with disabilities. It shall be a continuous route that can be negotiated unaided by a wheelchair user. The route shall extend from street boundary or car parking area to those spaces within the building required to be accessible to enable people with disabilities to carry out normal activities and processes within the building. Accessible stairway A stairway having features for use by people with disabilities. Buildings required to be accessible shall have at least one accessible stairway leading off an accessible route whether or not a lift is provided. Adequate Adequate to achieve the objectives of the building code. Building has the meaning given to it by sections 8 and 9 of the Building Act Common ramp A ramp which is used, or intended to be used by the public whether as of right or not, and is not a service ramp or accessible ramp. Common stairway A stairway which is used, or intended to be used, by the public whether as of right or not, and is not a private stairway, service stairway or accessible stairway. Handrail A rail to provide support to, or assist with the movement of a person. a c c e s s r o u t e s This is an abbreviated list of definitions for words or terms particularly relevant to this Compliance Document. The definitions for any other italicised words may be found in the New Zealand Building Code Handbook. Household unit (a) means a building or group of buildings, or part of a building or group of buildings, that is (i) used, or intended to be used, only or mainly for residential purposes; and (ii) occupied, or intended to be occupied, exclusively as the home or residence of not more than 1 household; but (b) does not include a hostel, boarding house, or other specialised accommodation. Kerb ramp means a short ramp either cutting through a kerb or built up to the kerb. Main private stairway A private stairway intended to provide access to and between frequently used spaces such as living areas, kitchens and garages, and includes all exterior private stairways. Minor private stairway A private stairway not on a main thoroughfare, and intended to provide infrequent access to a single room which is not a living area or kitchen. Nosing The rounded projecting edge of a stair tread. Person with a disability means a person who has an impairment or a combination of impairments that limits the extent to which the person can engage in the activities, pursuits, and processes of everyday life, including, without limitation, any of the following: (a) a physical, sensory, neurological, or intellectual impairment: (b) a mental illness. Pitch line The line joining the leading edge or nosings (if any) of successive stair treads within a single flight of a stairway. Private stairway A stairway used, or intended to be used, by the occupants of a single household unit. Amend 5 Oct 2011 Amend 4 Jul 2001 Amend 5 Oct 2011 D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 1 0 O c t o b e r

14 a c c e s s r o u t e s Definitions D1/VM1 & AS1 Secondary private stairway A private stairway other than a main or minor private stairway, intended to provide access to another floor containing only bedrooms, bathroom or similar accommodation Service ramp means a ramp that is used, or intended to be used, infrequently by service personnel to gain access to spaces for the purposes of maintenance and the movement of goods. Service stairway means a stairway that is used, or intended to be used, infrequently by service personnel to gain access to spaces for the purposes of maintenance and the movement of goods. Stairway A series of steps or stairs with or without landings, including all necessary handrails and giving access between two different levels. Threshold A sill to an external door, or the floor under an internal door F e b r u a r y D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G

15 Verification Method D1/VM1 Verification Method D1/VM1 1.0 Slip Resistance a c c e s s r o u t e s Compliance with the slip-resistant performance of NZBC D1.3.3 (d) may be verified by confirming that the walking surface under the expected conditions of use has a coefficient of friction (µ) of no less than: µ = S where S is the slope of the walking surface expressed as a percentage Measurement of the coefficient of friction shall be in accordance with AS/NZS D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 2 8 F e b r u a r y

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17 Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 1.0 General Criteria 1.1 Location Accessible routes shall be provided to give direct access to the principal entrance to the building where practical. If it is not practical, the alternative most direct practical route to the space served by the principal entrance shall be used. The route shall have signs complying with NZBC F Where a site has separate buildings as part of a single complex, accessible routes shall not deviate substantially from the convenient or direct route commonly used Where accessible units of Community service buildings are provided, an accessible route shall connect all accessible units to reception areas, offices, shops, dining rooms, kitchens, laundries, ablution blocks, recreation rooms and any other communal facilities Figure 1 illustrates an acceptable solution with provision for people with disabilities to approach buildings Access routes which are part of an escape route shall also comply with NZBC C Slope Slope in direction of travel Acceptable slopes for different types of access routes are shown in Figure Cross fall Where the surface of an access route is subject to wetting, the surface shall have a cross fall of no less than 1 in 100. The surface of any access route shall not have a cross fall of more than 1 in 50. Figure 1: 1.3 Changes in level a c c e s s r o u t e s Except in household units or where permitted by Paragraph 1.3.2, a single isolated step shall not be permitted but the change of level shall be constructed as a ramp complying with Paragraph Threshold weather stops projecting no more than 20 mm above the threshold finished surface are acceptable. Approaching a Building Paragraph Threshold weather stops greater than 20 mm should be designed as ramps complying with Paragraph 3.0. Height changes at doorways are particularly inconvenient for wheelchair users as it requires complex manoeuvring to get over the change in level while opening the door. D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 2 8 F e b r u a r y

18 a c c e s s r o u t e s Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 Figure 2: Acceptable Slopes for Ramps, Stairways and Fixed Ladders Paragraph Table 1: Height Clearances Paragraph Prone access spaces (e.g. sub-floor access, limited length) Crawl spaces for servicing (30 m max length) Pedestrian access routes (unlimited length) Landings, stairways and corridors (less than 2 m in length) 450 mm 800 mm 2100 mm 2000 mm 1.4 Height clearances Access routes shall have height clearances complying with Table 1 and as shown in Figure 3. Particular care must be taken to ensure that there is adequate height clearance between the pitch line and the underside of an upper tread where spiral stairways are used. Figure 3: Height Clearances Along Access Route Paragraph Obstructions A minor projection is permitted within the required clear width of an access route if it is designed to minimise the risk of injury or impact, and the projection is located: a) More than 1600 mm above floor level and projects less than 200 mm into the access route (Figure 4), b) Within the height 800 mm to 1600 mm above floor level and projects less than 60 mm into the access route, (Figure 4), c) Less than 800 mm above floor level and projects less than 100 mm into the access route (Figure 4). Light fittings less than 1600 mm above the floor would need to be recessed into the wall. A projection of 60 mm is sufficient to allow for electrical sockets, signs on walls, etc F e b r u a r y D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G

19 Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 a c c e s s r o u t e s Figure 4: Safe Minor Projections Paragraphs and Figure 5: Protection from Major Projections Paragraph Handrails may be considered a minor projection if they project no more than: a) 100 mm into the access route (see Figure 4), or b) In the case of a centre handrail, 300 mm into a landing (see Figure 25) Major projections (see Figure 5) are permitted if: a) The clear width of the access route is provided between the faces of the projections, and b) The transition between the face of the wall and the face of the projection is designed to minimise the risk of injury by impact Dangerous projections Windows, fittings or other dangerous obstructions may project into the space adjacent to an access route (see Figure 6) if users are protected from the projection by: a) A kerb provided at floor level which defines the extent of the projection, or b) A handrail, guard-rail, or other protection at sill level. 1. Many people with disabilities require better lighting than is normally provided to highlight obstructions. This applies particularly with respect to the elderly and those with impaired sight. 2. Illumination should also highlight doors, signs, counters and other areas. 3. Lighting designers should avoid glare and sudden sharp changes in lighting levels. Diffused types of lighting are preferred. D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 2 8 F e b r u a r y

20 a c c e s s r o u t e s Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 Figure 6: Protection from Dangerous Projections Paragraph Figure 7: Protection from Isolated Columns Paragraph Isolated columns are permitted in an access route (see Figure 7) provided that: a) The column can be readily seen during normal use of the building, and b) A clear passage of no less than 900 mm is available on both sides; and, on an accessible route, a clear passage of no less than 1200 mm is available on at least one side. 1.6 Structural stability The access route including handrails shall comply with the strength and stiffness requirements of NZBC B F e b r u a r y D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G

21 Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 a c c e s s r o u t e s 1.7 Barriers Barriers to prevent falling from the access route shall comply with NZBC F4. Barriers and handrails, having different functions, are considered separately in the building code. A barrier (or balustrade on a stair) is required to prevent people falling where there is a sudden change in level. A handrail is a graspable rail designed to guide and support people using a stairway or ramp. A handrail may be attached to or form the top of a barrier where the height is appropriate. 1.8 Lighting Artificial lighting complying with NZBC G8 shall be provided along the access route. 2.0 Level Access Routes 2.1 Slip resistance Level access routes to which the public has access, including level accessible routes, shall have a mean coefficient of friction µ, of not less than 0.4 when tested in accordance with AS/NZS (see D1/VM1). Requirements for ramps and stairways are given in Paragraphs and Access routes to which the public have access include walking surfaces such as decks, patios and steps on the approach to the main entrance to Housing, and common areas of Communal Residential and Multi-unit dwelling accommodation. 2. For other access routes a coefficient of friction of less than 0.4 may be acceptable, but account should be taken of the effectiveness of the surface when worn or wet For a level access route which is intended to remain dry under normal usage, any of the commonly used walking surfaces listed in Table 2 will provide adequate slip resistance (µ > 0.4). 1. A cleaning regime should be established by the building owner to effectively maintain the slip resistance of the walking surface. 2. Whenever a normally dry surface is wet, such as from cleaning or isolated spillage, at a time when the public have access, adequate signage should be used to identify the hazard. (Many walking surfaces which are slip resistant in the dry become very slippery when wet and can be the cause of slip injuries as pedestrians are unaware of the rapid change of slip resistance and have not altered their gait accordingly.) 3. Slipping may still occur on slip resistant walking surfaces as other factors such as the use of unsuitable footwear or unusual gaits also influence slip resistance The walking surface for a level access route which may become wet during normal usage (for example, outdoor access routes or entranceways where water can be tracked indoors when it is raining) shall be selected from the list of acceptable wet slip resistant surfaces given in Table Testing as prescribed by D1/VM1 may be used to supplement Table The manner in which a surface wears will affect the slip resistance. This is particularly relevant to wet slip resistant surfaces if wear results in a polishing of the surface. 3. Allowing the surface texture to become clogged with dirt (through inadequate cleaning regimes) or the buildup of polishes or waxes can similarly impair slip resistance. (This comment is applicable for both dry and wet surfaces.) Guidance on the maintenance of slip resistance is given in AS/NZS D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 2 8 F e b r u a r y

22 a c c e s s r o u t e s Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 Table 2: Acceptable Slip Resistance for Walking Surfaces Paragraphs 2.1.2, and c) Walking surface (12) Level surface (1) Sloping surface (2) Typical values or stairs (3) for coefficient of friction (wet) Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable dry slip wet slip dry slip wet slip resistance resistance resistance resistance Timber Uncoated smooth Yes No No No Uncoated profiled (4) across profile Yes Yes Yes Test along profile Yes No No No Coated (paint, polyurethane, etc) Yes No No No Coated and sand/grit impregnated (5) Yes Yes Yes Yes Portland cement concrete Smooth trowelled finish (Class U3) (6) Yes No Yes No Broomed (Class 5 or 6) (6) or wood float finish (Class U2) Yes Yes Yes Yes Coated (paint, polyurethane, etc) Yes No No No Coated and sand/grit impregnated (5) Yes Yes Yes Yes Exposed aggregate finish rounded aggregate Yes Test Yes Test crushed aggregate Yes Yes Yes Yes Asphaltic concrete Yes Yes Yes Yes Marble and granite Polished surface (7) Yes No No No Honed finish (8) Yes Test Yes Test Flamed finish Yes Yes Yes Yes Fully sandblasted surface (8) Yes Test Yes Test Patterned sandblasted surface Yes Test (9) Yes Test (9) Split slate Yes Test Yes Test Terrazzo Polished Yes Test No No Honed Yes Test Yes Test Sandstone Yes Yes Yes Test Ceramic tiles Unglazed smooth finish Yes Test Yes Test profiled Yes Test (9) Yes Test (9) grit finish Yes Test (10) Yes Test (10) Glazed smooth or polished finish (7) Yes No No No profiled Yes Test (9) Yes Test (9) grit finish Yes Test (10) Yes Test (10) Clay pavers Wire cut Yes Yes Yes Test Smooth texture Yes Test Yes Test F e b r u a r y D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G

23 Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 a c c e s s r o u t e s Table 2: Acceptable Slip Resistance for Walking Surfaces (cont d) Walking surface (12) Level surface (1) Sloping surface (2) Typical values or stairs (3) for coefficient of friction (wet) Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable Acceptable dry slip wet slip dry slip wet slip resistance resistance resistance resistance Concrete pavers Dry press concrete Yes Yes Yes Test Interlocking concrete block paving (11) Yes Yes Yes Test Moulded surface (e.g. simulated slate or concrete cobbles) Yes Test Yes Test Compressed fibre-cement sheet Uncoated Yes Yes Yes Test Coated (paint, polyurethane, etc) Yes No No No Coated and sand impregnated (5) Yes Yes Yes Yes Rubber tiles/sheeting Smooth Yes Test Yes Test Profiled Yes Test (9) Yes Test (9) Vinyl and linoleum Smooth or with imprinted pattern Yes Test Yes No Profiled (studs or ribs) Yes Test (9) Yes Test (9) Grit/flaked finish Yes Test Yes Test Carpet Tufted or loop pile (13) Yes Yes Yes Yes Artificial turf (13) Yes Yes Yes Yes Timber composites (chipboard, cork tiles, etc) Uncoated Yes No Yes No Coated (paint, polyurethane, etc) Yes No No No Coated and sand/grit impregnated (5) Yes Yes Yes Yes Anti-slip tapes (14) Yes Yes Yes Test See page 20 for notes to Table 2. D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G 2 8 F e b r u a r y

24 a c c e s s r o u t e s Acceptable Solution D1/AS1 Table 2: Acceptable Slip Resistance for Walking Surfaces (cont d) Notes: 1. Level surfaces including surfaces with slopes no steeper than 1: Sloping surfaces with slopes greater than 1:50 but less than 1:10 for wet conditions, or less than 1:8 for dry conditions. 3. Acceptability as shown is based on stair treads without slip resistant nosings. When testing stair treads without nosings acceptability for slip resistance from AS/NZS should be based on a slope of 1:10. With slip resistant nosings at least 50 mm wide, acceptability criteria for stair treads is based on the requirements for level surfaces. 4. Profile at right angles to direction of pedestrian traffic. Algal growth on uncoated timber walkways significantly reduces slip resistance when wet and requires regular removal, e.g. by high pressure waterblasting. 5. The sand/grit, which is sprinkled over the complete surface of the final paint coating, should be a hard angular material such as silica sand or calcined bauxite. The particle size should not be less than 0.2 mm so that it is not submerged by the coating and not greater than about 2 3 mm so that it remains tightly bound to the surface. If overpainted, testing is required to establish acceptability of slip resistance. 6. Concrete surface finishes complying with NZS Glazed or polished surfaces are unsuitable in either wet or dry conditions for sloping surfaces or for stairs, even though test measurements may indicate adequacy, because of the effect of foot placement. Note also that when tested in the dry, very smooth surfaces can give anomalous high readings arising from slip-suction effects between the test slider and the test surface. 8. The coefficient of friction can vary significantly with the extent of surface preparation. 9. It is noted in AS/NZS that the slip resistance tests prescribed in that Standard may not be suitable for heavily profiled (or patterned) surfaces. The Standard references other tests which may be more suitable for such surfaces. 10. When the grit finish has a feel rougher than 80 grit sandpaper, the surface may be deemed to have acceptable wet slip resistance, for either level or sloping surfaces or for stair treads, without testing. 11. Interlocking concrete block paving to NZS To meet durability requirements of NZBC B2, the surface should have at least a five year life under normal maintenance. 13. Validity of the listed typical values for coefficient of friction is uncertain as the test methods may not be applicable to carpets. 14. Anti-slip tapes will normally require regular replacement to remain effective. To ensure foot contact, tapes should be placed at right angles to the line of travel and be spaced at no more than 150 mm centres Except in Housing, the transition zone between any part of the access route which is intended to remain dry under normal usage and that part of the access route which may become wet during normal usage shall be provided with: a) Water absorbent matting across the width of the effective walkway with a sufficient dimension in the direction of the pedestrian traffic to remove water which may be tracked by footwear, or b) An extension of the wet slip resistant walking surface for sufficient distance from the point at which water can be tracked indoors (normally from the entrance portal) to allow water to be shed from footwear, or c) A combination of a) and b) above. 1. The dimension of the transition zone in the direction of pedestrian traffic is dependent upon the usage, however either: a) The absorbent matting should be of sufficient size to allow for at least one (preferably two) contacts between each foot with normally spaced footfalls. (As a guide, the minimum dimension is 1.8 m, but this could be reduced if the design of the entranceway restricts the spacing of the footfalls, e.g. an entranceway incorporating a revolving door), or b) The wet slip resistant walking surface should extend typically 6 m to 10 m from the entrance portal. 2. The absorbent matting should be either fixed in place (e.g. by a mat well) or should adequately grip the underlying flooring and should be of a design (e.g. with a heavy rubber backing) which will not curl up at the edges. 3. A cleaning/replacement regime should be established by the building operator to ensure the ongoing effectiveness of the matting F e b r u a r y D E P A R T M E N T O F B U I L D I N G A N D H O U S I N G

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