Oil, health, and development. Michaela Pfeiffer Technical Officer Public Health and Environment Department World Health Organization Geneva

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1 Oil, health, and development Michaela Pfeiffer Technical Officer Public Health and Environment Department World Health Organization Geneva

2 Overview 1. Importance and value of health 2. Health impacts of oil and gas extraction activities 3. Good practice in identifying and managing health impacts 2 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

3 Importance and value of health

4 Health is important for all Human health is very easy to relate to Loss of health can have catastrophic consequences for individuals and for families Health is a common argument used to resist development projects Development progress is measured with health indicators (e.g. MDGs) 4 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

5 healthy population is vital for local economic development Labour pool Higher costs - non-wage labour costs Reduced performance and productivity of workers Longer term, due to reduced educational attainment, less qualified local labour pool Heavy burden of disease Tuberculosis Alcoholism HIV/AIDs Less attractive investment climate Less competitive High health insurance costs Catastrophic costs of disease for families 5 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

6 ..also for industry Liability for pollution and environment and health damages Impact of projects on disease and impacts of diseases on projects Disease transmission Disease and well-being affects linkages with communities Perceptions, expectations and reactions to business social licence to operate cost of doing business reputational risks 6 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

7 Health impacts of oil and gas extraction activities

8 Example of exploration activity Drilling generates: Waste and by-products of drillings, such as drilling muds and cutting; Chemicals waste from drilling and separation; Need to management of gas (re-injection, venting, flaring) Mobilization of heavy metals present in the soil; And eventually oil spill, fires and accidents Drilling requires: Highly skilled workers High levels of technology Power, water, transport and other infrastructure 8 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

9 9 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer Onshore facilities

10 Ancillary facilities and infrastructure 10 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

11 Direct impacts Environmental and physical factors Pollution: Air emissions - NOx, SOx, VOCs, PM, GHGs, dust Soil and ground water contamination Vibration and noise pollution Degradation: Change in soil quality land use changes Damage to ecosystems Loss of biodiversity 11 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

12 Health and safety concerns Operation of equipment and machinery Road traffic accidents Construction Fires, explosions Exposure to hazardous substances Chemicals, heavy metals Heat stress, exposure to UV radiation Ergonomic injuries 12 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

13 Direct and indirect Social and institutional factors Great expectations of benefits and wealth Generation of employment and new livelihood opportunities Stress, anxiety and social tensions Rapid development Demographic change Change in lifestyles & livelihoods Local infrastructure Strain/improvements and related impacts on access to services 13 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

14 rapid development example pathways to health outcomes Change in spending patterns Diet (quality) and lifestyle Access to motorized transport Stress, mental well-being Nutritional status Levels of physical activity Road traffic accidents Alcoholism Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Obesity Respiratory disorders Injury or death 14 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

15 Example: Alberta, CANADA (2010) "boom town" virtual doubling of population in less than a decade Community health status lower in oil sands areas than in other regions - inequity Individual and family pressures Inflation (rent, food prices) Housing and labour shortages Infrastructure pressures Investment in health infrastructure not as fast as population growth Fort McMurry and the Oil Sands, Photo: Gord Mckenna Increased crime, alcohol and drug use, family stress Source: RSC Expert Panel, Environmental and Health Impacts of Canada's Oil Sands Industry, Dec Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

16 Summary points about importance and value of considering health Health is important to all stakeholders Health foot print bigger than size of oil deposit, Because of mixture of environmental, social and development changes Health impacts can be both positive and negative Risks to health can be anticipated and managed if: identified early, during planning and design adequate systems and capacities are in place 16 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

17 Health system as a key partner

18 Core health systems functions (i) Identification of health risks (and benefits) And interventions to address them Avoid unnecessary costs associated with avoidable health impacts using simple, low cost public health interventions Monitoring, reporting and evaluation Epidemiological and health indicators for baseline Early warning and monitoring of unintended impacts Measuring net "social" benefits or losses generated as a result of growth of the petroleum industry 18 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

19 Core health systems functions (ii) Responding to community concerns and perceptions of risk Health sector experienced with risk communication and can engage in dialogue on community concerns about health risks Emergency preparedness and response Public health response to chemical incidents Recognition and accurate diagnosis of chemical exposure Responding to health issues Delivery of medical services to workers and to communities 19 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

20 Tools and good practice in assessing and managing health impacts of extractive industries

21 Health impact assessment (HIA) Health impact assessment is a key tool/process/platform to facilitate the integration of health considerations into development policies, plans, and projects The use of HIA can enable the upstream assessment/identification of potential health impacts associated with a particular policy, plan opportunities to address those impacts. HIA can enable foresight to help ensure that the legacy is positive. 21 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

22 How does HIA work? Analysis of activities to determine potential health impacts Determination of baseline of health status and assessment/estimation of potential health impacts Generates recommendations on intervention options Framework for monitoring and evaluation Process and platform for systematically engaging all stakeholders in decision-making process 22 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

23

24 Key messages Health is vital for successful growth of oil and gas sector and for development of region Health impacts not only associated with environmental risk factors Opportunity through health, to anticipate to make sure that this oil is good for development Health system a key partner Many tools and good practice examples of how to do this 24 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

25 How to do this? Health included in part of monitoring of observatory Include health part of baseline studies As evaluation of environmental and social impacts Engagement of health authorities in overall planning process and response Health in emergency preparedness and response plans As part of infrastructure planning 25 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

26 Thank you Michaela Pfeiffer Technical Officer Public Health and Environment Department WHO Geneva 26 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

27 Extra slides

28 HIA procedure Policy, programme, or project development phase for prospective assessments. Policy or project implementation phase Screening Scoping Appraisal Reporting Monitoring Quickly establishes "health relevance" of the policy or project. Is HIA required? Identifies key health issues & public concerns, establishes ToR, sets boundaries. Rapid or in-depth assessment of health impacts using available evidence who will be affected, baseline, prediction, significance, mitigation. Conclusions and recommendations to remove/mitigate negative impacts on health or to enhance positive. Action, where appropriate, to monitor actual impacts on health to enhance existing evidence base. 28 Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

29 HIA can be easily integrated into other IAs Strategic Environmental Assessment 1. Establishing the context for the SEA Screening Setting objectives Identifying stakeholders 2. Implementing the SEA Scoping (in dialogue with stakeholders) Collecting baseline data Identifying alternatives Identifying how to enhance opportunities and mitigate impacts Quality Assurance Reporting 3. Informing and influencing decision making Making recommendations 4. Monitoring and evaluating Monitor decisions taken on the proposal Monitor implementation of the proposal Evaluation of both the SEA and the proposal Health impact assessment (HIA) Screening to establish health relevance of the proposal Scoping where health relevance exists, identifies questions to ask and defines boundaries for the assessment Appraisal assessment of health impacts using available evidence Reporting development and communication of conclusions and recommendations to remove/mitigate negative impacts on health or enhance positive impacts Monitoring action, where appropriate to monitor actual impacts on health to enhance existing evidence base DAC Guidance on SEA in Development Cooperation, OECD 2006 WHO, Oil, health, and development M Pfeiffer

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