1 encor! enetworks TM Version A, March Encore Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. IP Quality of Service The IP Quality of Service (QoS) feature allows you to assign packets a level of priority Immediate, High, Medium, or Low that allows packets with higher priority to be passed before traffic with a lower priority. QoS guarantees a specific throughput based on the way you configure its parameters. The Quality of Service feature can be used to ensure that mission-critical traffic is passed before less critical traffic. For example, you might assign traffic a high priority, but assign ISP traffic a medium priority. Or you might assign a lower priority to internet traffic passing over the backup line, and assign a higher priority to mission-critical traffic passing over the same line. This would ensure that, if a primary line failed, the backup line would have sufficient bandwidth to pass the more important traffic. B.1 Overview of IP Prioritization After you enable IP Quality of Service, you must set up quality-of-service rules in the Quality of Service Table, establishing criteria that identify packets to be prioritized. Then you must specify a priority level for traffic meeting those criteria, and a default priority for traffic that does not match any entry in the Quality of Service Table. As an example, the following criteria can identify traffic that you want to prioritize: Packet header information is within specified source IP Address range. Packet header information is within specified source TCP/UDP Port Number range. Packet header information is within specified destination IP Address range. Packet header information is within specified destination TCP/UDP Port Number range. Packet header information has a specified Protocol or Flag. Packet header information has a specified DLCI. In this example, you could use the destination IP Address range field to assign a high priority to traffic going to users and a low priority to traffic going to a printer. Or you could use the DLCI field to assign high priority to a DLCI carrying traffic to an ATM machine, and assign low priority to a different DLCI used to pass traffic to a server. The IP Quality of Service Table in the BANDIT II or in the BANDIT III can hold up to 60 entries. For information on trademarks, safety, limitations of liability, and similar topics, see Notices. Home Module: Routing Document B
2 Page 2 Routing, Document B B.2 Determining the Order of Entry The prioritization mechanism matches packet header information against entries in the IP Quality of Service Table, from the top down. That is, when a packet is checked against the IP Quality of Service Table, it is checked against entry 1 first. If a match is found, the entry s rule is executed, and the prioritization process on that packet is complete. If no match is found against entry 1, the packet is checked against entry 2, and so on. If the packet matches no entry in the table, the packet is assigned the default priority. Note: Only one rule can be executed on any given packet. A packet is assigned priority according to the first entry that it matches, for entries 1, 2, 3,...n. Before you begin configuring IP Quality of Service, you should carefully plan your prioritization strategy. Section B.3, Sample Rules for Prioritization in IP Quality of Service, provides a detailed example of the IP Quality of Service mechanism and a detailed procedure for setting up IP Prioritization. B.3 Sample Rules for Prioritization in IP Quality of Service Figure B-1 shows Unit A connected to an internet service provider (ISP) through a Frame Relay network. Unit A also has an Ethernet LAN with a server, computers, and a printer. Table B-1 specifies the following priorities for Unit A: 1 Traffic destined for the Worldwide Web (connection 1) has low priority. 2 Traffic destined for the server (connection 2) has medium priority. 3 Traffic originating from Dallas, destined for the LAN in Los Angeles (connection 3), has immediate priority.
3 IP Quality of Service Page 3 1 HTTP 2 Dallas FRAD B E N 3 Los Angeles 1 FRAD A N E Frame Relay ISP Computer Computer Computer Computer Computer Server Figure B-1. Private Network with Prioritization Requirements Table B-1. Sample IP Quality of Service Table Field Connection 1 Connection 2 Connection 3 Source Address Source Port Destination Address Destination Port Protocol TCP TCP Port N N 1 Priority Low Medium Immediate How to Configure IP Quality of Service 1 On the Main Menu, select Advanced Configurations. The Advance Configurations menu appears. 2 On the Advanced Configurations menu, select Routing. The Configure Routing menu appears.
4 Page 4 Routing, Document B 3 On the Configure Routing menu, select IP Routing. The IP Routing Configuration menu appears. 4 On the IP Routing Configuration menu, select IP Quality of Service. The IP Priority menu is displayed. IP Priority ) Prioritization 2) Type of Service 5 Select Prioritization. The IP Quality of Service menu is displayed. IP Quality of Service ) Status : Enabled 2) DiffServing : Disabled 3) Quality of Service Table 4) Default Priority : Medium 6 Select Status. The following menu is displayed: IP Quality of Service Status 1) Enable 2) Disable 7 Select Enable. The IP Quality of Service menu re-appears, showing the status Enabled. 8 If the BANDIT device s Quality of Service will include Differentiated Services, select Diffserving. The IP Differentiated Services menu is displayed. Follow the procedure in Section B.5, Differentiated Services.
5 IP Quality of Service Page 5 9 Select Quality of Service Table. You set up criteria in this table to prioritize packets traversing the BANDIT. The Quality of Service Table can hold a maximum of 100 entries (1200 entries in the VSR-1200). If the table already has entries, it is displayed. Go to Step 12. If the table has no entries yet, the following prompt is displayed: Empty IP Priority Table Add IP Priority Table Entry Enter Source IP Address Low (N.N.N.N or ) : 10 Do all of the following: a Source IP Address Low. This option allows you to enter the lowest-numbered source IP address for packets subjected to this prioritization rule. Enter the lowest IP address and press Enter. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Source IP Address High (N.N.N.N or ) : Note: The low address you entered in the previous field is displayed. You can backspace over any part of the address and make changes. If you used an asterisk () to indicate a wildcard entry (covering any possibility) for a field that defines one end of a range, you do not need to define the other end of that range, so the system skips entry for that end of the range. For example, if you entered an asterisk () in the Source IP Address Low field, the system skips the prompt for the Source IP Address High field. b Source IP Address High. Enter the highest-numbered source IP address for packets subjected to this prioritization rule, and press Enter. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Source TCP/UDP Port Low (Port Number or ) : c Source TCP/UDP Port Low. Enter the lowest source TCP or UDP port number for packets subjected to this prioritization rule, and press Enter. Note: See Table C-1 for common TCP/UDP port numbers. When you press Enter, the following prompt is displayed: Enter Source TCP/UDP Port High (Port Number or ) :
6 Page 6 Routing, Document B d Source TCP/UDP Port High. Enter the highest source TCP or UDP port number for packets subjected to this prioritization rule, and press Enter. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Destination IP Address Low (N.N.N.N or ) : e Destination IP Address Low. Enter the lowest destination IP address for packets subjected to this prioritization rule, and press Enter. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Destination IP Address High (N.N.N.N or ) : f Destination IP Address High. Enter the highest destination IP address for packets subjected to this prioritization rule, and press Enter. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Destination TCP/UDP Port Low (Port Number or ) : g Destination TCP/UDP Port Low. Enter the lowest destination TCP or UDP port number for packets subjected to this prioritization rule, and press Enter. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Destination TCP/UDP Port High (Port Number or ) : h Destination TCP/UDP Port High. Enter the highest destination TCP or UDP port number for packets subjected to this prioritization rule, and press Enter. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Protocol/Flag (TCP,UDP,ICMP,TCP_ACK,TCP_SYN,ESP,AH - T/U/I/ A/S/E/H or ) i Protocol/Flag. Enter the character corresponding to the protocol or flag for traffic to prioritize according to the criteria in this table entry. Select TCP (T) if this prioritization rule should be executed only on TCP packets. Select UDP (U) if this prioritization rule should be executed only on UDP packets.
7 IP Quality of Service Page 7 Select ICMP (I) if this prioritization rule should be executed only on ICMP packets. Select TCP_ACK (A) if this prioritization rule should be executed only on TCP ACK packets. Select TCP_SYN (S) if this prioritization rule should be executed only on TCP SYN packets. Select ESP (E) if this prioritization rule should be executed only on ESP packets. Select AH (H) if this prioritization rule should be executed only on AH packets. Note: IP has the ability to fragment datagrams that are too large for the network. When datagrams separate, only the header of the first fragment contains port numbers; the remaining fragments do not. Therefore, the remaining fragments are tested against the rules in the Quality of Service Table according to all criteria except port number, and the fragments are assigned a priority, according to the matching entry s priority. Select the asterisk () if this table entry should consider all packets, regardless of associated protocols or flags. When you press Enter, the following prompt is displayed: Note: Use For All Paths Enter Path Name (1 to 10 Characters): j Enter the Global Path Name or an asterisk () and press Enter. If you enter a name that is not already associated with a Global Path, you are prompted to add the path information: Path Name Does Not Exist In GPT Table. To Add Global Path Entry, Press 'Y'. Press Escape Otherwise. k Do one of the following: Enter Y to open the Global Path option and configure a path with that name. See Section 4.3, Defining Global Paths. Press Escape to return to the GPT prompt and enter a different name. Note: You cannot save this configuration if a valid Global Path Name has not been entered. The following prompt is displayed: Priority - (Immediate, High, Medium or Low - I/H/M/L) : l Enter the priority that you want these packets to have. The following prompt appears.
8 Page 8 Routing, Document B Bandwidth (bits/sec) (0 = DON'T CARE, 56000, max = ): mtype the bandwidth to use for packets meeting the criteria, and press Enter. The following prompt appears. Entry Added Then a prompt appears for the next record in the table. Enter Source IP Address Low (N.N.N.N or ) : 11 Do one of the following: a To add another record, return to Step 10. b To signal that you have finished adding records, press Escape. The table appears. Source Src Destination Dest # Address Port Address Port Protocol Path Name Priority Immediate Add, Modify, Insert or Delete an Entry? - (A/M/I/D) : 12 When you have finished making an entry, you can add, change, insert, or delete addresses. Do one of the following: a Press Escape to return to the IP Quality of Service menu. b Select Add, Modify, Insert, or Delete to change the table. Return to Step 10. Note: If you select a to add an entry, the entry is added at the bottom of the list. If you select i to insert an entry, you can specify where in the list you want to place this new entry (see Section B.2, Determining the Order of Entry). 13 Default Priority. If no match is found in the Quality of Service Table for a given packet, the packet is assigned the user-designated default priority. This option allows you to establish a default priority to assign to any traffic that does not match one of the rules in the Quality of Service Table. Do all of the following:
9 IP Quality of Service Page 9 a Select Default Priority. The following prompt is displayed: Enter Default Priority - (Immediate, High, Medium or Low - I/H/M/L) : b Select the default priority for packets not meeting criteria in the table, and press Enter. The IP Quality of Service menu re-appears. Note: To save the new configuration, you must Write and Reset. See Section 1.5, Saving (Writing) a Configuration, and Section 1.6, Resetting the Device. B.4 Type of Service In addition to the Quality of Service criteria that you can configure, each IP packet may carry information regarding its priority. An IP packet s header has four Type of Service (TOS) bits. Each bit indicates a different type of network service. Only one TOS bit at a time may be set in the header; combinations are not allowed. The BANDIT s support of TOS conforms to IETF RFC Transmission of user-set TOS values is transparent. If an IP packet contains a set TOS bit, the router handles the packet according to the specified service. How to Configure the BANDIT s Type of Service 1 On the Main Menu, select Advanced Configurations. 2 On the Advanced Configurations menu, select Routing. 3 On the Configure Routing menu, select IP Routing. 4 On the IP Routing Configuration menu, select IP Quality Of Service. 5 On the IP Priority menu, select Type of Service. The IP Type of Service menu is displayed. IP Type of Service ) Status : Enabled 2) Type of Service 6 On the IP Type of Service menu, select Status and Enable the service. 7 Then, on the IP Type of Service menu, select Type of Service. The IP Type of Service Configuration menu appears.
10 Page 10 Routing, Document B IP Type of Service ) Low : 0 2) Medium : 0 3) High : 0 4) Immediate : 0 Enter Choice 8 On the IP Type of Service Configuration menu, do the following for each level (Low through Immediate) that you wish to configure as TOS bits. a Select the level (for example, Low). The following prompt appears. Enter Type of Service (Hexadecimal) : b Enter a hexadecimal code for the Type of Service, and press Enter. The IP Type of Service Configuration menu re-appears. 9 When you have finished configuring the TOS levels, press Enter to return to the IP Type of Service menu. IP Type of Service ) Status : Enabled 2) Type of Service B.5 Differentiated Services The Differentiated Services (diffserv or DS) protocol is a method for providing quality of service (QoS). Diffserv comprises several aspects, such as forwarding behavior and traffic conditioning, based on DS class. One or more of these aspects are implemented at individual nodes. Diffserv handles network traffic by class. It achieves scalability because packet forwarding by class is quicker and requires less overhead than does service by individual packet requests. A packet is classified, conditioned, and assigned to a DS class when it enters a DS network. An IP packet s DS class is set according to the DS field in the packet header. Within the network, packets are forwarded according to the per-hop behavior (PHB) associated with the DS class. A packet's PHB, based on a packet s DS class, is consistent on all nodes in the DS network.
11 IP Quality of Service Page 11 The PHB constitutes the service properties for the class, such as packet forwarding, priority, throughput, delay, and jitter. There are 64 possible service designations, including no special service (000). Service differentiation accommodates dissimilar application requirements, user demands, and costs for services. Note: Diffserv is asymmetric; it applies to only one direction of traffic flow. B.5.1 Per-Hop Behavior A per-hop behavior is the forwarding action a DS node uses for a specific DS class. A PHB may be defined by its traffic properties or by its priority compared with other PHBs on the node. (A PHB is defined by its service behavior, not by the way the service is implemented. Nodes can use several mechanisms to implement PHBs.) When a packet enters the DS network, a node at the boundary of the DS network maps the packet s DS field to a DS class, and thus to a PHB corresponding to the class. One DS field maps to only one PHB, but several DS fields may map to the same PHB. A DS field not fitting a configured mapping maps to a default PHB. PHBs can be handled individually and can be used to build PHB groups. PHBs in a PHB group usually share a property, such as buffer management. PHBs may reflect absolute or relative priority within the PHB group. A node can implement more than one PHB and more than one PHB group. B.5.2 Traffic Conditioning Traffic conditioning performs actions such as metering, shaping, policing, and re-marking to ensure that traffic entering a DS network conforms to the network s DS policy. The traffic conditioning depends on the services supported in the DS network. One or more DS networks or parts of networks can constitute a DS domain, a network of DS nodes with a common service policy, including traffic conditioning, and a common set of PHBs. Two or more DS domains can constitute a DS region. The domains in a DS region may support different PHBs and different service policies; if so, the domains negotiate traffic conditioning at their common boundaries. B.5.3 Configuring the BANDIT to Use Diffserv The BANDIT products support of differentiated services conforms to RFC 2475 from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The user can enable or disable diffserv as part of configuration of the BANDIT s quality of service. The BANDIT reads the IP packet s DS field and forwards the packet as the bits indicate, using the PHB to determine the packet s next hop.
12 Page 12 Routing, Document B How to Configure the BANDIT Products to Use Diffserv BANDIT Plus IP Quality of Service ) Status : Disabled 2) DiffServing : Disabled 3) Quality of Service Table 4) Default Priority : Medium 1 On the IP Quality of Service menu, select DiffServing. The IP Differentiated Services menu is displayed. BANDIT Plus IP Differentiated Services ) Enable 2) Disable 2 Select Enable. The DiffServ options are enabled, and the IP Quality of Service menu is redisplayed. BANDIT Plus IP Quality of Service ) Status : Disabled 2) DiffServing : Enabled 3) Quality of Service Table 4) Default Priority : Medium B.6 VLAN Tagging and Prioritization In packet-switched networks, such as IP networks, Quality of Service (QoS) refers to packet delivery priority. Routers use specific criteria (for example, VLAN information) for policybased control, filtering packets out or passing packets to another node. Because broadcasts go to all devices in a LAN, devices can be overwhelmed with broadcast traffic if the LAN becomes very large. The IEEE Standard 802.1q proposes a solution: Subdivide the LAN into smaller groups for most traffic. The smaller groups, defined via software settings, are known as virtual local area networks (VLANs). By reducing the amount of bandwidth-consuming broadcasts to the entire LAN, the 802.1q standard improves delivery of time-sensitive traffic.
13 IP Quality of Service Page 13 An IP packet s VLAN is identified in a tag (field) in the MAC header or Ethernet header; this tag also indicates the packet s priority within its VLAN. Examples of VLANs include an engineering workgroup, an accounting network that includes members of several departments, or a marketing design team. A device can belong to more than one VLAN. Note: Use of a software ID, such as a VLAN tag, for organizing devices into a group is much simpler than use of physical wiring to delineate groups, especially when you need to change a group. Redefining a software ID is much quicker and more cost-effective than physical rewiring. In addition, two devices on different floors or buildings or regions can be in the same VLAN, regardless of wiring. Usually a VLAN is a subgroup of one LAN, but sometimes a VLAN can include parts of two or more LANs. The VLAN ID lets a VLAN be shared between LANs. B.6.1 The VLAN Tag IEEE Standard 802.1q, a base VLAN standard, defines the VLAN tag format in the MAC header or Ethernet header. Standard 802.1q specifies the use of a VLAN tag (field) and a VLAN ID, to divide the LAN into smaller groups. Per 802.1q, VLANs may be connected via media access control (MAC) bridges. The VLAN tag carries VLAN identification and priority across LAN technologies (such as Ethernet) that do not of themselves indicate priority. The VLAN tag has two parts: the 12-bit VLAN ID (allowing 4095 VLANs; one ID is reserved) and the 3-bit priority field (allowing 8 levels of priority). Note: Standard 802.1q increases the maximum IP packet size from 1518 to 1522 bytes. Ports on routers and other devices must not send VLAN packets to non-vlan-compliant devices, because non-compliant devices might drop VLAN packets. Use of VLANs works best if all switches in the network are VLAN-compliant. B.6.2 VLAN Priority IEEE Standard 802.1p, a supplement to Standard 802.1d, describes the packet s VLAN priority. Standard 802.1p specifies the following features: Up to eight queueing and access traffic priorities Priority assignment per MAC address or by port Dynamic filtering of the priorities B.6.3 Configuring VLAN Tagging and Prioritization VLANs can be configured by MAC address or by port. A user configures VLAN tagging to fit the network specifications. The VLAN tag and priority are used by each router in the LAN to forward or filter the packet, as appropriate. A device can have one VLAN for each MAC address; a device with more than one MAC address (for separate Ethernet ports) can belong to more than one VLAN. The BANDIT products support IEEE standards 802.1q and 802.1p. In the BANDIT products, VLAN tagging is configured by MAC address. VLAN tagging is implemented as part of the BANDIT s Ethernet port configuration.
14 Page 14 Routing, Document B How to Configure a Port for a VLAN 1 On the BANDIT device s Main Menu, select Advanced Configurations. Note: You can instead select Typical Configuration. In that case, select equivalent menu items to configure the ports. The Advanced Configurations menu is displayed. 2 On the Advanced Configurations menu, select Data Configurations. The Logical Port Protocol menu is displayed. 3 On the Logical Port Protocol menu, select an Ethernet port. The selected Ethernet port s Logical Port Attribute menu is displayed. BANDIT Plus Logical Port Attribute Menu ) Protocol : EtherNet 2) DHCP Type : No DHCP 3) VLAN Tagging Parameters : No VLAN Tagging 4) MAC Filters 5) Undefine Current Logical Port 4 Make sure DHCP Type says No DHCP. Warning: You cannot use DHCP and VLAN tagging on the same port. Only one of these features can be enabled on the port. 5 Select MAC Filters. The MAC Filters menu is displayed. BANDIT Plus MAC Filters ) Status : Disabled 2) MAC Table : 3) Default Action : Undefined 6 On the MAC Filters menu, Select Status. The MAC Filter Status menu is displayed.
15 IP Quality of Service Page 15 BANDIT Plus MAC Filter Status ) ENABLE 2) DISABLE 7 If you wish to use MAC filtering, select Enable; otherwise, select Disable. The MAC filter status is set, and the MAC Filter menu is redisplayed. Note: The filter Status applies to all records in the MAC Filter Table. If you change the status, all records in the table will change to the specified status. 8 On the MAC Filters menu, Select MAC Table. A prompt similar to the following is displayed. Empty MAC Filter Table Add an Entry? (Enter A(Add) or <ESC>): 9 Do one of the following: a To exit the MAC table, press the Escape key. The MAC Filter menu is redisplayed. b To add an entry, type a. A prompt requests a MAC address whose packets to allow to enter the port. Enter MAC Filter Address:(12 Hex Digits): c Type a MAC address whose packets to allow into the port, and press Enter. Note: If you wish to allow packets of all models of a product, you can type the hexadecimal digits that identify the product, and finish the MAC address with one asterisk (). All MAC addresses for BANDIT products start with 00a0eb. The address is accepted, and the updated MAC Filter Table is displayed.
16 Page 16 Routing, Document B MAC Filter Table for Port 4 Entry MAC Address Status Action 1 0:0:19:ab:ae:3d Enabled Allow Add or Delete an Entry? (Enter A(Add), D(Delete), or <ESC>): 10 Do one of the following: a If you have finished entering records for the MAC Filter Table, press Escape. The following message is displayed. Then the MAC Filter menu is redisplayed. MAC Filter Table Handling Complete b To delete an entry, type d. Then follow the instructions on the display. c To add another record to the table, type a. Then go to Step 9c. 11 On the MAC Filters menu, Select Default Action. The Default-Action MAC Filter Status menu is displayed. BANDIT Plus MAC Filter Status ) ALLOW 2) DENY 12 Select the default action for MAC addresses in the MAC Filter Table. The default action is set, and the MAC Filter menu is redisplayed. Note: The Default Action applies to all records in the MAC Filter Table. If you change the default action, all records in the table will change to the specified action. 13 Do one of the following. a When you have finished configuring this port, press Escape until you reach the Main Menu. Then Write (save) this configuration and Reset the BANDIT product. See Section 1.5, Saving (Writing) a Configuration, and Section 1.6, Resetting the Device. b To configure VLAN tagging, select VLAN Tagging Parameters. The VLAN Type menu is displayed.
17 IP Quality of Service Page 17 BANDIT Plus VLAN Type ) Add/Change VLAN Tag 2) Delete VLAN Tag 3) Continue Header as received - Passthru 14 Do one of the following: a If you do not wish to change the VLAN setting, press the Escape key. The VLAN settings for this port remain unchanged, and the Logical Port Attribute menu is redisplayed. Return to Step 13. b To have packets pass through without modifying their VLAN tags (including whether VLAN tags are present), select Continue Header as received - Passthru. Note: Although VLAN tags are sent through unchanged, the BANDIT observes the relationship of a packet s VLAN tag and MAC address, and updates the BANDIT s VLAN table when new or modified VLANs are observed. Passthrough (without VLAN modification) is configured, and the Logical Port Attribute menu is redisplayed. Return to Step 13. c To remove VLAN tagging for this port, select Delete VLAN Tag. This port is configured to remove VLAN tags for all packets that go through this port, and the Logical Port Attribute menu is redisplayed. Return to Step 13. d To add a VLAN tag for packets going out this port, or to change this port s VLAN tag for outgoing packets, select Add/Change VLAN Tag. The following prompt is displayed. Go to Step 15. Enter VLAN ID: 15 To add or change the VLAN tag for this port, do all of the following: a Type the VLAN ID for this port, and press Enter. (VLAN IDs range from 0 to The VLAN ID 0 indicates no VLAN. ) Note: Use of VLAN ID 0 ( no VLAN ) maintains the packet size at 1522 bytes. This differs from deleting the VLAN ID, which results in a packet size of 1518 bytes. The following prompt is displayed. Set CFI(Canonical Format Indicator)?(Enter Y(Yes) or N(No)):
18 Page 18 Routing, Document B b Set the CFI to N (no). (CFI is not used in Ethernet.) The following prompt is displayed. Enter Priority: c Type the priority for this port s VLAN packets, and press Enter. (The VLAN priority ranges from a low of 0 to a high of 7.) The VLAN tag has been configured, and the Logical Port Attribute menu is redisplayed. Packets that go out through this port will receive the indicated VLAN tagging. Incoming packets whose VLAN tags do not match this setting will be discarded. Return to Step 13. Note: Be sure to save (Write) this configuration before leaving the console and before the console times out. See Section 1.5, Saving (Writing) a Configuration, and Section 1.6, Resetting the Device. B.6.4 SNMP for VLAN Use The BANDIT s Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) also supports VLAN tagging. For information on using SNMP in the BANDIT products, see Using SNMP in the BANDIT Products.
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18: Enhanced Quality of Service Mark Handley Traditional best-effort queuing behaviour in routers Data transfer: datagrams: individual packets no recognition of flows connectionless: no signalling Forwarding:
A Review on Quality of Service Architectures for Internet Network Service Provider (INSP) Herman and Azizah bte Abd. Rahman Faculty of Computer Science and Information System Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
1. Introduction to IP... 1 2. IP Networks, IP Hosts and IP Ports... 1 3. IP Packet Structure... 2 4. IP Address Structure... 2 Network Portion... 2 Host Portion... 3 Global vs. Private IP Addresses...3
BCS THE CHARTERED INSTITUTE FOR IT BCS HIGHER EDUCATION QUALIFICATIONS BCS Level 5 Diploma in IT COMPUTER NETWORKS Friday 2 nd October 2015 Morning Answer any FOUR questions out of SIX. All questions carry
Voice Over IP Performance Assurance Transforming the WAN into a voice-friendly using Exinda WAN OP 2.0 Integrated Performance Assurance Platform Document version 2.0 Voice over IP Performance Assurance
24 CHAPTER This chapter describes how to configure quality of service (QoS) by using standard QoS commands. With QoS, you can give preferential treatment to certain types of traffic at the expense of others.
1 ISTANBUL 1.1 MPLS overview 1 1.1.1 Principle Use of a ATM core network 2 Overlay Network One Virtual Circuit per communication No routing protocol Scalability problem 2 1.1.1 Principle Weakness of overlay
CHAPTER 2 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 22 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 2.1 INTRODUCTION As the main emphasis of the present research work is on achieving QoS in routing, hence this
Internet-Technologien (CS262) VLAN und MPLS, Firewall und NAT, 15.4.2015 Christian Tschudin Departement Mathematik und Informatik, Universität Basel 6-1 Wiederholung Unterschied CSMA/CD und CSMA/CA? Was
Quality of Service Analysis of site to site for IPSec VPNs for realtime multimedia traffic. A Network and Data Link Layer infrastructure Design to Improve QoS in Voice and video Traffic Jesús Arturo Pérez,
CS 457 Lecture 19 Global Internet - BGP Fall 2011 Decision Process Calculate degree of preference for each route in Adj-RIB-In as follows (apply following steps until one route is left): select route with
Guide to TCP/IP, Third Edition Chapter 3: Data Link and Network Layer TCP/IP Protocols Objectives Understand the role that data link protocols, such as SLIP and PPP, play for TCP/IP Distinguish among various
Ethernet Babak Kia Adjunct Professor Boston University College of Engineering ENG SC757 - Advanced Microprocessor Design Ethernet Ethernet is a term used to refer to a diverse set of frame based networking
AlliedWare Plus TM OS How To Configure QoS to Conform to Standard Marking Schemes Introduction This How To Note describes how to deploy a QoS solution across an entire network. It explains how to define
hp procurve networking business may 2003 network infrastructure: getting started with VoIP technical brief table of contents introduction 2 network optimization for VoIP 2 bandwidth provisioning 3 end-to-end
IP address format: 7 24 Class A 0 Network ID Host ID 14 16 Class B 1 0 Network ID Host ID 21 8 Class C 1 1 0 Network ID Host ID 28 Class D 1 1 1 0 Multicast Address Dotted decimal notation: 10000000 00001011
Layer Introduction Datagrams and Virtual ircuits Routing Traffic ontrol Main Objective Data delivery from source to destination Node (Router) Application Presentation Session Transport Data Link Data Link
4 Internet QoS Management Rolf Stadler School of Electrical Engineering KTH Royal Institute of Technology email@example.com September 2008 Overview Network Management Performance Mgt QoS Mgt Resource Control
Technology Overview Class of Service Overview Published: 2014-01-10 Juniper Networks, Inc. 1194 North Mathilda Avenue Sunnyvale, California 94089 USA 408-745-2000 www.juniper.net Juniper Networks, Junos,
You can read the recommendations in the user, the technical or the installation for SONICWALL SWITCHING NSA 2400MX IN SONICOS ENHANCED 5.7. You'll find the answers to all your questions on the SONICWALL
16-Channel VoIP Gateway Card Getting Started Model No. KX-TDA0490 Thank you for purchasing a Panasonic 16-Channel VoIP Gateway Card. Please read this manual carefully before using this product and save
Mobile IP Network Layer Lesson 02 TCP/IP Suite and IP Protocol 1 TCP/IP protocol suite A suite of protocols for networking for the Internet Transmission control protocol (TCP) or User Datagram protocol
The fundamentals of TCP/IP networking TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocols) is a set of networking protocols that is used for communication on the Internet and on many other networks.
The Internet Internet Technologies and Applications Aim and Contents Aim: Review the main concepts and technologies used in the Internet Describe the real structure of the Internet today Contents: Internetworking
Overview of Routing between Virtual LANs This chapter provides an overview of virtual LANs (VLANs). It describes the encapsulation protocols used for routing between VLANs and provides some basic information
High-Level Data Link Control This class of data link layer protocols includes High-level Data Link Control (HDLC), Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) for X.25, Link Access Procedure for D-channel (LAPD)
4-Channel VoIP Gateway Card Getting Started KX-TDA5480 Model KX-TDA0484 Thank you for purchasing the Panasonic 4-Channel VoIP Gateway Card, KX-TDA5480/KX-TDA0484. Please read this manual carefully before
Ethernet-based Software Defined Network (SDN) Cloud Computing Research Center for Mobile Applications (CCMA), ITRI 雲 端 運 算 行 動 應 用 研 究 中 心 1 SDN Introduction Decoupling of control plane from data plane
Welcome to Today s Seminar! Welcome to this exciting, informative session on Internet VPNs and the QoS Difference Keynote speakers Eric Zines, Sr Market Analyst, TeleChoice Ashley Stephenson, Chairman,
The IP Transmission Process V1.4: Geoff Bennett Contents Communication Between Hosts Through a MAC Bridge Through a LAN Switch Through a Router The tutorial is divided into four sections. Section 1 looks
encor! enetworks TM Version A.1, March 2010 2010 Encore Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. The BANDIT Products in Virtual Private Networks One of the principal features of the BANDIT products is their
Networking Test 4 Study Guide True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. IPX/SPX is considered the protocol suite of the Internet, and it is the most widely used protocol suite in LANs.