1 Middle School Lessons Grades 6-8
2 MIDDLE SCHOOL LESSONS: BICYCLING AS A SPORT, BRAIN INJURIES, HELMETS, BICYCLING SKILLS, BASIC MAINTENANCE & NAVIGATING In middle school, students are riding bicycles regularly and gaining independence. These lessons are broken into six sections. The middle school curriculum is most effective when supplemented with the sample middle school presentations included in the Bicycle Colorado s SRTS Teacher Tool Kit. LESSON 1: BICYCLING AS A SPORT AND FOR TRANSPORTATION (5-10 MINUTES) Bicycling is a popular sport around the world and especially here in Colorado. There are a number of programs that work with youth to encourage them to take up cycling as a sport. Many students may not be interested in team sports like basketball or hockey but can appreciate the personal challenges that cycling provides. Students interested in any of these types of cycling should contact their local bike shop or bicycling club for more information. Road Racing: Think Lance Armstrong! This type of bicycling involves racing on paved roads using speed and strategy. Road bikes are very lightweight and have thin tires. Types of road races include criterion, stage, time train and relay. Road bikes are also used in triathlons. Mountain Biking: Mountain biking is done on trails of varying inclination and difficulty. Mountain bikes have suspension and knobby tires. Types of mountain bike racing include cross country, downhill and slalom. Touring: While touring is not a competitive sport, it is a great way to test physical limits and see the world. Bicycle tours can be short day trips, riding across a state or riding all around the world. There are many exciting and inspiring books about bicycle journeys available at your library. BMX: BMX racing is similar to motocross racing. Riders compete for speed and skill on a course that has berms and jumps. Activity: Encourage students to choose one type of bicycling and research it. Students can present information about the equipment that each sport uses, top athletes and races and events that take place all around the world. Middle School Page 1
3 LESSON 2: BRAIN INJURIES (15-20 MINUTES) Objectives: Students should learn to understand the causes, effects, and prevention of brain injuries. Materials: Empathy Stations (see resources for information about how to build these stations) Vocabulary: Brain injury, paralysis, motor skills, coordination, balance Discussion: Gather students in a discussion setting to talk about brain injuries. Ask students the following questions to encourage discussion. What types of sports and jobs to people wear helmets for? If all of those people wear helmets do you think there is a reason? What is inside of our heads that is so important? What does our brain do? (Discuss thinking, memory, movement, etc) What is a brain injury? How would a brain injury affect you? Can your brain heal? No! Activity: Empathy Station (This activity requires extra time) Set up empathy stations around the room and break students into groups. These groups should rotate every 3-5 minutes so each student has the opportunity to try each station. Once students are finished have them clean up the stations and sit back down to talk again. Ask students how the brain injuries mimicked at each station would affect their daily lives. Middle School Page 2
4 LESSON 3: RULES OF THE ROAD AND BIKE CHECK (15-30 MINUTES) At this age, students can begin to understand traffic and the rules of the road. This lesson consists of a discussion about traffic rules and bike check demonstration. Objectives: Students should understand that bicycles have the same rights, rules and responsibilities as car drivers, but they are more vulnerable and need to take extra precautions. Students should also learn to check their bike to make sure it is safe to ride. Materials: Sample road signs, bicycle, parts of the bicycle worksheet. Discussion: Ask students to explain to the class why cars have rules and hypothesize about what might happen if they didn t have rules. Transition into why bicyclists should follow the same rules. Keep in mind the following rules specific to bicycles (Courtesy of the CDOT Bicycle and Pedestrian Program). RIDE ON THE RIGHT: Ride in the right lane with the flow of traffic. Ride as close to the right side of the right lane as safe and practical when being overtaken by another vehicle. Ride on the paved shoulder whenever a paved shoulder suitable for bicycle riding is present. Ride in the right lane except when: - Overtaking another bicycle or vehicle proceeding in the same direction - Preparing for a left turn - Avoiding hazardous conditions RIDE IN A STRAIGHT LINE: Riding predictably will make you more visible to motorists. It s easier for a motor vehicle driver to pass when you re riding in a straight line. Don t weave in and out of parked cars - you may disappear from motorists sight and get squeezed out or clipped when you need to merge back into traffic. At intersections, stay on the road. Don t ride in the crosswalk and suddenly reappear on the road again. A driver may not see you and turn the corner and hit you. NEVER RIDE AGAINST TRAFFIC: Ride on the right, in the same direction as the traffic next to you. Riding with the flow of traffic makes you more visible. Riding on the left, against traffic, is illegal and dangerous. Motorists and other road users are not looking for bicyclists on the wrong side of the road. Riding the wrong way increases the chance of a head-on collision with vehicles moving with the normal traffic flow. OBEY TRAFFIC SIGNS & SIGNALS: Know and obey all traffic laws. Give motorists a reason to respect bicyclists! It is illegal and dangerous to ride through stop signs, red lights, impede traffic, ride several abreast, or ride the wrong way down a street. These illegal actions reinforce the myth that bicycle drivers are irresponsible and do not belong on the road. By driving your bicycle in a safe manner (watching out for yourself as well as others) you make it easier for motorists to treat you as an equal on the road and be polite to you or the next bicyclist they see. Middle School Page 3
5 USE HAND SIGNALS: Use the proper hand signals for left or right turns and for slowing or stopping. When turning, you must signal continuously at least 100 feet before the turn and while you are stopped waiting to turn, unless use of your hand is needed to control your bicycle. RIDING ON SIDEWALKS & IN CROSSWALKS: You are allowed to ride your bicycle on a sidewalk or in a crosswalk unless it is prohibited by official traffic control devices or local ordinances. When riding on a sidewalk or in a crosswalk, you must observe all the rules and regulations applicable to pedestrians, yield the right-of-way to pedestrians, and give an audible signal before passing them. An audible signal can be a bell, horn or your voice saying, Hello, passing on your left. However, riding on sidewalks is not recommended. Many crashes between bikes and cars occur on sidewalks at driveways and street crossings, especially when bicyclists ride against the flow of traffic. You should always walk your bicycle in busy shopping areas or on downtown sidewalks. Sidewalks are for pedestrians, not bicyclists, and you should be courteous and ride slowly and cautiously. ABC QUICK CHECK: Using the bicycle shows students how to ensure that their bicycle is ready to ride. Students should follow these easy steps each time they go for a ride and ask a parent or bike mechanic to help if their bike doesn t pass the check! A: Air! Make sure the tires are inflated. This can be done by squeezing the tire to see if it is rigid. Similar to car tires, the recommended inflation is printed on the sidewall of the tire. B: Brakes! This is one of the most common things we at Bicycle Colorado see- brakes that don t function well or don t function at all. It s really hard to avoid dangerous situations when your bike won t stop or slow down! Students can check the brakes by squeezing handbrakes and rocking the bike back and forth or kicking the kick brake back. Hand brakes should keep the bike still while the bike is being rocked back and forth and should not compress all the way down to the handlebar. C: Chain and Cranks! You should test to see if the chain is tight (not droopy) and well oiled. Rusty chains can seize or break. Cranks should be jiggled to see if the move from side to side. If they do the bolts on the cranks should be tightened. Quick: Quickly check the bolts and quick-release levers! If these bolts/levers are not tight, the wheels could come off of the bicycle. Check: Take your bike for a short spin to make sure everything works before heading off on a longer ride. It is much better to notice a problem when you are close to home than when you are far away! You Check: Your bike is safe and ready to go. Are you? Helmet Bright colors/safety vest so cars and others can see you Pant leg rolled up Shoelaces and backpack straps tied Always bring your brain! Keeping a sharp mind, being aware and being prepared keeps you safe. Middle School Page 4
6 Activity: Have students study the Bike Parts Worksheet found in the resources section of the Teacher s Tool Kit. Then hand out the blank Bike Parts Worksheet and have them fill it in from memory. You can also turn this into a game or team competition to further engage students. LESSON 4: ON BIKE SKILLS (45-60 MINUTES) Once students have a grasp of helmets, rules of the road and ABC Check they are ready to get on bikes! We suggest doing this lesson on a day when some students can ride to school and let the class use their bikes. You may also be able to ask a local bike shop to send out a mechanic to make sure the bikes are ready to roll. Objectives: Students should come away with this being able to control their bicycles. Materials: Sidewalk chalk, cones, masking tape, volunteers, helmets, cootie caps (if students are borrowing helmets). Activity: Set up bicycle activity course using diagrams included in the Bicycle Rodeo section. Fit and double check helmets on students. Walk students through the course for the first time and explain each station. It is recommended that no more than 6 students at a time are on the course; this keeps things under control and allows use of just a few bikes. Station volunteers at each station to help students master the stations. Optional Activity: Bicycle Speed Control (15 Minutes, or add to end of Lesson 4, On Bike Skills ) Objectives: Students will learn to control their bikes at slow speeds using braking and balance. Suggested Location: Basketball court or 4-square court Materials: Bikes, Volunteer, masking tape, sidewalk chalk Activity: We like to call this on the Snail Race. Use the diagram in the Bicycle Rodeo section to create the course using masking tape and sidewalk chalk. Students should line up in heats and race from one end to the other. Students must keep their feet on the pedals, ride within their lane, and start on time to avoid being disqualified. The last student from each heat to cross the finish line without being disqualified wins. Middle School Page 5
7 LESSON 5: HOW TO FIX A FLAT TIRE (30-45 MINUTES) This lesson is important, but time consuming. We suggest doing this after school one day when students have their own bikes. It is critical to have a few volunteers who have knowledge of bicycles to help out. Objective: Students will learn to fix the most common bicycle problem, a flat tire. Materials: Bicycles, pumps, patch kits, spare tubes, tire levers. Activity: Using the Fix a Flat worksheet included in Resources section, demonstrate how to remove a wheel, dismount a tire, inspect and patch a tube then re-insert the tube and put the wheel back on the bicycle. LESSON 6: NAVIGATING (15-30 MINUTES) This lesson is a great opportunity to get your local planning office, bicycling club and parents involved. As students are using bicycles to get to and from school, activities and friend s houses they should learn how to pick appropriate routes and navigate. Objective: Students will learn to choose an appropriate bicycling route within their community. Materials: Maps of local area (talk to your city or county for this information), parent volunteers or local cyclists. Activity: Students and volunteers should make a list of places near students homes and schools that students frequently visit. Volunteers will work with students to choose appropriate bicycling routes taking into consideration bicycle trails, bike lanes, traffic speeds and roadway shoulders. It is important to keep in mind that the best bicycling route is not usually the best driving route. Have students present their routes to the class and compare different routes that students chose. Middle School Page 6
8 Middle School: Bicycle Club Pre-Test Name: Date: 1. A bicycle helmet should be worn: A. Tilted forward to protect the front of the head with the chin strap tight. B. Tilted back to protect the back of the head with the chin strap tight. C. Level covering both the front and the back of the head with the chin strap tight. 2. Bicycle Helmets reduce the risk of severe brain injuries by %? A. 28% B. 88% C. 100% 3. True or False: Brain injury is the leading cause of death from bicycle-related crashes. 4. Which is the correct direction to go when riding your bike in the street? A. Ride in the same direction as cars on the right side of the street. B. Ride the opposite direction as cars on the left side of the street. 5. When you pass someone on a multi-use path (a path that has both walkers and bikers), you should use: A. A bell B. Your voice to say passing on your left C. Don t say anything because you will scare them and they will turn into you. D. Both A and B 6. What happens when you squeeze the left brake on your bike? A. The front brake works. B. The back brake works. 7. Which of the following is the most important safety thing you can do to prevent getting into a crash with a car? A. Always ride at night with a white front light and a rear red light. B. Never ride side-by-side with a friend in the road. C. Always make a turn by using giving a hand signal. 8. Which is the most important safety rule to follow to prevent injuries when bicycling to school? A. Always wear a helmet B. Follow all bicycling rules of the road and traffic laws C. Ride a bicycle that has had a safety inspection D. All of the above
9 Middle School: Bicycle Club Post-Test Name: Date: 1. A bicycle helmet should be worn: A. Tilted forward to protect the front of the head with the chin strap tight. B. Tilted back to protect the back of the head with the chin strap tight. C. Level covering both the front and the back of the head with the chin strap tight. 2. Bicycle Helmets reduce the risk of severe brain injuries by %? A. 28% B. 88% C. 100% 3. True or False: Brain injury is the leading cause of death from bicycle-related crashes. 4. Which is the correct direction to go when riding your bike in the street? A. Ride in the same direction as cars on the right side of the street. B. Ride the opposite direction as cars on the left side of the street. 5. When you pass someone on a multi-use path (a path that has both walkers and bikers), you should use: A. A bell B. Your voice to say passing on your left C. Don t say anything because you will scare them and they will turn into you. D. Both A and B 6. What happens when you squeeze the left brake on your bike? A. The front brake works. B. The back brake works. 7. Which of the following is the most important safety thing you can do to prevent getting into a crash with a car? A. Always ride at night with a white front light and a rear red light. B. Never ride side-by-side with a friend in the road. C. Always make a turn by using giving a hand signal. 8. Which is the most important safety rule to follow to prevent injuries when bicycling to school? A. Always wear a helmet B. Follow all bicycling rules of the road and traffic laws C. Ride a bicycle that has had a safety inspection D. All of the above
10 Sample Middle School Presentations
11 Bicycle Colorado s mission is to encourage and promote bicycling through educating children and adults, increasing safety, improving riding conditions, and providing a voice for all bicyclists in Colorado. In addition, we work with government agencies throughout Colorado, the state legislature and the Governor to create statewide bicycle-friendly policies Bicycle Colorado has become a national leader in bicycle advocacy through our membership strength and ability to work with government agencies, politicians, and businesses. Presented by:
12 What Do You Know? Why is riding on the wrong side of the road (against traffic) so dangerous?
13 What Do You Know? What are some rules that are the same for both bikes and cars?
14 Now That We Know Some Rules How can we prevent crashes?
15 Introducing Your Brain Size Function
16 What Does Your Brain Do?
17 Brain Injuries Skull is thin Memory loss, loss of senses, paralysis
18 Helmets Bicycle Helmets reduce the risk of severe brain injuries by %? 28% 88% 100%
19 Confident Cycling Bicyclists are safest when they act and are treated as drivers of vehicles.
20 Rules of the Road Rules for both motorists and cyclists
21 Crash Statistics Who is at fault? 5% 48% 47% Bicyclist Motorist Undetermined
22 Common Crashes Cyclist Error
23 Common Crashes 19% Safety Strategy: Check for cars before entering the roadway Quick stop
24 Common Crashes 23% Safety Strategy: Stop at all stop signs Quick stop
25 Common Crashes 30% Safety Strategy: Ride with traffic Take space in the road
26 Common Crashes 30% Safety Strategy: Ride with traffic Take space in the road
27 Common Crashes 11% Safety Strategy: Ride in straight line Ride in right of lane - 3 feet from door zone
28 Common Crashes 56% 56% of all fatalities on bicycles occur to those riding at night Safety Strategy: BE SEEN use lights at night!
29 Lane Positioning General Rule As far to the right as is as judged safe by bicyclists Wide enough to share the lane? Ride just to the right (3 4 ft) of the motorized traffic. Not wide enough to share the lane? Take the lane ride in the center to fully occupy the lane.
30 Common Crashes Motorist Error
31 Common Crashes 23% Safety Strategy: Watch front tires of car Quick stop or quick turn
32 Common Crashes 23% Safety Strategy: Watch front tires of car Quick stop or quick turn
33 Common Crashes 17% MOTORIST RUNNING STOP SIGN Safety Strategy: Quick stop
34 Common Crashes 15% Safety Strategy: Ride in right of lane 3 feet from door zone
35 Common Crashes Safety Strategy: If narrow - take the lane
36 Common Crashes Safety Strategy: If narrow - take the lane
37 Multiuse/Bike Path Etiquette Basic rules of thumb: Ride on the right side of the trail Obey traffic signs Pass on the left Use audible warning (bell or voice) before overtaking Listen up! Headphones prevent you from hearing warnings Use hand signals to indicate turns and stops Do not stop on the trail Ride single file so that other user may pass safely Look for traffic before entering trail Watch for the unexpected, especially with kids or dogs Slow down when the trail is crowded
38 To Reiterate Bicyclists are safest when they act and are treated as drivers of vehicles.
39 Bicycle Colorado s mission is to encourage and promote bicycling through educating children and adults, increasing safety, improving riding conditions, and providing a voice for all bicyclists in Colorado. In addition, we work with government agencies throughout Colorado, the state legislature and the Governor to create statewide bicycle-friendly policies Bicycle Colorado has become a national leader in bicycle advocacy through our membership strength and ability to work with government agencies, politicians, and businesses. Presented by:
40 Day 2: Basic Bicycle Maintenance Keeping Your Bike Fitting Your Bike A B C Quick Check Chain Maintenance Fixing Flats
41 Locking your Bike Bike Locks Necessary if you plan to make any stops Lock most expensive parts (rear wheel, frame, front wheel) Attach to something permanent (signs aren t always permanent!) Go through the wheel and frame Two locks are an even greater deterrent
42 Fitting Your Bike Stand over height Seat Angle Seat Height Reach
43 A B C Quick Check Air Pressure Brakes Chain, Cranks, Cassette Quick Releases Check out on a short ride
44 Chain Maintenance Keep your chain oiled! Look for rust Listen for sound Types of chain lube Where to lube
45 Types of Flats Pinch Flat (keep tires inflated) Hole from glass/thorn Tearing valve (too aggressive pumping) Blowout (cut sidewall or dry rot)
46 Preventing Flats Slime tubes Armadillo/Gatorskin Tires Keep your eye out for stuff on the road! If you do go through glass or sharp junk STOP and tend to it.
47 Fixing a Flat ALWAYS carry a flat kit (pump, tube, levers, repair kit, CO2?) 1. Remove wheel with flat 2. Check outside tire for damage (mark location) 3. Deflate tube inside tire 4. Insert 1 3 tire levers 5. Pull tube out (but keep valve in rim) 6. Inflate tube slightly to look for hole 7. When find hole in tube, check same position on tire 8. Run hand along inside of tire look for any sharp object 9. Remove any sharp object 10. Patch the hole or replace the tube 11. Insert patched or new tube back in tire (evenly on rim) 12. Position tire around tube and place back on the rim (use hands to avoid pinching) 13. Refill tube with air (see appropriate PSI on tire) 14. Install wheel on the bike
48 Bike Club Sue Matzick RN Denver Health DPS Rides Coordinator
49 Benefits of Biking and Walking to School To enhance the Health of children To improve Air Quality and the Environment To create Safer Routes for walking and biking
50 Question? Why do students at your school crash on their bicycles, skateboards, scooters.?
51 Answers? Teens under 14 years old are most at risk for injury as a result of their behavior in these situations: Performing Tricks (Jumps, ramps, wheelies) Hitting Non-Moving objects (Parked cars, traffic signs, walls, fences) Riding on uneven surfaces (Bumps, grates, holes, railroad tracks) Riding too Fast Hitting a moving object (Car, animal, pedestrians, other cyclists) Ride out into the street Intersections Sudden Swerves Slippery Surfaces (loose gravel, mud, oil, ice, sand) Object caught in spokes/chain (shoe laces, pants, bag) Riding the wrong way in traffic Mechanical failure (brakes, chains, handle bars, seat)
52 Choices Do you choose to be safe? Helmets Where you ride Who you ride with Riding level and ability Size and condition of the bike Following the rules of the road
53 Consequences Death: Life Long Disabilities: Brain & Spinal Cord Disfiguring injuries Amputations, surgery scars, wheelchair/braces
54 Trends in Unintentional Childhood Injury Deaths % decrease in unintentional injury death rates Source: Safe Kids Factsheet: Trends in Unintentional Childhood Injury Deaths
55 Pedestrian Injuries Each year 630 child pedestrian fatalities occur 39,000 nonfatal pedestrian injuries occur What we know 70% of pedestrian deaths involve motor vehicles 1 in 4 child pedestrian deaths occur between 6 9 pm Males sustain two thirds of all child pedestrian death The good news In the last 10 years the number of child pedestrian fatalities decreased 51% Source: Safe Kids Factsheet Pedestrian Safety
56 Bicycle Injuries Each year 140 child bicyclist fatalities occur 275,000 nonfatal bicycle injuries occur What we know More than 70% of children ages 5 14 ride bicycles regularly The Bad News: 53% of children are killed bicycling on minor roads (46% on major roads) 69% of child bicyclist deaths occur May October 58% of child bicyclist deaths occur at non intersections 70% of deaths occur between 2 8 pm Males account for 82% of deaths/70% injuries Source: Safe Kids Factsheet Bicycle Safety Source: Safe Kids Colorado, 2007 Facts about Injuries to Children Riding Bicycles:
57 Wheeled Sports Injuries Source: Safe Kids Factsheet Bicycle, Roller Blade and Skateboard Safety Source: Safe Kids Colorado, 2007 Facts about Injuries to Children Riding Bicycles:
58 Traumatic Brain Injury Brain injury is the leading cause of death in bicycle related crashes. Over 1 million children/teens receive brain injuries each year Nearly half (47%) of children ages 14 and younger hospitalized for bicycle related injuries are diagnosed with traumatic brain injuries
59 What does your brain do?
60 Your Brain
61 The Brain Movement Senses Basic Life Support Emotions Memory/Learning
62 Impact of a Traumatic Brain Injury Lifelong disabilities Physical Speaking, hearing, seeing and using their senses Balance and walking are affected Paralysis Headaches Trouble will skills such as writing or drawing Muscle spasticity, seizures Difficulty with thinking Trouble with short term/long term memory Difficulty concentrating/slow judgment Social/behavioral/emotional problems Sudden changes in mood, anxiety, depression Lack of motivation, trouble relating to others
63 Bicycle Helmet Use Bicycle Helmets Bicycle Helmet use among youth is 15 25% Helmet Use can reduce the risk of head injury: Head Injury 85% Severe brain injury by 88% BICYCLE HELMETS SAVE LIVES!! Safe Kids USA Factsheet Bicycle, Rollerblade and Skateboard Safety
64 How a Helmet Works
65 HELMETS SAVE LIVES!!
66 Unintentional Injury Deaths Ages ,986 Unintentional injury deaths ,359 Unintentional injury deaths
67 Why Teens do not wear helmets? Responses why kids do not want to wear a helmet Expert Riders Helmet is uncomfortable Messes up my hair I never crash It s not cool My friends don t It does not fit anymore It does not match my bicycle I do not have one
68 Injuries Cuts and Abrasions Sprains and Broken Bones Life Threatening Injuries Brain Head Spine Chest Abdominal Pelvis Extremities
69 You Can t put a Band-Aid on a brain!
70 Traumatic Brain Injury Empathy Activities Trace the Star Stroop Effect One Sided Muscle Weakness
71 Helmets Sports Recreation On the Job
72 2 4 1 Safety Salute