1 23 May 2012 Page 1 of 12 Liability for Defective Water in the USA: analogies with defective electricity Copyright 2012 by Ronald B. Standler No copyright claimed for works of the U.S. Government. No copyright claimed for quotations from any source, except for selection of such quotations. Keywords good, goods, inadequate, law, legal, liability, pressure, public duty, USA, warranty, water Table of Contents Introduction Water is a Good Liability for Low or High Water Pressure cases on low or high water pressure discussion Liability for Contamination contaminated water cases Conclusion Introduction This essay is a companion to my essay at on liability of electric utilities in the USA for high or low voltage that causes damage to a utility customer. Voltage of an electric conductor is analogous to pressure in a water pipe, so this essay considers liability of water works in the USA for damage by high or low water pressure. A second analogy considered in this essay is liability of water works in the USA for contaminated water (e.g, bacteria, giardia, rust, toxic chemicals). This essay analogizes liability for defective water (e.g., low water pressure or contaminated water) to defective electricity. This essay is not a survey of all cases in the USA involving liability for water.
2 23 May 2012 Page 2 of 12 This essay presents general information about an interesting topic in law, but is not legal advice for your specific problem. See my disclaimer at From reading sent to me by readers of my essays since 1998, I am aware that readers often use my essays as a source of free legal advice on their personal problem. Such use is not appropriate, for reasons given at I list the cases in chronological order in this essay, so the reader can easily follow the historical development of a national phenomenon. If I were writing a legal brief, then I would use the conventional citation order given in the Bluebook. Water is a Good The Uniform Commercial Code, emphasizes that a good is movable. The Code also requires that a good is a thing. From the viewpoint of physics, a thing has mass unlike services, which often involve ideas, advice, creative design, or other intangibles. Note that a quantity of goods is commonly expressed in units of mass. Alternatively, a quantity of goods can be expressed as a volume, which can be converted to mass if the density is known. Water satisfies both of these two criteria: 1. water is movable Courts are agreed that water is obviously movable. See, e.g., Zepp v. Mayor & Council of Athens, 348 S.E.2d 673, 677 (Ga.App. 1986) ( We think water is fairly identifiable as a movable (i.e. something that can be moved) before the contract is performed. ). Gall v. Allegheny County Health Dept., 555 A.2d 786, 789 (Pa. 1989) ( Under this definition [in the Uniform Commercial Code], goods must be (1) a thing, (2) existing, and (3) movable... Helvey v. Wabash County REMC, 151 Ind.App. 176, 179, 278 N.E.2d 608, 610 (1972). Water is all three. Whatever can be measured by a flow meter has movability as that term is used in connection with the definition of goods. 1 R. Anderson, UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE, 2-105:19, at 560 (3rd Ed. 1981). All who have paid bills for water can attest to its movability. Under this definition water is goods. See Zepp v. Mayor & Council of Athens, 180 Ga.App. 72, 348 S.E.2d 673 (1986). ); Mulberry-Fairplains Water Association, Inc. v. Town of North Wilkesboro, 412 S.E.2d 910, 915 (N.C.App. 1992) ( The definition of goods is based on the concept of movability. Official Comment 1, U.C.C Whatever can be measured by a flow meter has movability as that term is used in connection with the definition of goods. 1 Anderson, UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE, 2-105:19 (3d ed. 1981). The sale of water is movable in this context. This is evidenced by the fact that defendant charges plaintiff for the water it supplies by the number of gallons plaintiff consumes per month. ).
3 23 May 2012 Page 3 of water has mass Water in the USA is sold in units of hundred cubic feet, a unit of volume. The density of water is nearly constant at the range of temperatures encountered in cities. Multiplying volume times density gives the mass of the water. Both sale of electric energy and sale of water is (or should be) considered a sale of goods under the Uniform Commercial Code. Electricity in the USA is sold in units of kilowatt-hours, a unit of energy. As explained in my earlier essay at energy is equivalent to mass. At least two courts in the USA have recognized the analogy between water and electricity: We can see no appreciable difference between the sale of water and the sale of electricity when it comes to determining whether the sale of either commodity is a sale of goods. Water, like electricity, is a thing; it exists; it is fairly identifiable as a movable at the time of identification to the contract of sale. (In fact, we think water is even more identifiable as a movable than electricity.) In this regard we adopt the reasoning of the Helvey v. Wabash County REMC, [278 N.E.2d 608 (Ind.App. 1972)], court: Logic would indicate that whatever can be measured in order to establish the price to be paid would be indicative of fulfilling both the existing and movable requirements of goods. Id., 278 N.E.2d at 610. Zepp v. Mayor & Council of Athens, 348 S.E.2d 673, (Ga.App. 1986). Beginning at page 9 below, there is a list of cases in the USA that hold that water is a good, or alternatively hold that water is a product to which products liability applies. Liability for Low or High Water Pressure Claims for damage by excessive or inadequate voltage in the electricity supply have an analogy in claims for damages by too high or too low water pressure, because voltage of an electrical conductor is analogous to pressure in a water pipe. However, the analogy fails in law, because electricity is typically furnished by a private corporation, while water is typically furnished by a waterworks that is owned by a municipal government. In general, municipal waterworks unlike a private corporation are immune from liability under the doctrine of governmental immunity. However, as explained below, a few states (e.g., Pennsylvania and New Jersey) allow customers to sue the municipal waterworks for low water pressure. Interestingly, most of the cases in which plaintiffs alleged inadequate water pressure involved damage by a fire: the water pressure was inadequate to quickly extinguish the fire. The law in the USA is clear that municipalities have no liability for a fire department that fails to extinguish a fire, for an inadequate fire department, or even a negligent fire department. See, e.g., South v. State of Maryland for use of Pottle, 59 U.S. 396 (1855) (no liability for sheriff who refuses to protect an individual); Hughes v. State of New York, 299 N.Y.S. 387, 390 (N.Y.A.D. 1937);
4 23 May 2012 Page 4 of 12 Steitz v. City of Beacon, 64 N.E.2d 704 (N.Y. 1945); Stang v. City of Mill Valley, 240 P.2d 980, (Cal. 1952); Commerce & Industry Insurance Co. v. City of Toledo, 543 N.E.2d 1188, 1194 (Ohio 1989); Zimmerman v. Village of Skokie, 697 N.E.2d 699, 702 (Ill. 1998) ( The public duty rule is a long-standing precept which establishes that a governmental entity and its employees owe no duty of care to individual members of the general public to provide governmental services, such as police and fire protection. [Huey v. Town of Cicero, 243 N.E.2d 214, 216 (Ill. 1968).] ); Mayor and City Council of Baltimore v. Chase, 756 A.2d 987 (Md. 2000). This immunity for fire department service extends to immunity for inadequate water pressure when attempting to extinguish a fire. Note that immunity for police and fire services under the public duty doctrine is distinguishable from general governmental immunity. If governmental immunity is abolished, the public duty doctrine may still prevent recovery by plaintiffs. cases on low or high water pressure This is not a complete list of all cases, but includes some of the major cases that discuss the reasons for whether or not there is liability. Van Horn v. City of Des Moines, 19 N.W. 293 (Iowa 1884) (private waterworks under contract to city failed to provide adequate water to extinguish fire, no liability); Stansbury v. City of Richmond, 81 S.E. 26, (Va. 1914) (city waterworks immune from liability for a claim of inadequate water pressure at least during the formative or experimental stage of the enterprise.); H.R. Moch Co. v. Rensselaer Water Co., 159 N.E. 896, (N.Y. 1928) (Private waterworks that contracted with city owes no duty to residents of the city to maintain adequate water pressure. At , held that there was also no liability in tort.); Steitz v. City of Beacon, 64 N.E.2d 704 (N.Y. 1945) (Plaintiff alleged insufficient quantity of water was provided to combat effectively the fire on premises owned by plaintiff. Affirmed dismissal of action. Followed Moch Co. v. Rensselaer Water Co., 159 N.E. 896, 898 (N.Y. 1928) in denying liability.); DeFrancesco v. Western Pennsylvania Water Co., 453 A.2d 595 (Pa. 1982) (utility customers can sue utility in state court for negligently providing inadequate service);
5 23 May 2012 Page 5 of 12 Weinberg v. Penns Grove Water Co., 524 A.2d 403, 405 (N.J.Super.A.D. 1984) ( The total immunity of a water utility for fire damages resulting from inadequate water supply or inadequate water pressure, whatever the cause or reason, stands like a dinosaur from the past. If the decision were ours to make we would at least modify the rule. ), rev'd sub nom. Weinberg v. Dinger, 524 A.2d 366, 378 (N.J. 1987) (... we abrogate the [private] water company s immunity for losses caused by the negligent failure to maintain adequate water pressure for fire fighting only to the extent of claims that are uninsured or underinsured. ); Lainer Investments v. Department of Water & Power of the City of Los Angeles, 215 Cal.Rptr. 812 (Cal.App. 1985) (city immune for inadequate water pressure that made firefighting ineffective); Honey Brook Water Co. v. Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, 647 A.2d 653 (Pa.Cmwlth. 1994) (Residential customers with inadequate water pressure complained to the Public Utility Commission, which fined waterworks.); Zacharie v. City of San Antonio, 952 S.W.2d 56 (Tex.App. 1997) (city immune from damages caused by inadequate water during a fire); Wells v. City of Lynchburg, 501 S.E.2d 746, 751 (S.C.App. 1998) (citing six cases from other states for governmental immunity of waterworks in cases involving fires); Travelers Excess and Surplus Lines Co. v. City of Atlanta, 677 S.E.2d 388, 389, n.1 (Ga.App. 2009) (citing seven cases from other states for rule: governmental entities are immune from damages suits for the destruction of property caused by the failure to provide adequate fire protection, including the failure to provide an adequate water supply to combat the fire. ); Asuncion v. City Of Seattle, 151 Wash.App. 1015, Not Reported in P.3d, 2009 WL (Wash.App. Div. 1, 2009) (During a rain storm, homeowner discovered a sudden flood in the basement, where high pressure water was coming out of his toilet and bathtub. Action for trespass allowed. Other torts may have been allowed if plaintiffs had filed earlier.); Wilkinson v. Washington City, 230 P.3d 136, 2010 UT App 56 at 14 (Utah App. 2010) (city immune from damages caused by high water pressure); Cheney v. City of Montpelier, 27 A.3d 359, 361, 2011 VT 80 at 9 (Vt. 2011) (Owner of apartment building claimed $4600 damages from ruptured water main. Plaintiff failed to prove that the water main broke due to the City's breach of duty. ).
6 23 May 2012 Page 6 of 12 discussion Courts are very protective of municipal corporations. For example, an appellate court in Georgia wrote The trial court correctly held that the City was shielded from liability. For over a century, it has been the law in Georgia that a municipal corporation is immune from liability for property damage caused by a fire in consequence of [the municipality's] failure to provide suitable engines and apparatus, or on account of defective cisterns, or an insufficient supply of water to extinguish the flames, or the inefficiency, carelessness and neglect of its firemen or the officers in charge of them, and whose duty it is to direct their operations. Wright v. City Council of Augusta, 78 Ga. 241, 242 (1886). [citing four other Georgia cases, plus seven cases outside Georgia] Any other rule would be contrary to sound public policy because it would potentially open the floodgates of litigation and would risk the utter insolvency of municipalities. Wright, 78 Ga. at 244. Travelers Excess and Surplus Lines Co. v. City of Atlanta, 677 S.E.2d 388, (Ga.App. 2009). One sees the same concerns in the refusal of courts to hold schools liable for the tort of educational malpractice, see In the leading case of Moch in 1928, Justice Cardozo wrote: If the plaintiff is to prevail, one who negligently omits to supply sufficient pressure to extinguish a fire started by another assumes an obligation to pay the ensuing damage, though the whole city is laid low. A promisor will not be deemed to have had in mind the assumption of a risk so overwhelming for any trivial reward. H.R. Moch Co. v. Rensselaer Water Co., 159 N.E. 896, 898 (N.Y. 1928). Water is cheap, in fact it is typically less expensive than electricity, heating gas, or telephone service. However, Justice Cardozo engages in hyperbole about the whole city is laid low the facts of this case is that one warehouse was damaged by fire, as a result of low water pressure. In this case, the damages sought were $46,477 [Moch, 220 N.Y.S. 557, 558 (N.Y.A.D. 1927)], much less than the value of the entire city of Rensselaer. The real effect of liability here would be to motivate the city to provide adequate utility services to its inhabitants. This case is limited to pure negligence: We do not need to determine now what remedy, if any, there might be if the defendant had withheld the water or reduced the pressure with a malicious intent to do injury to the plaintiff or another. We put aside also the problem that would arise if there had been reckless and wanton indifference to consequences measured and foreseen. Difficulties would be present even then, but they need not now perplex us. What we are dealing with at this time is a mere negligent omission, unaccompanied by malice or other aggravating elements. The failure in such circumstances to furnish an adequate supply of water is at most the denial of a benefit. It is not the commission of a wrong. H.R. Moch Co. v. Rensselaer Water Co., 159 N.E. 896, 899 (N.Y. 1928).
7 23 May 2012 Page 7 of 12 In 1929, the New York State legislature abolished governmental immunity. McKinney's Court of Claims Act 8. See Bernardine v. City of New York, 62 N.E.2d 604, 605 (N.Y. 1945). But courts in New York State continued to protect local governments. See, e.g., Steitz v. City of Beacon, 64 N.E.2d 704, (N.Y. 1945) (Desmond, J., dissenting). On the other hand, Pennsylvania protects its citizens from negligent government. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court abolished governmental immunity for tort claims in Ayala v. Philadelphia Board of Public Education, 305 A.2d 877, (Pa. 1973). The Pennsylvania state legislature responded by enacting a tort claims act, 42 Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes , which partly reestablished governmental immunity, with six exceptions. One of these exceptions, 42 Pa.Con.Stat. 8542(b)(5), give liability for a dangerous condition of the facilities of steam, sewer, water, gas or electric systems owned by the local agency... Miller v. McKeesport Municipal Water Authority, 555 A.2d 790 (Pa. 1989). In one Pennsylvania case, residents complained in 1992 that water company had been supplying inadequate water pressure, and sometimes no water pressure at all, since The court affirmed a $200/day civil penalty imposed by the Public Utility Commission (PUC) and blasted the water utility: The order of the PUC is affirmed. We will not tolerate a situation whereby Honey Brook, by itself injecting into these proceedings its own past defiance of a PUC order, may once again deny relief to the long-suffering homeowners in the Luceno development. Honey Brook Water Co. v. Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, 647 A.2d 653, 659 (Pa.Cmwlth. 1994). Putting aside governmental immunity and the public duty rule, when there is inadequate water pressure, the demand has exceeded the supply. Unless there is a written contract that explicitly gives a minimum water pressure (or minimum delivery in gallons/minute) which a waterworks should never guarantee it will be difficult for a consumer to litigate a claim for inadequate water pressure. There are myriad reasons why a waterworks might not be able to meet the future demand for water: drought might reduce the supply, equipment might fail, a past source might become contaminated and unusable, etc.
8 23 May 2012 Page 8 of 12 Liability for Contamination The electricity that leaves a large generator has a voltage that is nearly a pure sinusoidal function of time. When electricity arrives at a customer s premises, the voltage sometimes contains numerous disturbances, including fluctuations in rms voltage, nonsinusoidal waveform, and transient overvoltages. These disturbances enter the utility system from switching inside other customers premises, tree branches contacting overhead lines, and from lightning strikes to overhead electric wires. By analogy, drinking water sometimes contains bacteria, giardia cysts, or toxic chemicals that make the water unwholesome for consumption. In a water system, such contamination is usually present at the source of the water, but might leak into the water mains. Rust in water commonly comes from corroded iron pipes. Like electricity, water is supplied in only one grade. In the case of electricity, resistive heaters are tolerant of defects in the electricity, while various other loads may be vulnerable to damage by some specific kind of defect in the electricity. Similarly, any kind of water is suitable for flushing toilets. Applications such as watering the lawn or washing a car may accept contaminated water. On the other hand, laundry is intolerant of rust in the water, and people are intolerant of bacteria or giardia in drinking water. Unlike governmental immunity or the public duty rule for low water pressure claims, courts generally allow claims for breach of the implied warranty for merchantability of contaminated water. This warranty says the goods are fit for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are used. UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE 2-314(2)(c). Some attorneys for plaintiffs have argued that the waterworks breached a warranty of fitness for a particular purpose. This kind of claim was rejected in both Gall v. Allegheny County Health Dept., 555 A.2d 786, 790 (Pa. 1989); and Dakota Pork Industries v. City of Huron, 638 N.W.2d 884, 887, 17 (S.D. 2002).
9 23 May 2012 Page 9 of 12 contaminated water cases This is not a complete list of all cases, but includes some of the major cases that discuss the reasons for whether or not there is liability for supplying contaminated water. This list also includes the major cases that hold that the sale of water is a good. Jersey City v. Town of Harrison, 58 A. 100, 101 (N.J.Sup. 1904), aff'd, 62 A. 765 (N.J.Err. & App. 1905) (validity of contracts for supplying water, water held to be a good); Hayes v. Torrington Water Co., 92 A. 406, 407 (Conn. 1914) ( The duty which a water company owes to the public and to its customers is that of exercising reasonable care and diligence in providing an adequate supply of wholesome water at all times. [citing one treatise and three cases] ). Jones v. Mt. Holly Water Co., 93 A. 860, 861 (N.J.Sup. 1915) (typhoid fever case, affirms jury verdict for plaintiff in negligence case. Water is a necessity of life, and one who undertakes to trade in it and supply customers stands in no different position to those with whom he deals than does a dealer in foodstuffs. He is bound to use reasonable care that whatever is supplied for food or drink shall be ordinarily and reasonably pure and wholesome. ); Canavan v. City of Mechanicville, 128 N.E. 882 (N.Y. 1920) (typhoid fever case. A municipal waterworks is not engaged in a governmental function when it sells water to consumers, so the municipal waterworks has the same liability as a private waterworks.1 However, the waterworks cannot be held liable for injuries caused by impure water furnished by it unless it knew or ought to have known of the impurity. At 883: The furnishing of water, through a system of waterworks, by a water corporation, either private or municipal, to private consumers, at a fixed compensation, is a sale of goods within the meaning of the statute. At 884: There is no conceivable method in which the corporation can absolutely secure and maintain to the waters wholesomeness and freedom from pollution.... As a matter of fact, consumers of a public water supply do not, generally speaking, regard the corporation as a warrantor or insurer of the wholesomeness of the water. Two judges dissented on holding of no implied warranty of wholesomeness.); Aronson v. City of Everett, 239 P (Wash. 1925) (typhoid fever case, affirming jury verdict for plaintiff in negligence case.); 1 One wonders if a city could avoid liability by increasing taxes, and discontinuing billing for water, thereby making water a governmental service. One obvious problem is that consumers could then use unlimited amounts of water.
10 23 May 2012 Page 10 of 12 Ritterbusch v. City of Pittsburg, 269 P. 930 (Calif. 1928) (typhoid fever case, unchlorinated water was supplied by the waterworks for approximately a half-day, court affirmed judgment for plaintiff); Horton v. Inhabitants of North Attleboro, 19 N.E.2d 15 (Mass. 1939) (water with high carbon dioxide content absorbed lead from pipe. Implied warranty that the goods (i.e., water) shall be reasonably fit for drinking, assumed but not decided.); Gordon v. City of Medford, 117 N.E.2d 284 (Mass. 1954) (Plaintiff's laundry damaged by rust in city water during flushing of sewers. Held: A municipality in the construction, maintenance, and operation of its water system for the distribution and sale of water is not performing a governmental function but is engaged in conducting a private business... Affirmed judgment for plaintiff.); Coast Laundry, Inc. v. Lincoln City, 497 P.2d 1224, (Or.App. 1972) (Tar in water ruined laundry. Poorly reasoned opinion held no implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose in connection with the sale and supply of water. ); Moody v. City of Galveston, 524 S.W.2d 583 (Tex.Civ.App. 1975) (flammable gas in tap water, water held to be a good under the Uniform Commercial Code, also products liability applies); Kusnir v. City of Yonkers, 497 N.Y.S.2d 582, 585 (N.Y.City Ct. 1985) (city was liable for supplying rust in water: city is bound to use reasonable care and diligence in providing pure and wholesome water and in keeping its water supply system free from infection or contamination rendering the water unsafe and dangerous to individuals, or unsuitable for domestic purposes... ); Zepp v. Mayor & Council of Athens, 348 S.E.2d 673, 677 (Ga.App. 1986) (case involves price of water. Very few courts have considered whether the furnishing of water is a sale of goods under the Uniform Commercial Code we are persuaded by the viewpoint set forth in Helvey v. Wabash County REMC, 278 N.E.2d 608 (Ind.App. 1972), and reach the conclusion that the sale of water does constitute the sale of goods. ); Gall v. Allegheny County Health Dept., 555 A.2d 786 (Pa. 1989) (reversing dismissal, held plaintiffs who were sick from giardia could assert claim for breach of implied warranty of merchantability for providing infected water for drinking). This opinion is famous for ruling at p. 789 that the sale of water by a municipality did constitute the sale of goods under the Uniform Commercial Code.
11 23 May 2012 Page 11 of 12 Miller v. McKeesport Municipal Water Authority, 555 A.2d 790 (Pa. 1989) (municipal water supply contained giardia. Held that exception to governmental immunity in 42 Pa.Con.Stat. 8542(b)(5), A dangerous condition of the facilities of steam, sewer, water, gas or electric systems owned by the local agency..., applied, so city was not immune. Decided same day as Gall.); Sternberg v. New York Water Service Corp., 548 N.Y.S.2d 247, 248 (N.Y.A.D. 1989) ( In Canavan v. City of Mechanicville, 229 N.Y. 473, 128 N.E. 882, the Court of Appeals held that although the furnishing of water constitutes the sale of goods, no such warranties are implied. ); In re Perrier Bottled Water Litigation,754 F.Supp. 264 (D.Conn. Nov 09, 1990) (products liability case for benzene in bottled water); S.A.B. Enterprises, Inc. v. Village of Athens, 564 N.Y.S.2d 817 (N.Y.A.D. 1991) (Affirming jury verdict (except for valuation of business) for one million dollars to laundry that lost its customers owing to stained linen from contaminated water. At 819:... the staining was caused by live and dead microscopic animal and vegetable matter suspended in the water, attributable to the condition of the nearby lake which was defendant's sole water source. Defendant s filtration system had been inoperable for several years. ); Mulberry-Fairplains Water Association, Inc. v. Town of North Wilkesboro, 412 S.E.2d 910, 915 (N.C.App. 1992) (water is a good under the Uniform Commercial Code, follows Zepp in Georgia); McKeesport Municipal Water Authority v. McCloskey, 690 A.2d 766 (Pa.Cmwlth. 1997) (Plaintiff had valid cause of action for breach of implied warranty of merchantability under Uniform Commercial Code, giardia infestation of city water.), appeal denied, 700 A.2d 445 (Pa. 1997); Dakota Pork Industries v. City of Huron, 638 N.W.2d 884, 886 (S.D. 2002) (At 10, follows Canavan: water is a good.); Mattoon v. City of Pittsfield, 775 N.E.2d 770, (Mass.App.Ct. 2002) (Plaintiffs failed to provide expert testimony to prove giardia cysts in city water caused plaintiffs sickness. Courts dismissed claim for breach of warranty:... the water supplied by the city cannot practically be protected against all potential contamination from humans and animals. Held that water was a service, not a sale of a good.);
12 23 May 2012 Page 12 of 12 Adel v. Greensprings of Vermont, Inc., 363 F.Supp.2d 692, (D.Vt. 2005) (Legionnaires disease case. Predicted Vermont would consider water to be good under the Uniform Commercial Code and held there is an implied warranty of merchantability. Considers Canavan and Sternberg in New York and Mattoon in Massachusetts and rejects all three cases.). Conclusion It is interesting that law distinguishes (a) claims for low water pressure from (b) claims for contaminated water. As shown above, beginning at page 4, claims for low water pressure are usually barred by either governmental immunity or the public duty rule. However, as shown above, beginning at page 9, plaintiffs can win claims for contaminated water. The law in this area is muddled, principally with a judicial (and legislative) desire to protect incompetent or negligent municipal waterworks. Attorneys for plaintiffs who are suing a municipal waterworks should do legal research to find case law on litigation against waterworks in their jurisdiction, because there is no national consensus. This document is at My most recent search for court cases on this topic was in April 2012 first posted 23 May 2012, revised 23 May 2012 return to my homepage at
CLAIMS AGAINST FIRE DEPARTMENTS IN WASHINGTON AND OREGON By: Jack Slavik COZEN AND O'CONNOR 1201 Third Avenue Seattle WA 98101 Atlanta, GA Charlotte, NC Cherry Hill, NJ Chicago, IL Columbia, SC Dallas,
MEMORANDUM TO: FROM: RE: Tim Cameron, Kim Chamberlain, Chris Killian Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association David R. Carpenter, Collin P. Wedel, Lauren A. McCray Liability of Municipal Members
2012 IL App (1st 120464-U SECOND DIVISION October 23, 2012 No. 1-12-0464 NOTICE: This order was filed under Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent by any party except in the limited circumstances
Chapter IV FACULTY LIABILITY I. Overview INTRODUCTION Faculty members are agents of their employers the college or university. In that capacity, the college is liable or responsible for their acts that
Employer Liability for Employee Conduct by Lisa Mann 05-01-2000 EMPLOYER LIABILITY FOR EMPLOYEE CONDUCT: When Does An Employer Have to Pay? by Lisa Mann Modrall, Sperling, Roehl, Harris & Sisk, P.A. Employers
LITIGATION OF PRODUCTS LIABILITY CASES IN EXOTIC FORUMS - PUERTO RICO By Francisco J. Colón-Pagán 1 I. OVERVIEW OF PUERTO RICO LEGAL SYSTEM A. Three branches of government B. Judicial Branch 1. Supreme
FIRST DIVISION PHIPPS, C. J., ELLINGTON, P. J., and MCMILLIAN, J. NOTICE: Motions for reconsideration must be physically received in our clerk s office within ten days of the date of decision to be deemed
Page 1 29 of 41 DOCUMENTS SAN DIEGO ASSEMBLERS, INC., Plaintiff and Appellant, v. WORK COMP FOR LESS INSURANCE SERVICES, INC., Defendant and Respondent. D062406 COURT OF APPEAL OF CALIFORNIA, FOURTH APPELLATE
TRADITIONAL MUNICIPAL IMMUNITY FOR LOCAL PARKS James C. Kozlowski, J.D., Ph.D. 2013 James C. Kozlowski The law of personal injury liability is a creature of State law with a wide variety of jurisdictional
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TEXAS 444444444444 NO. 13-0776 444444444444 CHAPMAN CUSTOM HOMES, INC., AND MICHAEL B. DUNCAN, TRUSTEE OF THE M. B. DUNCAN SEPARATE PROPERTY TRUST, PETITIONERS, v. DALLAS PLUMBING
Present: All the Justices COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, ET AL. OPINION BY CHIEF JUSTICE LEROY R. HASSELL, SR. v. Record No. 060774 January 12, 2007 KAREN BURNS, ET AL. FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF CAMPBELL COUNTY
COURT OF APPEALS EIGHTH DISTRICT OF TEXAS EL PASO, TEXAS MICHAELA WARD, v. Appellant, LINDA THERET, INDIVIDUALLY AND AS PRINCIPAL OF MCKINNEY NORTH HIGH SCHOOL, Appellee. No. 08-08-00143-CV Appeal from
5.51 LEGAL MALPRACTICE (Approved 6/79) CHARGE 5.51A Page 1 of 9 A. General Duty Owing An action brought against an attorney alleging negligence in the practice of law is referred to as a malpractice action.
Choice of Law Governing Asbestos Claims By David T. Biderman and Judith B. Gitterman Choice of law questions in asbestos litigation can be highly complex. The court determining choice of law must often
LIABILITY OF AN ATTORNEY FOR NEGLIGENCE IN TITLE EXAMINATION - FAILURE TO DISCLOSE INFORMATION TO THE CLIENT Generally it is well understood that an attorney is not liable for every mistake or error of
ARIZONA TORT CLAIMS ACT & IMMUNITIES I. INTRODUCTION Claims against public entities and public employees require special attention. Public entities and public employees are protected from certain liabilities
2014 IL App (1st) 123454-U No. 1-12-3454 February 11, 2014 Modified Upon Rehearing April 30, 2014 THIRD DIVISION NOTICE: This order was filed under Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent
THE COMMONWEALTH EDUCATIONAL POLICY INSTITUTE CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY - L. DOUGLAS WILDER SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS CEPI Education Law Newsletter Dr. Richard S. Vacca, Editor; Senior Fellow,
SECOND DIVISION May 31, 2011 No. 1-10-0602 Notice: This order was filed under Illinois Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent by any party except in the limited circumstances allowed under
Filed 10/4/13; pub. order 10/28/13 (see end of opn.) COURT OF APPEAL, FOURTH APPELLATE DISTRICT DIVISION ONE STATE OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO ASSEMBLERS, INC., D062406 Plaintiff and Appellant, v. WORK COMP
Reed Armstrong Quarterly January 2009 http://www.reedarmstrong.com/default.asp Contributors: William B. Starnes II Tori L. Cox IN THIS ISSUE: Joint and Several Liability The Fault of Settled Tortfeasors
NOTICE: This order was filed under Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent by any party except in the limited circumstances allowed under Rule 23(e(1. 2012 IL App (3d 110004-U Order filed
MISSOURI COURT OF APPEALS NORTHERN DISTRICT JOHN JONES Defendant-Appellant vs. No. ND-55867 JANE SMITH Plaintiff-Respondent. David Moore, for Appellant, and Stone C. Defense for Respondent. Before O BRIEN,
Agents E&O Standard of Care Project Survey Maryland To gain a deeper understanding of the differing agent duties and standard of care by state, the Big I Professional Liability Program and Swiss Re Corporate
2015 IL App (1st) 141985-U No. 1-14-1985 NOTICE: This order was filed under Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent by any party except in the limited circumstances allowed under Rule 23(e)(1).
Liability Concerns for Farmers Involved in Direct Marketing of Farm Products (August 2003) Prepared by Carolyn J. Pugh Legal Research Assistant Agricultural Law Research and Education Center Pennsylvania
Unintentional Torts - Definitions Negligence The failure to exercise the degree of care that a reasonable person would exercise that results in the proximate cause of actual harm to an innocent person.
HEADNOTE: Denise Ford v. Sherman Douglas, No. 1228, September Term, 2001 TORTS STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS The statute of limitations for the tort of battery is three years. REPORTED IN THE COURT OF SPECIAL
April, 2003 No. 3 Toxic and Hazardous Substances Litigation In This Issue Quentin F. Urquhart, Jr. is a founding partner of Irwin Fritchie Urquhart & Moore a New Orleans, Louisiana firm that is focused
If you have questions regarding Product Liability, please contact Bruce Schoumacher via firstname.lastname@example.org www.querrey.com 2012 Querrey & Harrow, Ltd. All rights reserved. B. PRODUCT LIABILITY ILLINOIS
Stormwater Litigation 6 th Annual Georgia Environmental Conference August 25, 2011 Jennifer G. Cooper, Esq. Baker Donelson Atlanta, Georgia Agenda Federal Claims Clean Water Act Citizen Suits State Claims
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF TENNESSEE AT MEMPHIS February 24, 2010 Session STEPHANIE JONES and HOWARD JONES v. RENGA I. VASU, M.D., THE NEUROLOGY CLINIC, and METHODIST LEBONHEUR HOSPITAL Appeal from the
In the Missouri Court of Appeals Eastern District DIVISION TWO BUSEY TRUCK EQUIPMENT, INC., No. ED93091 Appellant, Appeal from the Circuit Court of vs. Cape Girardeau County AMERICAN FAMILY MUTUAL INSURANCE
STATE OF MINNESOTA IN COURT OF APPEALS A13-1110 Faron L. Clark, Respondent, vs. Sheri Connor, et al., Defendants, Vydell Jones, Appellant. Filed January 21, 2014 Affirmed Hooten, Judge Cass County District
The DelliCarpini Law Firm Melville Law Center 877.917.9560 225 Old Country Road fax 631.923.1079 Melville, NY 11747 www.dellicarpinilaw.com John M. DelliCarpini Christopher J. DelliCarpini (admitted in
The plaintiff in Schmidt filed suit against her employer, Personalized Audio Visual, Inc. ("PAV") and PAV s president, Dennis Smith ("Smith"). 684 A.2d at 68. Her Complaint alleged several causes of action
IN THE COURT OF COMMON PLEAS OF PHILADELPHIA COUNTY FIRST JUDICIAL DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA CIVIL TRIAL DIVISION COLLINS COLLISION CENTER, INC., ET AL v. REPUBLIC FIRST BANK ORDER AUGUST TERM, 2012 NO.
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF OHIO RICKY M. TORCHIK, Appellant, vs. JEFFREY M. J. BOYCE, et al., Appellee. Case No. 08-0534 On Appeal from the Ross County Court of Appeals, Fourth Appellate District Court of
Premises Liability for Third Party Crime (Full Article) Owners and managers of commercial property (including leased residential properties) can be held liable under civil negligence claims for harm to
Dissecting the Professional Services Exclusion in a Commercial General Liability Policy Lewis S. Wooton December 15, 2010 Most commercial general liability policies contain a professional services exclusion
In the Supreme Court of Georgia Decided: September 22, 2014 S14A0620. LOUISE SHORTER BARZEY v. CITY OF CUTHBERT. NAHMIAS, Justice. Appellant Louise Shorter Barzey challenges the constitutionality of the
Chapter 4 Crimes (Review) On a separate sheet of paper, write down the answer to the following Q s; if you do not know the answer, write down the Q. 1. What is a crime? 2. There are elements of a crime.
Filed 3/21/97 CERTIFIED FOR PUBLICATION IN THE COURT OF APPEAL OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA SECOND APPELLATE DISTRICT DIVISION THREE STACY RUTTENBERG, Plaintiff and Appellant, B092022 (Super. Ct. No. LC025584)
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION JAMES D. FOWLER, ) ) Plaintiff, ) ) v. ) Case No.: 08-cv-2785 ) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ) Judge Robert M. Dow,
THE THREAT OF BAD FAITH LITIGATION ETHICAL HANDLING OF CLAIMS AND GOOD FAITH SETTLEMENT PRACTICES By Craig R. White SKEDSVOLD & WHITE, LLC. 1050 Crown Pointe Parkway Suite 710 Atlanta, Georgia 30338 (770)
ATTORNEYS FOR APPELLANTS David P. Murphy Emily M. Hawk David P. Murphy & Associates, P.C. ATTORNEY FOR APPELLEES Robert S. O'Dell O'Dell & Associates, P.C. Carmel, Indiana Greenfield, Indiana In the Indiana
IN THE COURT OF COMMON PLEAS OF PHILADELPHIA COUNTY FIRST JUDICIAL DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA CIVIL TRIAL DIVISION HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL, INC., : MAY TERM, 2001 f/k/a HONEYWELL, INC., : Plaintiff, : No.
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF TEXAS 444444444444 NO. 11-0425 444444444444 PETROLEUM SOLUTIONS, INC., PETITIONER, v. BILL HEAD D/B/A BILL HEAD ENTERPRISES AND TITEFLEX CORPORATION, RESPONDENTS 4444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444444
MAINE SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT Decision: 2002 ME 70 Docket: Pen-01-508 Argued: April 2, 2002 Decided: April 18, 2002 Reporter of Decisions Panel: SAUFLEY, C.J., and CLIFFORD, RUDMAN, DANA, ALEXANDER, CALKINS,
****************************************************** The officially released date that appears near the beginning of each opinion is the date the opinion will be published in the Connecticut Law Journal
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF TENNESSEE AT KNOXVILLE July 9, 2001 Session PERO S STEAK AND SPAGHETTI HOUSE and LOUIS INN v. ELIZABETH JEAN HINKLE LEE and FIRST AMERICAN NATIONAL BANK and FIRST TENNESSEE BANK
2013 IL App (1st) 120546-U Third Division March 13, 2013 No. 1-12-0546 NOTICE: This order was filed under Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent by any party except in the limited circumstances
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS MARSHALL DIVISION JASON LONG, Plaintiff, v. NO. 0:00-CV-000 ABC THE CHABON GROUP, INC., Defendant. DEFENDANT S MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
No. 2-12-0572 Order filed May 10, 2013 NOTICE: This order was filed under Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent by any party except in the limited circumstances allowed under Rule 23(e)(1).
Introduction The RAJI (CIVIL) 5th Product Liability Instructions refer only to manufacturers and sellers. These instructions should be expanded when appropriate to include others in the business of placing
IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI NO. 2009-CA-01586-COA ANGELA HUMPHRIES AND KEVIN FROMME APPELLANTS v. PEARLWOOD APARTMENTS PARTNERSHIP AND MAC-RE, LLC APPELLEES DATE OF JUDGMENT: 09/08/2009
NONPRECEDENTIAL DISPOSITION To be cited only in accordance with Fed. R. App. P. 32.1 United States Court of Appeals For the Seventh Circuit Chicago, Illinois 60604 Argued January 8, 2008 Decided July 23,
United States Court of Appeals FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT No. 06-3601 J.E. Jones Construction Co.; The Jones Company Custom Homes, Inc., Now known as REJ Custom Homes, Plaintiffs - Appellants, v. Appeal from
Filed 8/28/13 Shade v. Freedhand CA1/4 NOT TO BE PUBLISHED IN OFFICIAL REPORTS California Rules of Court, rule 8.1115(a), prohibits courts and parties from citing or relying on opinions not certified for
THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE ROCKINGHAM COUNTY SUPERIOR COURT Docket No.: 08-C-794 Caroline McMullen v. Donald L. Lamoureux ORDER In this motor vehicle personal injury case, the plaintiff, Caroline McMullen
NOTICE Decision filed 01/23/14. The text of this decision may be changed or corrected prior to the filing of a Petition for Rehearing or the disposition of the same. 2014 IL App (5th) 120588-U NO. 5-12-0588
In the Supreme Court of Georgia Decided: May 6, 2013 S13A0079 (A4-003). CITY OF COLUMBUS et al. v. GEORGIA DEPT. OF TRANSPORTATION et al. S13X0080 (X4-004). CBS OUTDOOR, INC. et al. v. CITY OF COLUMBUS.
2015 IL App (1st) 141179-U THIRD DIVISION May 20, 2015 No. 1-14-1179 NOTICE: This order was filed under Supreme Court Rule 23 and may not be cited as precedent by any party except in the limited circumstances
Statute of Limitations for Suits Against Attorneys: Contract or Tort? When a former client brings a malpractice suit against an attorney, is the suit normally a tort action or a contract action? Does it
IN THE COURT OF COMMON PLEAS OF PHILADELPHIA COUNTY FIRST JUDICIAL DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA CIVIL TRIAL DIVISION JOHN FRAZIER HUNT, : DECEMBER TERM, 2004 Plaintiff, : No. 2742 v. : (Commerce Program) NATIONAL
Chapter 99B. Products Liability. 99B-1. Definitions. When used in this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires: (1) "Claimant" means a person or other entity asserting a claim and, if said claim
Case 2:08-cv-04597-LDD Document 17 Filed 02/05/09 Page 1 of 7 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA SUZANNE BUTLER, Individually and as : Administratrix of the Estate
NOTICE Decision filed 10/15/15. The text of this decision may be changed or corrected prior to the filing of a Petition for Rehearing or the disposition of the same. 2015 IL App (5th 140227-U NO. 5-14-0227
****************************************************** The officially released date that appears near the beginning of each opinion is the date the opinion will be published in the Connecticut Law Journal
Portfolio Media, Inc. 648 Broadway, Suite 200 New York, NY 10012 www.law360.com Phone: +1 212 537 6331 Fax: +1 212 537 6371 email@example.com Asbestos Liability Unlikely For Replacement
IN THE COURT OF COMMON PLEAS OF PHILADELPHIA COUNTY FIRST JUDICIAL DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA CIVIL TRIAL DIVISION JOHN I. GORDON, ESQUIRE v. MICHAEL O. PANSINI, ESQUIRE, et al. JUNE TERM, 2011 NO. 02241
A&E Briefings Structuring risk management solutions Spring 2012 Indemnification Clauses: Uninsurable Contractual Liability J. Kent Holland, J.D. ConstructionRisk, LLC Professional consultants are judged
INVERSE CONDEMNATION I. INTRODUCTION Article I, Section 19 of The California Constitution provides the basis for recovery against government entities and public utilities via the theory of inverse condemnation.
[Cite as Rogers v. Dayton, 118 Ohio St.3d 299, 2008-Ohio-2336.] ROGERS v. CITY OF DAYTON ET AL., APPELLEES; STATE FARM MUTUAL AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE CO., APPELLANT. [Cite as Rogers v. Dayton, 118 Ohio St.3d
Case: 14-11987 Date Filed: 10/21/2014 Page: 1 of 11 [PUBLISH] IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE ELEVENTH CIRCUIT No. 14-11987 Non-Argument Calendar Docket No. 1:13-cv-02128-WSD PIEDMONT OFFICE
Form: Plaintiff's original petition-wrongful Death [Name], PLAINTIFF vs. [Name], DEFENDANT [ IN THE [Type of Court] COURT [Court number] PLAINTIFF'S ORIGINAL PETITION 1. DISCOVERY CONTROL PLAN 1.1 Plaintiff
Public Land and Resources Law Review Volume 0 Fall 2012 Case Summaries State v. Continental Insurance Company John M. Newman firstname.lastname@example.org Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarship.law.umt.edu/plrlr
Case 1:07-cv-00389-MJW-BNB Document 51 Filed 08/21/2008 Page 1 of 8 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLORADO Civil Action No. 07-cv-00389-MJW-BNB ERNA GANSER, Plaintiff, v. ROBERT
SHORT FORM ORDER SUPREME COURT - STATE OF NEW YORK PRESENT: HON. VICTOR M. ORT Justice GEORGE POLL and WILLIS SEAFOOD RESTAURANT CORP. Plaintiffs -against- EDWARD VALLA, PROFESSIONAL INSURANCE CONSULTANTS,
No. 62 February 13, 2013 271 IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF OREGON Scott HUGHES, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. CITY OF PORTLAND, Defendant-Respondent. Multnomah County Circuit Court 100913654; A149379
1. THE PRODUCT LIABILITY TORTS A. The Strict Product Liability Doctrine In the 1960 s, the American Law Institute drafted and adopted Restatement (2d) of Torts 402A. This section states: (1) One who sells
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN ALTERNATIVE FEE AGREEMENTS FOR THE DEFENSE LAWYER BRIAN P. VOKE CAMPBELL CAMPBELL & EDWARDS ONE CONSTITUTION PLAZA BOSTON, MA 02129 (617) 241-3000 email@example.com
Page 1 PENNSYLVANIA NATIONAL MUTUAL CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY, Plaintiff, v. JOHN D. ST. JOHN, et al., Defendants NO. 09-06388 COMMON PLEAS COURT OF CHESTER COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA 2011 Pa. Dist. & Cnty.