c0t0d0s0: Less known Solaris features

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1 c0t0d0s0: Less known Solaris features Joerg Moellenkamp June 24, 2009

2 Contents I Introduction 14 1 The genesis of LKSF How it started The scope The disclaimer Credits and Kudos Credits The guide to LKSF Solaris Administration Liveupgrade Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots Working with the Service Management Facility Solaris Resource Manager /home? /export/home? AutoFS? lockfs Solaris Security Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges The Solaris Security Toolkit Auditing Basic Audit Reporting Tool IPsec On Passwords Signed binaries kssl Storage fssnap - snapshots for UFS iscsi Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager File System

3 Contents 2.4 Solaris Administrators Toolbox fuser pfiles Installing Solaris Packages directly via Web About crashes and cores Nontechnical feature Long support cycles II Solaris Administration 23 3 Liveupgrade How to change the world What s Live Upgrade The concept behind Live Upgrade A hint for testing this Using Live Upgrade without Updating Using Live Upgrade for upgrading Solaris Express Do you want to learn more? Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots Using snapshots for boot environments A practical example Conclusion Working with the Service Management Facility Introduction init.d Service Management Facility The foundations of SMF Service and Service Instance Milestone Fault Manager Resource Identifier Service Model Transient service Standalone model Contract service A short digression: Contracts Service State Service Configuration Repository Dependencies Master Restarter Daemon and Delegated Restarter

4 Contents Delegated Restarter for inetd services Enough theory Working with SMF What s running on the system Starting and stopping a service Automatic restarting of a service Obtaining the configuration of a service Dependencies Developing for SMF Prerequisites Preparing the server Preparing the client Before working with SMF itself The Manifest The exec methods script - general considerations Implementing a exec method script Installation of the new service Testing it Conclusion Do you want to learn more Solaris Resource Manager Why do you need Resource Management? Definitions The basic idea of Solaris Resource Management How to work with projects and tasks A practical example Why do I need all this stuff? Limiting operating environment resources Limiting CPU resources Without Resource Management Using the Fair Share Scheduler Shares Behavior of processes with Resource Management Limiting memory resources Without memory resource management With memory resource management Resource Management and SMF Assigning a project to an already running service Configuring the project in a SMF manifest Conclusion Do you want to learn more?

5 Contents 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? History The use case Prerequisites Creating users and home directories Configuring the automounter Testing the configuration Explanation for the seperated /home and /export/home The /net directory Do you want to learn more? lockfs Types of Locks Write Lock Delete lock Conclusion Do you want to learn more? CacheFS Introduction History of the feature CacheFS in theory A basic example Preparations Mounting a filesystem via CacheFS Statistics about the cache The cache On-demand consistency checking with CacheFS An practical usecase The CacheFS feature in future Solaris Development Conclusion Do you want to learn more? Having fun with processes 98 III Solaris Security Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges Introduction The Story of root Superuser

6 Contents Least privileges Role Based Access Control Privileges RBAC and Privileges in Solaris Some basic terms Practical side of RBAC /b Using the new role Authorizations Using authorizations for Services Predefined roles Privileges Conventional Unix Some practical insights to the system How to give an user additional privileges RBAC and privileges combined Privilege-aware programming Non-privilege aware processes How to get rid of the root apache The story of root - reprise Interesting Links The Solaris Security Toolkit What is the Solaris Security Toolkit? A look into the framework Use the Solaris Security Toolkit for hardening Effects of the hardening Undo the hardening Conclusion Do you want to learn more? Auditing Some terms Configuring basic auditing Start the auditing Managing the audit logs Analyzing the audit trails More auditing Want to learn more? Basic Audit Reporting Tool Usage Want to learn more?

7 Contents 15 IPsec The secrets of root Foundations IPsec in Solaris Example Prepare the installation Configuration of IPsec Activate the configuration Check the configuration Do you want to learn more? Signed binaries On passwords Using stronger password hashing Changing the default hash mechanism Password policies Specifing a password policy Using wordlists Conclusion Do you want to learn more= pfexec Delegating Administration Tasks Granting Root Capabilities to Regular Users An important advice Conclusion IV Networking Crossbow Introduction Virtualisation A simple network Bandwidth Limiting Demo environment The rationale for bandwitdth limiting Configuring bandwidth limiting Accouting kssl - an in-kernel SSL proxy 180 7

8 Contents 20.1 The reasons for SSL in the kernel Configuration Conclusion Do you want to learn more? V Storage fssnap - snapshots for UFS fssnap A practical example Conclusion Do you want to learn more? iscsi Introduction The jargon of iscsi The architecture of iscsi Simple iscsi Environment Prerequisites Configuring the iscsi Target Configuring the iscsi initiator Using the iscsi device Bidirectional authenticated iscsi Prerequisites Configuring the initiator Configuring the target Configuration of bidirectional configuration Reactivation of the zpool Alternative backing stores for iscsi volume File based iscsi target Thin-provisioned target backing store Conclusion Do you want to learn more? Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Introduction Implementation of the replication Wording Synchronous Replication Asynchronous Replication

9 Contents 23.6 Choosing the correct mode Synchronization Logging Prerequisites for this tutorial Layout of the disks Size for the bitmap volume Usage of the devices in our example Setting up an synchronous replication Testing the replication Disaster test Asynchronous replication and replication groups The problem Replication Group How to set up a replication group? Deleting the replication configuration Truck based replication The math behind the phrase Truck based replication with AVS On our old server On our new server Testing the migration Conclusion Do you want to learn more? Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Introduction Basics Availability Suite The jargon of Point in Time Copies with AVS Types of copies Independent copy Deeper dive Advantages and Disadvantages Dependent Copy h4 Deeper dive Advantages and Disadvantages Compact dependent copy Deeper dive Advantages and Disadvantages Preparation of the test environment Disklayout

10 Contents Calculation of the bitmap volume size for independent and dependent shadows Calculation of the bitmap volume size for compact dependent shadows Preparing the disks Starting a Point-in-time copy Common prerequisite Create an independent copy Create an independent copy Create an compact independent copy Working with point-in-time copies Disaster Recovery with Point-in-time copies Administration Deleting a point-in-time copy configuration Forcing a full copy resync of a point-in-time copy Grouping point-in-time copies Conclusion Do you want to learn more? SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Introduction The theory of Hierarchical Storage Management First Observation: Data access pattern Second observation: The price of storage Third observation: Capacity Hierarchical Storage Management An analogy in computer hardware SamFS The jargon of SamFS Lifecycle Policies Archiving Releasing Staging Recycling The circle of life Watermarks The SamFS filesystem: Archive media Installation of SamFS Obtaining the binaries Installing the SamFS packages Installing the SamFS Filesystem Manager Modifying the profile

11 Contents 25.5 The first Sam filesystem Prerequisites The configuration itself Using disk archiving Prerequisites Configuring the archiver Working with SamFS Looking up SamFS specific metadata Manually forcing the release Manually forcing the staging of a file Usecases and future directions Unconventional Usecases Future directions and ideas Conclusion Do you want to learn more? VI Solaris Administrators Toolbox fuser fuser But fuser can do more for you A neat trick with fuser Do you want to learn more? pfiles Installing Solaris Packages directly via web About crashes and cores A plea for the panic Difference between Crash Dumps and Cores Forcing dumps Forcing a core dump Forcing a crash dump Controlling the behaviour of the dump facilities Crash dumps Core dumps Core dump configuration for the normal user Crashdump analysis for beginners Basic analysis of a crash dump with mdb A practical usecase

12 Contents 29.6 Conclusion Do you want to learn more? Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Automated Installation About Jumpstart The Jumpstart mechanism for PXE based x Jumpstart Server Development Control Files for the automatic installation rules profile The sysidcfg file Jumpstart FLASH Full Flash Archives Differential Flash Archives Challenges of Jumpstart Flash for System Recovery About the Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit The basic idea behind JET Additional features of JET Prerequisites Systems Packages Installation of JET Preparation of the system The installation Preparations for out first installation From a mounted DVD media From a.iso file Looking up the existing Solaris versions A basic automated installation The template for the install The generated Jumpstart configuration files The installation boot A basic automated installation - more polished Adding the recommended patch cluster Adding custom packages Extending the template The installation Effects of the new modules Automatic mirroring of harddisks Configuration in the template

13 Contents Effects of the configuration Automatic hardening Preparing the Jumpstart for installation Configuring the template After Jumpstarting Deep Dive to the installation with JET Post installation scripts An example for boot levels and postinstall scripts The end of the post installation Using Jumpstart Flash Creating a flash archive Preparing the template While Jumpstarting Using Jumpstart Flash for System Recovery The basic trick Using an augmented Flash archive Conclusion Do you want to learn more? VII Nontechnical feature Long support cycles The support cycle An example: Solaris Sidenote Do you want to learn more VIIILicensing 328 IX TODO

14 Part I Introduction 14

15 1 The genesis of LKSF 1.1 How it started In January 2008 I felt like writing short tutorials on less-known features in Solaris. It turns out that although many of Solaris features are known to customers, there are few customers aware of all of Solaris features. An second insight was a little bit different: Sun doesn t have a not enough documentation problem, it has a problem with too much documentation. Solaris is a tool with extreme capabilities all well documented at docs.sun.com or in the man pages. The problem is (vastly exaggerated): it s like having the Encyclopedia Britannica, sufficient tools, skilled engineers and mechanics and the material, leaving you with the job of building an Airbus 380. While that may be possible, it is difficult to find the right starting point. The less known Solaris Features (a.k.a LKSF) wants to give you this start, and I started writing these tutorials on my blog in February The scope The tutorials in this book don t attempt to explain a feature in its entirety, as that would be redundant to the man pages and docs.sun.com. The examples in this book take some typical use cases and describe the configuration of a feature to match. At the end of each feature you will find some links to more information and the documentation about the feature. 1.3 The disclaimer Please don t try the stuff in this tutorial on your production systems until you are familiar with the steps. Please obey the licensing note in the Appendix. 15

16 1 The genesis of LKSF 1.4 Credits and Kudos 1.5 Credits Credits and kudos for providing helping hands (in alphabetic order of the surname): Ceri Davies (http://typo.submonkey.net/) for proof reading the document. Jan-Piet Mens (http://blog.fupps.com/) for proof reading for the document and suggestions to the L A TEXsource. Marina Sum for the help with the pfexec chapter. 16

17 2 The guide to LKSF 2.1 Solaris Administration Liveupgrade From time to time you have to update or patch your system. How do you patch the system without long service interruptions? How do you keep a running version of your operating environment in case something goes wrong? Solaris can help you cope with these situations using its LiveUpgrade feature patching and Updating while the system is still operational. You will find the Liveupgrade tutorial in section 3 on page Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots Live Upgrade was introduced for multiple disks or multiple partitions several years ago. How would such a functionality look like on modern file systems with ubiquitous snapshots? Well, ZFS boot and boot environments on ZFS give you such functionality today. The introduction to the ZFS based boot environments is located in section 4 on page Working with the Service Management Facility init.d was a venerable concept for many years to start and stop services. But it had its shortfalls. Sun therefore introduced the service management facility in Solaris 10, to offer functionalities like service dependencies, service instances and a central point of service management. Section 5 on page 37 will give you insight to this interesting feature of Solaris. 17

18 2 The guide to LKSF Solaris Resource Manager You can run a multitude of services and applications on a single big system. But how can you ensure, that every application gets its share of performance? Solaris Resource Manager can help you to control a process s CPU, memory and other resources. In section 6 on page 58 you can learn how use this feature /home? /export/home? AutoFS? Many people wonder about the different location for the user home directories on a Solaris system. Why are the home directories located in /export/home and not in home? The history of these two directories and some insight into AutoFS will be described in section 7 on page lockfs Sometimes you have to ensure that a file system doesn t change while you re working on it. To avoid that, use the lockfs command. You will learn more about this function in section 8 on page Solaris Security Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges root can do everything on a system, but is it a wise choice to give everyone the root password and thus the key for all rooms in the kingdom? Does a process need all the privileges of root just to bind to a privileged port? How do you configure the least set of privileges to a process? Section 11 at page 100 answers this questions. 18

19 2 The guide to LKSF The Solaris Security Toolkit The Solaris Security Toolkit is designed to automate the hardening and minimization of a Solaris system. The toolkit contains the knowledge even to harden a tough target like a Sun Cluster installation and simplifies the necessary steps. A tutorial on the usage of the Solaris Security Toolkit is located in section 12 on page Auditing What happens on your system? When did a user use which command? When did a user delete a particular file? You need log files to answers this question. The auditing functionality in Solaris generates these and reports on a vast amount of actions happening on your system. The configuration of this feature is explained in 13 on page Basic Audit Reporting Tool Sometimes you need to know, what has changed on a system since you installed it. For example when all your fellow admins tell you after a system crash. The Basic Audit Reporting Tool can answer this question by comparing different states of you system. The usage of BART is explained in section 14 on page IPsec Secure communication between hosts gets more and more important. Secure communication does not only mean encrypted traffic. It also includes the authentication of your communication partner. Solaris has had an IPsec implementation since a number of versions. The configuration of IPsec is described in 15 on page

20 2 The guide to LKSF On Passwords It is important to have good and secure passwords. All other security systems are rendered worthless without good keys to the systems. Solaris has some features to help the administrator to enforce good passwords. Section?? on page?? describes this feature Signed binaries There are literally thousands of binaries on your system, but are they really all supplied by Sun? Every binary in Solaris is digitally signed by Sun. The section 16 on page 145 explains, how you verify these signatures kssl In Solaris 10 got an interesting feature to enable SSL for any service by adding a transparent SSL proxy in front of its. This proxy runs completely in kernel-space and yields better performance compared to a solution in the user-space. The section 20 on page 180 explains, how you enable kssl. 2.3 Storage fssnap - snapshots for UFS File system backups can be faulty. When they take longer, the file system has a different content at the beginning at the end of the backup, thus they are consistent. A solution to this problem is freezing the file system. fssnap delivers this capability to UFS. Section 21 describes this feature. The tutorial starts on page iscsi With increasing transfer speed of Ethernet it gets more and more feasible to use this media to connect block devices such as disks to a server. Since Update 4 Solaris 10 has a built-in functionality to act as an iscsi initiator and target. The configuration of iscsi is the topic of section 22 on page

21 2 The guide to LKSF Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite You have two data centers with similar hardware and same software on both. The second data center is a perfect replica of the first. Good basics for disaster recovery. The remaining issue: How to get the data to your backup data center? And how to get the data back after the you ve recovered your primary data center. The Remote Mirroring facility of the Availability Suite was designed for such situations. Section 23 on page 200 explains the configuration of a remote mirror Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Sometimes you need a copy of your data to test applications or to keep a working copy when you upgrade them. Copying the whole data is possible, but inefficient. Generating a frozen snapshot is easier. The Availability Suite enables the admin to freeze the state of a disk with much lower overhead in a short time. Point-in-Time copies will be explained in 24 on page SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager File System Typically documents and data are put away for years without them being accessed, but you cannot delete the data possibly due to law. So your data rotates on rotating rust for years on power-hungry disks. It would be nice to archive all this data on tape without thinking about it. SamFS is a tool for this task. The section 25 on page 242 will give you a basic overview of the configuration and use of SamFS, the hierarchical storage management system from Sun. 2.4 Solaris Administrators Toolbox fuser This short tutorial will show you how to find out which processes are using files on a file system. It s located in section 26 on page

22 2 The guide to LKSF pfiles Many people install lsof on their system as they know it from Linux. But you have an similar tool in Solaris. In section 27 on page 274 you will find a short tip for its usage Installing Solaris Packages directly via Web This trick isn t widely known. You can install a package directly from a HTTP source. Look in this section 28 on page 276 for a description About crashes and cores There is no bug-free code, thus from time to time an operating system has to react: it crashes and dumps core to protect itself. Learn to control the core-dumps and how you can do some basic analysis in section 29 on page Nontechnical feature Long support cycles Solaris has a long life time for a single Solaris release with a defined time line that governs the life cycle. Get some insight to the life of a release in section 31 on page

23 Part II Solaris Administration 23

24 3 Liveupgrade 3.1 How to change the world Once in a while root saw some imperfections in his world. He had to change some things. But root couldn t stop the turning of the world for hours as people lived in this world. Because of root s special powers, root was able to create a second world without people. Thus root created a second world as an exact copy of the old world. And now root was able to work on the imperfections of his world as long as root wanted. Then he behold and all was good. A magic chant late at night when all people slept and the people woke up in the new world. 3.2 What s Live Upgrade Okay, Live Upgrade isn t really a less known feature, but in the time working at the keyboard at several customer sites, I ve got aware of a fact: One of the most simple, but brilliant feature of Solaris is a somewhat unused feature. The feature is called Live Upgrade. We ve got painfully aware of two facts in the past: At first... yes, we know of our somewhat suboptimal patch process. And: You can t expect updates of the operating environment when you have to bring down the machine for some time. Thus Sun introduced a feature called Live Upgrade. Okay, Live Upgrade is so easy that nobody has an excuse not to use it. And with 6 GB size of the SOE and 73 GB boot disks minimum no space isn t an excuse too ;) 3.3 The concept behind Live Upgrade The basic concept behind Live Upgrade is pretty simple. All mechanisms are grouped around the concept of alternate boot environments. At first you have your running boot environment and a empty slice or disk (the symbol with the thick lines is the active boot environment). 24

25 3 Liveupgrade Figure 3.1: Live Upgrade: Situation before start Now you create an alternate boot environment. It s a copy of the actual boot environment. The system still runs on this environment. Figure 3.2: Live Upgrade: Creating the alternate boot environment The trick is: The update/patch processes doesn t work on the actual boot environment, they use this alternate but inactive boot environment. The running boot environment isn t touched at all. Figure 3.3: Live Upgrade: Patching/Upgrading the alternate boot environment After the completion of the updating you have an still running boot environment and 25

26 3 Liveupgrade a fully patched and updated alternate boot environment. Now the boot environments swap their roles with a single command and a single reboot. Figure 3.4: Live Upgrade: Switching alternate and actual boot environment After the role swap the old system stays untouched. So, whatever happens with your new installation, you can fall back to you old system. In case you see problems with your new configuration, you switch back the but environments and you run with your old operating environment. 3.4 A hint for testing this Use some spare equipment. I ve used my MacBook Pro for the first try, and it took forever. Do yourself a favor and don t use a virtual environment. At least use a real DVD and not an ISO to prevent the harddisk from jumping around. 3.5 Using Live Upgrade without Updating Okay, I will present two usecases to you: The first one doesn t exactly match to the upgrade moniker. It s a solution for a small problem: You ve installed your system and after a few weeks you realize, that you filesystem model wasn t the best choice. /export/home to large, / to small. and a separated /var would be nice. Okay, how you separate those filesystems without a longer service interruption. Bringing the system down, moving files around, booting it up is not an option for productive system. Moving while running isn t a good idea. Live Update is a nice, but simple solution for this problem: Live Upgrade replicates the boot environments by doing a file system copy. The filesystem layout of the old boot 26

27 3 Liveupgrade environment and the new environment doesn t have to be the same. Thus you can create a filesystem layout with a bigger /, a smaller /export/home and a separate /var. And the best is: The system runs while doing this steps. In my example I will start with an operating system on a single partition. The partition is located on /dev/dsk/c0d0s0 and has the size of 15 GB. / on / dev / dsk / c0d0s0 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Mon Feb 11 21:06: At the installation time I ve created some additional slices. c0d0s3 to c0d0s6. Each of the slices has the size of 10 GB. Separating the single slice install to multiple slices is nothing more than using Live Upgrade without upgrading. At first I create the alternate boot environment: # lucreate -c " sx78 " -m /:/ dev / dsk / c0d0s3 : ufs -m / usr :/ dev / dsk / c0d0s4 : ufs -m / var :/ dev / dsk / c0d0s5 : ufs -n " sx78_restructured " Discovering physical storage devices [..] Populating contents of mount point </ >. Populating contents of mount point </ usr >. Populating contents of mount point </ var >. [..] Creation of boot environment < sx78_restructured > successful. We ve successfully created a copy of the actual boot environment. But we told the mechanism to put / on c0d0s3, /usr on c0d0s4 and /var on c0d0s5. As this was the first run of Live Upgrade on this system the naming of the environment is more important than on later runs. Before this first run, the boot environment has no name. But you need it to tell the process, which environment should be activated, patched or updated. Okay, my actual environment runs with Solaris Express CE build 78, thus I ve called it sx78. The lucreate command set this name to the actual environment. My new boot environment has the name "sx78_restructured" for obvious reasons. Okay, now you have to activate the alternate boot environment. # luactivate sx78_ restru ctured Saving latest GRUB loader. Generating partition and slice information for ABE < sx78_restructured > Boot menu exists. Generating direct boot menu entries for ABE. Generating direct boot menu entries for PBE. 27

28 3 Liveupgrade [..] Modifying boot archive service GRUB menu is on device : </ dev / dsk / c0d0s0 >. Filesystem type for menu device : <ufs >. Activation of boot environment < sx78_restructured > successful. Now we have to reboot the system. Just use init or shutdown. If you use any other command to reboot the system, Live Upgrade will not switch to new environment: # init 6 Okay, this takes a minute. But let s have a look on the mount table after the boot. # mount / on / dev / dsk / c0d0s3 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Tue Feb 12 05:52: [...] / usr on / dev / dsk / c0d0s4 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Tue Feb 12 05:52: [...] / var on / dev / dsk / c0d0s5 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Tue Feb 12 05:53: Mission accomplished. Okay, but we want to use LiveUpgrading for upgrading, later. Switch back to your old environment: # luactivate sx78 Boot the system. And your are back on your old single-slice installation on c0d0s0: / on / dev / dsk / c0d0s0 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Mon Feb 12 06:06: Using Live Upgrade for upgrading Solaris Express With a new Solaris Express Community Edition every week a Live Upgrade procedure is a good practice to update your system to a new release of the operating system. Okay, I ve burned a DVD with the Solaris Express Community Edition Build 81. I want to upgrade the existing boot environment on the three slices. Just to keep the naming in line, I rename it so sx81. 28

29 3 Liveupgrade # lurename - e sx78_ restructured - n sx81 Renaming boot environment < sx78_restructured > to < sx81 >. Changing the name of BE in the BE definition file. Changing the name of BE in configuration file. Updating compare databases on boot environment < sx81 >. Changing the name of BE in Internal Configuration Files. Propagating the boot environment name change to all BEs. Boot environment < sx78_restructured > renamed to < sx81 >. You don t have to rename it, you just could use the old name. But why should you confuse your fellow admins by calling your Build 81 boot environment sx78_restructured. Okay, now start the upgrade. My installation DVD was mounted under cdrom/sol_11_x86 by Solaris and I want to upgrade the sx81 boot environment. This will take a while. Do this overnight or go shopping or play with your children. Your system is still running and the process will not touch your running installation: # luupgrade - u - n sx81 - s / cdrom / sol_ 11_ x86 Copying failsafe kernel from media. Uncompressing miniroot [...] The Solaris upgrade of the boot environment < sx81 > is complete. Installing failsafe Failsafe install is complete. Okay. Let s check the /etc/release before booting into the new environment: # cat / etc / release Solaris Express Community Edition snv_ 78 X86 Copyright 2007 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Use is subject to license terms. Assembled 20 November 2007 Activate the new boot environment: # luactivate sx81 Saving latest GRUB loader. Generating partition and slice information for ABE < sx81 > Boot menu exists. Generating direct boot menu entries for ABE. Generating direct boot menu entries for PBE. [...] 29

30 3 Liveupgrade Modifying boot archive service GRUB menu is on device : </ dev / dsk / c0d0s0 >. Filesystem type for menu device : <ufs >. Activation of boot environment < sx81 > successful. Eject the installation DVD and reboot the system: # eject cdrom / dev / dsk / c1t0d0s2 ejected # init 6 Wait a minute, login to the system and let s have a look at /etc/release again: bash -3.2 $ cat / etc / release Solaris Express Community Edition snv_ 81 X86 Copyright 2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Use is subject to license terms. Assembled 15 January 2008 By the way, the system runs on the three seperated slices now: / on / dev / dsk / c0d0s3 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Tue Feb 12 07:22: [..] / usr on / dev / dsk / c0d0s4 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Tue Feb 12 07:22: [..] / var on / dev / dsk / c0d0s5 read / write / setuid / devices / intr / largefiles / logging / xattr / onerror = panic / dev = on Tue Feb 12 07:22: Neat, isn t it? 3.7 Do you want to learn more? Documentation Solaris 10 8/07 Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning Upgrading With Solaris Live Upgrade Others 30

31 3 Liveupgrade Solaris Live Upgrade Software: Minimum Patch Requirements (the infodoc formerly known as

32 4 Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots 4.1 Using snapshots for boot environments One of the nice features of ZFS is the fact that you get snapshots for free. The reason lies in the copy-on-write nature of ZFS. You can freeze the filesystem by simply not freeing the old blocks. As new data is written to new blocks, you don t even have to copy the blocks (in this sense the COW of ZFS is more like a ROW, a redirect on write ). ZFS boot enables the system to work with such snapshots, as you can use one to boot from. You can establish multiple boot environments just by snapshotting the boot filesystems, cloning them and promoting them to real filesystems. These are features inherent to ZFS. 4.2 A practical example A warning at first: Don t try this example without a good backup of your system. Failing that, use a test system or a test VM. We will fsck up the system during this example. Okay... I ve updated my system, so I have already two boot environments: :~# beadm list BE Active Active on Mountpoint Space Name reboot Used opensolaris -1 yes yes legacy G opensolaris no no M This mirrors the actual state in your ZFS pools. accordingly. You will find filesystems named 32

33 4 Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT rpool G 142 G 56.5 K / rpool install K - 55 K - rpool / ROOT 2.37 G 142 G 18K / rpool / ROOT rpool / 0-18 K - rpool / ROOT / opensolaris M 142 G G legacy rpool / ROOT / opensolaris G 142 G G legacy rpool / ROOT / opensolaris install M G - rpool / ROOT / opensolaris : -: :59: M G - rpool / ROOT / opensolaris -1/ opt M 142 G 3.60 M / opt rpool / ROOT / opensolaris -1/ M - rpool / ROOT / opensolaris -1/ : -: :59: M - rpool / ROOT / opensolaris / opt G 3.60 M / opt rpool / export M 142 G 19K / export rpool / 15 K - 19 K - rpool / export / home 18.9 M 142 G 18.9 M / export / home rpool / export / 18 K - 21 K - After doing some configuration, you can create an boot environment called opensolaris-baseline : It s really easy. You just have to create a new boot environment: # beadm create - e opensolaris -1 opensolaris - baseline We will not work with this environment. We use it as a baseline, as a last resort when we destroy our running environment. To run the system we will create another snapshot: # beadm create - e opensolaris -1 opensolaris - work Now let s look into the list of our boot environments. 33

34 4 Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots :~# beadm list BE Active Active on Mountpoint Space Name reboot Used opensolaris - baseline no no K opensolaris -1 yes yes legacy G opensolaris no no M opensolaris - work no no K We activate the opensolaris-work boot environment: jm oe ka la md ri ng :~# beadm activate opensolaris - work Okay, let s look at the list of boot environments again. :~# beadm list BE Active Active on Mountpoint Space Name reboot Used opensolaris - baseline no no K opensolaris -1 yes no legacy K opensolaris no no M opensolaris - work no yes G :~# You will see that the opensolaris-1 snapshot is still active, but that the opensolaris-work boot environment will be active at the next reboot. Okay, now reboot: :~# beadm list BE Active Active on Mountpoint Space Name reboot Used opensolaris - baseline no no K opensolaris -1 no no M opensolaris no no M opensolaris - work yes yes legacy G Okay, you see that the boot environment opensolaris-work is now active and it s activated for the next reboot (until you activate another boot environment). Now we can reboot the system again. GRUB comes up and it will default to the opensolaris-work environment. Please remember on which position you find opensolaris-baseline 34

35 4 Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots in the boot menu. You need this position in a few moments. After a few seconds, you can log into the system and work with it. Now let s drop the atomic bomb of administrative mishaps to your system. Log in to your system, assume the root role and do the following stuff: # cd / # rm -rf * You know what happens. Depending on how fast you are able to interrupt this run, you will end up somewhere between a slightly damaged system and a system fscked up beyond any recognition. Normally the system would send you to the tapes now. But remember - you have some alternate boot environments. Reboot the system, wait for GRUB. You may have garbled output, so it s hard to read the output from GRUB. Choose opensolaris-baseline. The system will boot up quite normally. You need a terminal window now. How you get such a terminal window depends on the damage incurred. The boot environment snapshots don t cover the home directories, so you may not have a home directory any more. I will assume this for this example: you can get a terminal window by clicking on Options, then Change Session and choose Failsafe Terminal there. Okay, log in via the graphical login manager; a xterm will appear. At first we delete the defunct boot environment: # beadm destroy opensolaris - work Are you sure you want to destroy opensolaris - work? This action cannot be undone (y/[n]): y Okay, now we clone the opensolaris-baseline environment to form a new opensolaris-work environment. # beadm create - e opensolaris - baseline opensolaris - work We reactivate the opensolaris-work boot environment: # beadm activate opensolaris - work Now, check if you still have a home directory for your user: # ls -l / export / home / jmoekamp / export / home / jmoekamp : No such file or directory If your home directory no longer exists, create a new one: 35

36 4 Boot environments based on ZFS snapshots # mkdir -p / export / home / jmoekamp # chown jmoekamp : staff / export / home / jmoekamp Now reboot the system: # reboot Wait a few moments. The system starts up. GRUB defaults to opensolaris-work and the system starts up normally, without any problems, in the condition that the system had when you created the opensolaris-baseline boot environment. # beadm list BE Active Active on Mountpoint Space Name reboot Used opensolaris - baseline no no M opensolaris -1 no no M opensolaris no no M opensolaris - work yes yes legacy G Obviously you may have to recover your directories holding your own data. It s best practice to make snapshots of these directories on a regular schedule, so that you can simply promote a snapshot to recover a good version of the directory. 4.3 Conclusion You see, recovering from a disaster in a minute or two is a really neat feature. Snapshotting opens a completely new way to recover from errors. Unlike with LiveUpgrade, you don t need extra disks or extra partitions and, as ZFS snapshots are really fast, creating alternate boot environments on ZFS is extremely fast as well. At the moment this feature is available on Opensolaris only. With future updates it will find its way into Solaris as well. 36

37 5 Working with the Service Management Facility 5.1 Introduction The Service Management Facility is a quite new feature. But sometimes I have the impression that the most used feature is the capability to use old legacy init.d scripts. But once you use SMF with all its capabilities, you see an extremely powerful concept init.d For a long time, the de-facto standard of starting up services was the init.d construct. This concept is based of startup scripts. Depending from their parametrisation they start, stop or restart a service. The definition of runlevels (what has to be started at a certain stage of booting) and the sequencing is done by linking this startup scripts in a certain directory and the naming of link. This mechanism worked quite good, but has some disadvantages. You can t define dependencies between the services. You emulate the dependencies by sorting the links, but that s more of a kludge as a solution. Furthermore the init.d scripts run only once. When the service stops, there are no means to start it again by the system (you have to login to the system and restart it by using the init.d script directly or using other automatic methods) With init.d a service (like httpd on port 80) is just a consequence of running scripts, not a configurable entity in itself Service Management Facility SMF was invented to solve many of the problems of the old startup mechanism. Most problems from resulting from the init.d framework result from a lack of knowledge of the system about services it s running. What do I need to run my service? Is this services needed for other services? What is the status of a service? Should I restart another 37

38 5 Working with the Service Management Facility service (e.g. database) to circumvent problems in another service (an old web application for example)? Okay, an expert has the knowledge to do such tasks manually... but do you want to wake up at night, just to restart this fscking old application? The concepts of SMF enables the admin to put this knowledge into a machine readable format, thus the machine can act accordingly. This knowledge about services makes the SMF a powerful tool to manage services at your system. SMF enables the system to: starting, restarting and stopping services according to their dependencies resulting from this the system startup is much faster, as services are started in a parallel fashion when possible When a service fails, SMF restarts this service the delegation of tasks like starting, stopping and configuration of services to non-root users and much more The following tutorial wants to give you some insights to SMF. Have fun! 5.2 The foundations of SMF The additional capabilities of the SMF comes at a price. SMF has to know more about your services. Most of the new components of the SMF has to do with this capabilities. So we have to define some foundations before doing some practical stuff Service and Service Instance At first we start with the service and the service instance. This difference is important. The service is the generic definition how a service is started. The service instance is the exact configuration of a service. A good example is a webserver. The service defines the basic methods how to start or stop an apache daemon, the service instance contains the information, how an specific configuration should work (which port to listen on, the position of the config file). A service can define to allow just one instance, as well you can define, you can have multiple instances of a certain service. But: A service doesn t have to be a long running process. Even a script that simply exits after executing (e.g. for some commands to do network tuning) is a special kind of a service in the sense of SMF. 38

39 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Milestone A milestone is somehow similar to the old notion of runlevel. With milestones you can group certain services. Thus you don t have to define each service when configuring the dependencies, you can use a matching milestones containing all the needed services. Furthermore you can force the system to boot to a certain milestone. For example: Booting a system into the single user mode is implemented by defining a single user milestone. When booting into single user mode, the system just starts the services of this milestone. The milestone itself is implemented as a special kind of service. It s an anchor point for dependencies and a simplification for the admin. Furthermore some of the milestones including single-user, multi-user and multi-user-server contain methods to execute the legacy scripts in rc*.d Fault Manager Resource Identifier Every service instance and service instance has a unique name in the system do designate it precisely. This name is called Fault Management Resource Identifier. For example the SSH server is called: svc:/network/ssh:default.the FMRI is divided by the : into three parts. The first part designates the resource as an service. The second parts designates the service. The last part designates the service instance. Into natural language: It s the default configuration of the ssh daemon. But why is this identifier called Fault Manager Resource Identifier? Fault Management is another important feature in Solaris. The FM has the job to react automatically to failure events. The failure of a service isn t much different to the failure of a hard disk or a memory chip. You can detect it and you can react to it. So the Fault Management is tightly integrated into the service management Service Model As I mentioned before, not at all services are equal and they have different requirements to starting them. Thus the System Management Facility knows different service models: 39

40 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Transient service The simplest service model is transient. You can view it as a script that gets executed while starting the system without leaving a long-lived server process. You use it for scripts to tune or config things on your system. A good example is the script to configure the core dumping via coreadm. A recommendation at this place: Don t use the transient model to transform your old startup scripts. Albeit possible, you loose all the advantages of SMF. In this case it would be easier to use the integrated methods to use legacy init.d scripts Standalone model The third service model is the standalone model. The inner workings of this model are really simple. Whenever the forked process exits, SMF will start it again Contract service The standard model for services is contract. This model uses a special facility of the Solaris Operating Environment to monitor the processes A short digression: Contracts Did you ever wondered about the /system/contract filesystems. It s the most obvious sign of the contracts. The contract model is based on a kernel level construct to manage the relationships between a process and other kernel managed resources. Such resources are processor sets, memory, devices and most important for SMF other processes. Process contracts describe the relation between a process and its child process. The contract subsystem generates events available to other processes via listeners. Possible events are: Your system already use this contracts. Let s have a look at sendmail. # ptree - c pgrep sendmail [ process contract 1] 1 / sbin / init [ process contract 4] 7 / lib / svc / bin / svc. startd [ process contract 107] 792 / usr / lib / sendmail -bd -q15m -C / etc / mail / local. cf 40

41 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Table 5.1: Events of the contract subsystem Event empty process exit core signal contract hwerr Description the last process in the contract has exited a process in the process contract has exited a member process dumped core a member process received a fatal signal from outside the a member process received a fatal signal from outside the contract a member process has a fatal hardware error 794 / usr / lib / sendmail -Ac -q15m With the -c option ptree prints the contract IDs of the processes. In our example, the sendmail processes run under the contract ID 107. With ctstat we can lookup the contents of this contract: # ctstat - vi 107 CTID ZONEID TYPE STATE HOLDER EVENTS QTIME NTIME process owned cookie : 0 x20 informative event set : none critical event set : hwerr empty fatal event set : none parameter set : inherit regent member processes : inherited contracts : none Contract 107 runs in the global zone. It s an process id and it was created by process number 7 (the svc.startd). There wasn t any events so far. The contract subsystem should only throw critical evens when the processes terminate due hardware errors and when no processes are left. At the moment there are two processes under the control of the contract subsystem (the both processes of the sendmail daemon) Let s play around with the contracts: # ptree - c pgrep sendmail [ process contract 1] 41

42 5 Working with the Service Management Facility 1 / sbin / init [ process contract 4] 7 / lib / svc / bin / svc. startd [ process contract 99] 705 / usr / lib / sendmail -bd -q15m -C / etc / mail / local. cf 707 / usr / lib / sendmail -Ac -q15m You can listen to the events with the ctwatch: # ctwatch 99 CTID EVID CRIT ACK CTTYPE SUMMARY Okay, open a second terminal window to your system and kill the both sendmail processes: # kill After we submitted the kill, the contract subsystem reacts and sends an event, that there are no processes left in the contract. # ctwatch 99 CTID EVID CRIT ACK CTTYPE SUMMARY crit no process contract empty Besides of ctwatch the event there was another listener to the event: SMF. Let s look for the sendmail processes again. # ptree - c pgrep sendmail [ process contract 1] 1 / sbin / init [ process contract 4] 7 / lib / svc / bin / svc. startd [ process contract 103] 776 / usr / lib / sendmail -bd -q15m -C / etc / mail / local. cf 777 / usr / lib / sendmail -Ac -q15m Et voila, two new sendmail processes with a different process id and a different process contract ID. SMF has done its job by restarting sendmail. To summarize things: The SMF uses the contracts to monitor the processes of a service. Based on this events SMF can take action to react on this events. Per default, SMF stops and restart a service, when any member of the contract dumps core, gets a signal or dies due a hardware failure. Additionally the SMF does the same, when theres no member process left in the contract. 42

43 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Service State Fault management brings us to the next important definition. Every service instance has a service state. This state describes a point in the lifecycle of the process: Table 5.2: Description of service states Service state degraded disabled online offline maintenance legacy run Description The service runs, but somehow the startup didn t fully succeeded and thus the service has only limited capabilities The service was enabled by the admin, and thus SMF doesn t attempt to start it The services is enabled and the bringup of the service was successful The service is enabled, but the service hasn t been started so far, as dependencies are not fulfilled. The service didn t started properly and exited with an error code other than 0. For example because of typos in config files This is an special service state. It s used by the SMF for services under the control of the restarter for legacy init.d scripts Each service under the control of the SMF has an service state throughout it whole lifetime on the system Service Configuration Repository All the configurations about the services in the Service Configuration Repository. It s the central database regarding the services. This database is backed up and snapshotted in a regular manner. So it s easy to fall back to a known running state of the repository (after you or a fellow admin FOOBARed the service configuration) 43

44 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Dependencies The most important feature of SMF is the knowledge about dependencies. In SMF you can define two kinds of dependency in a services: which services this service depends on the services that depend on this service This second way to define a dependency has an big advantage. Let s assume, you have a new service. You want to start it before an other service. But you don t want to change the object itself (perhaps, you need this service only in one special configuration and the normal installation doesn t need your new service... perhaps it s the authentication daemon for a hyper-special networking connection ;)). By defining, that another service depends on your service, you don t have to change the other one. I will show you how to look up the dependencies in the practical part of this tutorial Master Restarter Daemon and Delegated Restarter Okay, now you have all the data. But you need someone to do something: For this task you have the SMF Master Restarter Daemon. This daemon reads the Service Configuration Repository and acts accordingly. It starts a services when all its dependencies are fulfilled. By this simple rule all services will be started in the process of booting until there are no enabled services left in the offline state. But not all processes are controlled by the Master Restarter. The Master Restarted can delegate this task to other restarters, thus the are called SMF Delegated Restarter Daemons Delegated Restarter for inetd services The most obvious example for such an delegated restarter is inetd, the daemon to start network demons only on demand. One important effect of this is a change in behavior of the inetd. code inetd.conf /code isn t used to control inetd anymore. The Solaris services which were formerly configured using this file are now configured via SMF. So you don t edit the inetd.conf to disable or enable an inetd service. You use the same commands like for all other services Enough theory Enough theory, let s do some practical stuff... 44

45 5.3 Working with SMF 5 Working with the Service Management Facility After so much theory SMF may look a little bit complex but it isn t. For the admin it s really simple. You can control the complete startup of the system with just a few commands What s running on the system At first let s have a look on all services running on the system: # svcs legacy_ run 10: 04: 44 lrc :/ etc / rc3_ d / S84appserv disabled 10:04:22 svc :/ system / xvm / domains : default online 10:03:48 svc :/ system / svc / restarter : default offline 10:03:54 svc :/ network / smb / server : default This is only a short snippet of the configuration. The output of this command is 105 lines long on my system. But you services in several service states in it. For example I hadn t enabled xvm on my system (makes no sense, as this Solaris is already virtualized, and the smb server is still online. Let s look after a certain service # svcs name - service - cache STATE STIME FMRI online 10:08:01 svc :/ system / name - service - cache : default The output is separated into three columns. The first shows the service state, the second the time of the last start of the service. The last one shows the exact name of the service Starting and stopping a service Okay, but how do I start the service, how do I use all this stuff:let s assume, you want to disable sendmail. At first we check the current state: # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI online 10:23:19 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail Now we disable the service. It s really straight forward: # svcadm disable sendmail 45

46 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Let s check the state again. # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI disabled 10:23:58 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail Okay, a few days later we realize that we need the sendmail service on the system. No problem we enable it again: # svcadm enable sendmail # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI online 10:25:30 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail The service runs again. Okay, we want to restart the service. This is quite simple, too # svcadm restart sendmail # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI online * 10:25:55 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI online 10:26:04 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail Did you notice the change in the STIME column. The service has restarted. By the way: STIME doesn t stand for start time. It s a short form for State Time. It shows, when the actual state of the services was entered. Okay, now let s do some damage to the system. We move the config file for sendmail, the glorious sendmail.cf. The source of many major depressions under sys admins. # mv / etc / mail / sendmail.cf / etc / mail / sendmail.cf.old # svcadm restart sendmail # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI offline 10:27:09 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail Okay, the service went in the offline state. Offline? At first, the maintenance state would look more sensible. But let s have a look in some diagnostic informations. With svcs -x you can print out fault messages regarding services. # svcs -x svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail ( sendmail SMTP mail transfer agent ) State : offline since Sun Feb 24 10:27: Reason : Dependency file :// localhost / etc / mail / sendmail. cf is absent. See : http :// sun. com / msg /SMF E2 46

47 5 Working with the Service Management Facility See : sendmail (1M) See : / var / svc / log / network - smtp : sendmail. log Impact : This service is not running. The SMF didn t even try to start the service. There is an dependency implicit to the service. svcprop sendmail config / value_authorization astring solaris. smf. value. sendmail config / local_only boolean true config - file / entities fmri file :// localhost / etc / mail / sendmail.cf config - file / grouping astring require_all config - file / restart_on astring refresh config - file / type astring path [..] The service configuration for sendmail defines a dependency to the config-file /etc/- mail/sendmail.cf. Do you remember the definition of the service states? A service stays in offline mode until all dependencies are fulfilled. We renamed the file, the dependencies isn t fulfilled. The restart leads correctly to the offline state Okay, we repair the damage: # mv / etc / mail / sendmail.cf.old / etc / mail / sendmail.cf And now we restart the service # svcadm refresh sendmail # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI online 10:33:54 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail All is well, the service in online again Automatic restarting of a service Okay, let s test another capability of the SMF. The kill the sendmail daemon. # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI online 10:33:54 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail # pkill " sendmail " # svcs sendmail STATE STIME FMRI online 10:38:24 svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail The SMF restarted the daemon automatically as you can see from the stime-column 47

48 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Obtaining the configuration of a service Okay, as I wrote before every service has some configuration in the SMF Service Configuration Repository. You can dump this configuration with the svcprop command. Let s print out the configuration for the name service cache: # svcprop svc :/ system /name - service - cache : default general / enabled boolean false general / action_authorization astring solaris. smf. manage.name - service - cache [..] restarter / state astring online restarter / state_timestamp time general_ovr / enabled boolean true Dependencies But how do I find out the dependencies between services. The svcadm commands comes to help: The -d switch shows you all services, on which the service depends. In this example we check this for the ssh daemon. # svcs -d ssh STATE STIME FMRI disabled 8:58:07 svc :/ network / physical : nwam online 8:58:14 svc :/ network / loopback : default online 8:58:25 svc :/ network / physical : default online 8:59:32 svc :/ system / cryptosvc : default online 8:59:55 svc :/ system / filesystem / local : default online 9:00:12 svc :/ system / utmp : default online 9:00:12 svc :/ system / filesystem / autofs : default </ code > </ To check, what services depend on ssh, you can use the -D switch: # svcs -D ssh STATE STIME FMRI online 9:00:22 svc :/ milestone / multi - user - server : default There is no further service depending on ssh. But the milestone code multi-userserver /code depends on ssh. As long the ssh couldn t started successfully, the multi-user-server milestone can t be reached. 48

49 5 Working with the Service Management Facility 5.4 Developing for SMF Okay, now you know how to do basic tasks. But how to use SMF for your own applications. I will use OpenVPN as an example Prerequisites A good source for this program is Blastwave 1. openvpn Please install the package tun and I want to show a running example, thus we have to do some work. It will be just a simple static shared key configuration, as this is a SMF tutorial, not one for OpenVPN. We will use theoden and gandalf again. gandalf will be the server. theoden the client gandalf theoden Preparing the server Okay... this is just a short configuration for an working OpenVPN server. # mkdir / etc / openvpn # cd / etc / openvpn # openvpn -- genkey -- secret static. key # openvpn -- dev tun -- ifconfig secret static. key -- daemon # scp static. key tmp / static. key Now just leave this terminal this way Preparing the client Okay, we need some basic configurations to get the client side of OpenVPN working, even when it s under control of the SMF ;) 1 49

50 5 Working with the Service Management Facility # mkdir / etc / openvpn # mv / tmp / static. key / etc / openvpn # cd / etc / openvpn / # ls -l total 2 -rw jmoekamp other 636 Feb 27 16:11 static. key # chown -R root : root / etc / openvpn # chmod 600 static. key Before working with SMF itself At first I remove this stinking init.d links. We don t need them anymore: # rm / etc / rc0.d/ K16openvpn # rm / etc / rc1.d/ K16openvpn # rm / etc / rc2.d/ S60openvpn # rm / etc / rcs.d/ K16openvpn Okay, and now let s hack the startup script...? Wrong! SMF can do many task for you, but this needs careful planing. You should answer yourself some questions: 1. What variables make a generic description of a service to a specific server? 2. How do I start the process? How do I stop them? How can I force the process to reload its config? 3. Which services are my dependencies? Which services depend on my new service? 4. How should the service react in the case of a failed dependency? 5. What should happen in the case of a failure in the new service. Okay, let s answer this questions for our OpenVPN service. The variables for our OpenVPN client are the hostname of the remote hosts and the local and remote IP of the VPN tunnel. Besides of this the filename of the secret key and the tunnel device may differ, thus it would be nice to keep them configurable. Starting openvpn is easy. We have just to start the openvpn daemon with some command line parameters. We stop the service by killing the process. And a refresh is done via stopping and starting the service. We clearly need the networking to use a VPN service. But networking isn t just bringing up the networking cards. You need the name services for example. So make things easier, the service don t check for every networking service to be up and running. We just define an dependency for the network milestone. 50

51 5 Working with the Service Management Facility As it make no sense to connect to a server without a network it looks like a sensible choice to stop the service in case of a failed networking. Furthermore it seems a good choice to restart the service when the networking configuration has changed. Perhaps we modified the configuration of the name services and the name of the OpenVPN server resolves to a different IP. What should happen in the case of a exiting OpenVPN daemon? Of course it should started again. Okay, now we can start with coding the scripts and xml files The Manifest Okay, as I wrote before, the manifest is the source of the configuration of a service. Thus we have to write such a manifest. The manifest is a XML file. Okay, at first we obey the gods of XML and do some definitions: # cat openvpn. xml <? xml version ="1.0"? > <! DOCTYPE service_bundle SYSTEM "/ usr / share / lib / xml / dtd / service_bundle. dtd.1" > < service_bundle type = manifest name = openvpn > Okay, at first we have to name the service: name = application / network / openvpn type = service version = 1 > In this example, we define some simple dependencies. As I wrote before: Without networking a VPN is quite useless, thus the OpenVPN service depends on the reached network milestone. < dependency name = network grouping = require_all restart_on = none type = service > < service_fmri value = svc :/ milestone / network : default > < dependency > In this part of the manifest we define the exec method to start the service. We use a script to start the service. The %m is a variable. It will be substituted with the name of the called action. In this example it would be expanded to =verb=/lib/svc/method/openvpn start=. 51

52 5 Working with the Service Management Facility < exec_method type = method name = start exec = / lib / svc / method / openvpn timeout_seconds = 2 / > %m Okay, we can stop OpenVPN simply by sending a SIGTERM signal to it. Thus we can use a automagical exec method. In case you use the :kill SMF will kill all processes in the actual contract of the service. < exec_method type = method name = stop exec = : kill timeout_seconds = 2 > </ exec_method > Okay, thus far we ve only define the service. Let s define a service. We call the instance theoden2gandalf for obvious names. The service should run with root privileges. After this we define the properties of this service instance like the remote host or the file with the secret keys. < instance name = theoden2gandalf enabled = false > < method_context > < method_credential user = root group = root > </ method_context > < property_group name = openvpn type = application > < propval name = remotehost type = astring value = gandalf > < propval name = secret type = astring value = / etc / openvpn / static.key /> < propval name = tunnel_local_ip type = astring value = > < propval name = tunnel_remote_ip type = astring value = /> < propval name = tunneldevice type = astring value = tun > </ property_group > </ instance > At the end we add some further metadata to this service: < stability value = Evolving /> <template > <common_name > < loctext xml : lang = C > OpenVPN </ loctext > </ common_name > < documentation > 52

53 5 Working with the Service Management Facility < manpage title = openvpn section = 1 > < doc_link name = openvpn.org uri = http :// openvpn.org > </ documentation > </ template > </ service > </ service_bundle > I saved this xml file to my home directory under /export/home/jmoekamp/openvpn.xml The exec methods script - general considerations Okay, we referenced a script in the exec method. This script is really similar to a normal init.d script. But there are some important differences. As theres no parallel startup of services in init.d most scripts for this system bring-up method tend to return as quickly as possible. We have to change this behavior. Scripts for transient or standalone services should only return in the case of the successful execution of the complete script or when we ve terminated the process. For services under control of the contract mechanism the script should at least wait until the processes of the service generate some meaningful error messages, but they have to exit, as SMF would consider the service startup as failed, when the script doesn t return after There are some general tips: When you write your own stop method don t implement it in a way that simply kills all processes with a certain name (e.g. pkill "openvpn") this was and is really bad style, as there may be several instances of service. Just using the name to stop the processes would cause unneeded collateral damage. It s a good practice to include the /lib/svc/share/smf_include.sh. It defines some variables for errorcodes to ease the development of the method scripts Implementing a exec method script We store configuration properties in the Service Component repository. It would be nice to use them for configuration. Thus we have to access them. Here comes the svcprop command to help: # svcprop - p openvpn / remotehost svc :/ application / network / openvpn : theoden2gandalf gandalf 53

54 5 Working with the Service Management Facility With a little bit of shell scripting we can use this properties to use them for starting our processes. #!/ bin /sh. / lib / svc / share / smf_include.sh getproparg () { val = svcprop -p $1 $SMF_FMRI [ -n " $val " ] && echo $val } if [ -z " $SMF_FMRI " ]; then echo " SMF framework variables are not initialized." exit $SMF_EXIT_ERR fi OPENVPNBIN = / opt / csw / sbin / openvpn REMOTEHOST = getproparg openvpn / remotehost SECRET = getproparg openvpn / secret TUN_LOCAL = getproparg openvpn / tunnel_local_ip TUN_REMOTE = getproparg openvpn / tunnel_remote_ip DEVICETYPE = getproparg openvpn / tunneldevice if [ -z " $REMOTEHOST " ]; then echo " openvpn / remotehost property not set " exit $SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG fi if [ -z " $SECRET " ]; then echo " openvpn / secret property not set " exit $SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG fi if [ -z " $TUN_LOCAL " ]; then echo " openvpn / tunnel_local_ip property not set " exit $SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG fi if [ -z " $TUN_REMOTE " ]; then echo " openvpn / tunnel_remote_ip property not set " exit $SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG fi if [ -z " $DEVICETYPE " ]; then 54

55 5 Working with the Service Management Facility echo " openvpn / tunneldevice property not set " exit $SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG fi case "$1" in start ) $OPENVPNBIN -- daemon -- remote $REMOTEHOST -- secret $SECRET -- ifconfig $TUN_ LOCAL $TUN_ REMOTE -- dev $DEVICETYPE ;; stop ) echo " not implemented " ;; refresh ) echo " not implemented " ;; *) echo $" Usage : $0 { start refresh }" exit 1 ;; esac exit $SMF_EXIT_OK I saved this script to my home directory under /export/home/jmoekamp/openvpn Installation of the new service Okay, copy the script to /lib/svc/method/: # cp openvpn / lib / svc / method # chmod +x / lib / svc / method / openvpn After this step you have to import the manifest into the Service Configuration Repository: # svccfg validate / export / home / jmoekamp / openvpn. xml # svccfg import / home / jmoekamp / openvpn. xml 55

56 5 Working with the Service Management Facility Testing it Let s test our brand new service: # ping ^C The OpenVPN service isn t enabled. Thus there is no tunnel. The ping doesn t get through. Now we enable the service and test it again. # svcadm enable openvpn : theoden2gandalf # ping is alive Voila... SMF has started our brand new service. When we look into the list of services, we will find it: # svcs openvpn : theoden2gandalf STATE STIME FMRI online 18:39:15 svc :/ application / network / openvpn : theoden2gandalf When we look into the process table, we will find the according process: # / usr / ucb /ps - auxwww grep " openvpn " grep -v " grep " root ? S 18: 39: 15 0: 00 / opt / csw / sbin / openvpn -- daemon -- remote gandalf -- secret / etc / openvpn / static. key -- ifconfig dev tun Okay, we doesn t need the tunnel any longer after a few day,thus we disable it: # svcadm disable openvpn : theoden2gandalf # / usr / ucb /ps - auxwww grep " openvpn " grep -v " grep " # No process left. 5.5 Conclusion Okay, I hope I was able to give you some insights into the Service Management Framework. It s a mighty tool and this article only scratched on the surface of the topic. But there are several excellent resources out there. 56

57 5 Working with the Service Management Facility 5.6 Do you want to learn more Documentation Solaris 10 System Administrator Collection - Basic Administration - Managing Services man page - smf(5) FAQ opensolaris.org: SMF(5) FAQ Other resources Bigadmin - Solaris Service Management Facility - Quickstart Guide Bigadmin - Solaris Service Management Facility - Service Developer Introduction SMF shortcuts on wikis.sun.com cuddletech.com: An SMF Manifest Cheatsheet 57

58 6 Solaris Resource Manager Resource Management is an rather old feature in Solaris, albeit it got more mind share since it got a really important part of the Solaris Zones. But this tutorial doesn t focus on the usage of Resource Management in conjunction with the zone configuration. I want to go to the basics, because at the end the zone configuration just uses this facilities to control the resource consumption of zones. Secondly you can use this knowledge to limit resource usage in a zone itself. Resource Management was introduced to solve one important question. You can run multiple programs and services at once in a single instance of the operating system, but how do I limit the consumption of resources of a single application? How do I prevent a single program from consuming all the resources leaving nothing to others? Resource Management in Solaris solves this class of problems. 6.1 Why do you need Resource Management? Unix systems were capable to execute a multitude of independent services on one system since its introduction many years ago. But there was a problem: What happens in case of a process running amok? A user eating away resources of the system? You have to control the allocation of this resources. How many CPU does a process get? How many file descriptors are allocated to a user? The Solaris Resource Management is capable to put other processes under the control of an user configurable ruleset. Thus you can prevent a situation where your system is down, because a single process takes all resources. With such an ability, the usage of a single system for a multitude of services becomes more manageable and thus more feasible. 6.2 Definitions Okay, as usual, this technology has its own jargon. So I have to define some of it at first: 58

59 6 Solaris Resource Manager Tasks: A task is a group of processes. For example when you log into a system and do some work all the steps you ve done are an task until you logout or open a new task. Another example would be a webserver. It consists out of a multitude of processes, but they are all part of the same task. The database server on the same machine may have a completely different task id. Projects: A project is a group of tasks. For example you have a webserver. It consists out of the processes of the database task and the webserver task. Zones: From the perspective of the resource management, a Solaris Zone is just a group of one or more projects. 6.3 The basic idea of Solaris Resource Management The basic idea of resource management is to use the grouping of processes and to impose limits on a group on processes defined by one of the above entities. A limit on the zone would limit all projects in a zone. A limit on the project would limit all tasks grouped by the project. A limit on a task would limit all processes grouped by the tasks. Let s take an example: There is a resource control called max-lwps. It controls the amount of processes. This control exists as task.max-lwps, project.max-lwps and zone.max-lwps. With this control you can define limits for the number of processes in a group of processes defined by one of the entities mentioned above. You want to ensure, that you have 1000 processes at maximum in your zone webserver. You can define it by using zone.max-lwps for the zone webserver. You want to ensure, that the webserver project consisting out of mysql and apache processes uses 250 processes at maximum. You use the project.max-lwps for the project webserver-c0t0d0s0. You want to limit the httpd-server itself to 100 processes. You impose this limit by using the task.max-lwps control. How do you configure this? This will be the topic of this tutorial. It sounds complex, but it isn t, once you ve understand the entities. 6.4 How to work with projects and tasks Even when you never heard of constructs like tasks and projects you already use them, as there are a few projects installed per default. For example whenever you log into your system as a regular user, all you do is part of the project default because your user is member of this project: 59

60 6 Solaris Resource Manager # su jmoekamp # id -p uid =100( jmoekamp ) gid =1( other ) projid =3( default ) When you assume the privileges of the root user you work as a member of the user.root project. $ su root Password : # id -p uid =0( root ) gid =0( root ) projid =1( user. root ) Let s have another look at the alread running processes of your system. # ps -ef -o pid,user,zone, project, taskid, args PID USER ZONE PROJECT TASKID COMMAND 0 root global system 0 sched [...] 126 daemon global system 22 / usr / lib / crypto / kcfd 646 jmoekamp global default 73 / usr / lib / ssh / sshd [...] 413 root global user. root 72 - sh 647 jmoekamp global default 73 - sh [...] 655 root global user. root 74 ps - ef - o pid, user, zone, project, taskid, args 651 root global user. root 74 sh As you see from the output of ps you already use some projects, that are default on every Solaris system. And even the concept of task is in use right now. Whenever a user log into a Solaris system, a new task is opened. Furthermore you will see, that all your services started by the Service management facility have their own task id. The SMF starts every service as a new task. # ps -ef -o pid,user,zone, project, taskid, args grep " 74 " 653 root global user. root 74 bash 656 root global user. root 74 ps - ef - o pid, user, zone, project, taskid, args 657 root global user. root 74 bash 651 root global user. root 74 sh The projects are stored in a file per default, but you can use LDAP or NIS for a common project database on all your systems: # cat / etc / project system :0:::: 60

61 6 Solaris Resource Manager user. root :1:::: noproject :2:::: default :3:::: group. staff :10:::: A freshly installed system has already this pre-defined projects: Table 6.1: Factory-configured project in Solaris Project system user.root no.project default group.staff Description The system project is used for all system processes and daemons. All root processes run in the user.root project. The noproject project is a special project for IP Quality of Service. You can savely ignore it for this tutorial When there isn t a matching group, this is the catch-all. A user without an explicitly defined project is member of this project The group.staff project is used for all users in the group staff Okay, but how do we create our own projects? It s really easy: [ theoden :~] $ projadd - p 1000 testproject [ theoden :~] $ projmod - c " Testserver project " testproject [ :~] $ projdel testproject We created the project testproject with the project id Then we modified it by adding informations to the comment field. After this, we ve deleted the project. 6.5 A practical example Okay, I will use a practical example, now. We working as an administrator at the Unseen University. We ve got a new system and want to create the users. # useradd alice # useradd bob # useradd mike 61

62 6 Solaris Resource Manager # useradd laura Looks familiar? I ve omitted to set the password here. But of course you have to set one. Now we create some projects for two classes: # projadd class2005 # projadd class2006 Okay. This projects have no users. We assign the project to our users. # usermod - K project = class2005 alice # usermod - K project = class2005 bob # usermod - K project = class2006 mike # usermod - K project = class2006 laura Like roles this assignments are stored in the file /etc/user_attr: alice :::: type = normal ; project = class2005 bob :::: type = normal ; project = class2005 mike :::: type = normal ; project = class2006 laura :::: type = normal ; project = class2006 Okay, let s su to the user alice and check for the project assignment: bash -3.2 $ su alice Password : $ id -p uid =2005( alice ) gid =1( other ) projid =100( class2005 ) As configured the user alice is assigned to the project class2005. When we look into the process table, we can check the forth columns. All processes owned by alice are assigned to the correct project. # ps -ef -o pid,user,zone, project, taskid, args grep " class2005 " 752 alice global class sh 758 alice global class sleep 10 Okay, obviously our teachers want their own projects: You can configure this on two ways. You can configure it by hand, or create a project beginning with user. and ending with the username. We use the second method in this example. # useradd einstein # projadd user. einstein # passwd einstein New Password : Re - enter new Password : passwd : password successfully changed for einstein 62

63 6 Solaris Resource Manager Now we check for the project: $ su einstein Password : $ id -p uid =2009( einstein ) gid =1( other ) projid =102( user. einstein ) $ sleep 100 & $ ps -ef -o pid,user,zone, project, taskid, args grep " user. einstein " 777 einstein global user. einstein 78 sh 782 einstein global user. einstein 78 sleep einstein global user. einstein 78 grep user. einstein 789 einstein global user. einstein 78 ps - ef - o pid, user, zone, project, taskid, args Et voila! We don t have to assign the project explicitly. It s done automagically by the system. The logic behind the automatic assigning of the project to a user is simple: If the name of the project is defined by adding the project user attribute, use the assigned project as the default for the user. If it s not defined with the user, look for a project beginning with user. and ending with the name of the user and use it as default project. For example: user.root or user.jmoekamp If there no such project, search for a project beginning with group. and ending with the name of the group of a user and use it as default project. For example: group.staff If theres no group with this name, use the project default as the default project. But how do you create a task? You don t have to configure tasks! A task is created automatically by the system in certain events. Those events are: login cron newtask setproject su Okay, let s start a sleep in a new task: $ newtask sleep 10 &

64 6 Solaris Resource Manager Okay, when you look at the process table now, you will see the different taskid in the fifth column: # ps -ef -o pid,user,zone, project, taskid, args grep " class2005 " 752 alice global class sh 761 alice global class sleep 10 But you can use the newtask command to assign a different project, too. At first we create another project. We work at the Large Hadron Collider project, thus we call it lhcproject $ newtask - p lhcproject sleep 100 & 802 $ newtask : user " einstein " is not a member of project " lhcproject " Hey, not this fast! You have to be a member of the project to add a task to a project. Without this hurdle it would be too easy to use the resources of different project ;) Okay, let s add the user einstein to the group lhcproject again. # projmod - U einstein lhcproject Now we can try it again: $ newtask - p lhcproject sleep 1000& 817 $ ps -ef -o pid,user,zone, project, taskid, args grep " einstein " 777 einstein global user. einstein 78 sh 817 einstein global lhcproject 80 sleep einstein global user. einstein 78 ps - ef - o pid, user, zone, project, taskid, args 818 einstein global user. einstein 78 grep einstein $ Voila, the sleep runs within a different project. 6.6 Why do I need all this stuff? But why is all this stuff important for Resource Management? While it s possible to put resource management onto a single process, this isn t a sensible choice most of the time. Your workload consists out of multiple services out of multiple processes and it would be more complex to configure resource management to each of this processes. With the concepts of projects and tasks you can assign those limits to a group of processes. 64

65 6 Solaris Resource Manager 6.7 Limiting operating environment resources The kernel of an operating system provides a huge amount of resources to the processes running on it. Such resources are file descriptors, shared memory segments or the process tables. Albeit hard to fill up this resources with modern operating systems it s not impossible. When a resource is consumed by a single malicious or erroneous application, all other can t run as well when they need more resources from the operating system. Let s assume this scenario: There is an course Perl Scripting for beginners at the Unseen University and in the last year the lesson About fork ended in chaos as some of your students coded forkbombs as they though this would be funny (as the class before, and the one before...) #!/ usr / bin / perl fork while 1 I ve stored this little script at /opt/bombs/forkbomb.pl. A few seconds after starting such a script, the system is toast because of the hundreds of forked processes. Don t try this without resource management. Okay, but this year, you ve migrated to Solaris. You can impose resource management. Okay, we have to modify our project configuration: # projmod -K " task.max - lwps =( privileged,10, deny )" class2005 Now we have configured a resource limit. A single task in the class2005 cant have more than 9 processes. The tenth attempt to fork will be denied. Okay, do you remember the reasons, why the system starts a new task? One of it is login. Thus every login of a user gives him 10 threads to work with. And this is exactly the behavior we want. Let s assume Alice starts her forkbomb: # ps - ef grep " alice " alice : 58: 12? 0: 00 / usr / lib / ssh / sshd alice : 58: 42 pts /1 0: 38 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 58: 12 pts /1 0: 00 - sh alice : 58: 42 pts /1 0: 38 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 58: 42 pts /1 0: 37 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 58: 42 pts /1 0: 37 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 58: 42 pts /1 0: 37 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl 65

66 6 Solaris Resource Manager alice : 58: 42 pts /1 0: 39 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 58: 42 pts /1 0: 38 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl # ps - ef grep " alice " wc - l 9 After forking away 7 forkbomb.pl processes, any further fork is denied by the system. The load of the system goes up (as there are hundreds of denied forks) but the system stays usable. Alice sends her script to Bob. He tries it, too: # ps - ef grep " alice " alice : 58: 12? 0: 00 / usr / lib / ssh / sshd alice : 15: 08 pts /1 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 58: 12 pts /1 0: 00 - sh alice : 15: 08 pts /1 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 15: 08 pts /1 0: 02 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 15: 08 pts /1 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 15: 08 pts /1 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 15: 08 pts /1 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl alice : 15: 08 pts /1 0: 02 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl # ps - ef grep " bob " bob : 14: 47? 0: 00 / usr / lib / ssh / sshd bob : 14: 47 pts /3 0: 00 - sh bob : 15: 10 pts /3 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl bob : 15: 10 pts /3 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl bob : 15: 10 pts /3 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl bob : 15: 10 pts /3 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl bob : 15: 10 pts /3 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl 66

67 6 Solaris Resource Manager bob : 15: 10 pts /3 0: 02 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl bob : 15: 10 pts /3 0: 03 / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / forkbomb.pl This is still no problem for the system. After a few forks of the forkbomb, the system denies further forks. And the system stays usable. The limitation of the number of processes is only one example. You can limit other resources. You can find a list of all controls at the man page of resource_controls 6.8 Limiting CPU resources Okay, but your system wasn t purchased for students at night. You ve bought it for computational science at night. The Large Hadron Collider project spend 75% of the costs, and the Small Hadron Collider project spend 25%. Thus the compute power should be distributed in a similar manner Without Resource Management But when you start two compute intensive processes, both get roundabout 50 percent of processor. Okay, we have an super-duper simulation script called /opt/bombs/cpuhog.pl: #! / usr / bin / perl while (1) { my $res = ( / ) } Let s login as user einstein: # su einstein Password : $ / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl & $ / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl & After a few moments the system will stabilize at aprox. 50% CPU resources for both processes. Just look at the first column: bash -3.2 $ ps -o pcpu, project, args % CPU PROJECT COMMAND 0.0 user. einstein - sh 0.3 user. einstein bash 47.3 user. einstein / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl 48.0 user. einstein / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl 0.2 user. einstein ps - o pcpu, project, args 67

68 6 Solaris Resource Manager This isn t the intended behavior Using the Fair Share Scheduler Solaris can solve this problem. There is something called Fair Share Scheduler in Solaris. This scheduler is capable to distribute the compute power of the system based on a configuration. The FFS isn t activated by default. You have to login as root to activate it: # dispadmin - d FSS There are ways to enable this scheduler with a running system, but it s easier to reboot the system now. When the system has started, we get root privileges by using su. At first we create an additional project for the SHC project. We created the other project (lhcproject) before: # projadd shcproject # projmod - U einstein shcproject Now we configure an resource limit on the projects. # projmod -K " project.cpu - shares =( privileged,150, none )" lhcproject # projmod -K " project.cpu - shares =( privileged,50, none )" shcproject We ve used the resource control project.cpu-shares. With this control we can assign an amount of CPU power to an project. We ve defined an privileged limit, thus only root can change this limit later on Shares Okay, what is the meaning of these numbers 150 and 50 in the last commands? Where are the 25% and the 75%? Well, the resource management isn t configured with percentages, it s configured in a unit called shares. It s like with stocks. The person with the most stocks owns most of the company. The project with the most shares owns most of the CPU. In our example we divided the CPU in 200 shares. Every share represents 1/200 of the CPU. Project shcproject owns 50 shares. Project lhcproject owns 150. I think, you already saw it: 150 is 75% of 200 and 50 is 25% of 200. Here we find our planed partitioning of the CPU we ve planed before. 68

69 6 Solaris Resource Manager By the way: I deliberately choose 150/50 instead of 75/25 to show you that these share definitions are not scaled in percent. Okay, but what happens when you add a third project and you give this project 200 shares (For example because a new project gave money for buying another processor board). Then the percentages are different. In total you have 400 shares on the system. The 200 shares of the new project are 50%, thus the project gets 50% of the compute power. The 150 shares of the lhcproject are 37.5 percent. This project gets 37.5 of the computing power. And the 50 shares of the shcproject are now 12.5 percent and thus the project get this part of the CPU power Behavior of processes with Resource Management Okay, now let s start a process under the control of the new resource limitation. Login as user einstein and type the following command: $ newtask - p shcproject / opt / bombs / cpuhog. pl & We start at first only one of the cpuhog.pl processes. bash -3.2 $ ps -o pcpu, project, args % CPU PROJECT COMMAND ^ 0.0 user. einstein - sh 0.3 user. einstein bash 0.2 user. einstein ps - o pcpu, project, args 95.9 shcproject / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl Wait... the process gets 95.9 percent? An error? No. It makes no sense to slow down the process, when there is no other process needing the compute power. Now we start the second process, this time as a task in the lhcproject: bash -3.2 $ newtask -p lhcproject / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl & [2] 784 We look in the process table again. bash -3.2 $ ps -o pcpu, project, args % CPU PROJECT COMMAND 0.0 user. einstein - sh 0.1 user. einstein bash 72.5 lhcproject / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl 25.6 shcproject / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl 0.2 user. einstein ps - o pcpu, project, args 69

70 6 Solaris Resource Manager Voila, each of our compute processes get their configured part of the compute power. It isn t exactly 75%/25% all the time but in average the distribution will be this way. A few days later, the Dean of the department comes into the office and tells you that we need the results of the SHC project earlier, as important persons want to see them soon to spend more money. So you have to change the ratio of the shares. We can do this without restarting the processes at runtime. But as we ve defined the limits as privileged before, we have to login as root: # prctl - n project. cpu - shares - r - v i project shcproject # prctl - n project. cpu - shares - r - v 50 - i project lhcproject Let s look after the processes again after a few moments: bash -3.2 $ ps -o pcpu, project, args % CPU PROJECT COMMAND 0.0 user. einstein - sh 0.1 user. einstein bash 25.7 lhcproject / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl 72.9 shcproject / usr / bin / perl / opt / bombs / cpuhog.pl 0.2 user. einstein ps - o pcpu, project, args The ratio has changed to new settings. It s important to know that only the settings in /etc/projects is boot-persistent. Everything you set via prctl is lost at the boot. 6.9 Limiting memory resources So far we configured limits on the usage of operating system resources and the CPU. Let s get back to the class room example used before. A different course at the unseen university is Memory Management for beginners. And at start our students have problem with severe memory leaks. It would be useful to impose resource management to the memory management Without memory resource management Bob wrote a little script within Perl that eats a large amount of the available memory. #!/ usr / bin / perl for ($i =0; $i <10; $i ++) { (1*1024*1024) ; sleep (5) ; } 70

71 6 Solaris Resource Manager sleep (30) ; for ($i =0; $i <10; $i ++) { (1*1024*1024) ; sleep (5) ; } When we start this script, it will allocate memory by pushing blocks of 1 Megabyte of x chars onto a stack. # ps -ef -o pid,user,vsz,rss, project, args grep " bob " grep - v " grep " 1015 bob class2005 / usr / lib / ssh / sshd 1362 bob class2005 / usr / bin / perl./ memoryhog. pl 1016 bob class sh 1031 bob class2005 bash When you look in the forth column you see the resident set size. The resident set is the amount of data of a process in the real memory. After a short moment the process./memoryhog.pl uses 24 MB of our precious memory (20 times 1 MB plus the perl interpreter minus some shared stuff) With memory resource management It would be nice to control the amount of data, that resides in the real memory. Solaris has such a capability. At first we have to activate the resource cap enforcement daemon. You have to login as root to do so: # rcapadm -E The rcapd daemon enforces resource caps on a group of processes. The rcapd supports caps on projects and zones at the moment. When the resident set size of a group of processes exceeds the defined cap. To reduce the resource consumption of a process group, the daemon can page out infrequently uses pages of memory to swap. For testing purposes we configure the daemon in such a way, that it scans every second for new processes in projects with a resource cap. Furthermore we configure it to sample the resident set size every 1 second, too. Additionally the pageout statistics of the rcapd will be updated every second, too. # rcapadm -i scan =1, sample =1, report =1 For testing purposes we define a new project called mmgntcourse and add the user bob to this project: 71

72 6 Solaris Resource Manager # projadd mmgntcourse # projmod - U bob mmgntcourse Now we set an resource cap for the resident set size of 5 Megabytes for this project: # projmod - K rcap. max - rss = mmgntcourse Okay, now get back to the window with the login of user code bob /code. Let s start the memoryhog.pl in the mmgntcourse: $ newtask - p mmgntcourse./ memoryhog. pl Okay, get back to a different window and login as root. With the rcapstat you can observe the activities of the rcapd. In our example we tell rcapstat to print the statistics every 5 seconds: # rcapstat 5 id project nproc vm rss cap at avgat pg avgpg 105 mmgntcourse K 3876 K 5120 K 0 K 0 K 0 K 0K 105 mmgntcourse K 4900 K 5120 K 0 K 0 K 0 K 0K 105 mmgntcourse K 5924 K 5120 K 812 K 812 K 804 K 804 K 105 mmgntcourse K 6408 K 5120 K 3380 K 1126 K 3380 K 1126 K 105 mmgntcourse K 4856 K 5120 K 0 K 0 K 0 K 0K 105 mmgntcourse K 5880 K 5120 K 760 K 760 K 760 K 760 K 105 mmgntcourse K 5384 K 5120 K 1024 K 512 K 1024 K 512 K 105 mmgntcourse K 6144 K 5120 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse 1 10 M 5120 K 5120 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse 1 11 M 6144 K 5120 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse 1 11 M 4096 K 5120 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse - 11 M 4096 K 5120 K 0 K 0 K 0 K 0K [...] 105 mmgntcourse - 11 M 4096 K 5120 K 0 K 0 K 0 K 0K 72

73 6 Solaris Resource Manager 105 mmgntcourse 1 14 M 5892 K 5120 K 2820 K 940 K 2820 K 940 K 105 mmgntcourse 1 15 M 5628 K 5120 K 1280 K 640 K 1280 K 640 K 105 mmgntcourse 1 16 M 6144 K 5120 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse 1 17 M 6144 K 5120 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse 1 18 M 5120 K 5120 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse - 18 M 5120 K 5120 K 0 K 0 K 0 K 0K 105 mmgntcourse 1 20 M 5120 K 5120 K 2048 K 1024 K 2048 K 1024 K 105 mmgntcourse - 20 M 5120 K 5120 K 0 K 0 K 0 K 0K 105 mmgntcourse 1 22 M 5120 K 5120 K 2048 K 1024 K 2048 K 1024 K As you see, the resident set size stays at approx. 5 Megabyte. The RSS may increase above the configured size, as the applications may allocate memory between the RSS sampling intervals. But at the next sampling size the rcap starts to force the page out of this exceeding pages. After a few seconds the resident set size is enforced, again. You can observe this behaviour in column 5 of the rcapstat printout Resource Management and SMF A few days ago, I wrote about the Service Management Facility, a framework to manage services in Solaris. This framework enables Solaris to start services in a more intelligent manner. Albeit almost all services started by SMF are member of the project code system /code it doesn t have to be this way. You can specify the project used for a service Assigning a project to an already running service This method is described in the SMF FAQ 1. I will use an practical example. You run a server in the internet, but it s under high load from spam bot. You ve already created a project sendmail and configured the resource management

74 6 Solaris Resource Manager At the moment, the sendmail runs in the system project: # ps - o pid, project, args - ef grep " sendmail " grep - v " grep " 648 system / usr / lib / sendmail -Ac -q15m 647 system / usr / lib / sendmail -bd -q15m -C / etc / mail / local. cf How do you start it as a part of a different project? Okay, check for an already configured project. # svcprop - p start / project smtp : sendmail svcprop : Couldn t find property start / project for instance svc :/ network / smtp : sendmail. Okay, nothing defined... this makes it a little bit harder, because we can t set the project only at the moment, as there is a bug in the restarter daemon. You need a fully populated start method. If the svcprop run delivers you the name of a project, you can ignore the next block of commands: svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / user = astring : root svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / group = astring : : default svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / wo rking_ direct ory = astring : : default svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / resource_ pool = astring : : default svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / supp_ groups = astring : : default svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / privileges = astring : : default svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / limit_ privileges = astring : : default svccfg - s sendmail setprop start / use_ profile = boolean : false Okay, now we can set the project property of the start method: svccfg - s smtp / sendmail setprop start / project = astring : sendmail \ end { lstlsting } Now we have to refresh the configuration of the service. After refreshing the service we can check the property : \ begin { lstlisting } # svcadm refresh sendmail # svcprop - p start / project sendmail sendmail Okay, the new properties are active. Now restart the service: 74

75 6 Solaris Resource Manager # svcadm restart sendmail Let s check for the result: # ps - o pid, project, args - ef grep " sendmail " grep - v " grep " 1539 sendmail / usr / lib / sendmail -bd -q15m -C / etc / mail / local. cf 1540 sendmail / usr / lib / sendmail - Ac - q15m Configuring the project in a SMF manifest Okay, you have written your own application and want to run it under the control of the SMF. You can define the project for the service in the manifest. You have to define the project in the start method of the manifest: < exec_method type = method name = start exec = / path /to/ method start timeout_seconds = 0 > < method_context project = projectname > < method_credential user = someuser > </ method_context > </ exec_method > That s all. The important part is the second row of the fragment. We define the project as a part of the startup method context. The rest is done as described in the SMF tutorial Conclusion The Solaris Resource Management is an powerful tool to partition the resources of a single instance of an operating system. By using Solaris Resource Management you can use a single operating system for a multitude of services but still ensuring the availability of resources to them. I hope, this tutorial gave you an good insights into the basics of resource management. 2 html 75

76 6 Solaris Resource Manager 6.12 Do you want to learn more? Documentation System Administration Guide: Solaris Containers-Resource Management and Solaris Zones man page for resource controls(5) man page for the Fair Share Scheduler Misc. links Zones and Containers FAQ - Section 3: Resource Management, Performance Solaris 10+ Resource Management 76

77 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? 7.1 History The ever recurring question to me at customer sites relatively new to Solaris is: Okay, on Linux I had my home directories at /home. Why are they at /export/home on Solaris? This is old hat for seasoned admins, but I get this question quite often. Well, the answer is relatively simple and it comes from the time when we started to use NIS and NFS and it had something to do with our slogan The network is the computer, because it involves directories distributed in the network. Okay, we have to go back 20 years in the past. There was a time, long, long ago, when you worked at your workstation. The harddisk in your workstation was big and it was a time when you didn t need 200 megabytes for your office package alone. So you and your working group used workstations for storing their data, but there were several workstations and even some big servers for big computational tasks. The users wanted to share the data, so Sun invented NFS to share the files between the systems. As it was a tedious task to distribute all of the user accounts on all of the systems, Sun invented NIS (later NIS+, but this is another story). But the users didn t want to mount their home directories manually on every system. They wanted to log in to a system and work with their home directory on every system. They didn t want to search in separate places depending on whether they were using their own machine or a different one. So Sun invented the automounter - it found its way into SunOS 4.0 in The automounter mounts directories on a system based upon a ruleset. In Solaris 2.0 and later the automounter was implemented as a pseudo filesystem called autofs. autofs was developed to mount directories based on rules defined in so-called maps. There are two of them provided by default. At first there is the /etc/auto_master. To cite the manual: The auto_master map associates a directory with a map. The map is a master list that specifies all the maps that autofs should check On a freshly installed system the file looks like this: 77

78 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? [ :/ net / theoden / tools / solaris ]$ cat / etc / auto_master + auto_master / net - hosts - nosuid, nobrowse / home auto_home - nobrowse The file /etc/auto_home is such a map referenced by the master map. To cite the manual again: An indirect map uses a substitution value of a key to establish the association between a mount point on the client and a directory on the server. Indirect maps are useful for accessing specific file systems, such as home directories. The auto home map is an example of an indirect map. We will use this map later in this article. 7.2 The use case Okay, an example. gandalf is the workstation of Waldorf and Statler. theoden is the workstation of Gonzo and Scooter. They each have their home directories on their own workstation. Sometimes a team uses the workstations of the other teams and they have a gentleman s agreement allowing each other to do so. But they want to use their home directories on the system of the other team. 7.3 Prerequisites At first we have to export the directories which store the real home directories on both hosts via NFS. At first on gandalf: [ gandalf :/ etc ] $ echo " share - F nfs - d \" Home Directories \" / export / home " >> / etc / dfs / dfstab [ :/ etc ] $ shareall [ :/ etc ] $ exportfs - / export / home rw " Home Directories " Now we repeat these steps on theoden: [ :/ export / home ]$ echo " share -F nfs -d \" Home Directories \" / export / home " >> / etc / dfs / dfstab [ :/ export / home ] $ shareall [ :/ export / home ] $ exportfs - / export / home rw " Home Directories " 78

79 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? Okay, it s important that both hosts can resolve the hostname of the other system. I ve added some lines to code /etc/hosts /code in my test installation: gandalf theoden 7.4 Creating users and home directories Normally you wouldn t create the users this way. You would use a centralised user repository with LDAP. But that is another very long tutorial. The userids and user names of the users have to be the same on both systems. At first I create the local users. I use the -m switch for creating the home directory at the same time as the user. [ :~] $ useradd -u m -d / export / home / waldorf waldorf 64 blocks [ :~] $ useradd -u m -d / export / home / statler statler 64 blocks Now I set the home directory of both users to the /home under the control of autofs: [ gandalf :~] $ usermod - d / home / statler statler [ gandalf :~] $ usermod - d / home / waldorf waldorf Now I create the users for the other team, without the -m switch and directly with the correct home directory. The home directories come from the other system, so we don t have to create them: [ gandalf :~] $ useradd - u d / home / gonzo gonzo [ gandalf :~] $ useradd - u d / home / scooter scooter Now we switch to Theoden. We do almost the same on this system. We create the accounts for Waldorf and Statler without creating a home directory. After this we create the local users together with their home directories, which we then set to be autofs controlled: [ theoden :~] $ useradd - u d / home / statler statler [ theoden :~] $ useradd - u d / home / waldorf waldorf [ :~] $ useradd -u d / export / home / gonzo -m gonzo 64 blocks 79

80 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? [ :~] $ useradd -u d / export / home / gonzo -m scooter 64 blocks [ theoden :~] $ usermod - d / home / gonzo gonzo [ theoden :~] $ usermod - d / home / scooter scooter 7.5 Configuring the automounter Execute the following four commands on both hosts: echo " waldorf gandalf :/ export / home /&" >> / etc / auto_home echo " scooter theoden :/ export / home /&" >> / etc / auto_home echo " gonzo theoden :/ export / home /&" >> / etc / auto_home Here, the ampersand is a variable. It stands for the key in the table. So gonzo theoden:/export/home/& translates to theoden:/export/home/gonzo. Now start the autofs on both hosts: and [ :~] $svcadm enable autofs [ :~] $svcadm enable autofs 7.6 Testing the configuration Okay, let s log in to theoden as user gonzo. Gonzo is a user with a home directory local to theoden: $ ssh Password : Last login : Sun Feb 17 14:16: from Sun Microsystems Inc. SunOS snv_ 78 October 2007 $ / usr / sbin / mount [...] / home / gonzo on / export / home / gonzo read / write / setuid / devices / dev = on Sun Feb 17 14:13: Now we try waldorf on theoden. Waldorf doesn t have its home directory on theoden, it s on gandalf. 80

81 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? $ ssh Password : Last login : Sun Feb 17 14:17: from Sun Microsystems Inc. SunOS snv_ 78 October 2007 $ / usr / sbin / mount [...] / home / waldorf on gandalf :/ export / home / waldorf remote / read / write / setuid / devices / xattr / dev =4 dc0001 on Sun Feb 17 14:17: autofs has mounted the /export/home/waldorf automatically to /home/waldorf, the directory we used when we created the user. Let s crosscheck. We log into gandalf with the user waldorf. Now this user has a local home directory. It s a local mount again. $ ssh Password : Last login : Sat Feb 16 09:12: from Sun Microsystems Inc. SunOS snv_ 78 October 2007 $ / usr / sbin / mount [...] / home / waldorf on / export / home / waldorf read / write / setuid / devices / dev = on Sat Feb 16 09:12: Explanation for the seperated /home and /export/home The explanation for the existence of /home and /export/home is really simple. I think you got it already. export/home is the directory where all the local directories are located./home is the playground for autofs to unify all home directories at a central place, whereever they are located. 7.8 The /net directory Did you ever wonder about the /net in the root directory and its job? It s an autofs controlled directory, too. Let s assume you have an /tools/solaris directory at theoden: 81

82 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? [ :/ tools / solaris ]$ ls -l / tools / solaris total 0 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Feb 17 15:21 tool1 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Feb 17 15:21 tool2 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Feb 17 15:21 tool3 Share it via NFS [ :/ tools / solaris ]$ share -F nfs -d " Tools " / tools / solaris [ :/ tools / solaris ]$ share -F nfs - / export / home rw " Home Directories " - / tools / solaris rw " Tools " [ :/ tools / solaris ]$ Now change to the other workstation. Look into the directory /net/theoden: [ :/] $ cd / net / theoden [ :/ net / theoden ]$ ls export tools You will notice all of the directories shared by theoden. Change into the tools/solaris directory: [ :/ net / theoden ]$ cd tools [ :/ net / theoden / tools ]$ ls solaris [ :/ net / theoden / tools ]$ cd solaris [ :/ net / theoden / tools / solaris ]$ ls -l total 0\ -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Feb tool1 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Feb tool2 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Feb tool3 [ :/ net / theoden / tools / solaris ]$ [ :/ net / theoden / tools / solaris ]$ mount [..] / net / theoden / tools / solaris on theoden :/ tools / solaris remote / read / write / nosetuid / nodevices / xattr / dev =4 dc0002 on Sat Feb 16 10:23: Neat isn t it... it s configured by default, when you start the autofs. 7.9 Do you want to learn more? Manuals 82

83 7 /home? /export/home? AutoFS? How Autofs Works Task Overview for Autofs Administration 83

84 8 lockfs Quite often the configuration of a feature or application mandates that the data on the disk doesn t change while you activate it. An easy way to achieve this would be simply un-mounting the disk - that s possible but then you can t access the data on the disk at all. You can t even read from the filesystem, even though this doesn t change anything on the disk (okay, as long you ve mounted the disk with noatime). So: How else can you ensure that the content of a filesystem doesn t change while you work with the disk? ufs has an interesting feature. It s called lockfs and with it, you can lock the filesystem. You can lock it to an extent that you can only unmount and remount it to gather access to the data, but you can also lock out a subset of the many ways in which one might try to access it. 8.1 Types of Locks The lockfs command can establish a number of different locks on an UFS filesystem: Delete Lock -d: suspends all access that could remove directory entries Hard Lock -h: suspends all access to the filesystem. It can t be unlocked. You have to unmount and remount it Name Lock -n: suspends all access to the filesystem that could remove or change directory entries Error Lock -e: this lock is normally established when UFS detects an internal inconsistency. It s released by the usage of fsck. It suspends all access to the filesystem. write lock -w: this lock suspends all accesses that could modify the filesystem flush log -f: this isn t really a lock - this option forces a synchronous flush of the named filesystem. It returns when all data has been written to disk and the log has been rolled 84

85 8 lockfs 8.2 Write Lock Okay, let s assume we ve mounted a UFS filesystem at /mnt. # cd / mnt # echo " test " > testfile1 # ls lost + found testfile1 No problem. Our testfile found its way into the file system. Now we establish a write lock on our file system. # lockfs -w / mnt You set the lock with the lockfs command, and the switch -w tells lockfs to set a write lock. With a write lock, you can read a filesystem, but you can t write to it. Okay, let s check the existing locks. You use the lockfs command without any further options. # lockfs Filesystem Locktype Comment / mnt write When we try to add an additional file, the write system call simply blocks. # echo " test " > testfile2 ^ Cbash : testfile2 : Interrupted system call We have to break the echo command with CTRL-C. Okay, now let s release the lock. # lockfs -u / mnt The -u commands lockfs to release the lock. When you list the existing locks, the lock on /mnt is gone. # lockfs And just to check it, we try to write test to testfile2 again. # echo " test " > testfile2 The command returns instantly. When you check the filesystem, you will see both files. 85

86 8 lockfs # ls -l total 20 drwx root root 8192 Apr 25 18:10 lost + found -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 5 Apr 27 03:49 testfile1 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 5 Apr 27 03:50 testfile2 8.3 Delete lock A rather strange kind of lock is the delete lock. It blocks all delete operations. This is actually of less practical use than you might think at first. You can t delete a file, but you can stil zero it or fill it with other content. Let s use the testfile from our last example. At first we try to delete the first file: # rm testfile1 No problem. Now we establish the delete lock. This time we also add a comment. You can use this command to tell other administrators why you have established the lock. # lockfs - c " no deletes today " - d / mnt When you check for existing locks, you will see the delete lock on /mnt and the comment: # lockfs Filesystem Locktype Comment / mnt delete no deletes today When you try to delete the file, the rmjust blocks and you have to break it with CTRL-C again: # rm testfile2 ^C When you ve delete-locked an filesystem, you can create new files, you can append data to existing files and you can overwrite them: 86

87 8 lockfs # echo " test " > testfile3 # echo " test " >> testfile3 # echo " test " > testfile3 There is only one thing you can t do with this new file: delete it. # rm testfile3 ^C Next we release the lock # lockfs -u / mnt Now you can clean up your test directory /mntagain. # rm testfile2 # rm testfile3 8.4 Conclusion The lockfs is a really neat feature to deny certain accesses to your filesystem without un-mounting it completely. Some locks are more useful for general use than others. For example, the write lock is really useful when you want to freeze the content of the filesystem while working with tools like AVS. Delete locks or name locks are useful when you need a stable directory, which is less of a day-to-day problem for administrators. 8.5 Do you want to learn more? Documentation docs.sun.com: man page lockfs

88 9 CacheFS 9.1 Introduction There is a hidden gem in the Solaris Operating Environment, solving a task that many admins solve with scripts. Imagine the following situation. You have a central fileserver, and let s say 40 webservers. All of these webservers deliver static content and this content is stored on the harddisk of the fileserver. Later you recognize that your fileserver is really loaded by the webservers. Harddisks are cheap, thus most admins will start to use a recursive rcp or an rsync to put a copy of the data to the webserver disks. Well... Solaris gives you a tool to solve this problem without scripting, without cron based jobs, just by using NFSv3 and this hidden gem: CacheFS. CacheFS is a really nifty tool. It does exactly what the name says. It s a filesystem that caches data of another filesystem. You have to think about it like a layered cake. You mount a CacheFS filesystem with a parameter that tells CacheFS to mount another one in the background. 9.2 History of the feature Sun didn t introduce this feature for webservers. Long ago, admins didn t want to manage dozens of operating system installations. Instead of this they wanted to store all this data on a central fileserver (you know... the network is the computer). Thus net-booting Solaris and SunOS was invented. But there was a problem: Swap via the network was a really bad idea in those days (it was a bad idea in 10 MBit/s times and it s still a bad idea in 10 GBit/s times). Thus the diskless systems got a disk for local swap. But there was another problem. All the users started to work at 9 o clock... they switched on their workstations... and the load on the fileserver and the network got higher and higher. They had a local disk... local installation again? No... the central installation had its advantages. Thus the idea of CacheFS was born. CacheFS is a really old feature of Solaris/SunOS. Its first implementation dates back to the year I really think you can call this feature mature ;) 88

89 9 CacheFS 9.3 CacheFS in theory The mechanism of CacheFS is pretty simple. As I told you before, CacheFS is somewhat similar to a caching web proxy. The CacheFS is a proxy to the original filesystem and caches files on their way through CacheFS. The basic idea is to cache remote files locally on a harddisk, so you can deliver them without using the network when you access them the second time. Of course, the CacheFS has to handle changes to the original files. So CacheFS checks the metadata of the file before delivering the copy. If the metadata have changed, the CacheFS loads the original file from the server. When the metadata hasn t changed it delivers the copy from the cache. The CacheFS isn t just usable for NFS, you could use it for caching optical media like CD or DVD as well. 9.4 A basic example Okay... using CacheFS is really easy. Let s assume that you have an fileserver called theoden. We use the directory /export/files as the directory shared by NFS. The client in our example is gandalf Preparations Let s create an NFS server at first. This is easy. Just share a directory on a Solaris Server. We log in to theoden and execute the following commands with root privileges. [ :/]# mkdir / export / files [ :/]# share -o rw / export / files # share - / export / files rw "" Okay, of course it would be nice to have some files to play around with in this directory. I will use some files of the Solaris Environment. [ :/]# cd / export / files [ :/ export / files ]# cp -R / usr / share / doc / pcre / html /*. Let s do a quick test and see if we can mount the directory: 89

90 9 CacheFS [ :/]# mkdir / files [ :/]# mount theoden :/ export / files / files [ :/]# unmount / files Now you should be able to access the /export/files directory on theoden by accessing /files on gandalf. There should be no error messages. Okay, firstly we have to create the location for our caching directories. Let s assume we want to place our cache at /var/cachefs/caches/cache1. At first we create the directories above the cache directory. You don t create the last part of the directory structure manually. [ :/]# mkdir -p / var / cachefs / caches This directory will be the place where we store our caches for CacheFS. After this step we have to create the cache for the CacheFS. [ gandalf :/ files ]# cfsadmin - c - o maxblocks =60, minblocks =40, threshblocks =50 / var / cachefs / caches / cache1 The directory cache1 is created automatically by the command. In the case where the directory already exists, the command will quit and do nothing. Additionally you have created the cache and you specified some basic parameters to control the behavior of the cache. Citing the manpage of cfsadmin: maxblocks: Maximum amount of storage space that CacheFS can use, expressed as a percentage of the total number of blocks in the front file system. minblocks: Minimum amount of storage space, expressed as a percentage of the total number of blocks in the front file system, that CacheFS is always allowed to use without limitation by its internal control mechanisms. threshblocks: A percentage of the total blocks in the front file system beyond which CacheFS cannot claim resources once its block usage has reached the level specified by minblocks. Each of these parameters can be tuned to prevent CacheFS from eating away all of the storage available in a filesystem, a behavior that was quite common to early versions of this feature Mounting a filesystem via CacheFS We have to mount the original filesystem now. 90

91 9 CacheFS [ :/ files ]# mkdir -p / var / cachefs / backpaths / files [ gandalf :/ files ]# mount - o vers =3 theoden :/ export / files / var / cachefs / backpaths / files You may notice the parameter that sets the NFS version to 3. This is necessary as CacheFS isn t supported with NFSv4. Thus you can only use it with NFSv3 and below. The reason for this limitation has its foundation in the different way NFSv4 handles inodes. Okay, now we mount the cache filesystem at the old location: [ gandalf :/ files ]# mount - F cachefs - o backfstype = nfs, backpath =/ var / cachefs / backpaths / files, cachedir =/ var / cachefs / caches / cache1 theoden :/ export / files / files The options of the mount command control some basic parameters of the mount: backfstype specifies what type of filesystem is proxied by the CacheFS filesystem backpath specifies where this proxied filesystem is currently mounted cachedir specifies the cache directory for this instance of the cache. Multiple CacheFS mounts can use the same cache. From now on every access to the /files directory will be cached by CacheFS. Let s have a quick look into the /etc/mnttab. There are two important mounts for us: [ :/ etc ]# cat mnttab [...] theoden :/ export / files / var / cachefs / backpaths / files nfs vers =3, xattr, dev =4 f / var / cachefs / backpaths / files / files cachefs backfstype = nfs, backpath =/ var / cachefs / backpaths / files, cachedir =/ var / cachefs / caches / cache1, dev =4 fc The first mount is our back file system, it s a normal NFS mountpoint. But the second mount is a special one. This one is the consequence of the mount with the -F cachefs option Statistics about the cache While using it, you will see the cache structure at /var/cachefs/caches/cache1 filling up with files. I will explain some of the structure in the next section. But how efficient is this cache? Solaris provides a command to gather some statistics about the cache. With cachefsstat you print out data like hit rate and the absolute number of cache hits and cache misses: 91

92 9 CacheFS [ :/ files ]# / usr / bin / cachefsstat / files cache hit rate : 60% (3 hits, 2 misses ) consistency checks : 7 (7 pass, 0 fail ) modifies : 0 garbage collection : 0 [ :/ files ]# 9.5 The cache Okay, we have a working CacheFS mount but how and where is the stuff cached by the system? Let s have a look at the cache: [ :/ var / cachefs / cache1 ]# ls -l total 6 drwxrwxrwx 5 root root 512 Aug 18 10: e30 drwx root root 512 Aug 11 08:11 lost + found lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 Aug 11 08: 18 theoden : _ export_ files : _ files - > e30 To ensure that multiple caches using a single cache directory of the time aren t mixing up their data, they are divided at this place. At first a special directory is generated and secondly a more friendly name is linked to this. It s pretty obvious how this name is generated. theoden:_export_files:_files can be easily translated to theoden:/export/files mounted at /files. Let s assume we ve used the cache for another filesystem (e.g. /export/binaries on theoden mounted to /binaries): [ :/ var / cachefs / cache1 ]# ls -l total 10 drwxrwxrwx 5 root root 512 Aug 18 10: e30 drwxrwxrwx 3 root root 512 Aug 18 11: e41 drwx root root 512 Aug 11 08:11 lost + found lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 Aug 18 11: 18 theoden : _ export_ binaries : _ binaries - > e41 92

93 9 CacheFS lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 Aug 11 08: 18 theoden : _ export_ files : _ files - > e30 With this mechanism, the caches are separated in their respective directories... no mixing up. When we dig down a little bit deeper to the directories, we will see an additional layer of directories. This is necessary to prevent a situation where a directory contains too many files and thus slows down. [ :/ var / cachefs / cache1 / e30 / e00 ]# ls - l total 62 -rw -rw -rw - 1 root root 0 Aug 18 10: e66 -rw -rw -rw - 1 root root 1683 Aug 11 08: eaa -rw -rw -rw - 1 root root Aug 11 08: eba When you examine these files, you will see that they are just a copy of the original files: [ :/ var / cachefs / cache1 / e30 / e00 ]# cat eaa [...] This page is part of the PCRE HTML documentation. It was generated automatically from the original man page. If there is any nonsense in it, please consult the man page, in case the conversion went wrong. [...] [ :/ var / cachefs / cache1 / e30 / e00 ]# The Cache of CacheFS is a pretty simple structure. 9.6 On-demand consistency checking with CacheFS Let s assume you share a filesystem with static content (for example a copy of a CD-ROM) or a filesystem that changes on a regular schedule (for example at midnight every day). So it would pose unnecessary load to network to check the consistency every time a file is accessed. 93

94 9 CacheFS CacheFS knows a special mode of operation for such a situation. It s called on demand consistency checking. It does exactly what the name says: It only checks the consistency of files in the cache when you tell the system to do so. I will demonstrate this with an example: Let s assume we stay with the normal mode of operation from the example before. We create a file on the fileserver. [ :/ export / files ]# date >> test_with_consistency_check [ :/ export / files ]# cat test_with_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 14:59:54 CEST 2008 When we go to the NFS client and access the directory, this new file is visible instantaneously. And when we access it, we see the content of the file. [ :/ files ]# cat test_with_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 14:59:54 CEST 2008 Now we go back to the server, and append additional data to the file: [ :/ export / files ]# date >> test_with_consistency_check [ :/ export / files ]# cat test_with_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 14:59:54 CEST 2008 Tue Aug 12 15:00:11 CEST 2008 Obviously, you will see this change on the client: [ :/ files ]# cat test_with_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 14:59:54 CEST 2008 Tue Aug 12 15:00:11 CEST 2008 Now we unmount it, and remount it: [ :/ files ]# cd / [ :/]# umount / files [ :/]# mount -F cachefs -o backfstype =nfs, backpath =/ var / cachefs / backpaths / files, cachedir =/ var / cachefs / caches / cache1, demandconst theoden :/ export / files / files You may have noticed the demandconst option. This option changes everything. Let s assume you created another file on the NFS server: 94

95 9 CacheFS [ :/ export / files ]# date >> test_with_ondemand_consistency_check [ :/ export / files ]# cat test_with_ondemand_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 15:00:57 CEST 2008 Back on the NFS client you will not even see this file: [ :/ files ]# ls index. html [...] pcre_info. html pcre_maketables. html You have to trigger a consistency check. This is quite easy. [ gandalf :/ files ]# cfsadmin - s all pcre_refcount. html pcretest. html test_with_consistency_check [ :/ files ]# ls index. html pcre_study. html [..] pcre_info. html test_with_consistency_check pcre_maketables. html test_with_ondemand_consistency_check pcre_refcount. html Okay, now we can look into the file. [ :/ files ] cat test_with_ondemand_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 15:00:57 CEST 2008 Now we append a new line to the file on the server by executing the following commands on the NFS server [ :/ export / files ] date >> test_with_ondemand_consistency_check [ :/ export / files ] cat test_with_ondemand_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 15:00:57 CEST 2008 Tue Aug 12 15:02:03 CEST 2008 When we check this file on our NFS client, we still see the cached version. [ :/ files ] cat test_with_ondemand_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 15:00:57 CEST

96 9 CacheFS [ gandalf :/ files ] cfsadmin - s all Now we can look into the file again, and you will see the new version of the file. [ :/ files ] cat test_with_ondemand_consistency_check Tue Aug 12 15:00:57 CEST 2008 Tue Aug 12 15:02:03 CEST 2008 Okay, it s pretty obvious this isn t a feature for a filesystem that changes in a constant and fast manner. But it s really useful for situations, where you have control over the changes. As long as a file is cached, the file server will see not a single access for such files. Thus such a file access doesn t add to the load of the server. There is an important fact here: It doesn t tell CacheFS to check the files right at that moment. It just tells CacheFS to check it at the next access to the file. So you don t have an consistency check storm. 9.7 An practical usecase Let s take an example: Let s assume you have 50 webservers that serve static content or that serve and execute.php files. You may have used scp or rsync to synchronize all of these servers. With CacheFS the workflow is a little bit different: You simply put all of your files on a fileserver. But you have noticed that there was a large load on this system. To reduce load to the fileserver you use your new knowledge to create a cache on every server. After this you saw a lot of requests for directory and file metadata for the documents directory. You know that this directory is provisioned with the changes only at 3 o clock in the morning. Thus you write a little script that checks for the file please_check_me and starts cfsadmin -s all on the client in the case of its existence, causing them to check at the next access to the files if there is a newer version. 9.8 The CacheFS feature in future Solaris Development CacheFS is one of the hidden gems in Solaris - in fact it s so hidden, that it s been in sustaining mode since That means that only bugfixes are made for this component but no new features will find their way into this component. In recent days there was some discussion about the declaration of the End-of-Feature status for CacheFS which will lead to the announcement of the removal of CacheFS. While this isn t a problem 96

97 9 CacheFS for Solaris 10, I strongly disagree with the idea of removing this part of Solaris, as long there is no other boot-persistent non-main memory caching available for Solaris. 9.9 Conclusion CacheFS is one of the features that even some experienced admins aren t aware of. But as soon as they try it, most of them can t live without it. You should give it a try Do you want to learn more? Manuals System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems - Using The CacheFS File System 1 man pages docs.sun.com: cfsadmin 2 docs.sun.com: cachefsstat 3 docs.sun.com: mount cachefs

98 10 Having fun with processes 98

99 Part III Solaris Security 99

100 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges 11.1 Introduction The Story of root And then there was root. And root was almighty. And that wasn t a good thing. root was able to control the world without any control. And root needed control. It was only a short chant between the mere mortals and root. Everybody with the knowledge of the magic chant was able to speak through root. But root wasn t alone. root had servants called daemons. Some of one them needed divine powers to do their daily job. But root was an indivisible being. So the servants had to work with the powers of root. But the servants wasn t as perfect as root: Some of the servants started to do everything mere mortals said to them if they only said more than a certain amount of prayers at once. One day, the world of root experienced a large disaster, the negation of being. Top became bottom, left became right, the monster of erem-ef annihilated much of the world. But it got even stranger. root destroyed its own world, and by the power of root the destruction was complete. Then there was a FLASH. The world restarted, root got a second attempt to reign his world. But this time, it would be different world Superuser The old model of rights in a unix systems is based on a duality. There is the superuser and the normal user. The normal users have a restricted set of rights in the system, the superuser has an unrestricted set of rights. To modify the system, a normal user has to login as root directly or assume the rights of root (by su -). But such a user has unrestricted access to system. Often this isn t desirable. Why should you enable an operator to modify a system, when all he or she has do to on the system is creating 100

101 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges some users from time to time. You ve trained him to do useradd or passwd, but it s a Windows admin who doesn t know anything about being an Unix admin. What do you do when he gets to curious. He needs root privileges to create a user or change a password. You need some mechanisms to limit this operator. But it s get more problematic. Programs have to modify the system to work. A webserver is a nice example. It uses port 80. Ports beneath port number 1024 have a special meaning. They are privileged ports. You need special rights to modify the structures of the system to listen to the port 80. A normal user doesn t have this rights. So the webserver has to be started as root. The children of this process drop the rights of root by running with a normal user. But there is this single instance of the program with all the rights of the user. This process has much rights than needed, a possible attack vector for malicious users. This led to the development to different models of handling the rights of users in the system: Privileges and Role Based Access Control Least privileges There is a concept in security. It s called least privileges. You give someone only least amount of privileges, only enough to do its tasks. An example of the real world. You won t give the janitor the master key for all the rooms on the campus, when all he has to do is working in Building C. The other way round: There are some trusted people who have access to all rooms in case of emergency. You have the same concept in computer security. Everyone should have only the least amount of privileges in the system to do its job. The concept of the superuser doesn t match to this. It s an all or nothing. You are an ordinary user with basic privileges or you are an user with unrestricted rights. There is nothing in between. There is no least privileges in this concept Role Based Access Control The example with the key for the janitors is a good example. Let s imagine a large campus. You have janitors responsible for the plumbing (let s call them Lenny and Carl), for the park (let s call him Homer), for the security system (let s call Marge, Lenny helps from time to time). These roles have different sets of privileges: For example the plumbing janitor has access to all rooms of the heating system. The janitor for the park has only access to the garage with the lawnmover and the cafeteria and the janitor for the security system. 101

102 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges When they start to work in their job, they assume a role. From the privilege perspective it s not important who is the person, but what role the person has assumed. Lenny punches the clock and assumes the role of the plumbing janitor for the next 8 hours. And while he is doing its job he uses the privileges inherent to the role. But he has to do tasks in his office or in his workshop. It s his own room, so he doesn t need the privileges. He doesn t need the special privileges. Role Based Access Control is quite similar. You login to the system, and then you start work. You read your s (no special privileges needed), you find an Create user xy Your Boss. Okay, now you need special privileges. You assume the role of an User Administrator create the user. Job done, you don t need the privileges anymore. You leave the role and write the Job done mail to your boss with your normal users. Role Based Access Control is all about this: Defining roles, giving them privileges and assigning users to this roles Privileges I ve used the word quite often in the article so far. What is a privilege. A privilege is the right to do something. For example, having the keys for the control panel of the heating system. Unix users are nothing different. Every user has privileges in a unix system. A normal user has the privilege to open, close, read write and delete files when he his allowed to do this (Because he created it, because he belongs to the same group as the create of the file or the creator gave everybody the right to do it). This looks normal to you, but it s privilege based on the login credentials you gave to system. You don t have the privilege to read all files on the system or to use a port number Every thing done in the system is based on this privileges. Solaris separated the tasks into many privilege sets. At the moment, there are 70 different privileges in the system. The difference between the normal user is that the users has only a basic set, the root has all. But it hasn t to be this way. Privileges and users aren t connected with each other. You can give any user the power of the root user, and restrict the privileges of the root user. It s just our binary compatibility guarantee that mandates that the standard configuration of the system resembles the superuser model. There are application out there, which assume that only the root user or the uid 0 as unrestricted rights and exit when they are started with a different user. 102

103 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges RBAC and Privileges in Solaris Both features have their root in the Trusted Solaris development. Trusted Solaris was a version of Solaris to ensure highest security standards. Today, these mechanisms are part of the normal Solaris in conjunction with the Trusted Extensions. So RBAC is a really old feature: It s in Solaris since version 8 (published in 2000). Privileges found their way into the generic Solaris with the first availability of Solaris 10 in February Some basic terms As usual the world of RBAC has some special terms. Before using it, im want to explain the jargon. I copy the exact definition from the RBAC manual: Rights: A right is the description, to execute an executable as an privileged user.for example the permission to execute the command reboot as root. Authorization: A permission that enables a user or role to perform a class of actions that could affect security. For example, security policy at installation gives ordinary users the solaris.device.cdrw authorization. This authorization enables users to read and write to a CD-ROM device Right Profiles: A collection of administrative capabilities that can be assigned to a role or to a user. A rights profile can consist of authorizations, of commands with security attributes, and of other rights profiles. Rights profiles offer a convenient way to group security attributes. Role: A special identity for running privileged applications. The special identity can be assumed by assigned users only. In a system that is run by roles, superuser is unnecessary. Superuser capabilities are distributed to different roles Practical side of RBAC /b After so much theory, let s work with roles. After installation of a Solaris system there are no rules assigned to a normal user: $ roles No roles Let s use the standard example for RBAC: reboot the system. To do this task, you need to be root. 103

104 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges $ / usr / sbin / reboot reboot : permission denied You are not allowed to do this. Okay, until now you would give the root account to all people, who have to reboot the system. But why should someone be able to modify users, when all he or she should to is using the reboot command? Okay, at first you create a role. As mentioned before, it s a special user account. # roleadd - m - d / export / home / reboot reboot 64 blocks After creating the role, you have to assign a role password. # passwd reboot New Password : Re - enter new Password : passwd : password successfully changed for reboot Okay, when you look into the /etc/passwd, you see a quite normal user account. # grep reboot / etc / passwd reboot :x :101:1::/ export / home / reboot :/ bin / pfsh There is one important difference. You use a special kind of shell. This shell are called profile shells and have special mechanisms to check executions against the RBAC databases. Okay, we ve created the role, now we have to assign them to a user: # usermod - R reboot jmoekamp UX: usermod : jmoekamp is currently logged in, some changes may not take effect until next login. The RBAC system stores the role assignments in the /etc/user_attr file # grep " jmoekamp " / etc / user_attr jmoekamp :::: type = normal ; roles = reboot But at the moment, this role isn t functional, as this role has no assigned role profile. It s a role without rights an privileges. At first, lets create a REBOOT role profile. It s quite easy. Just a line at the end of prof_attr. This file stores all the attributes of # echo " REBOOT ::: profile to reboot : help = reboot. html " >> / etc / security / prof_attr Okay, now assign the role profile REBOOT to the role reboot 104

105 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges # rolemod - P REBOOT reboot The information of this assignment is stored in the /etc/usr. Let s have a look into it: # grep reboot / etc / user_attr reboot :::: type = role ; profiles = REBOOT jmoekamp :::: type = normal ; roles = reboot But this isn t enough: The profile is empty. You have to assign some administrative command to it. # echo " REBOOT : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / reboot : euid =0" >> / etc / security / exec_attr 11.4 Using the new role Okay, let s check the role assignments. $ roles reboot We have still no rights to execute the reboot command. $ / usr / sbin / reboot reboot : permission denied But now we assume the reboot role. $ su reboot Password : And as you see... $ / usr / sbin / reboot Connection to closed by remote host. Connection to closed. Connection terminates, systems reboots. 105

106 11.5 Authorizations 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges But RBAC can do more for you. There is an additional concept in it: Authorizations. Authorizations is a mechanism that needs support of the applications. This application checks if the user has the necessary authorization to use a program. Let s use the example of the janitor: Rights give him the access to the drilling machine. But this is a rather strange drilling machine. It checks, if the janitor has the permission to drill holes, when he trigger the button. The concept of authorization is a fine grained system. An application can check for a vast amount of privileges. For example the application can check for the authorization to modify the configuration, to read the configuration or printing the status. A user can have all this authorizations, none or something in between. It s like the janitors new power screwdriver. It checks if the janitor has the permission to use it at anticlockwise rotation, the permission to use it at clockwise rotation and the permission to set different speeds of rotation Using authorizations for Services Although applications need support to this models, you can even use it as an admin. SMF has build in support for authorizations. You can assign authorizations to a service. Every role or user with this authorization is allowed to work with the service (restarting,stop,start,status,...). Let s use Apache for this example. A normal user has no permission to restart the service: moekamp$ / usr / sbin / svcadm - v disable - s apache2 svcadm : svc :/ network / http : apache2 : Couldn t modify " general " property group ( permission denied ). Wouldn t it be nice, to have an authorisation that enables an regular user to restart it? Okay, no problem. Let s create one: $ su root # echo " solaris. smf. manage. apache / server ::: Apache Server management ::" >> / etc / security / auth_attr That s all. Where is the definition of the permission that the authorization means? There is no definition. It s the job of the application to work with. Now assign this authorization to the user: 106

107 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges # usermod - A solaris. smf. manage. apache / server jmoekamp UX: usermod : jmoekamp is currently logged in, some changes may not take effect until next login. Okay, but at the moment no one checks for this authorization, as no application is aware of it. We have to tell SMF to use this authorization. The authorizations for an SMF servers is part of the general properties of the service. Let s have a look at the properties of this services. # svcprop - p general apache2 general / enabled boolean false general / entity_stability astring Evolving No authorization configured. Okay... let s add the authorization we ve defined before: svccfg -s apache2 setprop general / action_authorization = astring : solaris. smf. manage. apache / server Check the properties again: # svcadm refresh apache2 # svcprop - p general apache2 general / enabled boolean false general / action_authorization astring solaris. smf. manage. apache / server general / entity_stability astring Evolving Okay, a short test. Exit your root shell and login as the regular user you have assigned the authorization. bash -3.2 $ svcs apache2 STATE STIME FMRI disabled 22:49:51 svc :/ network / http : apache2 Okay, I can view the status of the service. Now I try to start it. bash -3.2 $ / usr / sbin / svcadm enable apache2 svcadm : svc :/ network / http : apache2 : Permission denied. What the hell...? No permission to start the service? Yes, enabling the service is not only a method (the start up script), it s a value of a certain parameter. When you only have the action authorization you can only do task, that doesn t change the state of the service. You can restart it (no change of the service properties), but not enable or disable it (a change of the service properties). But this is not a problem. You have to login as root again and assign the solaris.smf.manage.apache/server authorization to the value authorization. 107

108 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges # svccfg -s apache2 setprop general / value_authorization = astring : solaris. smf. manage. apache / server With the value authorization SMF allows you to change the state of the service. Try it again. bash -3.2 $ / usr / sbin / svcadm enable apache2 bash -3.2 $ Cool, isn t it... try this with init.d... ;) 11.7 Predefined roles This was a really simple example. Roles can get really complex. But you don t have to define all role profiles at your own. For some standard tasks, there are some predefined roles. Just look at the /etc/security/prof_attr. There are 70 role profiles defined in this file. For example the right profile Software Installation Software Installation ::: Add application software to the system : help = RtSoftwareInstall. html ; auths = solaris. admin. prodreg. read, solaris. admin. prodreg. modify, solaris. admin. prodreg. delete, solaris. admin. dcmgr. admin, solaris. admin. dcmgr.read, solaris. admin. patchmgr.* This role profile has already some predefined command, that need special security attributes to succeed: Software Installation : solaris : act ::: Open ;*; JAVA_BYTE_CODE ;*;*: uid =0; gid =2 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / bin /ln: euid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / bin / pkginfo : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / bin / pkgmk : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / bin / pkgparam : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / bin / pkgproto : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / bin / pkgtrans : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / bin / prodreg : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / ccs / bin / make : euid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / install : euid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / patchadd : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / patchrm : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / pkgadd : uid =0; gid = bin Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / pkgask : uid =0 Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / pkgchk : uid =0 108

109 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges Software Installation : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / pkgrm : uid =0; gid = bin This is all you need to install software on your system. You can use this predefined role profiles at your will. You don t have to do define all this stuff on your own Privileges We ve talked a lot about RBAC, roles, role profiles. But what are Privileges? Privileges are rights to do an operation in the kernel. This rights are enforced by the kernel. Whenever you do something within the kernel the access is controlled by the privileges. At the moment, the rights to do something with the kernel are separated into 70 classes: contract_ event co ntract_ obser ver cpc_ cpu dtrace_ kernel dtrace_proc dtrace_user file_chown file_chown_self file_dac_execute file_dac_read file_dac_search file_dac_write fil e_down grade_ sl file_flag_set file_link_any file_owner file_setid file_upgrade_sl graphics_access graphics_map ipc_dac_read ipc_dac_write ipc_owner net_bindmlp net_icmpaccess net_mac_aware net_privaddr net_rawaccess proc_audit proc_chroot pr oc_c lo ck_h ig hr es proc_exec proc_fork proc_info proc_lock_memory proc_owner proc_priocntl proc_session proc_setid proc_taskid proc_zone sys_acct sys_admin sys_audit sys_config sys_devices sys_ip_config sys_ipc_config sys_linkdir sys_mount sys_ net_ config sys_ nfs sys_ res_ config sys_ resource sys_ smb sys_suser_compat sys_time sys_trans_label win_colormap win_config win_dac_read win_dac_write win_devices win_dga win_downgrade_sl win_fontpath win_mac_read win_mac_write win_selection win_upgrade_sl Every UNIX-System does this task hidden behind this privileges. There are many different privileges in the kernel. This privileges are not Solaris specific. It s the way to control the access to this privileges Conventional Unix On conventional unix systems you have a root user, he has all privileges. And you have a normal user, who has only a limited set of privileges. Sometimes you need the rights of an admin to do some tasks. You don t even need to admin the system. You can only traceroute or ping a system, because both tools are setuid tools 109

110 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges $ ls -l / usr / sbin / traceroute -r-sr -xr -x 1 root bin Nov 21 00:09 / usr / sbin / traceroute $ ls -l / usr / sbin / ping -r-sr -xr -x 1 root bin Nov 18 19:31 / usr / sbin / ping setuid is nothing else than a violation of the security policy. You need a special privilege to ping: The privilege to use access ICMP. On conventional system this right is reserved to the root user. Thus the ping program has to be executed with the rights of root. The problem: At the time of the execution of the program, the program has all rights of the user. Not only to access ICMP, the program is capable to do everything on the system, as deleting files in /etc. This may not a problem with ping or traceroute but think about larger programs. An exploit in a setuid program can lead to the escalation of the users privileges. Setuid root and you are toast. Let s have a look at the privileges of an ordinary user. There is a tool to get the privileges of any given process in the system, it s called code ppriv /code.$$ is a shortcut for the actual process id (in this case the process id of the shell): bash -3.2 $ ppriv -v $$ 646: bash flags = < none > E: file_link_any, proc_exec, proc_fork, proc_info, proc_session I: file_link_any, proc_exec, proc_fork, proc_info, proc_session P: file_link_any, proc_exec, proc_fork, proc_info, proc_session L: contract_event, (..), win_upgrade_sl Every process in the system has four sets of privileges that determine if a process is enabled to use a privilege or not. The theory of privileges is quite complex. I would suggest to read the chapter How Privileges Are Implemented in the a href= Security Services /a manual to learn, how each set controls or is controlled other privilege sets. At this time, I want only to explain the meaning of the first letter: E: effective privileges set P: permitted privileges set L: limit privileges set I: inheritable privileges set 110

111 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges You can think about the privilege sets as keyrings. The effective privilege set are the keys the janitor has on its keyring. The permitted privilege set are the keys the janitor is allowed to put on its keyring. The janitor can decide to remove some of the keys. Perhaps he thinks: I work only in room 232 today. I don t need all the other keys. I leave them in my office. When he looses his keyring he lost only the control about this single room, not about the complete campus. The inheritable privilege is not a really a keyring. The janitor thinks about his new assistant: Good worker, but I won t give him my key for the room with the expensive tools. The limited privilege set is the overarching order from the boss of janitor to his team leaders: You are allowed to give your assistant the keys for normal rooms, but not for the rooms with all this blinking boxes from Sun. At the moment the most interesting set is the E:. This is the effective set of privileges. This is the set of privilege effectively available to process. Compared to the full list of privileges mentioned above the set is much smaller. But this matches your experience when you use a unix system Some practical insights to the system You logged in as a normal user, and you have only a few privileges. It s called the basic set. bash -3.2 $ ppriv $$ 815: bash flags = < none > E: basic I: basic P: basic L: all Okay, this example looks different than the one shown before. Nevertheless is has the same meaning. With the switch code -v /code you can expand the aliases. bash -3.2 $ ppriv -v $$ 815: bash flags = < none > E: file_link_any, proc_exec, proc_fork, proc_info, proc_session I: file_link_any, proc_exec, proc_fork, proc_info, proc_session P: file_link_any, proc_exec, proc_fork, proc_info, proc_session L: contract_event, (..), win_upgrade_sl 111

112 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges Looks a little bit more familiar? Okay, now let s login as root. $su root Password : # ppriv $$ 819: sh flags = < none > E: all I: basic P: all L: all This user has much more privileges. The effective set is much broader. The user has all privileges in the system How to give an user additional privileges Now let s assume, you have an user, that wants to use dtrace. You need three privileges to use Dtrace: dtrace_kernel,dtrace_proc,dtrace_user. root has this privileges. A normal user not. Giving root to a developer? God beware! This is a prelude to disaster. But no problem. Assign the matching privileges to the user, and the user is enabled to use dtrace. $ su root Password : # usermod -K defaultpriv = basic, dtrace \ _kernel, dtrace \ _proc, dtrace \ _ user jmoekamp UX: usermod : jmoekamp is currently logged in, some changes may not take effect until next login. Exit to the login prompt and login as the user you ve assigned the privilieges. $ ppriv $$ 829: -sh flags = < none > E: basic, dtrace_kernel, dtrace_proc, dtrace_user I: basic, dtrace_kernel, dtrace_proc, dtrace_user P: basic, dtrace_kernel, dtrace_proc, dtrace_user L: all Simple

113 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges RBAC and privileges combined Well, but we can do better than that. We ve learned there is a thing like RBAC. There is no reason that inhibits the assignment of privileges to a role. At first we create a role bughunt, for simplicity we use the Process Management role profile. After this we set the role password. # roleadd - m - d / export / home / bughunting - P " Process Management " bughunt # passwd bughunt New Password : Re - enter new Password : Now we assign the privileges... # rolemod - K defaultpriv = basic, dtrace_ kernel, dtrace_ proc, dtrace_user bughunt... and the user to the role. # usermod - R bughunt jmoekamp UX: usermod : jmoekamp is currently logged in, some changes may not take effect until next login. As you might have espected, the user itself doesn t have the privileges to use dtrace. $ ppriv $$ 883: -sh flags = < none > E: basic I: basic P: basic L: all But now assume the role code bughunt /code $ su bughunt Password : $ ppriv $$ 893: pfsh flags = < none > E: basic, dtrace_kernel, dtrace_proc, dtrace_user I: basic, dtrace_kernel, dtrace_proc, dtrace_user P: basic, dtrace_kernel, dtrace_proc, dtrace_user L: all And DTrace is at your service. 113

114 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges Privilege-aware programming The idea of managing the privileges is not limited to users and their shells. In any given system you find dozens of programs as daemons. These daemons interact in several ways with the privileges. The best way is Privilegeaware programming. Okay. Let s assume, you code a daemon for your system. For example: You know, that you never will do an exec() call. So you can safely drop this privilege. The process modifies the permitted privilege set. The process can remove a privilege but not add it. Even when someone is able to your code, the attacker can t make an exec() call. The process doesn t even have the privilege to do such a call. And the attacker can t add the privilege again. Several processes and programs in Solaris are already privilege aware. For example the kernel-level cryptographic framework daemon. Let s look at the privileges of the daemon. # ps - ef grep " kcfd " daemon : 24: 19? 0: 00 / usr / lib / crypto / kcfd root : 54: 08 pts /1 0: 00 grep kcfd # ppriv - v : / usr / lib / crypto / kcfd flags = PRIV_AWARE E: file_ owner, proc_ priocntl, sys_ devices I: none P: file_ owner, proc_ priocntl, sys_ devices L: none This daemon doesn t have even the basic privileges of a regular user. It has the only the bare minimum of privileges to do its job Non-privilege aware processes But the world isn t perfect. Not every process is privilege aware. Thus you have to limit the privileges by other mechanisms. The service management framework comes to help. The following example is copied from Glen Brunettes Blueprint a href= Limiting Service Privileges in the Solaris 10 Operating System /a Let s take the Apache Webserver as an example. The apache isn t privilege aware. We start the daemon via the Service Management Framework. 114

115 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges # svcadm - v enable - s apache2 svc :/ network / http : apache2 enabled. Okay, now we look at the processes of the Apache daemons. # ps - ef grep " apache " webservd : 11: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 11: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start root : 11: 50? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 11: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 11: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 11: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 11: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start Six daemons running as webservd, and one running as root. # ppriv : / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start flags = < none > E: all I: basic P: all L: all As expected for a root process, this process has the complete set of privileges of a root user. Okay, now one of its children. # ppriv : / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start flags = < none > E: basic I: basic P: basic L: all Much better... only basic privileges. Okay, There is a reason for this configuration. On Unix systems, you have two groups of ports. Privileged ones from and unprivileged ones from 1024 up. You can only 115

116 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges bind to a privileged port with the privilege to do it. A normal user doesn t have this privilege, but root has it. And thus there has to be one process running as root. Do you remember the list of privileges for the apache process running at root. The process has all privileges but needs only one of them, that isn t part of the basic privilege set How to get rid of the root apache Well, but it hasn t to be this way. With Solaris you can give any user or process the privilege to use a privileged port. You don t need the root process anymore. Now, let s configure it this way. At first we have to deactivate the running apache. svcadm - v disable - s apache2 svc :/ network / http : apache2 disabled. I won t explain the Service Management Framework here, but you can set certain properties in SMF to control the startup of a service. # svccfg - s apache2 svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / user = astring : webservd svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / group = astring : webservd svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / privileges = astring : basic,! proc_ session,! proc_ info,! file_ link_ any, net_ privaddr svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / limit_privileges = astring : : default svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / use_profile = boolean : false svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / supp_groups = astring : : default svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / workin g_dire ctory = astring : : default svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / project = astring : : default svc :/ network / http : apache2 > setprop start / resource_pool = astring : : default svc :/ network / http : apache2 > end Line 2 to 4 are the most interesting ones. Without any changes, the Apache daemon starts as root and forks away processes with the webservd user. But we want to get rid of the root user for this configuration. Thus we start the daemon directly with the webservd user. Same for the group id. 116

117 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges Now it gets interesting. Without this line, the kernel would deny Apache to bind to port 80. webservd is a regular user without the privilege to use a privileged port. The property start/privileges sets the privileges to start the service. At first, we give the service basic privileges. Then we add the privilege to use a privileged port. The service would start up now. But wait, we can do more. A webserver shouldn t do any hardlinks. And it doesn t send signals outside its session. And it doesn t look at processes other than those to which it can send signals. We don t need this privileges. proc session, proc info and file link any are part of the basic privilege set. We remove them, by adding a code! /code in front of the privilege. Okay, we have notify the SMF of the configuration changes: # svcadm - v refresh apache2 Action refresh set for svc :/ network / http : apache2. Until now, the apache daemon used the root privileges. Thus the ownership of files and directories were unproblematic. The daemon was able to read and write in any directory of file in the system. As we drop this privilege by using a regular user, we have to modify the ownership of some files and move some files. # chown webservd : webservd / var / apache2 /2.2/ logs / access_log # chown webservd : webservd / var / apache2 /2.2/ logs / error_log mkdir -p -m 755 / var / apache2 / run We need some configuration changes, too. We have to move the LockFile and the PidFile. There wasn t one of the two configuration directives in my config file, thus I ve simply appended them to the end of the file. # echo " LockFile / var / apache2 /2.2/ logs / accept. lock " >> / etc / apache2 /2.2/ httpd. conf # echo " PidFile / var / apache2 /2.2/ run / httpd. pid " >> / etc / apache2 /2.2/ httpd. conf Okay, everything is in place. Let s give it a try. # svcadm - v enable - s apache2 svc :/ network / http : apache2 enabled. Now we check for the running httpd processes: # ps - ef grep " apache2 " grep - v " grep " webservd : 29: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 29: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start 117

118 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges webservd : 29: 53? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 29: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 29: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 29: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start webservd : 29: 54? 0: 00 / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start You notice the difference? There is no httpd running as root. All processes run with the userid webservd. Mission accomplished. Let s check the privileges of the processes. At first the one, who ran as root before. # ppriv : / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start flags = < none > E: basic,! file_link_any, net_privaddr,! proc_info,! proc_session I: basic,! file_link_any, net_privaddr,! proc_info,! proc_session P: basic,! file_link_any, net_privaddr,! proc_info,! proc_session L: all Only the least privileges to do the job, no root privileges. And even the other processes are more secure now: # ppriv : / usr / apache2 /2.2/ bin / httpd -k start flags = < none > E: basic,! file_link_any, net_privaddr,! proc_info,! proc_session I: basic,! file_link_any, net_privaddr,! proc_info,! proc_session P: basic,! file_link_any, net_privaddr,! proc_info,! proc_session L: all Before we changed the configuration of the webserver, it has the basic privileges of a regular user. Now we limited even this set. 118

119 11 Role Based Access Control and Least Privileges 11.9 The story of root - reprise And then there was root again. And root was almighty. And this time, it wasn t a bad thing. root was able to distribute the powers between the servants. But no one was as powerful as root. They had only the powers to do their job. But not more. One servant had still the problem with to many prayers, but now this servant wasn t able to destroy the world. Even the mere mortals learned to use the power of root. Only a small group of trusted priests had the knowledge of magic chant to speak through root. All other had only the knowledge of minor chants to pray for their special wishes. root got really cautious to give away his powers. From this day forth root casted only the absolutely needed powers to his servants and believers. And the world of root was a more secure place. It was still possible to destroy the world, but now it was much harder as there were now several guardians to protect the power of root. The End Interesting Links Documentation System Administration Guide: Security Services - Roles, Rights Profiles, and Privileges RBAC SMF and RBAC authorizations Sun Whitepaper: RBAC in the Solaris Operating Environment Custom Roles Using RBAC in the Solaris OS Privileges Limiting Service Privileges in the Solaris 10 Operating System Privilege Debugging in the Solaris 10 Operating System 119

120 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit When you want to place a system into a network, it s a good practice to harden the system. Hardening is the configuration of a system to minimize the attack vectors for an intruder by closing down services, configuring stricter security policies and activating a more verbose logging or auditing. But hardening is not a really simple task: You have to switch off as much services as possible and modify the configuration of many daemons. Furthermore you have to know, what your application needs to run, you can t close down a service that another service needs to execute. Those dependencies may be simple for a server with an apache daemon, but to harden a Sun Cluster needs a little bit more knowledge. Furthermore you have to keep the configuration in a way, that s supported by Sun What is the Solaris Security Toolkit? People at Sun do this at their everyday job, thus we have experience to do such hardings. It would be nice to have this knowledge in a framework to automate all this steps. The Sun Security Toolkit was designed with this objective. As the SST website states: The Solaris Security Toolkit, formerly known as the JumpStart Architecture and Security Scripts (JASS) toolkit, provides a flexible and extensible mechanism to harden and audit Solaris Operating Systems (OSs). The Solaris Security Toolkit simplifies and automates the process of securing Solaris Operating Systems and is based on proven security best practices and practical customer site experience gathered over many years. This toolkit can be used to secure SPARC-based and x86/x64-based systems. The SST is an old tool. I use it for years to harden my own systems and in the past any Jumpstart installation made at customer sites contained this toolkit to give them automatic hardening. Furthermore it s a good practice to use this toolkit on freshly installed systems as a first step in the deployment process of new server hardware before you start to install your application. h4 How to install the Solaris Security Toolkit? /h4 Installation of the Toolkit is really easy. At first you have to gather it from the Sun Download Center. Sorry, you need a 120

121 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit account for it, but you can register for free. You will find it here.before login in as root, I ve copied the file SUNWjass pkg.tar.Z via scp to my freshly installed system with Solaris 10 Update 5 # cd / tmp # ls SUNWjass pkg. tar. Z hsperfdata_ root typescript hsperfdata_noaccess ogl_select216 # bash # uncompress SUNWjass pkg. tar. Z # tar xfv SUNWjass pkg. tar x SUNWjass, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks x SUNWjass / pkgmap, bytes, 65 tape blocks [...] x SUNWjass / install / preremove, 1090 bytes, 3 tape blocks x SUNWjass / install / tsolinfo, 52 bytes, 1 tape blocks Now let s install the package: # pkgadd - d. SUNWjass Processing package instance < SUNWjass > from </ tmp > Solaris Security Toolkit ( Solaris ) Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms. Using </ opt > as the package base directory. ## Processing package information. ## Processing system information. ## Verifying package dependencies. ## Verifying disk space requirements. ## Checking for conflicts with packages already installed. ## Checking for setuid / setgid programs. Installing Solaris Security Toolkit as < SUNWjass > ## Installing part 1 of 1. / opt / SUNWjass / Audit / disable - IIim. aud [...] / opt / SUNWjass / sysidcfg < symbolic link > [ verifying class < none > ] Installation of < SUNWjass > was successful. Now I can use the Sun Security Toolkit for system hardening. It s installed at /opt/sunwjass/ 121

122 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit 12.2 A look into the framework At the end the SST is a collection of scripts and files and some code to distribute those changes throughout the system. Each script was developed to execute a single job in the process of system hardening. When you look into the directory /opt/sunwjass/finish you will find a vast amount of them. For example enable-bart.fin for the automatic execution of BART to generate a system baseline or disable-remote-root-login.fin to automatically disable root logins, when an admin had activated those logins. On the other side you will some configuration files in the Sun Security Toolkit as well. Sometimes a service needs some additional configuration for hardening, for example an really paranoid hosts.deny. Those configuration templates are contained in the directory /opt/sunwjass/files. But you don t use both types of directly... you use them in collections called drivers. You find those drivers in /opt/sunwjass/drivers. These drivers execute all such scripts in a certain sequence. Some drivers are really simple... they just call other drivers. A good example is the secure.driver which just calls the hardening.driver and the configuration.driver. The hardening.driver is a better example. This driver calls many of the scripts mentioned before. At this moment, you should take some time and examine some files in /opt/sunwjass/drivers, /opt/sunwjass/files and /opt/sunwjass/finish to get more insight into the inner workings of SST. Don t be shy, it s just clever shell scripting Use the Solaris Security Toolkit for hardening A tip from the field at first: Open a second ssh connection to the system, login as root, and leave this window untouched and minimized. This connection is quite handy to have a second limb, when you sawed away the one you sit on. Okay, how do you use such a driver? This is really simple. But you shouldn t execute the drivers blindly. They can lock you out of your system in the case you use them without caution. So change in to the directory for the Drivers: # cd / opt / SUNWjass / Drivers Now you should look into the desired drivers. An example: The hardening.driver contains a like to disable the nscd. disable -nscd - caching. fin 122

123 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit But you want another behavior for some reason. You just have to add an # in front of the line: # disable -nscd - caching. fin Well, there is another behavior I don t want. The default locks sshd via tcpwrapper except from accesses from the local host. But there is a better template at /SUNWjass/Files/etc/hosts.allow allowing ssh access from all hosts. You can force SST to use it by adding another line to the hardening.driver. I ve added a line to do so: JASS_FILES =" " / etc / hosts. allow / etc /dt/ config / Xaccess / etc / init.d/set -tmp - permissions / etc / issue / etc / motd / etc / rc2.d/ S00set -tmp - permissions / etc / rc2.d/ S07set -tmp - permissions / etc / syslog. conf Now the Toolkit copies the file /opt/sunwjass/files/etc/hosts.allow to /etc/hosts.allow. As you may have noticed, the template as to be in the same directory as the file you want to substitute with the difference, that the directory of the template has to be relative to /opt/sunwjass/files/ and not to / Okay, now we have modified our driver, now we can execute it: # cd / opt / SUNWjass / bin #./ jass - execute secure. driver [ NOTE ] The following prompt can be disabled by setting JASS_NOVICE_USER to 0. [ WARN ] Depending on how the Solaris Security Toolkit is configured, it is both possible and likely that by default all remote shell and file transfer access to this system will be disabled upon reboot effectively locking out any user without console access to the system. Are you sure that you want to continue? ( yes / no): [ no] yes This warning is not a joke. Know what you do, when you use this toolkit. Hardening means real hardening and this process may leave you with a paranoid hosts.allow 123

124 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit locking you out from accessing the sshd on your system. Without console access you would be toast now. But as we use the more sensible template for hosts.allow, we can proceed by answering with yes: Executing driver, secure. driver =========================================================================== secure. driver : Driver started. =========================================================================== =========================================================================== =========================================================================== Toolkit Version : Node name : gondor Zone name : global Host ID: e Host address : MAC address : 0:1 c :42:24:51: b9 OS version : Date : Wed Apr 16 16:15:19 CEST 2008 After a first status report, a long row of scripts will print log messages to the terminal. For example the finish script enable-coreadm.fin: =========================================================================== secure. driver : Finish script : enable - coreadm. fin =========================================================================== Configuring coreadm to use pattern matching and logging. [ NOTE ] Creating a new directory, / var / core. [ NOTE ] Copying / etc / coreadm. conf to / etc / coreadm. conf. JASS coreadm change was successful. Many reports of this kind will scroll along and at the end jass.execute prints out some diagnostic: 124

125 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit =========================================================================== secure. driver : Driver finished. =========================================================================== =========================================================================== [ SUMMARY ] Results Summary for APPLY run of secure. driver [ SUMMARY ] The run completed with a total of 97 scripts run. [ SUMMARY ] There were Failures in 0 Scripts [ SUMMARY ] There were Errors in 0 Scripts [ SUMMARY ] There were Warnings in 3 Scripts [ SUMMARY ] There were Notes in 81 Scripts [ SUMMARY ] Warning Scripts listed in: / var / opt / SUNWjass / run / / jass - script - warnings. txt [ SUMMARY ] Notes Scripts listed in: / var / opt / SUNWjass / run / / jass - script - notes. txt =========================================================================== When you look around at you system, you will notice some new files. Every file in the system changed by the SST will be backed up before the change is done. For example you will find a file named vfstab.jass in /etc. JASS contains a finish script to limit the size of the /tmp. As the /tmp filesystem resides in the main memory, this is a sensible thing to do. Let s check for the differences # diff vfstab vfstab. JASS c11 < swap - / tmp tmpfs - yes size =512 m --- > swap - / tmp tmpfs - yes - The script has done its job and added the size=512m option to the mount. 125

126 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit 12.4 Effects of the hardening Many effects are not directly obvious like changes to security or password policies. You will recognize them, when the system forces you to change your password and when it s getting harder to change a new one because of higher requirements for new passwords enforces by Solaris. A more obvious change is the new message of the day. It doesn t print out the version. The new version is a little bit... uhmmm... more unfriendly: aragorn :~ j oergmo ellenk amp$ ssh Password : Last login : Wed Apr 16 19:12: from This system is for the use of authorized users only. Individuals using this computer system without authority, or in excess of their authority, are subject to having all of their activities on this system monitored and recorded by system personnel. In the course of monitoring individuals improperly using this system, or in the course of system maintenance, the activities of authorized users may also be monitored. Anyone using this system expressly consents to such monitoring and is advised that if such monitoring reveals possible evidence of criminal activity, system personnel may provide the 126

127 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit evidence of such monitoring to law enforcement officials Undo the hardening All these file ending with.jass. are not just for you to lookup the changes of SST. This files enables the SST to undo the changes and to fall back to a different configuration. #./ jass - execute -u Executing driver, undo. driver Please select a Solaris Security Toolkit run to restore through : 1. April 16, 2008 at 16:15:04 (/ var / opt / SUNWjass / run / ) Choice ( q to exit )? 1 The choice is easy, we have just one old version, so we choose 1: [ NOTE ] Restoring to previous run from / var / opt / SUNWjass / run / =========================================================================== undo. driver : Driver started. =========================================================================== You may have changed some files since using the toolkit, thus the SST will ask you if you what it should do with those files. For example, I ve changed the password of my account, thus the /etc/shadow has changed: =========================================================================== undo. driver : Undoing Finish Script : set - flexible - crypt. fin =========================================================================== [ NOTE ] Undoing operation COPY. [ WARN ] Checksum of current file does not match the saved value. [ WARN ] filename = / etc / shadow 127

128 12 The Solaris Security Toolkit [ WARN ] current = 8 e27a de7c1c5f690999c35be8 [ WARN ] saved = b26a3cf38d001fdf a48c Select your course of action : 1. Backup - Save the current file, BEFORE restoring original. 2. Keep - Keep the current file, making NO changes. 3. Force - Ignore manual changes, and OVERWRITE current file. NOTE : The following additional options are applied to this and ALL subsequent files : 4. ALWAYS Backup. 5. ALWAYS Keep. 6. ALWAYS Force. Enter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6: 2 After this command the Solaris Security Toolkit has reverted all changes Conclusion With the Solaris Security Toolkit you can deploy an certain baseline of security configurations to all your systems in an automatic manner. But it isn t limited to run once after the installation, you can run it as often as you want to ensure that you get to an known secured state of your system after patching or reconfigurations of your system. By doing this automatically, you get a big advantage. Once you ve developed your own driver for your site, nobody forgets to set a certain configuration leaving an attack vector open, you assumed as being closed down. This tutorial demonstrated only a small subset of the capabilties of the toolkit. For example you can integrate it into Jumpstart to automatically harden systems at their installation, you can use it to install a minimal patch cluster on each system where you execute the toolkit. So you should really dig down into the documentation of this toolkit to explore all the capabilities Do you want to learn more? Documentation docs.sun.com: Solaris Security Toolkit 4.2 Administration Guide 128

129 13 Auditing One of the less known features in Solaris is the Auditing. Auditing solves an important problem: What happens on my system, and whodunit. When something strange happens on your system or you recognize, that you are not the only one who owns your system, it s a good thing to have some logs for analysis. The nice thing about the auditing in Solaris: It s quite simple to activate. In this article I will give you a short overview to enable and use the auditing in Solaris. This feature is really old, it s in Solaris for since the last century but nevertheless it s a less known Solaris feature Some terms There are some special terms in auditing. I want to give you a short definition of them as I have to use them in this article. I ve copied this definitions from a href= the manual for Solaris Auditing /a. Audit events: A security-related system action that is audited. For ease of selection, events are grouped into audit classes. Audit Class: A grouping of audit events. Audit classes provide a way to select a group of events to be audited. Audit policy: A set of auditing options that you can enable or disable at your site. These options include whether to record certain kinds of audit data. The options also include whether to suspend auditable actions when the audit trail is full Configuring basic auditing You have to search for a place in your filesystem. It s a good practice to use an own filesystem, as auditing will eat away your filesystem space until there is nothing left and this is a bad idea for the root file system. But in this example I will omit this step. 129

130 13 Auditing At first login as root. Okay, you need a place to store the audit logs. It s important to change the rights of the directory to assure only root can access it. mkdir / var / audit / aragorn - sol chmod -R 750 / var / audit / aragorn - sol Then go to /etc/security and edit the file /etc/security/audit_control. This file controls where what classes of information are logged and where you write the log. For example: The lo is the audit class for all events in regard of logins and logoffs: dir :/ var / audit / aragorn - sol flags :lo minfree :20 naflags :lo Okay, configuration is done.but let s have another look the file /etc/security/audit_startup. The commands in this script control the audit policies and thus the behavior of the logging and the amount of informations in the log records: / usr / bin / echo " Starting BSM services." / usr / sbin / auditconfig - setpolicy + cnt / usr / sbin / auditconfig -conf / usr / sbin / auditconfig -aconf The second line is the most interesting. Without this line the system would stop user interaction when the system is unable to log. You would deactivate this behavior, when logging is more important than system availability. For the moment we don t change this file Start the auditing Now activate auditing. You have to reboot after the activation: #./ bsmconv </b> This script is used to enable the Basic Security Module ( BSM ). Shall we continue with the conversion now? [ y/ n] y bsmconv : INFO : checking startup file. bsmconv : INFO : turning on audit module. bsmconv : INFO : initializing device allocation. The Basic Security Module is ready. If there were any errors, please fix them now. Configure BSM by editing files located in / etc / security. Reboot this system now to come up with BSM enabled. # reboot 130

131 13 Auditing Two short checks... auditd runs... # svcs grep " auditd " online 23:30:03 svc :/ system / auditd : default... and the system starts to gather audit logs # ls -la total 6 drwxr - x--- 2 root root 512 Feb 1 23: 30. drwxr - xr - x 3 root sys 512 Feb 1 23: rw -r root root 255 Feb 1 23: not_terminated. aragorn - sol Okay, now you have completed the configuration. The system has started to write audit logs Managing the audit logs Audit logs grows infinitely. To the maximum filesize in the used filesystem or the end of disk capacity... whatever occurs first. It s a good practice to checkpoint the audit logs in a regular interval. It s quite simple: audit -n With this command the actual file gets closed and a new one gets opened. # cd / var / audit / aragorn - sol / # ls -l total 24 -rw -r root root 684 Feb 1 23: aragorn - sol -rw -r root root 571 Feb 2 00: aragorn - sol -rw -r root root 2279 Feb 2 00: aragorn - sol -rw -r root root 755 Feb 2 00: aragorn - sol -rw -r root root 4274 Feb 2 08: aragorn - sol -rw -r root root 200 Feb 2 08: not_terminated. aragorn - sol 131

132 13 Auditing 13.5 Analyzing the audit trails It doesn t make sense to create audit logs without looking at them. You can t look directly at them as this file are binary ones. You need to command to analyse the audit log. One to extract the data out of the log files based on certain rules and one command to translate it into an human readable format. You use the auditreduce command for the first step, and the praudit command for the second one. # cd / var / audit / aragorn - sol auditreduce * praudit - s This sequence of commands translate all you audit logs into an human readable form. I ve cut out some of the lines for an example: header,69,2, AUE_ssh,, localhost, : 49: : 00 subject, jmoekamp, jmoekamp, other, jmoekamp, other, 720, , return, success,0 header,77,2, AUE_su,, localhost, : 49: : 00 subject, jmoekamp,root, other, jmoekamp, other,729, , text, root return, failure, Authentication failed header,69,2, AUE_su,, localhost, : 50: : 00 subject, jmoekamp,root,root,root,root,730, , return, success,0 What tells this snippet to you: I ve logged into my system as the user jmoekamp, tried to assume root privileges, failed the first time (due wrong password), tried it again and succeeded More auditing Sometimes it s important to know what users have done on you system. For example: Which programs has been executed. With Solaris auditing it s really easy to collect this information. At first you have to configure auditing to collect this kind of information: dir :/ var / audit / aragorn - sol flags :lo,ex minfree :20 naflags :lo,ex 132

133 13 Auditing The ex audit class matches to all events in system in regard to the execution of a program. This tells the auditing subsystem to log all execve() system calls. But you have to signal this change to the audit subsystem to start the auditing of this events. With audit -s you notify the audit daemon to read the /etc/security/audit_control file again. header,113,2, AUE_ EXECVE,, localhost, : 10: : 00 path,/ usr / bin /ls attribute,100555, root,bin, ,1380,0 subject, jmoekamp,root,root,root,root,652, , return, success,0 But this configuration only logs the path of the command, not the command line parameters. You have to configure to log this information. You remember: The audit policy controls the kind of information in the audit logs. Thus we have to modify the audit policy. With the command auditconfig -setpolicy +argv you change the policy. You don t have to activate it, it s immediately effective: header,124,2, AUE_ EXECVE,, localhost, : 12: : 00 path,/ usr / bin /ls attribute,100555, root,bin, ,1380,0 exec_args,2,ls,-l subject, jmoekamp,root,root,root,root,665, , return, success,0 To make this behavior persistent, you have add the code auditconfig -setpolicy +argv /code to the file 13.7 Want to learn more? This is only a really short introduction to the topic. You will find the documentation for this feature at docs.sun.com: TBD with Part VII Solaris Auditing /a is a good place to start. 133

134 14 Basic Audit Reporting Tool Apropos auditing. There is a small but cool tool in Solaris. It solves the problem of No, I haven t changed anything on the system. It s called BART, the Basic Audit Reporting Tool. It a really simple tool and it s really easy to use Usage Okay, let s assume after some days of work you finally configured all components of your new system. Okay, create a nice place to store the output of the bart tool. After this you start bart for the first time to create the first manifest of your system. # mkdir / bart - files # bart create -R / etc > /bart - files / etc. control. manifest The manifest stores all informations about the files. code /etc/nsswitch.nisplus /code : This is the example for the # cat etc. control. manifest grep "/ nsswitch. nisplus " / nsswitch. nisplus F user ::rw -, group ::r--, mask :r--, other :r b e8fd689a5221d1cd059e5077da71b8 Now lets change some files: # touch / etc / thisisjustatest # chmod 777 / etc / nsswitch. files # echo "# just a test " >> / etc / nsswitch. nisplus Okay, enough changes. Let s create a new manifest of the changed /etc. Pipe it to a different file. # bart create - R / etc > / bart - files / etc. check manifest Now we can compare the baseline manifest with the actual manifest. # cd /bart - files # bart compare etc. control. manifest etc. check manifest 134

135 14 Basic Audit Reporting Tool This command prints all differences between the two manifests and thus the difference between the tow states of the system / nsswitch. files : mode control : test : acl control : user ::rw -, group ::r--, mask :r--, other :r-- test : user :: rwx, group :: rwx, mask :rwx, other : rwx / nsswitch. nisplus : size control : 2525 test : 2538 mtime control : b5 test :47 a44862 contents control :79 e8fd689a5221d1cd059e5077da71b8 test :3 f79176ec352441db11ec8a3d02ef67c / thisisjustatest : add As I wrote before: A really nice tool Want to learn more? For more information about this tool visit TBD. 135

136 15 IPsec 15.1 The secrets of root There were other systems with other roots, other priests and other believers. But how should they communicate with each other without put their secrets in danger. Some chants and documents were really precious. The messengers of root had to be sure, that they gave the chants to the roots with the same belief. But the messengers had another problems: There were many bandits on their way to the other systems. And it was unthinkable that a mere bandit would know the secrets of root Foundations This will the only article in this series without an explanation of the technologies. I could write for days about it and still leaving out important things. Instead of this, please look at the links section at the end of the article. Only some short words about this topic. Encryption is essential in networking. The Internet is a inherently insecure media. You have to assume, that you don t talk to the right person as long as you didn t authenticated him, you have to assume, that the data will be read by someone as long you won t encrypt the data. IPsec solves this problems. I won t tell you that IPsec is an easy protocol. The stuff around IPsec is defined in several RFC and the documentation is rather long. The encryption itself isn t the complex part. But you need a key to encrypt your data. And there starts the complexity. It s absolutely essential, that this key stays secret. How do you distribute keys through an inherently insecure transport channel. And the next problem: How do you negotiate the encryption mechanism? And how to ensure, that you talk with the right system? Problems... problems... problems! IPsec solves this problems. IPsec isn t a single protocol. It s a suite of protocols consisting out Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol, this protocol build on the protocol for Internet Key Exchange, this protocol is based on the Oakley protocol And there is a whole wad of further protocols and mechanisms and algorithms to ensure secure communication. 136

137 15 IPsec 15.3 IPsec in Solaris Okay, but now I want to give you an example to configure IPsec on Solaris. Although the matter is complex, it isn t hard to use IPsec within Solaris. IPsec is a rather old feature in Solaris. We ve introduced it in Solaris 8 and improved the implementation since this time. So this implementation is now in year eight of its availability Example The task for this example is to secure all traffic between two hosts. I ve used two VM with Solaris Express Build 78 for this configuration. (You need at least an Solaris 10 Update 4 for this tutorial. In this update the ipsecconf command was introduced making the configuration much easier) theoden has the IP number Gandalf has the IP number I don t want to use manual keying, instead of this the example will use self signed certificates Prepare the installation At first: Obviously you have to change hostnames and ip numbers and names for certificate corresponding to your own site. We have to work on two hosts. It s a best practice to open up two terminal windows. Get root in both of them. To keep things apart use the bash shell and modify the shell prompt: # bash # PS1 ="[\ " [ :~] $ Look at the login prompt in the examples. They designate on which system you have to work on. Okay... at first you have to ensure, that the names of the systems can be resolved. It s a good practice to put the names of the systems into the /etc/hosts: ::1 localhost loghost localhost loghost gandalf theoden 137

138 15 IPsec Okay, we don t want manual keying or some stinking preshared keys. Thus we need to create keys. Login to gandalf and assume the root role: [ gandalf :~] $ ikecert certlocal - ks - m t rsa - md5 - D " C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= gandalf " -A IP = Creating private key. Certificate added to database BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE MIICOzCCAaSgAwIBAgIFAJRpUUkwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwTzELMAkGA1UEBhMC [... some lines omitted... ] oi4do39j7csnooqnekhjajn7nd7t187k +f+ BVcFVbSenIzblq2P0u7FIgIjdlv0 = END X509 CERTIFICATE Do the same on the other host. [ theoden :~] $ ikecert certlocal - ks - m t rsa - md5 - D " C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= theoden " -A IP = Creating private key. Certificate added to database BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE MIICOzCCAaSgAwIBAgIFAIRuR5QwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwTzELMAkGA1UEBhMC [... some lines omitted... ] UHJ4P6Z0dtjnToQb37HNq9YWFRguSsPQvc /Lm+ S9cJCLwINVg7NOXXgnSfY3k +Q = END X509 CERTIFICATE You need the output of this commands later, so past them to a text editor or at a save place Configuration of IPsec Okay, now we have to tell both hosts to use IPsec when they talk to each other: [ :~] $ echo "\{ laddr gandalf raddr theoden } ipsec { auth_algs any encr_algs any sa shared \}" >> / etc / inet / ipsecinit. conf 138

139 15 IPsec This translates to: When im speaking to theoden, I have to encrypt the data and can use any negotiated and available encryption algorithm and any negotiated and available authentication algorithm. Such an rule is only valid on one direction. Thus we have to define the opposite direction on the other host to enable bidirectional traffic: [ :~] $ echo "{ laddr theoden raddr gandalf } ipsec { auth_algs any encr_algs any sa shared }" >> / etc / inet / ipsecinit. conf Okay, the next configuration is file is a little bit more complex. Go into the directory /etc/inet/ike and create a file config with the following content: cert_trust " " cert_trust " " p1_xform { auth_method preshared oakley_group 5 auth_alg sha encr_alg des } p2_ pfs 5 { label "DE - theoden to DE - gandalf " local_id_type dn local_id "C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= theoden " remote_id "C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= gandalf " local_addr remote_addr p1_xform { auth_method rsa_sig oakley_group 2 auth_alg md5 encr_alg 3 des \} } This looks complex, but once you ve understand this it s quite easy: cert_trust " " cert_trust " " We use self-signed certificate. The certificate isn t signed by an independent certification authority. Thus there is no automatic method to trust the certificate. You have to configure the iked explicitly to trust this certificates. This both lines tell the iked to trust the certificates with the alternate name and Where did this 139

140 15 IPsec alternate names came from? You set them! Look in the command line for creating the certificate. You defined this name by using the -a switch. label "DE - gandalf to DE - theoden " local_id_type dn local_id "C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= gandalf " remote_id "C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= theoden " Now you define an key exchange. You have to give each connection an unique name. After this you define, what part of the certificate is used to authenticate the remote system. In this example we use the distinguished name. The local system identifies itself with the certificate named C=de, O=moellenkamp, OU=moellenkamp-vpn, CN=gandalfto a remote system, and expect a trusted certificate with the distinguished name C=de, O=moellenkamp, OU=moellen local_addr remote_addr \ end { lstlisting } Now the iked knows the ip addresses of the local and the remote host. \ begin { lstlisting } p1_xform { auth_method rsa_sig oakley_group 2 auth_alg md5 encr_alg 3 des } After defining the authentication credentials, we have to define how the system should communicate. This line means: Use the certificates to authenticate the other system. The key determination protocol is based on a prime number. We use md5 as the ground-laying algorithm to authenticate and 3des for encryption. This is the part where you configure the methods for authentication and encryption. They have to be the same on both hosts, otherwise they won t be able to negotiate to a common denominator thus you won t be able to communicate between the both hosts at all. Now we do the same on the other system. [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ cd / etc / inet / ike [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ cat conf cert_trust " " cert_trust " " p1_xform { auth_method preshared oakley_group 5 auth_alg sha encr_alg des } p2_ pfs 5 { label "DE - gandalf to DE - theoden " 140

141 15 IPsec local_id_type dn local_id "C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= gandalf " remote_id "C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= theoden " local_addr remote_addr p1_xform { auth_method rsa_sig oakley_group 2 auth_alg md5 encr_alg 3 des } } Obviously you have to swap the numbers for the local and remote system and you have to assign a unique label to it. Okay, we are almost done. But there is still a missing but very essential thing when you want to use certificates. We have to distribute the certificates of the systems. [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ikecert certdb -l Certificate Slot Name : 0 Key Type : rsa ( Private key in certlocal slot 0) Subject Name : <C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= gandalf > Key Size : 1024 Public key hash : 28 B08FB404268D144BE70DDD652CB874 At the beginning there is only the local key in the system. We have to import the key of the remote system. Do you remember the output beginning with -----BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE----- and ending with -----END X509 CERTIFICATE-----? You need this output now. The next command won t come back after you hit return. You have to paste in the key. On gandalf you paste the output of the key generation on theoden. On Theoden you paste the output of the key generation on gandalf. Let s import the key on gandalf [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ikecert certdb -a BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE MIICOzCCAaSgAwIBAgIFAIRuR5QwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwTzELMAkGA1UEBhMC UHJ4P6Z0dtjnToQb37HNq9YWFRguSsPQvc /Lm+ S9cJCLwINVg7NOXXgnSfY3k +Q = END X509 CERTIFICATE [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ 141

142 15 IPsec After pasting, you have to hit Enter once and after this you press Ctrl-D once. Now we check for the sucessful import. You will see two certificates now. [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ikecert certdb -l Certificate Slot Name : 0 Key Type : rsa ( Private key in certlocal slot 0) Subject Name : <C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= gandalf > Key Size : 1024 Public key hash : 28 B08FB404268D144BE70DDD652CB874 Certificate Slot Name : 1 Key Type : rsa Subject Name : <C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= theoden > Key Size : 1024 Public key hash : 76 BE0809A6CBA5E06219BC4230CBB8B8 \ end { listing } Okay, switch to theoden and import the key from gandalf on this system. \ begin { lstlisting }[ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ikecert certdb -l Certificate Slot Name : 0 Key Type : rsa ( Private key in certlocal slot 0) Subject Name : <C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= theoden > Key Size : 1024 Public key hash : 76 BE0809A6CBA5E06219BC4230CBB8B8 [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ikecert certdb -a BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE MIICOzCCAaSgAwIBAgIFAJRpUUkwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwTzELMAkGA1UEBhMC oi4do39j7csnooqnekhjajn7nd7t187k +f+ BVcFVbSenIzblq2P0u7FIgIjdlv0 = END X509 CERTIFICATE [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ikecert certdb -l Certificate Slot Name : 0 Key Type : rsa ( Private key in certlocal slot 0) Subject Name : <C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= theoden > Key Size : 1024 Public key hash : 76 BE0809A6CBA5E06219BC4230CBB8B8 142

143 15 IPsec Certificate Slot Name : 1 Key Type : rsa Subject Name : <C=de, O= moellenkamp, OU= moellenkamp -vpn, CN= gandalf > Key Size : 1024 Public key hash : 28 B08FB404268D144BE70DDD652CB Activate the configuration Okay, now we have to activate this configuration on both systems: [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ svcadm enable ike [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ipsecconf -a / etc / inet / ipsecinit. conf and [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ svcadm enable ike [ :/ etc / inet / ike ]$ ipsecconf -a / etc / inet / ipsecinit. conf 15.8 Check the configuration Login into theoden as root and start a packet sniffer: [ :~] $ snoop host gandalf Using device ni0 ( promiscuous mode ) Okay... now login to gandalf and start some pings to theoden: [ :~] $ ping theoden ; ping theoden ; ping theoden theoden is alive theoden is alive theoden is alive Okay, theoden can speak with gandalf and vice versa. But is it encrypted? In the terminal window for theoden the following output should be printed: gandalf - > theoden ESP SPI =0 x1d2c0e88 Replay =4 theoden - > gandalf ESP SPI =0 x Replay =4 gandalf - > theoden ESP SPI =0 x1d2c0e88 Replay =5 theoden - > gandalf ESP SPI =0 x Replay =5 gandalf - > theoden ESP SPI =0 x1d2c0e88 Replay =6 theoden - > gandalf ESP SPI =0 x Replay =6 143

144 15 IPsec ESP stands for Encapsulated Security Payload. Mission accomplished Do you want to learn more? Documentation System Administration Guide: IP Services IP Security IPsec at Wikipedia IPsec Internet Key Exchange Oakley Protocol Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol Other An Illustrated Guide to IPsec 144

145 16 Signed binaries One of problems in computer security is the validation of binaries: Is this the original binary or is it a counterfeit binary? Since Solaris 10 Sun electronically signs the binaries of the Solaris Operating Environment. You can check the signature of the binaries with the elf-sign-tool. [ :/ etc ]$ elfsign verify -v / usr / sbin / ifconfig elfsign : verification of / usr / sbin / ifconfig passed. format : rsa_md5_sha1. signer : CN = SunOS 5.10, OU = Solaris Signed Execution, O = Sun Microsystems Inc. Obviously you have to trust the elfsign. But you can check it, when you boot the system from a trusted media (like a original media kit or a checksum validated iso-image. This enables you to check the signature of the elfsign independently from the system. By the way: This certificate and the signature is very important for crypto modules. The crypto framework of solaris just loads modules signed by Sun to prevent the usage of malicious modules (for example to read out the key store and send it somewhere) into the framework. 145

146 17 On passwords The password is the key to the system. When you know the username and the password, you can use the system. If not... well... go away. You can t overemphasize the value of good passwords. There is something you can do as the admin at the system level to ensure such passwords. At first you can use stronger mechanisms to hash the passwords. And you can force the users of your system to use good password. This tutorial will explain both tasks Using stronger password hashing Many people are unaware of the fact, that only the first eight characters of a password are used in the default configuration. Don t believe it? Let s try it. Okay, I ve logged into my test machine and change my password: bash $ passwd jmoekamp Enter existing login password : oldpassword New Password : aa Re - enter new Password : aa passwd : password successfully changed for jmoekamp bash -3.2 $ Now let s try a password that s different at the ninth character by logging into the Solaris system from remote: mymac :~ joergm oellen kamp$ ssh Password : aa Last login : Wed May 28 11:24: from Sun Microsystems Inc. SunOS snv_ 84 January 2008 I ve told you... only the first eight characters are relevant. But it s not that way, that Solaris can t do better than that. It s just the binary compatibility guarantee again. You can t simply change the mechanism encrypting the password. There may be scripts that still need the old unix crypt variant. But in case you are sure, that you haven t such an application you can change it, and it s really simple to do: 146

147 17 On passwords When you look into the file /etc/security/crypt.conf you will find the additional modules for password encryption. # The algorithm name unix is reserved. 1 crypt_bsdmd5. so.1 2a crypt_bsdbf.so.1 md5 crypt_sunmd5. so.1 The hashing mechanisms are loaded as libraries in the so-called Solaris Pluggable Crypt Framework. It s even possible to develop your own crypting mechanism in the case you don t trust the implementations delivered by Sun. Table 17.1: Cryptographic Mechanisms for password encryption Short Algorithm Description 1 BSD alike,md5 The crypt_bsdmd5 module is a one-way password based hashing module for use with crypt(3c) that uses the MD5 message hash algorithm. The output is compatible with md5crypt on BSD and 2a BSD alike, blowfish based Linux systems. The crypt_bsdbf module is a one-way password hashing module for use with crypt(3c) that uses the Blowfish cryptographic algorithm. md5 Sun, md5 based The crypt_sunmd5 module is a one-way password hashing module for use with crypt(3c) that uses the MD5 message hash algorithm. This module is designed to make it difficult to crack passwords that use brute force attacks based on high speed MD5 implementations that use code inlining, unrolled loops, and table lookup. Each of the three mechanisms support passwords with up to 255 characters. It s important to know, that the different hashing algorithm can coexist in your password databases. The password hashing for a password will be changed when user change his or her password. 147

148 17 On passwords Changing the default hash mechanism Let s use the md5 1 algorithm in our example. But before that, we should look into the actual /etc/shadow # grep " jmoekamp " / etc / shadow jmoekamp : nm2 / fprcte3f6 :14027:::::: It s simple to enable a different encryption algorithm for password. You have just to change one lines in /etc/security/policy.conf. To edit this file you have to login as root: CRYPT_DEFAULT = md5 Okay, now let s change the password. # passwd jmoekamp New Password : aa Re - enter new Password : aa passwd : password successfully changed for jmoekamp When you look in the /etc/shadow for the user, you will see a slighly modified password field. It s much longer and between the first and the second $ you see the used encryption mechanism: # grep " jmoekamp " / etc / shadow jmoekamp : $md5$vyy8. OVF$ $FY4TW zuaurl 4. VQNobqMY.:14027:::::: Not let s try the login: mymac :~ joergm oellen kamp$ ssh Password : aa Last login : Wed May 28 11:38: from Sun Microsystems Inc. SunOS snv_ 84 January 2008 $ exit Connection to closed. mymac :~ joergm oellen kamp$ ssh Password : aa Password : aa Password : aa Permission denied ( gssapi - keyex, gssapi -with -mic, publickey, keyboard - interactive ). mymac :~ joergm oellen kamp$ 1 Alec Muffet wrote about the development of this hash mechanism in dropsafe/article/

149 17 On passwords You see, the correctness of the complete password is tested, not just the first 8 characters Password policies User have the habit to break any security policy. At least as long you don t enforce it. One of the most annoying habit from the view of the security people is the tendency to choose weak passwords, the name of the boy or girl friend, the prefered brand of cars, birthdays... you name it. This passwords are everything but secure. But you can configure Solaris to check the new passwords Specifing a password policy There is a central file in Solaris controling the password policy. In /etc/default/passwd you define what requirements a password must fulfill before Solaris allows the user to set this password. Let s have a look in the actual file of a standard solaris system. You have to log into your system as root 2 : # cat passwd [... omitted CDDL header...] # MAXWEEKS = MINWEEKS = PASSLENGTH =6 # NAMECHECK =NO # HISTORY =0 # MINDIFF =3 # MINALPHA =2 # MINNONALPHA =1 # MINUPPER =0 # MINLOWER =0 # MAXREPEATS =0 # MINSPECIAL =0 # MINDIGIT =0 # WHITESPACE = YES # DICTIONLIST = # DICTIONDBDIR =/ var / passwd 2 One important note for trying out this feature. You need to log into your system as a normal user in a different window.root can set any password without a check by the password policy thus it would look like that your configuration changes had no effect 149

150 17 On passwords You enable the checks by uncommenting it and set a reasonable value to the line. When you enable all the checks, it s actually harder to find a valid password than a non-valid one. Whenever thinking about a really hard password policy you should take into consideration, that people tend to make notes about their password when they can t remember it. And a strong password under the keyboard is obviously less secure than a weak password in the head of the user. Table 17.2: /etc/default/password: standard checks Parameter Description MAXWEEKS This variable specifies the maximum age for a password. MINWEEKS This variable specifies the minimum age for a password. The rationale for this settings gets clearer when I talk about the HISTORY setting. PASSLENGTH The minimum length for a password HISTORY This variable specifies the length of a history buffer. You can specify a length of up to 26 passwords in the buffer. The MINWEEKS buffer is useful in conjunction with this parameter. There is a trick to circumvent this buffer and to get you old password back. Just change it as often as the length of the buffer plus one time. The MINWEEK parameter prevents this. WHITESPACE This variable defines if you are allowed to use a whitespace in your password NAMECHECK When you set this variable to YES, the system checks if the password and login name are identical. So using the password root for the use root would be denied by this setting. The default, by the way is, yes. Besides of this basic checks you can use /etc/default/passwd/ enforce checks for the complexity of passwords. So you can prevent the user from setting to simple passwords. 150

151 17 On passwords Table 17.3: /etc/default/password: complexity checks Parameter Description MINDIFF Let s assume you ve used 3 here. If your old password was batou001, a new password would be denied, if you try to use batou002 as only on character was changed. batou432 would be a valid password. MINUPPER With this variable you can force the usage of upper case characters. Let s assume you ve specified 3 here, a password like wasabi isn t an allowed choice, but you could use WaSaBi MINLOWER With this variable you enable the check for the amount of lower case characters in your password. In the case you ve specified 2 here, a password like WASABI isn t allowed, but you can use WaSaBI MAXREPEATS Okay, some users try to use passwords like aaaaaa2. Obviously this isn t really a strong password. When you set this password to 2 you, it checks if at most 2 consecutive characters are identical. A password like waasabi would be allowed, but not a password like waaasabi MINSPECIAL The class SPECIAL consists out of characters like!\=. Let s assume you ve specified 2, a password like!ns!st would be fine, but the password insist is not a valid choice. MINDIGIT With this password you can specify the amount of the numbers in your password. Let s a assume you specify 2, a password like snafu01 would will be allowed. A password like snafu1 will be denied. MINALPHA You can check with this variable for a minimum amount of alpha chars (a-z and A-Z). When you set a value of 2 on this variable, a password like aa23213 would be allowed, a password like would be denied MINNONALPHA This checks for the amount of non-alpha characters (0-9 and special chars). A value of 2 would lead to the denial of wasabi, but a password like w2sab! 151

152 17 On passwords Using wordlists There is another way to force stronger passwords. You can deny every password that is located in a list of words. The program for changing password is capable to compare the new password against a list of words. With this function you can deny the most obvious choices of passwords. But you should initialize the dictionary with a list of words before you can use this feature. # mkpwdict -s / usr / share / lib / dict / words mkpwdict : using default database location : / var / passwd. The file /usr/share/lib/dicts/words is a file in the Solaris Operating System containing a list of words. It s normally used by spell checking tools. Obviously you should use a wordlist in your own language, as user tend do choose words from their own language as passwords. So an English wordlist in Germany may be not that effective. 3 Now you have to tell Solaris to use this lists. Table 17.4: /etc/default/password: Dictionaries Parameter Description DICTIONLIST This variable can contain a list of dictionary files separated by a comma. You must specify full pathnames. The words from these files are merged into a database that is used to determine whether a password is based on a dictionary word DICTIONDBDIR The directory where the generated dictionary databases reside When none of the both variables is specified in the /etc/default/passwd then no dictionary check is performed. Let s try it. I ve uncommented the DICTIONDBDIR line of the /etc/default/passwd file and used the standard value /var/passwd. One of the word in the dictionary I imported is the word airplane $ passwd passwd : Changing password for jmoekamp Enter existing login password : chohw!2 New Password : airplane passwd : password is based on a dictionary word. 3 You find a list of wordlists at 152

153 17 On passwords 17.3 Conclusion These are some simple tricks to make your system more secure, just by ensuring that the keys to your server are well-choosen and not simple ones. But as I stated before there is something you should keep in mind. Don t make the passwords too hard to remember Do you want to learn more= Documentation docs.sun.com: man passwd(1) 4 docs.sun.com: Changing the Default Algorithm for Password Encryption 5 Misc. Links Learning Solaris 10: Solaris Crypt : better password hashing algorithms

154 18 pfexec The Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) scheme in the OpenSolaris OS, Sun s open-source project for the Solaris OS, offers rights profiles. A rights profile is defined as a collection of administrative capabilities that can be assigned to a role or to a user in the RBAC and Privileges tutorial. Rights profiles can contain authorizations, commands with security attributes, and other rights profiles - a convenient way for grouping security attributes. With RBAC, you as the system administrator first create profiles and then assign them to roles. Those two tasks are beyond the scope of this article. Finally, you grant users the ability to assume the roles. You can also assign a profile directly to a userthe method described later in this article. Afterwards, that user can perform the tasks that are defined by the rights profile - even execute root commands without having to log in as superuser. All that person needs to do is prepend the utility pfexec to the commands. In effect, pfexec functions as a passwordless su or sudo in Linux. This article shows you how to delegate administration tasks and assign root capabilities to regular users by way of rights profiles. It is assumed that you are familiar with RBAC concepts and commands in the OpenSolaris OS and have read the RBAC and Privileges tutorial referenced above. Note: pfexec has been available on the Solaris OS since Solaris 8 and Trusted Solaris 8 and is not unique to the OpenSolaris OS Delegating Administration Tasks Let s assume that user testuser would like to regularly share and unshare directories with other systems through a Network File System (NFS). Normal user privileges do not allow him to do so, as shown below: $ / usr / sbin / share / export / home / testuser Could not share : / export / home / testuser : no permission However, you can add a profile with the share right for testuser. Do the following: 154

155 18 pfexec 1. As root, create a new user and assign a password to that person. In the OpenSolaris OS, the first user you create is already assigned to a profile that allows that person to perform all the root tasks. Following are the related commands and output: # mkdir -p / export / home # useradd - m - d / export / home / testuser testuser 80 blocks # passwd testuser New Password : Re - enter new Password : passwd : password successfully changed for testuser 2. Log out and log in again as the new user. 3. Look for a matching profile in the exec\_attr file with the share command. Here are the command and subsequent output, which shows a match in File System Management: $ grep " share " / etc / security / exec_attr File System Management : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / dfshares : euid =0 File System Management : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / share : uid =0; gid = root File System Management : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / shareall : uid =0; gid = root File System Management : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / sharemgr : uid =0; gid = root File System Management : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / unshare : uid =0; gid = root File System Management : suser : cmd :::/ usr / sbin / unshareall : uid =0; gid = root [...] 4. Become root and assign the File System Management rights profile to testuser. Here are the commands and subsequent output: $ su root Password : # usermod -P File System Management testuser UX: usermod : testuser is currently logged in, some changes may not take effect until next login. In this case, despite the warning that some changes are only effective after user logout, the user needs not do so. This change is effective immediately.voila! testuser can now share and unshare directories by prepending pfexec to the share command without becoming superuser: 155

156 18 pfexec $ pfexec / usr / sbin / share / export / home / testuser $ / usr / sbin / share - / export / home / testuser rw "" 18.2 Granting Root Capabilities to Regular Users Warning: Even though you can grant regular users root capabilities with pfexec, do so with care and discretion. Ensure that those to whom you grant root capabilities are trusted, knowledgeable administrators and that they protect their own passwords as they would their root passwords. The Primary Administrator profile in the OpenSolaris OS grants the capabilities traditionally associated with root. That is, users who are assigned that profile can execute root commands without logging in as root. See the profile s entry in the exec attr file: # cat / etc / security / exec_attr grep " Primary " Primary Administrator : suser : cmd :::*: uid =0; gid =0 That means all the commands that are executed with this profile with pfexec prepended are run with uid=0 and gid=0, hence with root privileges.granting users the root capabilities through the Primary Administrator rights profile has several advantages: You need not reveal the root password to the users. To withdraw a user s root privilege, simply delete the Primary Administrator profile from the user setupno need to set a new root password. Users with the Primary Administrator rights profile can set up a root shell and need not prepend root commands with pfexec afterwards. See this example: 1. As root, assign the Primary Administrator profile to testuser. Here are the commands and subsequent output: $ usermod -P Primary Administrator testuser UX: usermod : testuser is currently logged in, some changes may not take effect until next login. 2. As a test, log in as testuser and execute the id -a command twice: once without pfexec and once with pfexec. Note the output: 156

157 18 pfexec $ id -a uid =100( testuser ) gid =1( other ) groups =1( other ) $ pfexec id - a uid =0( root ) gid =0( root ) groups =1( other ) Without pfexec, testuser s uid and gid values are those of testuser and other, respectivelythat is, nonroot. With pfexec, uid and gid assume the value of root.to avoid having to type pfexec over and over again, testuser can set up a root Bash shell on his system, like this: $ pfexec bash bash -3.2# id uid =0( root ) gid =0( root ) To remove the profile, log in as root and type: # usermod - P testuser # Afterwards, uid and gid revert to the normal values of the user, as reflected in the output of the id -a command when executed under the control of pfexec. Without an assigned profile, pfexec yields no additional privileges to the user: $ pfexec id - a uid =100( testuser ) gid =1( other ) groups =1( other ) 18.3 An important advice As you may have recognized, there is no further password protection between a user with the Primary Administrator and running programs with root capabilities. You shouldnt use such an account for your daily work, when you are using scripts or programms downloaded from the Internet, as such a script has just to prepend a pfexec to a command to yield administrative capabilities. On OpenSolaris 200x.y its a good practice to create a second account for your daily work without the Primary Administrator profile Conclusion Again, passwordless pfexec is the OpenSolaris version of Linux s sudo. Assigning and revoking the root capabilities through the Primary Administrator profile is simple and straightforward. In addition, you can monitor user actions by logging the executions of pfexec with the auditing subsystem of the Solaris OS. 157

158 18 pfexec By default, the user account that you create while installing OpenSolaris , the latest version of the OS, is automatically assigned the Primary Administrator rights profile even though the user cannot directly log in as root. Subsequently, that user can run pfexec with the root privilege - a big convenience to all! 158

159 Part IV Networking 159

160 19 Crossbow 19.1 Introduction At the moment ZFS, DTrace or Zones are the well known features of Solaris. But in my opinion there will be a fourth important feature soon. Since Build 105 it s integrated (many people will already know which feature i want to describe in this artcle) into Solaris. This feature has the project name Crossbow. It s the new TCP/IP stack of Opensolaris and was developed with virtualisation in mind from ground up. Virtualisation in mind does not only lead to the concept of virtual network interface cards, you can configure virtual switches as well and even more important: You can control the resource usage of a virtual client or managing the load by distributing certain TCP/IP traffic to dedicated CPUs. I ve already held some talks about Crossbow at different events, thus it s time to write an article about this topic. I will start with the virtualisation part of Crossbow Virtualisation This part is heavily inspired by this blog entry of Ben Rockwood 1, but he ommited some parts in the course of his article to make a full walk-through out of it, so i extended it a little bit. Normally a network consists out of switches and networking cards, server and router. It s easy to replicate this in a single system. Networking cards can be simulated by VNICS, switches are called etherstubs in the namespace of Crossbow. Server can be simulated by zones of course, and as router are not much more than special-purpose servers, we could simulate them by a zone as well A simple network Let s simulate a simple network at first. Just two servers and a router:

161 19 Crossbow Figure 19.1: Simple virtual network with Crossbow 161

162 19 Crossbow Configuration of the network At first we create two virtual switches. They are called etherstub0 and etherstub1 # dladm create - etherstub etherstub0 # dladm create - etherstub etherstub1 Okay, now we create virtual nics that are bound to the virtual switch etherstub0. These virtual nics are called vnic1 and vnic0. # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub0 vnic1 # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub0 vnic2 Now we do the same with our second virtual switch: # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub1 vnic3 # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub1 vnic4 Okay, let s look up the configuration of our network. # dladm showlink LINK CLASS MTU STATE OVER ni0 phys 1500 unknown -- etherstub0 etherstub 9000 unknown -- etherstub1 etherstub 9000 unknown -- vnic1 vnic 9000 up etherstub0 vnic2 vnic 9000 up etherstub0 vnic3 vnic 9000 up etherstub1 vnic4 vnic 9000 up etherstub1 vnic5 vnic 1500 up ni0 Yes, that s all... but what can we do with it? For example simulating a complete network in your system. Let s create a network with two networks, a router with a firewall and nat and a server in each of the network. Obviously we will use zones for this. A template zone At first we create a template zone. This zone is just used for speeding up the creation of other zones. To enable zone creation based on ZFS snapshots, we have to create a filesystem for our zones and mount it at a nice position in your filesystem: # zfs create rpool / zones # zfs set compression = on rpool / zones # zfs set mountpoint =/ zones rpool / zones 162

163 19 Crossbow Now we prepare a command file for the zone creation. The pretty much the standard for a sparse root zone. We don t configure any network interfaces, as we never boot or use this zone. It s just a template as the name alreay states. So at first we create a file called template in a working directory. All the following steps assume that you are in this directory as i won t use absolute paths. create -b set zonepath =/ zones / template set ip - type = exclusive set autoboot = false add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ lib end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ platform end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ sbin end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ usr end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ opt end commit Now we create the zone. Depending on your test equipment this will take some times. # zonecfg - z template - f template # zoneadm - z template install A ZFS file system has been created for this zone. Preparing to install zone <template >. Creating list of files to copy from the global zone. Copying <3488 > files to the zone. Initializing zone product registry. Determining zone package initialization order. Preparing to initialize <1507 > packages on the zone. Initialized <1507 > packages on zone. Zone < template > is initialized. The file </ zones / template / root / var / sadm / system / logs / install_log > contains a log of the zone installation. # Got a coffee? The next installations will be much faster.we will not boot it as we don t need it for our testbed. 163

164 19 Crossbow site.xml While waiting for the zone installation to end we can create a few other files. At first you should create a file called site.xml. This files controls which services are online after the first boot. You can think of it like an sysidcfg for the Service Management Framework. The file is rather long, so i won t post it in the article directly. You can download my version of this file here 2 Zone configurations for the testbed At first we have to create the zone configurations. The files are very similar. The differences are in the zonepath and in the network configuration. The zone servera is located in /zones/servera and uses the network interface vnic2. This will is called servera: create -b set zonepath =/ zones / servera set ip - type = exclusive set autoboot = false add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ lib end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ platform end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ sbin end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ usr end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ opt end add net set physical = vnic2 end commit The zone serverb uses the directory /zones/serverb and is configured to bind to the interface vnic4. Obviously i ve named the configuration file serverb

165 19 Crossbow create -b set zonepath =/ zones / serverb set ip - type = exclusive set autoboot = false add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ lib end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ platform end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ sbin end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ usr end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ opt end add net set physical = vnic4 end commit We have created both config files for the simulated servers. Now we do the same for our simulated router. The configuration of the router zone is a little bit longer as we need more network interfaces. I opened a file called router and filled it with the following content: create -b set zonepath =/ zones / router set ip - type = exclusive set autoboot = false add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ lib end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ platform end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ sbin end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ usr end 165

166 19 Crossbow add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ opt end add net set physical = vnic5 end add net set physical = vnic1 end add net set physical = vnic3 end commit sysidcfg files To speed up installation we create some sysidconfig files for our zones. Without this files, the installation would go interactive and you would have to use menus to provide the configuration informations. When you copy place such a file at /etc/sysidcfg the system will be initialized with the information provided in the file. I will start with the sysidcfg file of router zone: system_locale = C terminal = vt100 name_service = none netw ork_i nterfa ce = vnic5 { primary hostname = router1 ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = } netw ork_i nterfa ce = vnic1 { hostname = router1 - a ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } netw ork_i nterfa ce = vnic3 { hostname = router1 - b ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } nfs4_domain = dynamic root_password = cmul. HSJtwJ.I security_policy = none timeserver = localhost timezone =US/ Central After this, we create a second sysidconfig file for our first server zone. I store the following content into a file called servera_sysidcfg: 166

167 19 Crossbow system_locale = C terminal = vt100 name_service = none netw ork_i nterfa ce = vnic2 { primary hostname = server1 ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } nfs4_domain = dynamic root_password = cmul. HSJtwJ.I security_policy = none timeserver = localhost timezone =US/ Central When you look closely at the network_interface line you will see, that i didn t specified a default route. Please keep this in mind. In a last step i create serverb_sysidcfg. It s the config file for our second server zone: system_locale = C terminal = vt100 name_service = none netw ork_i nterfa ce = vnic4 { primary hostname = server2 ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } nfs4_domain = dynamic root_password = cmul. HSJtwJ.I security_policy = none timeserver = localhost timezone =US/ Central Firing up the zones After creating all this configuration files, we use them to create some zones. The procedure is similar for all zone. At first we do the configuration. After this we clone the template zone. As we located the template zone in a ZFS filesystem, the cloning takes just a second. Before we boot the zone, we place our configuration files we prepared while waiting for the installation of the template zone. # zonecfg - z router - f router # zoneadm - z router clone template Cloning snapshot rpool / zones / Instead of copying, a ZFS clone has been created for this zone. # cp router_sysidcfg / zones / router / root / etc / sysidcfg # cp site. xml / zones / router / root / var / svc / profile # zoneadm - z router boot 167

168 19 Crossbow We repeat the steps for servera. # zonecfg - z servera - f servera # zoneadm - z servera clone template Cloning snapshot rpool / zones / Instead of copying, a ZFS clone has been created for this zone. # cp servera_sysidcfg / zones / servera / root / etc / sysidcfg # cp site. xml / zones / servera / root / var / svc / profile # zoneadm - z servera boot At last we repeat it for our zone serverb again: # zonecfg - z serverb - f serverb # zoneadm - z serverb clone template Cloning snapshot rpool / zones / Instead of copying, a ZFS clone has been created for this zone. # cp serverb_sysidcfg / zones / serverb / root / etc / sysidcfg # cp site. xml / zones / serverb / root / var / svc / profile # zoneadm - z serverb boot After completing the last step, we display the existing zones. # zoneadm list -v ID NAME STATUS PATH BRAND IP 0 global running / native shared 13 router running / zones / router native excl 15 servera running / zones / servera native excl 19 serverb running / zones / serverb native excl All zones are up and running. Playing around with our simulated network At first a basic check. Let s try to plumb one of the VNICs already used in a zone. # ifconfig vnic2 plumb vnic2 is used by non - globalzone : servera Excellent. The system prohibits the plumbing. Before we can play with our mini network, we have to activate forwarding and routing on our new router. Since Solaris 10 this is really easy. There is a command for it: # routeadm -e ipv4 - forwarding # routeadm -e ipv4 - routing # routeadm -u # routeadm Configuration Current Current Option Configuration System State IPv4 routing enabled enabled 168

169 19 Crossbow Routing daemons : IPv6 routing disabled disabled IPv4 forwarding enabled enabled IPv6 forwarding disabled disabled Routing services " route : default ripng : default " STATE disabled disabled disabled disabled disabled disabled disabled disabled disabled online disabled disabled online FMRI svc :/ network / routing / zebra : quagga svc :/ network / routing / rip : quagga svc :/ network / routing / ripng : default svc :/ network / routing / ripng : quagga svc :/ network / routing / ospf : quagga svc :/ network / routing / ospf6 : quagga svc :/ network / routing / bgp : quagga svc :/ network / routing / isis : quagga svc :/ network / routing / rdisc : default svc :/ network / routing / route : default svc :/ network / routing / legacy - routing : ipv4 svc :/ network / routing / legacy - routing : ipv6 svc :/ network / routing / ndp : default This test goes only skin-deep into the capabilities of Solaris in regard of routing. But that is stuff for more than one LKSF tutorial. Now let s look into the routing table of one of our server: # netstat - nr Routing Table : IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface default UG 1 0 vnic U 1 0 vnic UH 1 49 lo0 Do you remember, that i ve asked you to keep in mind, that we didn t specified a default route in the sysidcfg? But why have we such an defaultrouter now. There is some automagic in the boot. When a system with a single interfaces comes up without an default route specified in /etc/defaultrouter or without being a dhcp client it automatically starts up the router discovery protocol as specified by RPC By using this protocol the hosts adds all available routers in the subnet as a defaultrouter. The rdisc protocol is implemented by the in.routed daemon. It implements two different protocols. The first one is the already mentioned rdisc protocol. But it implements the RIP protocol as well. The RIP protocol part is automagically activated when a system has more than one network interface. # ping is alive # traceroute traceroute to ( ), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets

170 19 Crossbow ( ) ms ms ms ( ) ms ms ms # As you can see... we ve builded a network in a box. Building a more complex network Let s extend our example a little bit. We will create an example with more networks and switches, more servers and router. For a quick overview i put the figure 19.2 on page 171. At first we configure additional etherstubs and VNICs: # dladm create - etherstub etherstub10 # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub1 routerb1 # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub10 routerb10 # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub10 serverc1 # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub1 routerc1 # dladm create - vnic - l etherstub10 routerc2 As you see, you are not bound to a certain numbering scheme. You can call a vnic as you want, as long it s beginning with letters and ending with numbers. Now we use an editor to create a configuration file for our routerb: create -b set zonepath =/ zones / routerb set ip - type = exclusive set autoboot = false add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ lib end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ platform end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ sbin end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ usr end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ opt end add net 170

171 19 Crossbow Figure 19.2: Extended virtual network with Crossbow 171

172 19 Crossbow set physical = routerb1 end add net set physical = routerb10 end commit We don t have to configure any default router in this sysidcfg even when the system is a router itself. The system boots up with a router and will get it s routing tables from the RIP protocol. system_locale = C terminal = vt100 name_service = none netw ork_i nterfa ce = routerb1 { primary hostname = routerb ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } netw ork_i nterfa ce = routerb10 { hostname = routerb - a ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } nfs4_domain = dynamic root_password = cmul. HSJtwJ.I security_policy = none timeserver = localhost timezone =US/ Central Okay, we can fire up the zone. # zonecfg - z routerb - f routerb # zoneadm - z routerb clone template Cloning snapshot rpool / zones / Instead of copying, a ZFS clone has been created for this zone. # cp routerb_sysidcfg / zones / routerb / root / etc / sysidcfg # cp site. xml / zones / routerb / root / var / svc / profile / # zoneadm - z routerb boot Okay, the next zone is the routerc zone. We bind it to the matching vnics in the zone configuration: create -b set zonepath =/ zones / routerc set ip - type = exclusive set autoboot = false add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ lib end 172

173 19 Crossbow add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ platform end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ sbin end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ usr end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ opt end add net set physical = routerc1 end add net set physical = routerc2 end commit The same rules as for the routerb apply to the routerc. We will rely on the routing protocols to provide a defaultroute, so we can just insert NONE into the sysidcfg for the default route. # cat routerc_sysidcfg system_locale = C terminal = vt100 name_service = none net work_i nterfa ce = routerc1 { primary hostname = routerb ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } netw ork_i nterfa ce = routerc2 { hostname = routerb - a ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } nfs4_domain = dynamic root_password = cmul. HSJtwJ.I security_policy = none timeserver = localhost timezone =US/ Central Okay, i assume you already know the following steps. It s just the same just with other files. # zonecfg - z routerc - f routerc # zoneadm - z routerc clone template 173

174 19 Crossbow Cloning snapshot rpool / zones / Instead of copying, a ZFS clone has been created for this zone. # cp routerb_sysidcfg / zones / routerc / root / etc / sysidcfg # cp site. xml / zones / routerc / root / var / svc / profile / # zoneadm - z routerc boot Okay, this is the last zone configuration in my tutorial. It s the zone for serverc: create -b set zonepath =/ zones / serverc set ip - type = exclusive set autoboot = false add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ lib end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ platform end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ sbin end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ usr end add inherit -pkg - dir set dir =/ opt end add net set physical = serverc1 end commit Again... no defaultroute... as this is a single-interface system we leave it to the ICMP Router Discovery Protocol to find the routers. So create a file called serverc. system_locale = C terminal = vt100 name_service = none netw ork_i nterfa ce = serverc1 { primary hostname = server2 ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = NONE } nfs4_domain = dynamic root_password = cmul. HSJtwJ.I security_policy = none timeserver = localhost timezone =US/ Central 174

175 19 Crossbow Well... it s zone startup time again... # zonecfg - z serverc - f routerc # zoneadm - z serverc clone template Cloning snapshot rpool / zones / Instead of copying, a ZFS clone has been created for this zone. # cp serverc_sysidcfg / zones / serverc / root / etc / sysidcfg # cp site. xml / zones / serverc / root / var / svc / profile / # zoneadm - z serverc boot So at first we have to make routers out of our routing zones. Obviously we have to login into the both routing zones and activating forwarding and routing. At first on routerb: # routeadm - e ipv4 - forwarding # routeadm - e ipv4 - routing # routeadm - u Afterwards on routerc. The command sequence is identical. # routeadm - e ipv4 - forwarding # routeadm - e ipv4 - routing # routeadm - u Now lets login into the console of our server: servera # netstat - nr Routing Table : IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface default UG 1 0 vnic2 default UG 1 0 vnic U 1 0 vnic UH 1 49 lo0 As you see, there are two default routers in the routing table. The host receives router advertisments from two routers, thus it adds both into the routing table. Now let s have a closer at the routing table of the routerb system. 175

176 19 Crossbow routerb # netstat - nr Routing Table : IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface default UG 1 0 routerb UG 1 0 routerb U 1 0 routerb U 1 0 routerb UH 1 23 lo0 This system has more than one devices. Thus the in.routed starts up as a RIP capable routing daemon. After a short moment the in.routed has learned enough about the network and adds it s routing table to the kernel. And after a short moment the routing tables of our router are filled with the routing informations provided by the routing protocols. Conclusion The scope of the virtualisation with crossbow part is wider than just testing. Imagine the following situation: You want to consolidate several servers in a complex networks, but you want or you cant change a configuration file. In regard of the networking configuration you just could simulate it in one machine. And as it s part of a single operating system kernel it is a very efficent way to do it. You don t need virtual I/O servers or something like that. It s the single underlying kernel of Solaris itself doing this job. Another interesting use case for Crossbow was introduced by Glenn Brunette in his concept for the immutable service containers

177 19.3 Bandwidth Limiting Demo environment 19 Crossbow I did the demonstration in a simple test environment. a340 is workstation under my desk connected with Gigabit Ethernet to an Airport Extreme (AE) in bridging mode. The system has the ip address and works as a server in this demo. It s a basic OpenSolaris installation with installed apache22-packages. a330 is a notebook connected via n to the same AE and it s used as the client The rationale for bandwitdth limiting One of the basic objects in the new Crossbow stack is the flow. Any network traffic is separated into such flows. And with this flows you can do several interesting things. In this article i want to present two usages of them: Bandwidth Limiting and Flow Accounting Of course, most of the times you want to transport data as fast as possible. But there are situations, where you want to limit the amount of network traffic. Let s assume you provider shared hosting on a platform and you want to sell certain service levels. For example a service level with unlimited bandwidth, one with 2 MBit/s per second and one with 8 MBit/s. If you don t have any mechanism to limit the bandwidth, anybody would just order the 2 MBit/s service as she or he get unlimited bandwidth in any case Configuring bandwidth limiting Let s measure the unlimited traffic at first to have a baseline for testing the limited transmissions. :/ tmp$ curl -o test1 http :// / random. bin % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed k k k 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--: k As you see we are able to download the data 6464 Kilobyte per second. Okay, let us impose a limit for the http server. At first we create a flow that matches on webserver traffic. a340 :~# flowadm add - flow - l e1000g0 - a transport = tcp, local_port =80 httpflow When you dissect this flow configuration you get to the following ruleset: 177

178 19 Crossbow the traffic is on the ethernet interface e1000g0 it is tcp traffic the local port is 80 for future reference the flow is called httpflow With flowadm show-flow we can check the current configuration of flows on our system. :~# flowadm show - flow FLOW LINK IPADDR PROTO PORT DSFLD httpflow e1000g0 -- tcp This is just the creation of the flow. To enable the bandwidth limiting we have to set some properties on this flow. To limit the traffic we have to use the maxbw property. For our first test, we set it to 2 Megabit/s: a340 :~# flowadm set - flowprop - p maxbw =2 m httpflow A quick check, if we did everything correct: :~# flowadm show - flowprop FLOW PROPERTY VALUE DEFAULT POSSIBLE httpflow maxbw m httpflow priority Now i use my laptop as a test client and download the file again: :/ tmp$ curl -o test1 http :// / random. bin % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed k k k 0 0:00:21 0:00:21 --:--: k As you see Kilobyte per second that s, roughly 2 MBit/s. Okay, now we try 8 Megabit/s as a limit: a340 :~# flowadm set - flowprop - p maxbw =8 m httpflow We check again for the properties of the httpflow :~# flowadm show - flowprop FLOW PROPERTY VALUE DEFAULT POSSIBLE httpflow maxbw m httpflow priority Okay, a quick test again: :/ tmp$ curl -o test1 http :// / random. bin % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed k k k 0 0:00:05 0:00:05 --:--: k Okay, we yield 933 Kilobyte/s. That s a little bit less than 8 Mbit/s 178

179 19 Crossbow 19.4 Accouting Okay, all the traffic in Crossbow is separated in flows (when it s not part of a configured flow, it s part of the default flow). It would be nice to use this flow information for accounting. Before doing the testing i activated the accounting with the following command line: a340 :~# acctadm - e extended - f / var / log / net. log net Now i can check for bandwidth usage. For example when i want to know the traffic usage between 18:20 and 18:24 on June 20th 2009 i can use the flowadm show-usage account you yield this data from the file i ve configured before (in my case /var/log/net.log :~# flowadm show - usage -s 06/20/2009,18:20:00 -e 06/20/2009,18:24:00 -f / var / log / net. log FLOW START END RBYTES OBYTES BANDWIDTH httpflow 18:20:27 18:20: Mbps httpflow 18:20:47 18:21: Mbps httpflow 18:21:07 18:21: Mbp httpflow 18:21:27 18:21: Mbps httpflow 18:21:47 18:22: Mbps httpflow 18:22:07 18:22: Mbps httpflow 18:22:27 18:22: Mbps httpflow 18:22:47 18:23: Mbps httpflow 18:23:07 18:23: Mbp httpflow 18:23:27 18:23: Mbps The capability to do accounting on a per flow basis makes this feature really interesting even when you don t want to configure a traffic limit. So i configured an additional flow for SMTP traffic and now the accounting is capable to separate between the HTTP and the SMTP traffic: :~# flowadm show - flow -s FLOW IPACKETS RBYTES IERRORS OPACKETS OBYTES OERRORS httpflow smtpflow

180 20 kssl - an in-kernel SSL proxy There is an interesting feature in Solaris. It is called kssl. One component of this feature is obvious: SSL. So it has something to do with SSL encryption. As you may have already guessed, the k at the beginning stands for kernel. And kssl is exactly this: A proxy to do all the encryption stuff in a kernel module. This feature is already four years old. Ive reported about kssl back in December for the first time. After talking with a customer two days ago and looking at some new material about it 2, i thought it could not harm to write a new tutorial about this topic. So much appearances in such a small timeframe are a hint ;) The reasons for SSL in the kernel There are several good reasons to to encryption in the kernel. The kssl proxy uses the Solaris Cryptographic Framework. Even when the application doesnt support cryptographic libraries with PKCS#11 support, you can use the advantages of the framework like the seamless integration of hardware cryptography The application server just see unencrypted traffic. The complete handshake is done in the kernel-space. Its done asynchronously and the application isnt involved in this task. You dont have to wake up the webserver for the SSL handshake to process all the messages nescessary for SSL. By offloading SSL into this kernel module you can yield a much better performance. Krishna Yenduri states in a presentation: SPECweb05 banking is the main benchmark. Performance gain of more than 20% compared to a user land SSL web server. SPECweb99 SSL showed gains of more than 35%

181 20.2 Configuration 20 kssl - an in-kernel SSL proxy The configuration of an SSL proxy is really easy. At first you need a certifcate and the key. For this experiment we will use a self-signed certificate. Ive called the system a380, thus i have to use this name in my certificate. Use the name of your own system in your configuration. Furthermore the kssl system expect key and certificate in a single file. We concatenate both files afterwards: # mkdir / etc / keys # cd / etc / keys # openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -subj "/C=DE/ST= Hamburg /L= Hamburg /CN= a380 " - newkey rsa :1024 -keyout / etc / keys / mykey. pem -out / etc / keys / mycert. pem # cat mycert. pem mykey. pem > my.pem # chown 600 * Now we configure the kssl proxy: # echo " pass " > / etc / keys /my. pass # ksslcfg create -f pem -i / etc / keys /my.pem -x p / etc / keys /my. pass a At first we create a file to automatically answer the passphrase question. Afterwards we configure the kssl service. This configuration statement tells the system to get the keys and from a pem file. The -i option specifies the location of the file. -p tells the service where it finds the passphrase file. At the end you find a This specifies on which interface and on which port the ssl should listen. At last the -x 8080 specifies to what port the the unencrypted traffic should be redirected. After configuring this service, you should see a new service managed by SMF: # svcs - a grep " kssl " online 9:03:33 svc :/ network / ssl / proxy :kssl -a Obviously we need a webserver in the backend that listens to port I assume, that you ve already installed an Apache on your server. We just add a single line to the configuration file of the webserver. # svcadm disable apache22 # echo " Listen :8080" >> / etc / apache2 /2.2/ httpd. conf # svcadm enable apache22 When you put https://a380:443 in your browser, you should see an encrypted It works page after you dismissed the dialog warning you of the self-signed certificate. Or to show it to you on the command line: 181

182 20 kssl - an in-kernel SSL proxy # openssl s_client - connect :443 CONNECTED ( ) depth =0 /C=DE/ST= Hamburg /L= Hamburg /CN= a380 verify error : num =18: self signed certificate verify return :1 depth =0 /C=DE/ST= Hamburg /L= Hamburg /CN= a380 verify return :1 --- Certificate chain 0 s:/c=de/st= Hamburg /L= Hamburg /CN= a380 i:/c=de/st= Hamburg /L= Hamburg /CN= a Server certificate BEGIN CERTIFICATE MIICoTCCAgqgAwIBAgIJAKyJdj / [...] V5jX3MU = END CERTIFICATE subject =/C=DE/ST= Hamburg /L= Hamburg /CN= a380 issuer =/C=DE/ST= Hamburg /L= Hamburg /CN= a No client certificate CA names sent --- SSL handshake has read 817 bytes and written 328 bytes --- New, TLSv1 / SSLv3, Cipher is RC4 - SHA Server public key is 1024 bit Compression : NONE Expansion : NONE SSL - Session : Protocol : TLSv1 Cipher : RC4 - SHA Session -ID: 32 CEF20CB9FE2A71C74D40BB2DB5CB304DA1B57540B7CFDD113915B99DBE9812 Session -ID - ctx : Master - Key : 1 E7B C5763B5E4BBAF0A9B0693D08DCA8A587B503A5C5027B6FAD9C --- Key - Arg : None Start Time : Timeout : 300 ( sec ) Verify return code : 18 ( self signed certificate ) 182

183 20 kssl - an in-kernel SSL proxy GET / HTTP /1.0 HTTP / OK Date : Fri, 22 May :39:13 GMT Server : Apache / ( Unix ) mod_ ssl / OpenSSL / a DAV /2 Last - Modified : Thu, 21 May :26:30 GMT ETag : "341 f3-2c -46 a72cc211a8f " Accept - Ranges : bytes Content - Length : 44 Connection : close Content - Type : text / html <html ><body ><h1 >It works! </h1 > </ body > </ html > read : errno =0 Voila, web server encrypted without a single line of SSL configuration in the webserver config files itself Conclusion Its really easy to add an kssl proxy in front of your webserver. So it isn t difficult to make encrypted webserving more efficient Do you want to learn more? man pages ksslcfg(1m) 3 Other CZOSUG: KSSL - Solaris Kernel SSL proxy - presentation about KSSL. 4 KSSL A Kernel Level SSL Server Proxy - a deep dive presentation about KSSL

184 Part V Storage 184

185 21 fssnap - snapshots for UFS An ever recurring problem while doing backups is the problem, that you have to keep the state of the backup consistent. For example: You use the cyrus imapd for storing mails on a system. As it s a system used for years, the message store is still on an UFS file system. Okay, now there is a little problem: You want to make backups, but it s a mail server. With the amount of mail junkies in modern times, you can t take the system offline for an hour or so, just to make a backup. But you have to take it offline. Especially a mail server is a moving target, as cyrus imapd has indexes for its mailboxes, and index files for the mailboxes itself. Let s assume a backup takes 1 hour, and users delete mails in this time, create mailboxes and so on. It s possible that you backup your mailserver in an inconsistent state, that the mail directory of the user may represent the state one hour ago, but the mailboxes file represent the state of one minute ago fssnap UFS has a little known feature, that comes to help in such a situation. You can do a filesystem snapshot of the system. This is a non-changing point-in-time view to the filesystem, while you can still change the original filesystem. fssnap is a rather old tool. We ve introduced in the 1/01 update of Solaris 8. There is a restriction with this snapshots: This snapshots are solely for the purpose of backups, thus they are not boot persistent. For boot persistent snapshots of a filesystem you will need the Sun Availability Suite A practical example. Let s assume that we have a directory called /mailserver. This directory is the mountpoint for a UFS filesystem on /dev/dsk/c1d1s1. At the moment it contains some files: 185

186 21 fssnap - snapshots for UFS # ls -ls total rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile1 2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile2 2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile3 2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile4 2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testindex1 Now we want to make a backup. It s sensible to take the mail server offline for a few seconds to keep the files consistent. In this moment we make the filesystem snapshot. This is really easy: # fssnap - o bs =/ tmp / mailserver / dev / fssnap /0 With this command we told fssnap to take an snapshot of the filesystem mounted at /mailserver. Furthermore we configured that the snapshot uses the /tmp for its backing store. In the backing store the changes since the snapshot will be recorded. When fssnap is able to create the snapshot, it will return the name for the pseudo device containing the filesystem snapshot. In our case it s /dev/fssnap/0. Please remember it, we need it later. When you look at the /tmp directory you will find an backing store file for this snapshot. It s called snapshot0 for the first snapshot on the system: # ls -l / tmp total rw -r--r-- 1 root root 30 Apr 22 14:50 ogl_select305 -rw root root Apr 23 01:47 snapshot0 Now we bring the mailserver online again, and after a few seconds we see changes to the filesystem again (okay, in my example I will do this manually): # mkfile 1 k testfile5 # mkfile 1 k testfile6 # mkfile 2 k testindex1 # ls -l total 16 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile1 186

187 21 fssnap - snapshots for UFS -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile3 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile4 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:53 testfile5 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:53 testfile6 -rw T 1 root root 2048 Apr 23 01:53 testindex1 Now we want to make the backup itself. At first we have to mount the filesystem. Thus we create a mountpoint # mkdir / mailserver_forbackup Now we mount the snapshot. You will recognize the pseudo device here again. The snapshot is read only thus you have to specify it at mount time: # mount -o ro / dev / fssnap /0 / mailserver_forbackup Okay, when we look into the filesystem, we will see the state of the filesystem at the moment of the snapshot. testfile5, testfile6 and the bigger testindex1 are missing. # ls -l total 10 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile1 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile3 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testfile4 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 23 01:41 testindex1 Now we can to a backup without any problems and in a consistent manner: # tar cfv / backup_mailserver_ tar * a testfile1 1 K a testfile2 1 K a testfile3 1 K a testfile4 1 K a testindex1 1 K After this step we should clean-up. We unmount the snapshot and delete the snapshot with its backing store file: # umount / mailserver_forbackup # fssnap - d / mailserver Deleted snapshot 0. # rm / tmp / snapshot0 187

188 21 fssnap - snapshots for UFS 21.3 Conclusion With the fssnap command you have an easy way to do consistent backups on UFS filesystems. While it s not as powerful as the functions of the point-in-time copy functionality in the Availability Suite, it s a perfect match for its job Do you want to learn more? fssnap fssnap ufs 188

189 22 iscsi 22.1 Introduction With more and more available bandwidth it gets more and more feasible to use only a single network to transmit data in the datacenter. Networking can get really complex when you have to implement two networks. For example for Ethernet and one for FC. It s getting more complex and expensive, as FC network are mostly optical ones and Ethernet is a copper network in most datacenters. The idea of using a single network for both isn t really a new one, thus there were several attempts to develop mechanisms to allow the usage of remote block devices. One of the protocols to use block devices over IP networks is iscsi. iscsi is a protocol that was designed to allow clients to send SCSI commands to SCSI storage devices on a remote server. There are other technologies like ATA or FC over Ethernet that were designed, but iscsi is the most interesting one from my point of view, as you can use already existing and proven methods implemented for IP (for example IPsec) for encrypting the traffic. The problem with iscsi is the latency introduced with the usage of IP. But this problem can be solved by the usage of iser or iscsi Extensions for RDMA to use iscsi as part of single-fabric network based on Infiniband. We already implement this mechanism in Solaris as a part of the COMSTAR iser 1 project The jargon of iscsi Yet another technology with its own jargon. I will only define the most important: Initiator: The initiator is the client at iscsi. It s like the SCSI card in your machine, but instead of a SCSI cable it uses IP for the SCSI commands. Target: The target is a storage resource on a iscsi server

190 22 iscsi LUN : A LUN is the logical unit number. It represents an individual SCSI device. In iscsi it s similar. When you want to use an iscsi disk drive, the initiator connects the target and connects the initiator with the LUN in a iscsi session. IQN : To identify a target or an initiator, one of the naming schemes is the iscsi Qualified Name (IQN). An example for an IQN is iqn com.sun:02:b29a71fbff60-c2c6-c92f-ff e The architecture of iscsi The combination of all this components can be visualized like in this figure: Figure 22.1: The components of iscsi It s a little bit simplified, but this is the core idea of iscsi: How do I present a LUN on a remote server to another server via an IP network Simple iscsi At first I will show you, how to do a really simple iscsi configuration. This is without any authentication. Thus everybody can connect to the iscsi targets on the system. But this is sufficient for a test. And it s this is better for having a quick success. ;) Environment For this example, I will use my both demo VMs again: 190

191 22 iscsi theoden gandalf Both systems runs with Solaris Express Build 84 for x86, but you can to the same with Solaris Update 4 for SPARC and x86 as well. In our example, theoden is the server with the iscsi target. gandalf is the server, which wants to use the LUN via iscsi on theoden, thus gandalf is the server with the initiator Prerequisites At first, we login to theoden and assume root privileges. Okay, to test iscsi we need some storage volumes to play around. There is a nice way to create a playground with ZFS. You can use files as devices. But at first we have to create this files # mkdir / zfstest # cd / zfstest # mkfile 128 m test1 # mkfile 128 m test2 # mkfile 128 m test3 # mkfile 128 m test4 Okay, now we stripe those four files in a zpool: # zpool create testpool / zfstest / test1 / zfstest / test2 / zfstest / test3 / zfstest / test4 Now we make a short check for the zpool # zpool list NAME SIZE USED AVAIL CAP HEALTH ALTROOT testpool 492 M 97 K 492 M 0% ONLINE Configuring the iscsi Target We stay at server theoden. Okay, now we have to configure an iscsi target. We create an emulated volume within the ZFS pool: # zfs create - V 200 m testpool / zfsvolume # zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT testpool 200 M 260 M 18 K / testpool testpool / zfsvolume 200 M 460 M 16 K - 191

192 22 iscsi The emulated volume has the size of 200M.Okay, it s really easy to enable the iscsi target. At first we have to enable the iscsi Target service: # svcadm enable iscsitgt Now we share the volume via iscsi # zfs set shareiscsi = on testpool / zfsvolume That s all on the target Configuring the iscsi initiator Okay, now we have configure the initiator. We have to login on gandalf and assume root privileges as well. At first we have to activate the initiator via SMF: # svcadm enable iscsi_initiator After this we configure the initiator and tell the initiator to discover devices on our iscsi target. # iscsiadm modify initiator - node - A gandalf # iscsiadm add discovery - address # iscsiadm modify discovery - t enable Using the iscsi device Okay, now tell Solaris to scan for iscsi devices. # devfsadm - c iscsi The -c iscsi limits the scan to iscsi devices. With the format command we look for the available disks in the system: # format Searching for disks... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS : 0. c0d0 < DEFAULT cyl 4076 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63 > / pci - / 1. c1d0 < DEFAULT cyl 4077 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63 > / pci - / 2. c2t c42e9f21a00002a0047e39e34d0 < DEFAULT cyl 198 alt 2 hd 64 sec 32 > 192

193 22 iscsi / scsi_vhci / Specify disk ( enter its number ): ^ C Okay, there is new device with a really long name. We can use this device for a zfs pool: # zpool create zfsviaiscsi c2t c42e9f21a00002a0047e39e34d0 # zpool list NAME SIZE USED AVAIL CAP HEALTH ALTROOT zfsviaiscsi 187 M 480 K 187 M 0% ONLINE - # As you see, we have created a zfs filesystem via iscsi on an emulated volume on a zpool on a remote system Bidirectional authenticated iscsi Okay, but we are in a public network. How can we protect the target against a user not allowed to use it? iscsi supports a CHAP 2 based authentication. It s the same scheme as with PPP. With this authentication, target and initiator can authenticate each other based on shared secrets. The configuration is a little bit more complex, as both initiator and target have to know the secrets and their names of each other Prerequisites At first we need some basic data. We need the IQN names of both. At first we look up the IQN of the initiator. Thus we login to gandalf and assume root privileges: # iscsiadm list initiator - node Initiator node name : iqn com. sun : 01: b89a.47 e38163 Initiator node alias : gandalf [...] Now we look up the IQN of the target. Okay, we login to theoden and assume root privileges:

194 22 iscsi # iscsitadm list target Target : testpool / zfsvolume iscsi Name : iqn com. sun :02: b29a71fb -ff60 -c2c6 -c92f - ff e6 iqn com. sun :02: b29a71fb -ff60 -c2c6 -c92f - ff e6 Connections : 1 Both IQNs are important in the following steps. We need them as a identifier for the systems Configuring the initiator At first we export the zpool and disable the discovery of targets. This steps has to be done on the initiator, in our example gandalf: # zpool export zfsviaiscsi # iscsiadm remove discovery - address # devfsadm - c iscsi - C You don t have to do this steps. The zpool may only get unavailable while we configure the authentication and you will see a few more lines in your logfiles. Okay, now we configure the CHAP authentication. # iscsiadm modify initiator - node -- CHAP - name gandalf # iscsiadm modify initiator - node -- CHAP - secret Enter secret : Re - enter secret : # iscsiadm modify initiator - node -- authentication CHAP What have we done with this statements: We told the iscsi initiator to identify itself as gandalf. Then we set the password and tell the initiator to use CHAP to authenticate Configuring the target Okay, now we configure the target to use CHAP as well. This has to be done on the target, in our example theoden. But at first we have to set the CHAP name and the CHAP secret of the target itself: # iscsitadm modify admin -- chap - name theoden # iscsitadm modify admin -- chap - secret Enter secret : Re - enter secret : 194

195 22 iscsi This isn t an admin login. This is a little misguiding. Now we create an initiator object on the target.we connect the long IQN with a shorter name. # iscsitadm create initiator -- iqn iqn com. sun :01: b89a.47 e38163 gandalf Now we tell the target, that the initiator on the system gandalfwill identify itself with the name gandalf: # iscsitadm modify initiator -- chap - name gandalf gandalf Okay, now we set the password for this initiator. This is the same password we set on the initiator. # iscsitadm modify initiator -- chap - secret gandalf Enter secret : Re - enter secret : Finally we tell the target, that the system gandalf is allowed to access the testpool/zfsvolume: # iscsitadm modify target -- acl gandalf test / zfsvolume Now the initiator has to authenticate itself before the target daemon grants access to the target. You could skip the next steps and fast-forward to the section Reactivation of the zpool but the authentication is only unidirectional at the moment. The client(initiator) authenticate itself at the server(target) Configuration of bidirectional configuration Okay, but it would be nice, that the target identifies himself to initiator as well. Okay, at first we tell the initiator, that the target with the IQN iqn com.sun:02:b29a71fb-ff60-c2c6- will authenticate itself with the name theoden. This steps has to be done on the initiator, thus we login into gandalf again. # iscsiadm modify target - param -- CHAP - name theoden iqn com. sun :02: b29a71fb -ff60 -c2c6 -c92f - ff e6 Now we set the secret to authenticate. This is the secret we configured as the CHAP-Secret on the target with iscsitadm modify admin --chap-secret: # iscsiadm modify target - param --CHAP - secret iqn com. sun :02: b29a71fb -ff60 -c2c6 -c92f - ff e6 Enter secret : Re - enter secret : 195

196 22 iscsi Now we activate the bidirectional authentication for the IQN of theoden: # iscsiadm modify target - param -- bi - directional - authentication enable iqn com. sun :02: b29a71fb -ff60 -c2c6 -c92f - ff e6 At last we tell the initiator to authenticate the target with CHAP. # iscsiadm modify target - param -a chap iqn com. sun :02: b29a71fb -ff60 -c2c6 -c92f - ff e6 Okay, now we have completed the configuration for the bidirectional authentication Reactivation of the zpool Okay... now we can reactivate the zpool. We tell the initiator to discover targets on the target server again, scan for devices and import the zpool again: # iscsiadm add discovery - address # devfsadm - c iscsi - C # zpool import zfsviaiscsi # cd / zfsviaiscsi / 22.6 Alternative backing stores for iscsi volume Albeit very easy to use iscsi in conjunction with ZFS emulated volumes it doesn t have to be this way. You can use different kinds of backing store for iscsi File based iscsi target One way to provide for storage for an iscsi target. You can use files for this task. Okay, we have to login as root on theoden: # mkdir - p / var / iscsitargets # iscsitadm modify admin - d / var / iscsitargets At first we ve created an directory to keep the files, then we tell the target daemon to use this for storing the target. After this we can create the target: # iscsitadm create target -- size 128 m smalltarget Now we can check for the iscsi Target. 196

197 22 iscsi # iscsitadm list target - v smalltarget Target : smalltarget iscsi Name : iqn com. sun :02:3898 c6a7-1 f43 -e298 -e d10f88131d. smalltarget Connections : 0 ACL list : TPGT list : LUN information : LUN : 0 GUID : c42e9f21a00002a0047e45145 VID : SUN PID : SOLARIS Type : disk Size : 128 M Status : offline Now we switch to the server we use as an initiator. Let s scan for new devices on gandalf. As we ve activated the discovery of targets before, we ve just have to scan for new devices. # devfsadm - c iscsi - C # format Searching for disks... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS : 0. c0d0 < DEFAULT cyl 4076 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63 > / pci - / 1. c1d0 < DEFAULT cyl 4077 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63 > / pci - / 2. c2t c42e9f21a00002a0047e39e34d0 <SUN - SOLARIS MB > / scsi_vhci / 3. c2t c42e9f21a00002a0047e45145d0 < DEFAULT cyl 126 alt 2 hd 64 sec 32 > / scsi_vhci / Specify disk ( enter its number ): Specify disk ( enter its number ): ^ C # Et voila, an additional LUN is available on our initiator. 197

198 22 iscsi Thin-provisioned target backing store One nice thing about ZFS is it s ability to provide thin provisioned emulated ZFS volumes (zvol). You can configure a volume of an larger size than the physical storage you have available. This is useful, when you want to have an volume in it s final size (because resizing would be a pain in the a...) but don t want do spend the money for the disks because you know that much less storage would be needed at first. It s really easy to create such a kind of a zvol: # zfs create - s - V 2 g testpool / bigvolume That s all. The difference is the small -s. It tells ZFS to create an sparse (aka thin) provisioned volume. Well, I won t enable iscsi for this by shareiscsi=on itself. I will configure this manually. As normal volumes zvols are available within the /dev tree of your filesystem: # ls -l / dev / zvol / dsk / testpool total 4 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 35 Mar 22 02: 09 bigvolume ->../../../../ devices / pseudo / :2c lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 35 Mar 21 12: 33 zfsvolume ->../../../../ devices / pseudo / :1c Okay, we can use this devices as a backing store for an iscsi target as well. We ve created a zvol bigvolume within the zpool testpool. Thus the device is /dev/zvol/dsk/testpool/bigvolume: # iscsitadm create target - b / dev / zvol / dsk / testpool / bigvolume bigtarget Okay, im switching to my root shell on the initiator. Again we scan for devices: # devfsadm - c iscsi - C # format Searching for disks... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS : 0. c0d0 < DEFAULT cyl 4076 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63 > / pci - / 1. c1d0 < DEFAULT cyl 4077 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63 > / pci - / 2. c2t c42e9f21a00002a0047e39e34d0 <SUN - SOLARIS MB > / scsi_vhci / 198

199 22 iscsi Let s create an zpool: 3. c2t c42e9f21a00002a0047e45db2d0 < DEFAULT cyl 1021 alt 2 hd 128 sec 32 > / scsi_vhci / # zpool create zfsviaiscsi_thin c2t c42e9f21a00002a0047e45db2d0 # zpool list NAME SIZE USED AVAIL CAP HEALTH ALTROOT zfsviaiscsi 187 M 112 K 187 M 0% ONLINE - zfsviaiscsi_ thin G 374 K G 0% ONLINE - Do you remember, that we used four 128 MB files as the devices for our zpool on our target. Well, you have an 1.98G filesystem running on this files. You can add more storage to the zpool on the target and you have nothing to do on the initiator. Not a real kicker for ZFS, but imagine the same for other filesystem that can t be grown so easy like a zpool Conclusion Okay, this was a quick introduction to the actual implementation of iscsi on Solaris. The future will bring changes to the implementation of the iscsi target feature but new possibilities as well. iscsi will be an part of the COMSTAR framework 3 in the future besides of an SAS target or an FC target Do you want to learn more? Documentation docs.sun.com: Configuring Solaris iscsi Targets and Initiators 4 Using iscsi Multipathing in the Solaris(tm) 10 Operating System 5 Misc links. prefetch.net: Getting to know the Solaris iscsi stack

200 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite 23.1 Introduction Solaris was designed with commercial customers in mind. Thus this operating environment has some capabilities that are somewhat useless for the soho user, but absolutely essential for enterprise users. One of this capabilities is remote replication of disk volumes. Imagine the following situation. You have a database and a filesystem for a central application of your company. The filesystem stores binary objects (for example images or something like that). The application is so important for your company, that you plan to build a replicated site. And now your problems start. Replicating a database is fairly easy. Most databases have some functionality to do a master/replica replication. Filesystems are a little bit harder. Of course you can use rsync, but whats with the data you wrote after the last rsync run and the failure of your main system. And how do you keep the database and the filesystem consistent? The Solaris operating environment has a feature to solve this problem. It s called Availability Suite (in short AVS). It s a rather old feature, but I would call it a matured feature. The first versions of the tool wasn t really enterprise ready and this led to some rude nick names for this feature, but that s so long ago... AVS was designed to give the operating environment the capability to replicate a volume to another site independently from the way it s used. Thus it s irrelevant, if the volume is used by a filesystem, as a raw device for a database. Well you can even use it to give ZFS the capability to do a synchronous replication (a feature missing today) AVS has a point-in-time-copy feature (something similar to snapshots) as well, but this tutorial will concentrate to the remote mirror capability. Some words about Sun StorageTek Availability Suite at first: We ve opensourced the product quite a while ago. While it s a commercial product for Solaris, we ve integrated it into Solaris Express Community Edition and Developer Edition. 200

201 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite 23.2 Implementation of the replication The integration of the replication into Solaris is relatively simple. The replication is done by a filter driver in front of the storage device drivers. You can think of it as: Data destined to the harddisk is intercepted by this driver before it goes to the disk to handle the data accordingly to the configuration. This driver can write the data directly to an equivalent driver on a different system or to a queue for later transmission. Furthermore the data is directed to the normal path to the local harddisk Wording Some definitions are important to understand the following text: primary host/primary volume: The volume or host which acts as the source of the replication secondary host/secondary volume: The volume or host which acts as the target of the replication bitmap volume: Each secondary and primary volume has a so called bitmap volume. This bitmap volume is used to store the changes to the primary or secondary volume when replication has failed or was deliberately stopped 23.4 Synchronous Replication AVS supports two modes of replication. The first mode is the synchronous replication. From the standpoint to ensure that master and replica are identical volume, this is the best method. A system call writing to a replicated volumes doesn t complete until the replica has confirmed, that the data was written to the replicated volume. By this mode of operation it s ensured that all data committed do disk are on both volumes. This is important for databases for example. But it has an disadvantage as well: A single write takes much longer. You have to factor in the round trip time on the network and the amount of time needed to write the data on the replicated disk. 201

202 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite 23.5 Asynchronous Replication Out of this reason, asynchronous replication was introduced. You can use it in environments with less strict requirements. In this mode the write system calls return when the data has written to the replicated volume and to a per-volume queue. From this queue data is sent to the secondary host. When the secondary host writes the data to the disk, it acknowledges this and the primary host deletes the data from the queue. This method has the advantage of introducing much less latency to the writes of the system. Especially for long-range replications this is a desired behavior. This comes at a price: In the case of a failure, a committed read from an application may reside in a replication queue but isn t transmitted to the secondary host Choosing the correct mode Choosing the correct mode is difficult. You have to do an trade-off between performance and integrity. You can speed up synchronous replication by faster networks with a few hops between both hosts, but a soon as you leave your campus this can be a costly endeavor. You should think about one point: Is the need for up to the last committed transaction a real or an assumed need. My experience from the last seven years Sun: As soon as you show people the price tag of % availability, the requirements get more differentiated. Or to bring it in a context with remote mirroring: Before ordering this extremely fast and extremely expensive leased line you should talk with the stakeholders with they really need synchronous replication Synchronization Okay, the replication takes care of keeping the replicated volume and the replica identical, when the software runs. But how to sync both volumes when starting replication or later on, when the replication was interrupted? The process to solve this is called synchronization. AVS Remote Mirror knows four modes of replication: Full replication: You do at least one full replication with every volume. It s the first one. The full replication copies all data to the secondary volume. 202

203 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Update replication : When the volume is in logging mode, the changes to the primary volume is stored on the bitmap volume. Thus with the update replication you can transmit only the changed blocks to the secondary volume. Full reverse replication This is the other way round. Let s assume you ve done a failover to your remote site, and you ve worked on the replicated volume for some time. Now you want to switch back to your normal datacenter. You have to transport the changes from the mean time to your primary site as well. Thus there is a replication mode called reverse replication. The full reverse replication copies all data from the secondary volume to the primary volume. Update reverse replication: The secondary volume has a bitmap volume as well. Thus you can do an update replication from the secondary to the primary volume as well. Okay, but what mode of replication should you choose? For the first replication it s easy... full replication. After this, there is a simple rule of thumb: Whenever in doubt of the integrity of the target volume, use the full replication Logging At last there is another important term in this technology: Logging. This has nothing to do with writing log messages about the daemons of AVS. Logging is a special mode of operation. This mode is entered when the replication is interrupted. In this case the changes to the primary and secondary will be recorded in the bitmap volume. It s important that Logging don t record the change itself. It stores only the information, that a part of the volume has changed. Logging makes the resynchronization of volumes after a disaster more efficient, as you only have to resync the changed parts of a volume as I ve explained for the mechanism of update replication before Prerequisites for this tutorial In this tutorial we need to work with two systems. I will use theoden and gandalf again theoden gandalf 203

204 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Layout of the disks Both systems have a boot disk and two disks for data. The data disks have a size of 512 MB. In my example this disks are c1d0 and c1d1. I ve partitioned each disk in the same manner: # prtvtoc / dev / rdsk / c1d0s2. / dev / rdsk / c1d0s2 partition map [..]. First Sector Last. Partition Tag Flags Sector Count Sector Mount Directory It s important that the primary and secondary partitions and their respective bitmap partitions are equal in size. Furthermore: Don t use cylinder 0 for partitions under the control of AVS. This cylinder may contain administrative information from other components of the systems. Replication of this information may lead to data loss Size for the bitmap volume In my example I ve chosen a 32 MB bitmap partition for a 512 MB data partition. This is vastly too large for the use case. You can calculate the size for the bitmap size as follows: Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 1 + (Size Datavolume in GB 4) Let s assume a 10 GB volume for Data: Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 1 + (10 4) Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 41kb Usage of the devices in our example The first partition c1dxs0 is used as the bitmap volume. The second volume c1dxs1 is used as the primary volume on the source of the replication respectively the secondary volume on the target of the replication. 204

205 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Setting up an synchronous replication Okay, at first we have to enable AVS on both hosts. At first we activate it on theoden [ theoden :~] $ dscfgadm - e This command may ask for the approval to create the config database, when you run this command for the first time. Answert this question with y.after this we switch to gandalf to do the same. [ gandalf :~] $ dscfgadm - e Now we can establish the replication. We login at theoden first, and configure this replication. [ :~] $ sndradm -e theoden / dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 gandalf / dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 ip sync Enable Remote Mirror? (Y/N) [N]: y What have we configured? We told AVS to replicate the content of /dev/rdsk/c1d0s1 on theoden to /dev/rdsk/c1d0s1 on gandalf. AVS uses the /dev/rdsk/c1d0s1 volume on each system as the bitmap volume for this application. At the end of this command we configure, that the replication uses IP and it s a synchronous replication. Okay, but we have to configure it on the targeted system of the replication as well: [ :~] $ sndradm -e theoden / dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 gandalf / dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 ip sync Enable Remote Mirror? (Y/N) [N]: y We repeat the same command we used on code theoden /code on gandalf as well. Forgetting to do this step is one of the most frequent errors in regard of setting up an remote mirror. An interesting command in regard of AVS remote mirror is the dsstat command. It shows the status and some statistic data about your replication. [ theoden :~] $ dsstat - m sndr name t s pct role kps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P L net dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp The doesn t stand for 100% of the replication is completed. It standing for 100% of the replication to do. We have to start the replication manually. Okay, more formally the meaning of this column is percentage of the volume in need of syncing. And as we freshly configured this replication it s obivous, that the complete volume needs synchronisation. 205

206 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Two other columns are important, too: It s the code t /code and the code s /code column. The code t /code column designates the volume type and the code s /code the status of the volume. In this case we ve observed the primary volume and it s in the logging mode. It records changes, but doesn t replicate them right now to the secondary volume. Okay, so let s start the synchronisation: [ :~] $ sndradm -m gandalf :/ dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 Overwrite secondary with primary? (Y/N) [N]: y We can lookup the progress of the sync with the code dsstat /code command again: [ theoden :~] $ dsstat - m sndr name t s pct role kps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P SY net Inf 0 - NaN dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp Inf 0 - NaN [ theoden :~] $ dsstat - m sndr name t s pct role kps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P SY net Inf 0 - NaN dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp Inf 0 - NaN [...] [ theoden :~] $ dsstat - m sndr name t s pct role kps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P SY net Inf 0 - NaN dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp Inf 0 - NaN [ theoden :~] $ dsstat - m sndr name t s pct role kps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P R net dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp When we start the synchronization the status of the volume switches to SY for synchronizing. After a while the sync is complete. The status switches again, this time to R for replicating. From this moment all changes to the primary volume will be replicated to the secondary one. Now let s play around with our new replication set by using the primary volume. Create a filesystem on it for example, mount it and play around with it: [ :~] $ newfs / dev / dsk / c1d0s1 newfs : construct a new file system / dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 : (y/n)? y / dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 : sectors in 473 cylinders of 64 tracks, 32 sectors MB in 30 cyl groups (16 c/g, MB/g, 7680 i/g) super - block backups ( for fsck - F ufs - o b =#) at: 206

207 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite 32, 32832, 65632, 98432, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , [ :~] $ mount / dev / dsk / c1d0s1 / mnt [ :~] $ cd / mnt [ :~] $ touch test [ :~] $ cp / var / log /*. [ :~] $ mkfile 1 k test2 Okay, in a few seconds I will show you, that all changes really get to the other side Testing the replication One of the most essential tasks when configuring disaster recovery mechanism is training the procedure. Thus let s test the switch into our remote datacenter. We will simulate a failure now. This will show that the data really gets replicated to a different system ;) Disaster test Okay, at first we leave a timestamp in our replicated filesystem, just for testing this feature. I assume, that it s still mounted on the primary host. [ :~] $# cd / mnt [ :~] $ ls aculog blah2 lastlog messages sulog utmpx blah ds. log lost + found spellhist test wtmpx [ :~] $ date > timetest [ :~] $ cat timetest Sat Mar 29 19:28:51 CET 2008 [ :~] $ cd / [ :~] $ umount / mnt Please keep the timestamp in mind. Now we switch both mirrors into the logging mode. As an alternative you can disconnect the network cable. This will have the same effect. Whenever the network link between the both hosts is unavailable, both volume will be set to the logging mode. As I use virtual servers, I can t disconnect a network cable, thus can t do it this way. Okay

208 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite [ theoden :~] $ sndradm - l Put Remote Mirror into logging mode? (Y/N) [N]: y When you look at the status of the replication on theoden, you will see the logging state again. [ :~] $ dsstat name t s pct role ckps dkps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P L net dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp On gandalf it s the same. [ :~] $ dsstat name t s pct role ckps dkps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 S L net dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp Okay, now we mount the secondary volume. Please keep in mind, that we don t mount the volume via network or via a dual ported SAN. It s a independent storage device on a different system. [ :~] $ mount / dev / dsk / c1d0s1 / mnt [ :~] $ cd / mnt [ gandalf :~] $ ls - l total rw root root 0 Mar 29 16:43 aculog [..] -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 29 Mar 29 19:28 timetest -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 2232 Mar 29 16:43 utmpx -rw -r--r-- 1 root root Mar 29 16:43 wtmpx Okay, there is a file called timetest. Let s look for the data in the file. [ :~] $ cat timetest Sat Mar 29 19:28:51 CET 2008 The file and its content got replicated to the secondary volume instantaniously. Okay, now let s switch back to primary hosts, but we create another file with a timestamp before doing that. [ :~] $ date > timetest2 [ :~] $ cat timetest2 Sat Mar 29 19:29:10 CET 2008 [ :~] $ cd / [ :~] $ umount / mnt 208

209 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Okay, we changed the secondary volume by adding this file, thus we have to sync our primary volume. Thus we do an update reverse synchronisation: [ theoden :~] $ sndradm - u - r Refresh primary with secondary? (Y/N) [N]: y [ :~] $ dsstat name t s pct role ckps dkps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P R net dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp This has two consequence. The changes to the secondary volumes are transmitted to the primary volume (as we use the update sync we just transmit this changes) and the replication is started again. Okay, but let s check for our second timestamp file. We mount our filesystem by using the primary volume. [ :~] $ mount / dev / dsk / c1d0s1 / mnt [ :~] $ cd / mnt [ theoden :~] $ ls - l total rw root root 0 Mar 29 16:43 aculog [...] -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 29 Mar 29 19:28 timetest -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 29 Mar 29 19:32 timetest2 [...] [ :~] $ cat timetest2 Sat Mar 29 19:29:10 CET 2008 Et voila, you find two files beginning with timetest and the second version contains the new timestamp we ve have written to the filesystem while using the secondary volume on the seondary host. Neat, isn t it? Asynchronous replication and replication groups A new scenario: Okay, the filesystem gets replicated now. Let s assume that we use /dev/rdsk/c1d0s1 for a database. The filesystem and the database partition are used from the same application and it s important, that the metadata in the database an the binary objects are in sync even when you switched over to the remote site, albeit it s acceptable to lose the last few transactions, as both sites are 1000km away from each other and synchronous replication is not an option. 209

210 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite The problem When you use synchronous replication, all is well. But let s assume you ve chosen asynchronous replication. Under this circumstances a situation can occur, where one queue is processed faster than another, thus the on-disk states of each volume may be consistent in itself, but both volumes may have the state at different point in time, thus leaving the application data model inconsistent. Such an behavior is problematic, when you have a database volume and a filesystem volume working together for an application, but the results can be catastrophic when you use a database split over several volumes. The solution of this problem would be a mechanism, that keeps the writes to a group of volumes in order for the complete group. Thus is inconsistencies can t occur Replication Group To solve such problems, AVS supports a concept called Replication Group. Adding volumes to a replication group has some implications: All administrative operations to this group are atomic. Thus when you change to logging mode or start an replication, this happens on all volumes in the group The writes to any of the primary volumes will be replicated in the same order to the secondary volumes. The scope of this ordering is the complete group, not the single volume. /li Normally every replication relation has its own queue and its own queue flusher daemon. Thus multiple volumes can flush their queue in parallel to increase the performance. In case of the Replication group all I/O operations are routed trough a single queue. This may reduce the performance How to set up a replication group? Okay, at first we login at theoden, our primary host in our example. We have to add the existing replication to the replication group and configure another replication relation directly in the correct group. I will create an replication group called importantapp. [ theoden :~] $ sndradm - R g importantapp gandalf :/ dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 Perform Remote Mirror reconfiguration? (Y/N) [N]: y We ve added the group property to the existing mirror, now we create the new mirror directly in the correct group 210

211 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite [ :~] $ sndradm -e theoden / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 gandalf / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 ip sync g importantapp Enable Remote Mirror? (Y/N) [N]: y With sndradm -P you can look up the exact configuration of your replication sets: [ theoden :~] $ sndradm - P / dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 -> gandalf :/ dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 autosync : off, max q writes : 4096, max q fbas : 16384, async threads : 2, mode : sync, group : importantapp, state : syncing / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 -> gandalf :/ dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 autosync : off, max q writes : 4096, max q fbas : 16384, async threads : 2, mode : sync, group : importantapp, state : syncing Okay, both are in the same group. As before, we have to perform this configuration on both hosts: So we repeat the same steps on the other hosts as well: [ :~] $ sndradm -e theoden / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 gandalf / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 ip sync g importantapp Enable Remote Mirror? (Y/N) [N]: y [ gandalf :~] $ sndradm - R g importantapp gandalf :/ dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 Perform Remote Mirror reconfiguration? (Y/N) [N]: y No we start the replication of both volumes. We can to this in a single step by using the name of the group. [ theoden :~] sndradm - m - g importantapp Overwrite secondary with primary? (Y/N) [N]: y Voila, both volumes are in synchronizing mode: [ :~] $ dsstat name t s pct role ckps dkps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P SY net - Inf 0 - NaN dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp NaN dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 P SY net - Inf 0 - NaN dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 bmp NaN Two minutes later the replication has succeeded, we have now a fully operational replication group: [ :~] $ dsstat name t s pct role ckps dkps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d0s1 P R net

212 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite dev / rdsk / c1d0s0 bmp dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 P R net dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 bmp Now both volumes are in replicating mode. Really easy, it s just done by adding the group to the replication relations Deleting the replication configuration In the last parts of this tutorial I ve explained to you, how you set up a replication relation. But it s important to know how you deactivate and delete the replication as well. It s quite easy to delete the replication. At first we look up the existing replication configuration. [ gandalf :~] $ sndradm - P / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 <- theoden :/ dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 autosync : off, max q writes : 4096, max q fbas : 16384, async threads : 2, mode : sync, state : logging Okay, we can use the local or remote volume as a name to choose the configuration to be deleted: [ :~] $ sndradm -d theoden :/ dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 Disable Remote Mirror? (Y/N) [N]: y Now we can lookup the configuration again. [ gandalf :~] $ sndradm - P As you see, the configuration is gone. But you have to do the same on the other host. So login as root to the other host: [ theoden :~] $ sndradm - P / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 -> gandalf :/ dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 autosync : off, max q writes : 4096, max q fbas : 16384, async threads : 2, mode : sync, state : logging [ :~] $ sndradm -d gandalf :/ dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 Disable Remote Mirror? (Y/N) [N]: y [ theoden :~] $ sndradm - P [ :~] $ 212

213 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Truck based replication Andrew S. Tannenbaum said Never underestimate the bandwidth of a truck full of tapes hurling down the highway. This sounds counterintuitive at the first moment, but when you start to think about it, it s really obvious The math behind the phrase Let s assume that you have two datacenters, thousand kilometers apart from each other. You have to transport 48 Terabytes of storage. We will calculate with the harddisk marketing system, Megabytes. Okay... now we assume, that we have a 155Mps leased ATM line between the locations. Let s assume that we can transfer 15,5 Megabytes per second of this line under perfect circumstances. Under perfect circumstances we can transfer the amount of data in seconds. Thus you would need 35 days to transmit the 48 Terabytes. Now assume a wagon car with two thumpers (real admins don t use USB sticks, they use the X4500 for their data transportation needs)in the trunk driving at 100 kilometers per hour. The data would reach the datacenter within 10 hours. Enough time to copy the data to the transport-thumpers and after the arrival from the thumper to the final storage array Truck based replication with AVS AVS Remote mirror supports a procedure to exactly support such a method: Okay, let s assume you want to migrate a server to a new one. But this new server is 1000km away. You have multiple terabytes of storage, and albeit your line to the new datacenter is good enough for the updates, an full sync would take longer than the universe will exist because of the proton decay. AVS Remote Mirror can be configured in a way, that relies on a special condition of primary and secondary volumes: The disks are already synchronized, before starting the replication. For example by doing a copy by dd to the new storage directly or with the redirection of an transport media like tapes. When you configure AVS Remote Mirror in this way, you don t need the initial full sync On our old server To play around, we create at first a new filesystem: 213

214 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite [ :~] $ newfs / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 newfs : construct a new file system / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 : (y/n)? y / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 : sectors in 473 cylinders of 64 tracks, 32 sectors MB in 30 cyl groups (16 c/g, MB/g, 7680 i/g) super - block backups ( for fsck - F ufs - o b =#) at: 32, 32832, 65632, 98432, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Now mount it, play around with it and put a timestamp in a file. [ :~] $ mount / dev / dsk / c1d1s1 / mnt [ :~] $ mount / dev / dsk / c1d1s1 / mnt [ :~] $ touch / mnt / test1 [ :~] $ mkfile 1k / mnt / test2 [ :~] $ mkfile 1k / mnt / test3 [ :~] $ mkfile 1k / mnt / test4 [ :~] $ date >> / mnt / test5 Okay, now unmount it again. [ :~] $ umount / mnt Now we can generate a backup of this filesystem. You have to make a image of the volume, making a tar or cpio file backup isn t sufficient. [ :~] $ dd if =/ dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 gzip > 2 migrate.gz records in records out Okay, now activate the replication on the primary volume. Don t activate it on the secondary one! The important difference to a normal replication is the -E. When you use this switch, the system assumes that the primary and secondary volume are identical already. [ :~] $ sndradm -E theoden / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 gandalf / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 ip sync Enable Remote Mirror? (Y/N) [N]: y Okay, we ve used the -E switch again to circumvent the need for a full syncronisation. When you look at the status of volume, you will see the volume in the logging state: [ :~] $ dsstat name t s pct role ckps dkps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 P L net dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 bmp

215 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite This means, that you can do changes on the volume. [ :~] $ mount / dev / dsk / c1d1s1 / mnt [ :~] $ cat / mnt / test5 Mon Mar 31 14:57:04 CEST 2008 [ :~] $ date >> / mnt / test6 [ :~] $cat / mnt / test6 Mon Mar 31 15:46:03 CEST 2008 Now we transmit our image of the primary volume to our new system. In my case it s scp, but for huge amount of data sending the truck with tapes would be more sensible. [ :~] $ scp 2 migrate. gz :/ export / home / jmoekamp /2 migrate.gz Password : 2 migrate.gz 100% ***************************** 1792 KB 00: On our new server Okay, when the transmission is completeted, we write the image to the raw device of the secondary volume: [ :~] $ cat 2 migrate.gz gunzip dd of =/ dev / rdsk / c1d1s records in records out Okay, now we configure the replication on the secondary host: # sndradm - E theoden / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 gandalf / dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 ip sync A short look into the status of replication: [ :~] $ dsstat name t s pct role ckps dkps tps svt dev / rdsk / c1d1s1 S L net dev / rdsk / c1d1s0 bmp Okay, our primary and secondary volumes are still in logging mode. How do we get them out of this? In our first example we did an full syncronisation, this time we need only an update synchronisation. So login as root to our primary host and initiate such an update sync. This is the moment, where you have to stop working on the primary volume. 215

216 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite [ theoden :~] $ sndradm - u Refresh secondary with primary? (Y/N) [N]: y After this step all changes we did after creating the image from our primary volume will be synced to the secondary volume Testing the migration Well... let s test it: Do you remember, that we created /mnt/test6 after the dd for the image? Okay, at first, we put the replication in logging mode again. So login as root on our secondary host. [ gandalf :~] $ sndradm - l Put Remote Mirror into logging mode? (Y/N) [N]: y \ begin { lstlisting } Now we mount the secondary volume : \ begin { lstlisting } # mount / dev / dsk / c1d1s1 / mnt [ :~] $ cd / mnt [ :~] $ ls lost + found test2 test4 test6 test1 test3 test5 By the virtues of update synchronisation, the test6 appeared on the seondary volume.let s have a look in /mnt/test6: [ :~] $ cat test6 Mon Mar 31 15:46:03 CEST 2008 Cool, isn t it? Conclusion How can you use this feature? Some use cases are really obvious. It s a natural match for disaster recovery. The Sun Cluster Geographic Edition even supports this kind of remote mirror out of the box to do cluster failover with wider distances than just a campus. But it s usable for other jobs as well, for example for migrations to a new datacenter, when you have to transport a large amount data over long distances without a time window for a longer service interruption. 216

217 23 Remote Mirroring with the Availability Suite Do you want to learn more? Documentation Sun StorageTek Availability Suite 4.0 Software Installation and Configuration Guide 1 Sun StorageTek Availability Suite 4.0 Remote Mirror Software Administration Guide 2 misc. Links OpenSolaris Project: Sun StorageTek Availability Suite

218 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite 24.1 Introduction The basic idea of Point-in-Time copies is the idea to freeze the contents of a disk or a volume at a certain time, thus other processes can work on data of a certain point in time, while your application works on the original dataset and changes it. Why is this important? Let s assume you want to make a backup. The problem is quite simple. When a backup takes longer than a few moments, the files backup first my represent an different state of the system than the files backup last. You backup is inconsistent, as you ve done a backup of a moving target. Okay, you could simply freeze your application, copy its data to another disk (via cp or dd) and backup it from there or backup it directly and restart your application, but most of the time, this isn t feasible. Let s assume you have a multi-terabyte database on your system. A simple copy can take quite a time, in this time your application doesn t work (at least when you database has no backup mode). Okay, simple copy is to ineffective. We have to do it with other methods. This tutorial will show you the usage of a method integrated into OpenSolaris and Solaris Basics One of this methods is the usage of the point in time copy functionality of the Availability Suite. I ve wrote about another function of AVS not long ago when I wrote the tutorial about remote replication. Point-in-time-copy and remote replication are somewhat similar (you detect and record changes and transmit those to a different disk, albeit the procedures are different). Thus it was quite logical to implement both in the AVS. 218

219 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Availability Suite The AVS is a Suite consisting out of two important parts: The Remote Replication functionality and the Point-in-time Copy functionality. Regular readers of this blog will remember the remote replication as I ve already written a tutorial about it. The Availability Suite is integrated to Solaris Express Community and Developer Edition. You can use it for free. It s available for Solaris as well, but when you want support for it, you have to buy the product, as it s a add-on product for Solaris The jargon of Point in Time Copies with AVS Okay, as every technology the mechanisms of Point-in-time copies have their own jargon and I will use it quite regularly in this tutorials. Master volume: The master volume is the source of the point in time copy. This is the original dataset Shadow volume: The shadow volume is the volume, which contains the point in time copy Virtual shadow volume: There are certain methods to establish a point in time copy, that copies only the original data in the case the data is changed on the master volume. But such a shadow volume is incomplete, as the unchanged parts are missing on the shadow volume. For this the virtual shadow volume was introduced. The idea is simple, but effective. Whenever a block wasn t changed since the last sync of your point-in-time copy, the data is delivered by the master volume. When the block has changed, the data is delivered by the shadow volume. This is transparent to the user or the application, as this virtual shadow volume is created by the AVS point-in-time copy drivers. You access this virtual shadow volume simply by using the name of the shadow volume, even albeit the volume doesn t contain all the needed data. Bitmap volume: All this mechanisms need a logbook about all the changes made to the master volume. This job is done by bitmap volume. Whenever a block on the disk is changed, AVS marks this in the bitmap volume. The bitmap volume is used at several occasions. By using the bitmap volume it can efficiently sync the master and the shadow volume, you can construct the virtual shadow volume with it in an efficient way. All types of volumes can be placed on real disk or volumes represented by Veritas Volume Manager or Solaris Volume Manager. 219

220 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Types of copies Point-in-time Copy in AVS supports three types of copies: independent copies dependent copies compact independent copies All three have a basic idea. Using a bitmap to track changes and using it generate a point-in-time copy. But the methods behind it are quite different. In the next three parts of this tutorial I will dig deeper into this methods Independent copy The most important point about independent copies are in their name. The point in time copy is an independent copy of your original data. You can use it on its own and the copy doesn t need the original data to work. This method is quite similar of doing a copy with dd or cp. At first a full copy is done by the PiT functionality. Now you ve created the first point in time copy. But now the advantages of tracking the changes in a database come in to the game. Whenever data on the master is changed, the system tracks this in the bitmap volume. At the next resync of the shadow with the master, the system only copies the changed blocks to the shadow. This vastly reduces the time for the update Deeper dive At first you have your master volume. It s the volume with your data. Before configuration of point-in-time copy both shadow and bitmap copy are uninitialized. We use some special manufactured disks for tutorial purposes. They have only five blocks. :) When you ve configured the independent copy, a full sync takes place. Each block is copied from the master volume to the shadow volume, and the bitmap volume is initialized. At the end of this process master and shadow are identical and the bitmap is in the clean state. No differences between the both. There is one important fact: After the initial copy, the bitmap doesn t have to be clean. During the full sync the independent copy behaves like a dependent copy. This is done to enable you to use the master volume directly after initiating the independent copy. So, when you change the master volume during the full sync, you will have a dirty bitmap (I will explain this condition in a few moments). 220

221 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Figure 24.1: Independent copy: Before configuration Figure 24.2: Independent copy: After initialization Okay, now we change the fourth block of the disk. As the old data is already on the shadow volume, we don t have to move any data. But we log in the bitmap volume, that a block has changed, the block is dirty. From now the bitmap is in the dirty state. The dirty state tells us, that there are differences between the master and the shadow volume. Okay, we don t need to move data, why do we need the bitmap volume. The bitmap volume makes the synchronization of master and shadow much more efficient. With the bitmap volume you known the position of changed blocks. So when you resync your shadow with the shadow you just have to copy this blocks, and not the whole disk. After copying the block, the adjacent bit in the bitmap is set to zero, the system known that the synced block on master and shadow are identical again. 221

222 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Figure 24.3: Independent copy: Representation of changed data Figure 24.4: Independent copy: Resynchronization Advantages and Disadvantages This has some interesting advantages: You can export this disks in your SAN and use it from a different server. For example you can mount it on a backup server, thus you don t need to transport all the traffic across you local area network. But there are some disadvantages. You have a high initial amount of data to sync and the size of the master and the shadow have to be equal. This isn t much a problem of the time needed for the sync (because of the fact, that it behaves as a dependent copy) but it poses more load to CPU and I/O system to copy all the data. 222

223 24.4 Dependent Copy 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite The mechanism of dependent copies was introduce to get rid of this initial sync, as there are circumstances where this initial copy would pose to much load to the system. The dependent copy uses the bitmap a little bit different. The shadow disk doesn t contain all the data, it just contains the changed data. The bitmap is used to keep track of the block on the masters which have a copy on the shadow h4 Deeper dive The dependent copy is one of the two mechanisms in AVS using the concept of the virtual shadow. Thus the model is a little more complex. Let s assume you create an dependent copy. The initialization is simple. You move no data. You just initialize the bitmap volume. When an user or application access the virtual shadow volume, it checks in the bitmap if the blocks has changed. If the bitmap signals no change, it just delivers the original block of the master volume. Figure 24.5: Dependent copy: After initialization When you change some data on the master volume, AVS starts to copy data. It copies the original content of the block onto the physical shadow volume at the same logical position in the volume. This is the reason, why master and shadow volumes have to have the same size when using dependent copies. Furthermore AVS logs in the bitmap that there is data on the shadow volumes, the block is dirty in the bitmap. When you access the virtual shadow volume now, the bitmap is checked again. But for blocks declared dirty in the bitmap, the data is delivered from the copy on the physical shadow volume, for all other clean blocks the data comes from the master volume. Resyncing the shadow to the master is easy. Just reinitializing the bitmap. Now all data comes from the master volume again, until you change some data on it. 223

224 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Figure 24.6: Dependent copy: Changes on the data volume Figure 24.7: Dependent copy: Resynchronization 24.5 Advantages and Disadvantages The advantage of this method is its short time of initialization and syncing from master to the shadow. It s virtually zero. But you lose the advantages of the independent copy. The dependent copy can only used in conjunction with the original data. This has two main effects. You can t export the copied volume to a different server and you can t use is as an copy for disaster recovery when your master volume has failed. Furthermore the master and the slave volume still have to be the same size. But the next method for making an point-in-time copy was derived from the dependent copy exactly to circumvent this problem. 224

225 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite 24.6 Compact dependent copy The compact dependent copy is similar to the normal dependent copy. But this dog knows an additional trick: The shadow and the master doesn t have to be at the same size. Like the dependent copy this methods uses the concept of the virtual shadow volume. So the bitmap is really important. The bitmap of the compact dependent copy tracks the changes. This exactly as with the normal dependent snapshots. But the bitmap for compact dependent snapshots is enabled to store an important additional information. It s enabled to track, where the system has written the changed data blocks on the shadow volume. So you don t have to write it at the same logical position, you can write it at any position on your shadow volume and it can retrieve the old data with this information Deeper dive Okay, at start this picture looks pretty much the same like its counterpart at the normal dependent snapshots. Please note, the additional information on the bitmap volume. To make the compact dependent copy we just initialize the bitmap to its clean state. Figure 24.8: Compact Dependent copy: Initialization Let s assume that we change the fourth block on our disk. As with the normal copy, the block is declared as dirty. But now starts to work differently. The original data of the master volume is stored to the first free block on the physical shadow volume. In addition to that the position is stored at the bitmap. The way to read from the shadow volume changes accordingly. When the bitmap signals, that a block is clean, it just passed the data from the master volume to the user or application. When the bitmap signals a dirty, thus changed block, it reads the position 225

226 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite of the block on the physical shadow volume from the bitmap, reads the block from there and delivers it to the application or user. Figure 24.9: Compact Dependent copy: Change a first block When we change the next block, for example the third one, the same procedure starts. The original data is stored to the next free block, now the second one, on the physical shadow volume and this position is stored in the bitmap together with the dirty state of the block. Figure 24.10: Compact Dependent copy: Change a second block Okay, resyncing the shadow with the master is easy again. Just initializing the bitmap Advantages and Disadvantages The trick of storing the position with the dirty state has an big advantage. You don t need master and shadow volumes with the same size. When you know, that only a small percentage of blocks change between two point in time copies, you can size the shadow 226

227 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Figure 24.11: Compact Dependent copy: Resynchronization volume much smaller, thus saving space on your disk. In my opinion compact dependent copies are the only reasonable way to go when you want more than one copy of your master volume. The disadvantages ares pretty much the same of the normal dependent copies Preparation of the test environment After all this theory, I will go into more practical stuff. In the following parts of this tutorial I will give you an introduction to point-in-time copies with AVS. But at first we have to prepare some things. At first: We need only one system for this example, so we don t need any networking configuration. Furthermore you need to assume the root role to do the configuration in this example Disklayout Okay, I will use two harddisks in my example: /dev/dsk/c1d00 and /dev/dsk/c1d1. I ve chosen the following layout for the disk.. First Sector Last. Partition Tag Flags Sector Count Sector Mount Directory 227

228 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite With this configuration I have two 128 mb sized slices. I will use them for data in my example. Additionally I ve create two 32 mb small slices for the bitmaps. 32 mb for the bitmaps is too large, but I didn t wanted to calculate the exact size Calculation of the bitmap volume size for independent and dependent shadows You can calculate the size for the bitmap size as follows: Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 24 + (Size Datavolume in GB 8) Let s assume a 10 GB volume for Data: Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 24 + (10 8) Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 104kb Calculation of the bitmap volume size for compact dependent shadows You can calculate the size for the bitmap size as follows: Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 24 + (Size Datavolume in GB 256) Let s assume a 10 GB volume for Data: Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 24 + (10 256) Size Bitmapvolume in kb = 2584kb 228

229 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Preparing the disks It s important to have exactly the same layout on the second disk, at least, when you use independent or non-compact dependent copies. Okay, to be more precise, the slices under the control of the point-in-time copy functionality has to have the same size. To simplify the fulfillment of this requirement, I copy the layout from my master disk to the shadow disk. # prtvtoc / dev / dsk / c1d0s2 fmthard -s - / dev / rdsk / c1d1s2 fmthard : New volume table of contents now in place. Okay, now let s create a file system for testing purposes on the master disk. # newfs / dev / dsk / c1d0s3 newfs : construct a new file system / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : (y/n)? y Warning : 3376 sector ( s) in last cylinder unallocated / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : sectors in 45 cylinders of 48 tracks, 128 sectors MB in 4 cyl groups (13 c/g, MB/g, i/g) super - block backups ( for fsck - F ufs - o b =#) at: 32, 80032, , Okay, as an empty filesystem is a boring target for point-in-time copies, we play around a little bit and create some files in our new filesystem. # mount / dev / dsk / c1d0s3 / mnt # cd / mnt # mkfile 1 k test1 # mkfile 1 k test2 # mkfile 1 k test3 # mkfile 1 k test4 # mkfile 1 k testindex1 # ls -l total 26 drwx root root 8192 Apr 25 18:10 lost + found -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:10 test1 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 test2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 test3 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 test4 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 testindex1 Okay, that s all... now let s try point-in-time copies. 229

230 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite 24.8 Starting a Point-in-time copy Okay, before using the merits of point-in-time copies, we have to configure such copies. The configuration of this copies is done with the with the iiadm command. In this part of the tutorial I will show you how to configure the different kinds of point-in-time copies Common prerequisite At first we have to enable the Availability suite. This is independent from the method of doing the point-in-time copy. When you ve used the AVS before, you don t need this step # dscfgadm Could not find a valid local configuration database. Initializing local configuration database... Successfully initialized local configuration database If you would like to start using the Availability Suite immediately, you may start the SMF services now. You may also choose to start the services later using the dscfgadm - e command. Would you like to start the services now? [ y, n,?] y Please answer the last question with y. By doing so, all the services of the AVS we need in the following tutorial are started (besides the remote replication service) Create an independent copy Now we can configure the point in time copy. This is really simple. # iiadm -e ind / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 That s all. What does this command mean: Create an independent copy of the data on the slice /dev/rdsk/c1d0s3 on /dev/rdsk/c1d1s3 and use /dev/rdsk/c1d1s3 for the bitmap. As soon as you execute this command, the copy process starts. We decided to use an independent copy, thus we start a full copy of the master volume to the shadow volume. As long this fully copy hasn t completed, the point-in-time copy behaves like an dependent copy. Now we check the configuration. 230

231 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Independent copy Latest modified time : Fri Apr 25 18:16: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap clean ) The highlighted part is interesting. The bitmap is clean. This means, that there are no changes between the master and the shadow volume Create an independent copy Creating an dependent copy is quite easy,too. You have just alter the command a little bit, you ve used to create independent one. # iiadm -e dep / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 Just substitute the ind with the dep and you get a dependent copy. # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Dependent copy Latest modified time : Sat Apr 26 23:50: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap clean ) Create an compact independent copy How do you get a compact dependent copy? Well, there is no command to force the creation of such a copy. But it s quite easy to get one. When the shadow volume is smaller than the master volume, the system chooses the compact independent copy automatically. We ve created two small slices, when we formatted the harddrive. One of the small slices is /dev/rdsk/c1d1s6. Let s use it as the shadow volume. This volume 231

232 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite has only a size 32 MB while the master volume is 256 MB large.at first we create an dependent copy again, but with different volumes: # iiadm -e dep / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s6 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 Now let s check the status of the point-in-time copy configuration: # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s6 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Dependent copy, compacted shadow space Latest modified time : Sat Apr 26 23:55: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 1255 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap clean ) Et voila, you ve configured a compact dependent copy Working with point-in-time copies We ve created the point-in-time-copy in the last part of the tutorial, but this is only one half of the story. In this part, we will use the this feature for backup purposes. The procedures are independent from the chosen point-in-time copy mechanism. Okay, let s play around with our point-in time copy. At first we check the filesystem on our master volume mounted at /mnt. Nothing has changed. The AVS doesn t touch the master volume. But now let s create some files. # ls lost + found test1 test2 test3 test4 testindex1 # touch test5 # touch test6 # mkfile 2 k testindex2 We check our dependent copy again: # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Independent copy 232

233 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Latest modified time : Fri Apr 25 18:16: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap dirty ) Please look at the highlighted part. The system detected the changes to the master volume and marked the changed block on the bitmap volumes. The bitmap is dirty now. Okay, now let s use our copy. We create a mountpoint and mount our shadow volume at this mountpoint. # mkdir / backup # mount / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 / backup Just for comparison, we have a short look at our master volume again: # cd / mnt # ls lost + found test2 test4 test6 testindex2 test1 test3 test5 testindex1 Now we check our copy: # cd / backup # ls lost + found test1 test2 test3 test4 testindex1 We see the state of the filesystem at the moment we ve created the point-in-time copy. Please notice the difference. The files created after initiating the copy are not present in the shadow. You can make everything you want with the filesystem on the shadow volume. You can even write to it. But for this tutorial, we will make a backup from it. Whatever happens with the master volume during this backup, the data on the shadow won t change. Okay, that s isn t so interesting for a few bytes, but important for multi-terabyte databases or filesystems. # tar cfv / backup tar / backup a / backup / 0K a / backup / lost + found / 0K a / backup / test1 1K a / backup / test2 1K a / backup / test3 1K a / backup / test4 1K 233

234 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite a / backup / testindex1 1 K As you see, no test5, test6 or testindex2. Okay, we have made our backup, now let s sync our copy. # iiadm -u s / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 That s all. What have we done. We told the AVS to update the shadow copy on /dev/c1d1s3. Whenever you specify a disk or volume directly, you use the name of the shadow volume. A master volume can have several shadow volumes, but there can be only one shadow on a volume. So the copy configuration can be specified with the shadow volume. The -u s tells AVS to do an update (not a full copy) to the slave (from the master). Okay, now let s check the copy again. # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Independent copy Latest modified time : Fri Apr 25 19:30: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap clean ) Please look at the highlighted part again. The bitmap is clean again. The master and the shadow are in sync. Okay, let s check it by mounting the filesystem. # mount / dev / dsk / c1d1s3 / backup # cd / backup # ls -l total 30 drwx root root 8192 Apr 25 18:10 lost + found -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:10 test1 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 test2 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 test3 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 test4 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 25 18:20 test5 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 25 18:20 test6 -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 testindex1 -rw T 1 root root 2048 Apr 25 18:20 testindex2 234

235 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite It s the exact copy of the filesystem in the moment when you ve initiated the copy. Okay, now let s play again with our point-in-time copy. Let s create some files in our master volume: # cd / mnt # touch test7 # touch test8 # mkfile 3 k testindex2 Please note, that I ve overwritten the 2k sized version of testindex2 with a 3k sized version. A quick check of the directories: # ls / mnt lost + found test2 test4 test6 test8 testindex2 test1 test3 test5 test7 testindex1 # ls / backup lost + found test2 test4 test6 testindex2 test1 test3 test5 testindex1 Okay, the directory are different. Now let s start the backup again. # tar cfv backup tar / backup a / backup / 0K a / backup / lost + found / 0K a / backup / test1 1K a / backup / test2 1K a / backup / test3 1K a / backup / test4 1K a / backup / testindex1 1 K a / backup / test5 0K a / backup / test6 0K a / backup / testindex2 2 K Okay, test7 and test8 didn t made it into the tarball, as they were created after updating the point-in-time copy. Furthermore we ve tared the 2k version of testindex2 not the 3k version. So you can backup a stable version of your filesystem, even when you modify your master volume during the backup. Okay, now we can unmount the filesystem again. # cd / # umount / backup After this we sync the slave volume with the master volume. # iiadm -u s / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 235

236 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite And when we compare the filesystems, they are identical again. # mount / dev / dsk / c1d1s3 / backup # ls / mnt lost + found test2 test4 test6 test8 testindex2 test1 test3 test5 test7 testindex1 # ls / backup lost + found test2 test4 test6 test8 testindex2 test1 test3 test5 test7 testindex1 You can play this game forever, but I will stop now, before it gets boring Disaster Recovery with Point-in-time copies The process of syncing master and shadow is bidirectional. You can t not only update the shadow from the master, you can update the master from the shadow as well. This is a really neat feature for disaster recovery. Let s assume, you tried a new version of your software. At first all is well, but a minute later the system is toast. Later you will find out, that there was a race condition in the new code, that only manifested on your production system. But you don t know this now. And to add insult to injury, your face go white after looking into the directory. # ls -l / mnt / testindex * -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 25 19:40 / mnt / testindex1 -rw -r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 25 19:41 / mnt / testindex2 The new code killed your code testindex /code -files. Zero bytes. And you hear the angry guy or lady from customer support shouting your name. But you were cautious, you ve created a point-in-time copy before updating the system. So, calm down and recover before a customer support lynch mob reach your office with forks and torches. Leave the filesystem and unmount it. # cd / # umount / mnt Now sync the master with the slave. Yes, the other way round. # iiadm -u m / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 Overwrite master with shadow volume? yes / no yes 236

237 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Okay... after a few moments the shell prompt appears again. Now you can mount it again. # mount / dev / dsk / c1d0s3 / mnt # cd / mnt Let s check our work and check the code testindex /code files. # ls -l / mnt / testindex * -rw T 1 root root 1024 Apr 25 18:11 / mnt / testindex1 -rw T 1 root root 3072 Apr 25 19:33 / mnt / testindex2 Phew... rescued... and the lynch mob in front of your office throws the torches out of the window, directly on the car of the CEO (of course by accident ;) ) Administration Okay, there are several administrative procedures with the point-in-time copy functionality. I will describe only the most important ones, as I don t want to substitute the manal with this tutorial Deleting a point-in-time copy configuration Okay, let s assume you used the following configuration so far: # iiadm -l dep / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s6 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 It s really easy to delete this config. As I mentioned before, the name of the shadow volume clearly indicates a point-in-time copy configuration, as there can be only one configuration for any given shadow volume. So you use the name of the shadow volume to designate a configuration. Thus the command to delete the configuration is fairly simple: # iiadm -d / dev / rdsk / c1d1s6 The -d tells iiadm to delete the config. When we recheck the current AVS configuration, the config for /dev/rdsk/c1d1s6 is gone: # iiadm -l # 237

238 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Forcing a full copy resync of a point-in-time copy Whenever you are in doubt of the consistency of you point-in-time copy (flaky disks, you ve swapped a disk) it may be sensible to force a full copy resync instead of coping only the changed parts. Lets assume the following config of an independent copy: # iiadm -l ind / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 Again you use the name of the shadow volume to designate the configuration. You force the full copy resync with a single command: # iiadm -c s / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 When we check the status of the dependent copy, you will see that a full copy is in progress: # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Independent copy, copy in progress, copying master to shadow Latest modified time : Sun Apr 27 01:49: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 69 ( bitmap dirty ) Let s wait for a few moments and check the status again: # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Independent copy Latest modified time : Sun Apr 27 01:49: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap clean ) The full copy resync has completed. 238

239 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite Grouping point-in-time copies Sometimes the data of an application is distributed over several disks. For example because you application is rather old can use only volumes sized at 2 Gigabytes each. When you want to make a consistent point-in-time copy of all volumes, you have to do it at the same time. To enable the admin to do so, you can group point-in-time copies. When you use the groupname, all members of the group get the commands at the same time. Okay, let s assume we have an independent copy so far. # iiadm -l ind / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 Now we want to configure another one for the volume /dev/rdsk/c1d0s5 with /dev/rdsk/c1d1s5 as the shadow volume and /dev/rdsk/c1d1s6 as the bitmap volume. At first we move the existing configuration into a group. I will name it database in my example but you could choose any other name for it. # iiadm -g database -m / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 With -g we designate the groupname and with -m we move the volume into the group. As usual we use the name of the shadow volume to designate the configuration. Now we create the point-in-time copy of the second volume. But we will create it directly in the group. To do so, we need the -g switch. # iiadm -g database -e dep / dev / rdsk / c1d0s5 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s5 / dev / rdsk / c1d1s6 Please notice, that we used a different copy mechanism for the point-in-time copy. The don t have to be identical in the group. Let s check the state of our copies: # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Group name : database Independent copy Latest modified time : Sun Apr 27 01:49: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap clean ) 239

240 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite / dev / rdsk / c1d0s5 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s5 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s6 : ( bitmap volume ) Group name : database Dependent copy Latest modified time : Sun Apr 27 02:05: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 0 ( bitmap clean ) Now let s initiate a full copy resync on the group code database /code : # iiadm - c s - g database When you check the state of your copies again, you will recognize that you initiated a full resync on both copies at the same time: # iiadm -i / dev / rdsk / c1d0s3 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s3 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s4 : ( bitmap volume ) Group name : database Independent copy, copy in progress, copying master to shadow Latest modified time : Sun Apr 27 02:08: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 42 ( bitmap dirty ) / dev / rdsk / c1d0s5 : ( master volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s5 : ( shadow volume ) / dev / rdsk / c1d1s6 : ( bitmap volume ) Group name : database Dependent copy, copy in progress, copying master to shadow Latest modified time : Sun Apr 27 02:08: Volume size : Shadow chunks total : 4267 Shadow chunks used : 0 Percent of bitmap set : 40 ( bitmap dirty ) 240

241 24.12 Conclusion 24 Point-in-Time Copy with the Availability Suite I hope I gave you some insight into this really interesting feature of Solaris and OpenSolaris. There are vast possibilities to use it in your daily use. It s not limited to disaster recovery or backups. One of my customers uses this tool to create independent copies of their database. They take a snapshot at midnight and export it on a different database server. The rationale for this process: They run some long running analytics with a huge load on the I/O system on this independent copy. By using the copy the analysis doesn t interfere with the production use of the database. Another customer uses this feature for generating test copies of their production data for testing new software versions. You see, the possibilities are vast and virtually endless Do you want to learn more? Documentation docs.sun.com: Sun StorageTek AVS 4.0 Point-in-Time Copy Software Administration Guide 1 docs.sun.com: Manpage of iiadm 2 Misc. blogs.sun.com/avs: The Blog of the Availability Suite

242 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem 25.1 Introduction Okay, this is tutorial isn t really about feature of Solaris itself. But the feature of this tutorial it s deeply coupled with Solaris. Thus you can view it as an optional part of Solaris. This time I will dig into the installation and configuration of SamFS. But a warning, SamFS is a feature monster. This tutorial is equivalent to put your toes in the Atlantic ocean, but when I saw the announcement of the open-sourcing of SamFS I thought, it s time to write this document. In addition to that, it was a nice way to make a reality check on a thought game, I ve made some months ago The theory of Hierarchical Storage Management I think, I should start with the theory of Hierarchical Storage Management(HSM). The technology of managing data and their position on different media isn t really a widespread feature for most administrators. Thus this introduction will be a quite long one First Observation: Data access pattern There is a single fact in data management, that was true the last 40 years and it will be true until we won t store data anymore. The longer you didn t access data, the lesser the probability of an access gets. This matches with daily observation: You work on a text document, you access it every few minutes, you finalize your work and store it on your hard disk. And the microsquaremeters of rotating rust with your document rotate with it. Perhaps you access it a few times in the next weeks to print it again. But after a year it get more and more improbable, that you will access the data. The problems: 1. Murphys Law: A nanosecond can be defined as the time between the time of deletion of 242

243 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem a file and the moment the boss comes into your office wanting the document. 2. In most countries you will find regulations who prohibits the deletion of a file Second observation: The price of storage When you look at the prices for storage, you will see that the price of it will rise with its speed. An enterprise-class 15k rpm FC drive is an expensive device. An enterprise-class 7.2k rpm SATA disk is much cheaper but you can t operate it 24h near of its full load. A LTO4 tape can store 800 GB for Euro, whereas even a cheap consumer disk with 750 GB costs round about 100 Euro. The disadvantage: It takes quite a time to get the first byte. You have to load it, wind it into the drive, wind it to the correct position Third observation: Capacity This observation is so simple and so obvious, I won t have to explain it: The amount of data to store never gets smaller. When I remember my first PC, purchased by my dad, it had an 20 Megabyte harddisk. And I thought: Thats pretty much. Today, I need this capacity to store 2 raw images from my DSLR. And in company it s the same. Independently from the provided space, it isn t enough. I know some companies where small amounts of free space on a departmental server is a subject of interdepartment quid-pro-quo deals Hierarchical Storage Management The basic idea of hierarchical storage management leverages these observations. It makes sense to store actual data on the fastest storage available, but it doesn t make sense to use it for data, that didn t have accessed for a year or so. The other way round: It will drive you mad, if actual your text document is stored on a DLT-Tape in a big autoloader, needing 2 minutes to stream the first byte to the client. Hierarchical Storage Management can use a multitude of storage devices with different access behavior to store your data. You can establish an hierarchy of storage systems. You can use ultra fast FC disks for data in regular usage, cheaper SATA disks for files you need a few times a week, tapes for data needed a few times a year. The kicker behind HSM: The inner workings of HSM are invisible for the user or the application. You just use the file, and the system gathers it from other media. 243

244 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem An analogy in computer hardware Most of you already use hierarchical mechanism for storing data. It s the hierarchy of memory in your computer. You have ultrafast memory in your processor called registers, then you have an almost as fast memory called cache (most of the time you have several stages like Level 1 to 3 Caches), then you have a much slower main memory. At the end you have the swap space on your harddisk, much slower again than the main memory. HSM does the same for storage. The advantages and the challenges are pretty much the same: By using the hierarchy in an intelligent manner, you can speed up the access to your data without spending to much for buying only the fastest memory. The challenge: You have to find a way to find the best place for your data, and you have to carefully size the amount of the stages. When it s to small, access times get longer, as you have to access a slower storage/memory SamFS SamFS is an implementation of this concept. It isn t the only one, but from my view it s the best implementation in the unix world. SamFS stands for S torage Archive M anager F ile Ssystem. It s an fully POSIX compliant file system, thus an user or an application won t see a different to an UFS for example, with a rich feature set. I would suggest, that you look at the Sun Website for the Sun StorageTek SamFS website for an overview The jargon of SamFS As usual, this technology has its own jargon. important words at first. Thus I will start to define the most Lifecycle Before defining the jargon, it s important to understand, that every file under the control of SamFS follows a certain lifecycle. You create or modify it, the system archives it, after a certain time without an access the system removes it from expensive storage, when it has copies on cheaper ones, when you access it, it will be gathered from the cheaper storage and delivered to you. When you delete it, you have to remove it from all your medias. This cycle is endless until a file is deleted. 244

245 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Policies Albeit every file is under the control of the described cycle, the exact life of a file doesnt have to be the same for every file. SamFS knows the concept of policies to describe the way, SamFS should handle a file. How many copies should SamFS make of a file on which media. The most difficult task of configuring SamFS is to find a most adequate policy. You need experience for it, but it s something that you can easily learn on the job Archiving Okay, the first step is archiving. Let s assume you ve created a file. The data gets stored into the SamFS filesystem. Okay, but you ve defined a policy, that you want two copies on a tape media. The process that does this job is called archiver, the process itself is called archiving. Archiving moves your files to the desired media. The metadata of the files is augmented with the positions of the file. SamFS can create up to 4 copies of a file. Important to know: SamFS doesn t wait with the archiving process until it needs space on the cache media. It starts the process of archiving files with the next run of the archive (for example every 5 minutes) Releasing Okay, let s assume you filesystem is 90% full. You need some space to work. Without SamFS you would move around the data manually. SamFS works similar and differently at the same time. The archiver already moved your data to different places. Thus releasing is the process to delete the data from your filesystem. But it doesn t delete all of it. It keeps a stub of it in the filesystem. This process is called releasing. The metadata (filename, acl, ownership, rights, and the start of the file) stays on disk. Thus you won t see a difference. You can walk around in your directories and you will see all your files. The difference: The data itself isn t in the filesystem anymore, thus it don t consume space in it Staging Okay, after long time (the file was already released) you want to access the data. You go into the filesystem, and open this file. SamFS intercepts this call, and automatically gathers the data from the archive media. In the meantime the reads from this file will be blocked, thus the process accessing the data blocks, too. SamFS uses informations from the metadata to find the media. 245

246 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Recycling Okay, the end of the lifetime of a file is its deletion. That s easy for disks. But you can t delete a single file from tape in an efficient manner. Thus SamFS uses a different method: The data on the tape is just marked as invalid, the stub gets deleted. But the data stays on tape. After a while more and more data may get deleted from tape. This may end in a swiss cheese where only a small amount of data is actual data. This would be waste of tape and the access pattern gets slower and slower. Recycling solves this by a single trick. The residual active data gets a special marker. When the archiver runs the next time, the data gets archived again. Now there is no actual data left on the tape. You can erase it by writing a new label to it and you can use it for new data again. This process is called recycling The circle of life Okay, with this jargon we can draw a picture of this processes. Figure 25.1: Simplified lifecycle of a file in SamFS Once a file gets newly written or updated, it gets archived. Based on a combination policies, usage and the caching strategy it s possible it s getting released and staged again and again. And at the end, the tape with the data will be recycled. 246

247 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Watermarks Watermarks are an additional, but very important concept in SamFS. The cache is much smaller than the filesystem. Nevertheless you have to provide space for new and updated data. So SamFS implements two important watermarks: Then the cache gets filled to the high watermark, the system starts to release the least recently used files with a minimum number of copies on archive media automatically. This process stops, when the low water mark is reached. Thus you can ensure that you have at least a certain amount of free capacity to store new or updated data in the filesystem The SamFS filesystem: Archive media When used in conjunction with the Archiver/Stager/Releaser construct, the SamFS filesystem itself isn t much more than a cache for all the data you store in this filesystem. Not the size of the SamFS filesystem is decisive for the size of your file system, the amount of archive media is the limitation of the size. For example. With a 1 GB disk cache and 10 petabyte of T10000 tapes, you can store up to 5 petabyte of data. Why 5 petabyte? Well, it s a best practice to store two copies of every file on your system, just in case a tape gets lost or damaged. Archive media can be of different nature: disk drives other SamFS Servers tapes (with or without autoloading) magneto optical disks (with or without autoloading) The media doesn t even have to be in reach of an autoloader. SamFS knows the concept of offlined archive media, for example tapes in a safe. When you try to access data on an offlined media, the accessing process blocks and the admin is notified to move its a.. to put the tape into a drive Installation of SamFS It s quite easy to install SamFS. It s just installing two packages and answering some questions. 247

248 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Obtaining the binaries At first, you have to download the iso image with the binaries for SamFS 4.6. You can obtain them at the Sun Download Center. You need an account for the download center, but you can register for free. At the moment you are allowed to test it for 60 days, but you don t need to obtain a test license as there is no license enforcement in the software. Instead of this, this is handled with right-to-use licensing Installing the SamFS packages Let s start the installation of SamFS: # cd sunstorageteksam - fs4.6/ # cd x64 # cd # pkgadd - d. SUNWsamfsr SUNWsamfsu </ b > Processing package instance < SUNWsamfsr > from </ cdrom / sunstorageteksam - fs4.6/ x64 /2.10 > Sun SAM and Sun SAM - QFS software Solaris 10 ( root )( i386 ) 4.6.5, REV = Sun SAMFS - Storage & Archiving Management File System Copyright ( c) 2007 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved In order to install SUNWsamfsr, you must accept the terms of the Sun License Agreement. Enter "y" if you do, "n" if you don t, or "v" to view agreement. y - The administrator commands will be executable by root only ( group bin ). If this is the desired value, enter " y". If you want to change the specified value enter " c". y 248

249 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem By default, elrond is not setup to be remotely managed by File System Manager. It can only be managed by the File System Manager if it is installed locally You can modify the remote management configuration at a later time using the command fsmadm If you want to keep the default behavior, enter " y". Otherwise enter "n". y ## Processing package information. ## Processing system information. 20 package pathnames are already properly installed. ## Verifying disk space requirements. ## Checking for conflicts with packages already installed. The following files are already installed on the system and are being used by another package : / etc / opt < attribute change only > / var / opt < attribute change only > Do you want to install these conflicting files [ y, n,?, q] y ## Checking for setuid / setgid programs. This package contains scripts which will be executed with super - user permission during the process of installing this package. Do you want to continue with the installation of < SUNWsamfsr > [ y,n,?] y Installing Sun SAM and Sun SAM - QFS software Solaris 10 ( root ) as < SUNWsamfsr > ## Executing preinstall script. ## Installing part 1 of 1. / etc /fs/ samfs / mount [...] / var / svc / manifest / application / management / fsmgmt. xml [ verifying class < none > ] / opt / SUNWsamfs / sbin / samcmd <linked pathname > ## Executing postinstall script. 249

250 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem The administrator commands are executable by root only PLEASE READ NOW!!! If you are upgrading from a previous release of SAM and have not read the README file delivered with this release, please do so before continuing. There were significant restructuring changes made to the system from previous releases. Failure to convert scripts to conform to these changes could cause dramatic changes in script behavior. Installation of < SUNWsamfsr > was successful. Processing package instance < SUNWsamfsu > from </ cdrom / sunstorageteksam - fs4.6/ x64 /2.10 > Sun SAM and Sun SAM - QFS software Solaris 10 ( usr )( i386 ) 4.6.5, REV = Sun SAMFS - Storage & Archiving Management File System Copyright ( c) 2007 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ## Executing checkinstall script. ## Processing package information. ## Processing system information. 10 package pathnames are already properly installed. ## Verifying package dependencies. ## Verifying disk space requirements. ## Checking for conflicts with packages already installed. ## Checking for setuid / setgid programs. This package contains scripts which will be executed with super - user permission during the process of installing this package. Do you want to continue with the installation of < SUNWsamfsu > [ y,n,?] y 250

251 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Installing Sun SAM and Sun SAM - QFS software Solaris 10 ( usr ) as < SUNWsamfsu > ## Installing part 1 of 1. / opt / SUNWsamfs / lib / amd64 / libsamconf.so < symbolic link > [...] / usr / sfw / bin / tapealert_trap [ verifying class < none > ] ## Executing postinstall script. Configuring samst devices. Please wait, this may take a while. Adding samst driver Building samst devices Issuing / usr / sbin / devfsadm -i samst >> / tmp / SAM_install. log 2 >&1 Adding samioc driver Adding samaio driver File System Manager daemon is configured to auto - restart every time the daemon dies Starting File System Manager daemon Please check the log files for any errors that were detected during startup Installation of < SUNWsamfsu > was successful Installing the SamFS Filesystem Manager Now we install the FilesystemManager: # cd / cdrom / sunstorageteksam - fs4.6/ # cd x64 #./ fsmgr_ setup </ b > Unzipping File System Manager files... This process may take a while

252 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Start cleaning up to prepare for new software installation Start installing File System Manager packages... This process may take a while... Processing package instance < SUNWfsmgrr > from </ tmp / File_System_Manager /2.10/ i386 > File System Manager Solaris 10 ( root )( i386 ) 3.0.4, REV = ## Executing checkinstall script. Sun SAMFS - Storage & Archiving Management File System Copyright ( c) 2007 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ## Processing package information. ## Processing system information. 1 package pathname is already properly installed. ## Verifying package dependencies. ## Verifying disk space requirements. Installing File System Manager Solaris 10 ( root ) as < SUNWfsmgrr > ## Executing preinstall script. Shutting down Sun Java ( TM) Web Console Version The console is stopped ## Installing part 1 of 1. / opt / SUNWfsmgr / bin / fsmgr [...] / opt / SUNWfsmgr / samqfsui / xsl / svg / storagetier. xsl [ verifying class < none > ] ## Executing postinstall script. Extracting online help system files... Archive : en_samqfsuihelp. zip creating : en/ help / [...] inflating : en/ help / stopwords. cfg done Warning : smreg is obsolete and is preserved only for 252

253 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem compatibility with legacy console applications. Use wcadmin instead. Type " man wcadmin " or " wcadmin -- help " for more information. Registering fsmgradmin_3.0. Warning : smreg is obsolete and is preserved only for compatibility with legacy console applications. Use wcadmin instead. Type " man wcadmin " or " wcadmin -- help " for more information. Registering / opt / SUNWfsmgr / samqfsui /WEB - INF / lib / fsmgmtjni. jar as fsmgmtjni. jar for scope fsmgradmin_3.0 Enabling logging... Warning : smreg is obsolete and is preserved only for compatibility with legacy console applications. Use wcadmin instead. Type " man wcadmin " or " wcadmin -- help " for more information. Installation of < SUNWfsmgrr > was successful. Processing package instance < SUNWfsmgru > from </ tmp / File_System_Manager /2.10/ i386 > File System Manager Solaris 10 ( usr )( i386 ) 3.0.4, REV = ## Executing checkinstall script. Sun SAMFS - Storage & Archiving Management File System Copyright ( c) 2007 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 253

254 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem All Rights Reserved. ## Processing package information. ## Processing system information. 2 package pathnames are already properly installed. ## Verifying package dependencies. ## Verifying disk space requirements. Installing File System Manager Solaris 10 ( usr ) as < SUNWfsmgru > ## Installing part 1 of 1. / usr / lib / libfsmgmtjni.so / usr / lib / libfsmgmtrpc.so [ verifying class < none > ] ## Executing postinstall script. Current session timeout value is 15 minutes, change to 60 minutes... Set 1 properties for the console application. done Starting Sun Java ( TM) Web Console Version The console is running Appending elrond into / var / log / webconsole / host. conf... done! Installation of < SUNWfsmgru > was successful. Done installing File System Manager packages. Backing up / etc / security / auth_attr to / etc / security / auth_attr. old Start editing / etc / security / auth_attr... Done editing / etc / security / auth_attr Backing up / etc / user_attr to / etc / user_attr. old Start editing / etc / user_attr... Start editing / etc / user_attr... Done editing / etc / user_attr File System Manager 3.0 and its supporting application is installed successfully. ******************* PLEASE READ ********************************** Please telnet to each Sun StorEdge ( TM) QFS servers to be managed and run the following command : 254

255 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem / opt / SUNWsamfs / sbin / fsmadm status This will determine if the File System Manager daemon is running. If it is not running, please run the following command : / opt / SUNWsamfs / sbin / fsmadm config -a This command will start the File System Manager daemon that communicates with the File System Manager. Failure to do so will prevent File System Manager from communicating with the Sun StorEdge QFS servers. Remote access to the servers used by the File System Manager is now restricted based on host name or IP address. If you are managing a Sun StorEdge ( TM) QFS Server from a remote management station, please telnet to the server and run the following command : / opt / SUNWsamfs / sbin / fsmadm add < management_station_host_name >. < domain > Press ENTER to continue... File System Manager 3.0 supports the following browsers : Browser Type Operating System ======================================================================== Netscape 7. 1/ Mozilla 1. 7/ Firefox 1.5 Solaris OS, MS Windows 98 SE, ME, 2000, and XP Internet Explorer 6.0 MS Windows 98 SE, ME, 2000, and XP Now launch your web browser and type the following URL : https :// < hostname >. < domain >:6789 where < hostname > is the host that you have just installed the 255

256 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem File System Manager. If you are served with a security related certificate, go ahead and accept it. Please see user docs for username and password details. It is required to clear the browser cache before accessing the File System Manager for the first time. Failure to do so may cause unexpected behavior in various pages. File System Manager 3.0 has been tested with the Sun Java ( TM) Web Console version & Installing this product with any older Sun Java ( TM) Web Console version breaks both applications. This product may work on newer Sun Java ( TM) Web Console versions, but this has not been tested. ***************************************************************** Install / Uninstall log file named / var / tmp / fsmgr. setup. log : 01 is created Modifying the profile You have to extend the profile to for additional search paths for binaries and man pages. PATH = $PATH :/ opt / SUNWsamfs / bin :/ opt / SUNWsamfs / sbin MANPATH = $MANPATH :/ opt / SUNWsamfs / man export PATH MANPATH That s all about the installation of SamFS. 256

257 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem 25.5 The first Sam filesystem Okay, now we can configure our first filesystem with SamFS Prerequisites Before we can configure SamFS, I want to describe the prerequisites for this task: We need some harddisks for this task. I made my example a little bit more complex, thus I used iscsi volumes for this task. I created for this tutorial: a 64 MB emulated volume for the storage of metadata a 512 MB emulated volume for the filesystem itself a 2 GB emulated volumes to use them as archive disks I assume that you already know the tasks to creating them from the iscsi tutorial. The first and the second volume will be used by SamFS directly. You have to use the format command to put a label and a partition table on it. For the both archive volumes, we will use ZFS. Thus I ve created a zpool for both: # zpool create samfs_archive_1 c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e54035d0 # zpool create samfs_archive_2 c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e54036d The configuration itself Okay, let s start to create a filesystem. We have to tell SamFS the structure of our filesystem. This is done in the file /etc/opt/sunwsamfs/mcf. samfs1 10 ma samfs1 - / dev / dsk / c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e6642bd0s0 11 mm samfs1 - / dev / dsk / c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e54033d0s0 12 md samfs1 - Okay, let s dissect this file. columns. At first I want to explain the general meaning of the 257

258 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem The first column of this file is the equipment identifier. This field serves multiple purposes. You define filesystems, tape drives, disk partitions for the cache or tape robotics in this file. Please note: You do not define media for disk archiving here! The second column is the equipment ordinal. This field enumerates every component defined in the mcf file. This number has to be unique. The third column is the equipment type. SamFS supports a vast amount of device type. You define it by using its shorthand here. mastands for a SamFS/QFS cache disk set with one or more dedicated metadevices.mo for example designates an 5 1/4 inch erasable optical drive. The forth column is the family set. With the family set name you group devices. For example all disks of a filesystem. All disks of a filesystem have the same name. Another example is the grouping of a tape robotic and all of its tape drive The fifth column is the device state. Okay, what did we describe with our mcf file: We defined an filesystem with the name samfs1. The name of the family set is samfs1 as well. The filesystem is of the type SamFS disk cache with dedicated metadevices. In the next row we ve defined that the device /dev/dsk/c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e6642bd0s0 is a device solely for metadata. We gave it the ordinal number 11 and it s part of the samfs family, thus a part of the filesystem defined before. The third line configures the /dev/dsk/c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e54033d0s0 as the data disk for this filesystem (as the family name is samfs1 as well. Yes, you have read it correctly. SamFS is capable to separating the metadata and the data of the files on different disks. The idea behind this concept is to use fast disks for the metadata (e.g. solid state disks) with short access times and slower disks for the data. By this separation the filesystem has doesn t have to step between the position of the metadata and the position of the data when it s updated. The effect: Much better scaling when you use a large amount of disks. Okay, now we have fully configured the filesystem. Now we modify the /etc/vfstab to enable simpler mounting/auto mounting at start. The device name is the name of the filesystem, in your case samfs1. It don t have a raw device. The mountpoint is /samfs1, the type samfs and we want to mount it at the start. The options are SamFS specific. They mean: Start to release files (thus freeing space in the cache) when the cache is 80 percent full. Release until the cache is filled only 60 percent. samfs1 - / samfs1 samfs - yes high =80, low =60 Okay, we have to tell SamFS that there is a new configuration: 258

259 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem bash # samd config Configuring SAM - FS bash -3.00# Looks good. Now we are able to format the filesystem: # sammkfs samfs1 Building samfs1 will destroy the contents of devices : / dev / dsk / c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e6642bd0s0 / dev / dsk / c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e54033d0s0 Do you wish to continue? [y/n]y total data kilobytes = total data kilobytes free = total meta kilobytes = total meta kilobytes free = Let s try to mount it. # mkdir / samfs1 # mount / samfs1 # cd / samfs1 You should see the obligatory lost+found now. But let s do an deeper check of the filesystem: bash # samfsinfo samfs1 samfsinfo : filesystem samfs1 is mounted. name : samfs1 version : 2 time : Sun Mar 23 15:46:40 CET 2008 count : 2 capacity : f000 DAU : 64 space : c40 meta capacity : f000 meta DAU : 16 meta space : aa80 ord eq capacity space device f aa80 / dev / dsk / c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e6642bd0s f efc0 / dev / dsk / c1t c42e9f21a00002a0047e54033d0s0 Et voila, your first SamFS filesystem. 259

260 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem 25.6 Using disk archiving Okay, we will use the simplest case of archiving. It s disk archiving. In this configuration SamFS doesn t use a tape drive for storing data, it simply uses filesystems, or to be more precise, it uses a directory in a filesystem to store its data Prerequisites Okay, I ve created two iscsi-base diskpool at the start to use them as disk archives. Now I will put some further separation in them by creating directories in it. # mkdir / samfs_archive_1 / dir1 # mkdir / samfs_archive_1 / dir2 # mkdir / samfs_archive_2 / dir2 # mkdir / samfs_archive_2 / dir Configuring the archiver So, we have to start to configure the archive medias. Every archive media has its VSN. VSN is a shorthand for Volume Serial Name. The VSN identifies a media of your archive. In this case we assign the VSN disk01 with the directory /samfs_archive_1/dir1/ disk01 / samfs_archive_1 / dir1 / disk02 / samfs_archive_1 / dir2 / disk03 / samfs_archive_2 / dir1 / disk04 / samfs_archive_2 / dir2 / Now we have usable devices for archiving. But have to configure the archiving as the next step. In this step we define the policies for archiving, control the behavior of he archiver and associate VSNs with archive sets. All this configuration takes place in the file /etc/opt/sunwsamfs/archiver.cmd. Okay, lets create such a config file for our environment. logfile = / var / opt / SUNWsamfs / archiver / log interval = 2 m Okay, this is easy: The archiver should log its work into the file /var/opt/sunwsamfs/archiver/log. This file is really interesting. I will show you a nifty trick with it later in this tutorial. The interval directive was responsible for defining the interval between the starts of a process for finding new or updated files (sam-arfind). This behavior didn t scaled very well with millions of files in a directory. 260

261 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Today the default is different. The file system itself knows what files have been updated and SamFS stores this information in a list. Today this setting has a similar effect, but with other methods: It s the default setting for the archive aging. It defines the amount of time between the first file added to the todo list for the archiver and the start of the archive. Thus the archiving would start two minutes after adding the first file to the list. Now we define the archiving policy for the filesystem: fs = samfs1 arset s s What does this mean? arset0 is a name of a so called archive set. The contents of this set are defined later-on. The. stands for every file in the filesystem. Okay, now we tell SamFS to make a first copy to the archiveset arset0.1 after 30 seconds. The second copy is made to the archiveset arset0.1 after 1200 seconds (20 minutes). We have just used the name of some archive sets, now we have to declare them: vsns arset0.1 dk disk01 arset0.2 dk disk03 samfs1.1 dk disk02 endvsns Okay, The translation is quite simple: The archiveset arset0.1 consists is a disk based set and consists out of the VSN disk01. The same for the archive set arset0.2. But wait, we didn t used an archiveset samfs1.1 so far. Well, you haven t defined it explicitly. But it s implicit when you have an archiver configuration for an filesystem. It s the default archive set. You can use it for regular archiving, but as we haven t defined a policy to do so, this archive set is used for storing the meta data of your filesystem. So the association of a VSN to this archive set is mandatory. So we end up with the following archiver.cmd logfile = / var / opt / SUNWsamfs / archiver / log interval = 2 m fs = samfs1 arset s s vsns arset0.1 dk disk01 261

262 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem arset0.2 dk disk03 samfs1.1 dk disk02 endvsns Okay, we ve finalized our configuration: Now we have to check the configuration: bash # archiver - lv Reading / etc / opt / SUNWsamfs / archiver.cmd. 1: logfile = / var / opt / SUNWsamfs / archiver / log 2: interval = 2 m 3: 4: fs = samfs1 5: arset0. 6: 1 30 s 7: s 8: 9: vsns 10: arset0.1 dk disk01 11: arset0.2 dk disk03 12: samfs1.1 dk disk02 13: endvsns No media available for default assignment Notify file : / etc / opt / SUNWsamfs / scripts / archiver.sh Read timeout : 60 Request timeout : 15 m Stage timeout : 15 m Archive media : media : dk bufsize : 4 archmax : M Write timeout : 15 m Archive libraries : Device : disk archive_drives : 3 Dictionary : dk. disk01 capacity : 2.0 G space : 1.9 G dk. disk02 capacity : 2.0 G space : 1.9 G dk. disk03 capacity : 2.0 G space : 1.9 G dk. disk04 capacity : 0 space : 0 Archive file selections : Filesystem samfs1 Examine : noscan Interval : 2 m archivemeta : on scanlistsquash : off setarchdone : off Logfile : / var / opt / SUNWsamfs / archiver / log samfs1 Metadata copy : 1 arch_age : 4 m 262

263 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem arset0 path :. copy : 1 arch_age : 30 copy : 2 arch_age : 20 m Archive sets : [...] arset0.1 media : dk Volumes : disk01 (/ samfs_archive_1 / dir1 /) Total space available : 1.9 G arset0.2 media : dk Volumes : disk03 (/ samfs_archive_2 / dir1 /) Total space available : 1.9 G samfs1.1 media : dk Volumes : disk02 (/ samfs_archive_1 / dir2 /) Total space available : 1.9 G bash -3.00# Now we tell SamFS to reread its config-files bash # samd config Configuring SAM - FS bash -3.00# And now we have a running archiver. So... let s have some fun with it. Copy some files in it. I tend do test it by making a recursive copy of the /var/sadm/pkg directory. Now let s look onto our archival disks: bash -3.00# ls -l / samfs_archive_1 / dir1 total rw root root 56 Mar 23 19:39 diskvols. seqnum -rw root root Mar 23 17:43 f0 -rw root root Mar 23 19:39 f1 bash -3.00# ls -l / samfs_archive_1 / dir2 total

264 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem -rw root root 56 Mar 23 19:42 diskvols. seqnum -rw root root Mar 23 17:42 f0 -rw root root 4608 Mar 23 19:42 f1 bash -3.00# ls -l / samfs_archive_2 / dir1 total rw root root 56 Mar 23 19:58 diskvols. seqnum -rw root root Mar 23 17:43 f0 -rw root root Mar 23 19:58 f1 You see, your archival media starts to populate. But where are your files, and what s up with this f1. Well, they are written in a very specific, very secret and very closed format: These files are simple tar files. SamFS uses the standard tar format to write the archive file.you can look in it with the standard tar or the tar of SamFS: bash # star tfv f1 -rw T root / root :28 testfile3 Please notice, that this isn t a version of Joerg Schilling s star despite of the name Working with SamFS Now we ve configured a file system and we set up the archiver for it. Now let s use it Looking up SamFS specific metadata At first let s create a test file. # mkfile 10 m / samfs1 / testfile3 We now look at the metadata of this file. There is a special version of ls that is capable to read the additional information. This version ls is called sls. So let s check for our test file. [ elrond :/ samfs1 ] $ sls - D testfile3 testfile3 : mode : -rw T links : 1 owner : root group : root length : admin id: 0 inode : access : Mar 23 19: 28 modification : Mar 23 19: 28 changed : Mar 23 19: 28 attributes : Mar 23 19: 28 creation : Mar 23 19: 28 residence : Mar 23 19:

265 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem There is nothing new. Okay, let s leave the computer alone, drink a coffee or two, and now we check again: bash # sls - D testfile3 testfile3 : mode : -rw T links : 1 owner : root group : root length : admin id: 0 inode : archdone ; copy 1: Mar 23 19: dk disk01 f1 copy 2: Mar 23 19: dk disk03 f1 access : Mar 23 19: 28 modification : Mar 23 19: 28 changed : Mar 23 19: 28 attributes : Mar 23 19: 28 creation : Mar 23 19: 28 residence : Mar 23 19: 28 I assume you ve already noticed the three additional lines. The archiver did its job: archdone ; copy 1: Mar 23 19: dk disk01 f1 copy 2: Mar 23 19: dk disk03 f1 The first line says, that all outstanding archiving for the file is done. The two next lines tells you where the copies are located, when they were archived and tells you about some special flags. The 1.1 means first file in the archive file, starting at the 513th bit of the archive file(the header of tar if 512 byte long, thus the 513th bit is the first usable byte, thus the 1) Manually forcing the release Normally a file just get released, when the high watermark is reached or you configured the archiving this way. But you can force the release on the command line. After this step, the file isn t in the cache any longer. When we look in the metadata, we will the a new information. The file is in the offline state: bash # sls - D testfile3 testfile3 : mode : -rw T links : 1 owner : root group : root length : admin id: 0 inode : offline ; archdone ; copy 1: Mar 23 19: dk disk01 f1 copy 2: Mar 23 19: dk disk03 f1 access : Mar 23 19: 28 modification : Mar 23 19: 28 changed : Mar 23 19: 28 attributes : Mar 23 19: 28 creation : Mar 23 19: 28 residence : Mar 24 01:

266 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem When we access it again, the file get s staged back to the cache again: bash # cat testfile3 bash # sls - D testfile3 testfile3 : mode : -rw T links : 1 owner : root group : root length : admin id: 0 inode : archdone ; copy 1: Mar 23 19: dk disk01 f1 copy 2: Mar 23 19: dk disk03 f1 access : Mar 24 01: 35 modification : Mar 23 19: 28 changed : Mar 23 19: 28 attributes : Mar 23 19: 28 creation : Mar 23 19: 28 residence : Mar 24 01: 35 The offline flag has gone away Manually forcing the staging of a file Okay, but you can force the staging as well, let s assume you ve released a file. bash # release testfile3 bash # sls - D testfile3 testfile3 : mode : -rw T links : 1 owner : root group : root length : admin id: 0 inode : offline ; archdone ; copy 1: Mar 23 19: dk disk01 f1 copy 2: Mar 23 19: dk disk03 f1 access : Mar 24 01: 35 modification : Mar 23 19: 28 changed : Mar 23 19: 28 attributes : Mar 23 19: 28 creation : Mar 23 19: 28 residence : Mar 24 01: 37 A colleague comes into your office, and tells you that he wants to use a large file with simulation data tomorrow. It would be nice, if he don t have to wait for the automatic staging. We can force SamFS to get the file back to the cache. bash # stage testfile3 Okay, let s check for the status of the file: bash # sls - D testfile3 testfile3 : mode : -rw T links : 1 owner : root group : root length : admin id: 0 inode : archdone ; 266

267 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem copy 1: Mar 23 19: dk disk01 f1 copy 2: Mar 23 19: dk disk03 f1 access : Mar 24 01: 35 modification : Mar 23 19: 28 changed : Mar 23 19: 28 attributes : Mar 23 19: 28 creation : Mar 23 19: 28 residence : Mar 24 01: 37 Voila, it s in the cache again Usecases and future directions Okay, after all this configuration. How can you use it? Well, the most obvious usage of SamFS is Archiving. And many customers use it for exactly this task: Archiving audio, archiving video, archiving s, documents, xrays, satellite images, simulation data, data of large experimental system. Everything that s worth to be stored for a long long time. That s the job, it was designed for Unconventional Usecases But there are more unconventional use cases. One example: What does a backup software for network use? The ones with a central server and a backup agent? For example for Oracle? Well, the client not really much more than triggering RMAN and transmitting it over the network. The server receives it and stores it into tape. The problem with it? Well, did you recently look into the price list for such an backup agent? Now think about the following idea: With SamFS you already have something, that controls your tape. everything written to a SamFS filesystem will be written to tape, if you configure it this way. Share this filesystem via NFS. Now you just have to write your RMAN script to backup your data into this NFS filesystem. No backup client involved. By the way, as the backup is written to the cache at first, you don t have the problem of keeping the tape streaming at top speed (the start/stop problem is mostly something of the past, as most drives are capable of changing their speed in discrete steps to adapt the speed of incoming data. Of course you won t use the full speed and the TB/hour capacity of the device). When you completed a backup file, SamFS will write it at full speed of the tape drive to the tape. The interesting point about SamFS: Once you think about it, about the concept of hierarchical Storage Management, about a filesystem with tapes in its background, you will find more and more interesting use cases for it. 267

268 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem Future directions and ideas SamFS is a tool that is in active development at Sun, albeit we work on the integration of SamFS like features into ZFS. More interesting will be the hardware side of this system. I ve used iscsi based volumes in my example. Just think about this scenario if I didn t used two 2G volumes but X4500 with 48 TB. Within 2 Racks I could archive almost 1 Petabyte with medium speed disks. (By the way: I ve used the ZFS for the diskvols: Thus the transmission of the data to the network and the storage of the data itself is secured by checksums. ZFS Crypto will go beta soon, so you could can create an archive system where no data is unencrypted.) Using such large disk systems for archival is certainly a future direction. But there is still a need for tapes: Aircraft manufactures have to store their data for 99 years (as far as I know). A normal German company has to store their data for 10 years for our IRS equivalent called Finanzamt. You don t want to store it on rotating rust for this amount of time. But by intelligent policies, you don t have to hassle around with it manually Conclusion Okay, this was a rather long tutorial and I didn t even talked about the configuration of tape devices. As I told you before: Only the toes in the Atlantic ocean. But I hope, I gave you some insight into a somewhat unconventional topic and a capability of an optional part the Solaris Operating Environment. I assume, with the opensourcing of SamFS we will see a much more widespread use of it Do you want to learn more? Reading the documentation is even more important than for the other features I presented in this series: Documentation docs.sun.com: Sun StorageTek Storage Archive Manager Installation and Upgrade Guide 1 docs.sun.com: Sun StorageTek SAM File System Configuration and Administration Guide

269 25 SamFS - the Storage Archive Manager FileSystem docs.sun.com: Sun StorageTek SAM Archive Configuration and Administration Guide 3 Misc. information Sun Whitepaper: Sun StorEdge QFS and SAM-FS Software

270 Part VI Solaris Administrators Toolbox 270

271 26 fuser You know the problem. You try to unmount a filesystem, but all you get is a Device Busy. How do you find the process blocking the unmount? 26.1 fuser fusers enables you to look for the processes that access a directory or a file. For example we can check for all processes using the / filesystem as their working filesystem : # fuser -c / /: 701 ctm 676 ctm 675 ctom 672 ctom 596 ctm 592 ctm 585 ctm 584 ctom 581 ctom 568 ctm 523 ctom 521 ctom 481 ctom 478 ctom 477 ctom 469 ctom 456 ctom 437 ctom 425 ctm 418 ctom 412 ctom 402 ctom 401 ctom 399 ctom 380 ctom 379 ctom 366 ctm 345 ctom 341 ctom 338 ctom 333 ctom 332 ctom 319 ctom 272 ctom 262 ctom 153 ctm 140 ctm 133 ctom 131 ctom 125 ctm 100 ctom 18 ctm 9 ctom 7 ctom 1 ctm Im sure you already assume, that the numbers stand for the process ids. But what does all that letters mean. I will cite the manpage for this: c Indicates that the process is using the file as its current directory. m Indicates that the process is using a file mapped with mmap(2). n Indicates that the process is holding a non-blocking mandatory lock on the file. o Indicates that the process is using the file as an open file. r Indicates that the process is using the file as its root directory. t Indicates that the process is using the file as its text file. y Indicates that the process is using the file as its controlling terminal. 271

272 26 fuser 26.2 But fuser can do more for you Okay, now you know which processes uses a filesystem. But let s assume you have to unmount a filesystem for maintaining the storage. But there are still some users, who didn t read their mails and you can t unmount it. # cd / mnt / application # sleep 1000& [1] 691 # sleep 1000& [2] 692 # cd / # umount / mnt / application umount : / mnt / application busy Dammit... Okay, let s check for the offending processes: fuser - u / mnt / application / mnt / application : 692 c( root ) 691 c( root ) And now comes the kicker: fuser can kill all processes using a certain file or directory. You warned your users... # fuser - k - u / mnt / application / mnt / application : 692 c( root ) 691 c( root ) [ 2] + Killed sleep 1000 ( wd: / mnt / application ) (wd now : /) [ 1] + Killed sleep 1000 ( wd: / mnt / application ) (wd now : /) # Now we can unmount the directory: # umount / mnt / application # 26.3 A neat trick with fuser Okay, working with PID may a little bit cumbersome. Pete Shanahan posted a neat trick a long time ago. Let s assume the example with the both sleep processes. You ve remounted the filesystem an started some programs while being in the /mnt/application filesystem: 272

273 26 fuser # cd / mnt / application # sleep 1000& [1] 726 # sleep 1000& [2] 727 # cd / # ps -o pid, args -p "$( fuser / mnt / application 2 >/ dev / null )" PID COMMAND 726 sleep sleep 1000 # 26.4 Do you want to learn more? docs.sun.com: fuser(1m) 1 Pete Shanahan s fuser trick

274 27 pfiles This is not a tutorial, just a hint from my toolbox. On customer systems I see the lsof tool quite often. But for a quick check for open files you don t need it. There is a small, but extremely useful tool in the collection of the p*-tools: pfiles prints all open files of a process. It takes the PID of the process to specify the process. # pfiles : / usr / lib / inet /in. iked Current rlimit : 256 file descriptors 0: S_ IFDIR mode : 0755 dev :102,0 ino :2 uid :0 gid :0 size : 512 O_RDONLY O_LARGEFILE / 1: S_ IFDIR mode : 0755 dev :102,0 ino :2 uid :0 gid :0 size : 512 O_RDONLY O_LARGEFILE / 2: S_ IFDIR mode : 0755 dev :102,0 ino :2 uid :0 gid :0 size : 512 O_RDONLY O_LARGEFILE / 3: S_ IFREG mode : 0600 dev :102,0 ino : uid :0 gid :0 size :47372 O_RDWR O_APPEND O_CREAT O_LARGEFILE / var / log /in. iked. log 4: S_ IFSOCK mode : 0666 dev :304,0 ino : uid :0 gid :0 size :0 O_ RDWR O_ NONBLOCK SOCK_RAW SO_ SNDBUF ( 8192), SO_ RCVBUF ( 8192) sockname : AF_INET port : 4500 peername : AF_INET port : 4500 [..] 10: S_ IFDOOR mode : 0777 dev :306,0 ino :0 uid :0 gid :0 size :0 O_ RDWR FD_ CLOEXEC door to in. iked [ 214] And with the xargs tool there is an easy way to print out all open files on the system. # ps - ef - o pid sort xargs pfiles more </ b > 0: sched [ system process ] 274

275 27 pfiles 1: / sbin / init Current rlimit : 256 file descriptors 0: S_ IFIFO mode : 0600 dev :301,3 ino : uid :0 gid :0 size :0 O_RDWR O_NDELAY / var / run / initpipe 253: S_ IFREG mode : 0444 dev :298,1 ino : uid :0 gid :0 size :0 O_RDONLY O_LARGEFILE FD_CLOEXEC / system / contract / process / pbundle 254: S_ IFREG mode : 0666 dev :298,1 ino : uid :0 gid :0 size :0 O_ RDWR O_ LARGEFILE FD_ CLOEXEC / system / contract / process / template 255: S_ IFREG mode : 0666 dev :298,1 ino : uid :0 gid :0 size :0 O_ RDWR O_ LARGEFILE FD_ CLOEXEC / system / contract / process / template [...] 275

276 28 Installing Solaris Packages directly via web Until I ve finalized my next larger article, I want to give spotlight to a really small, but really useful feature: One relatively unknown feature of recent versions of pkgadd is the ability to load packages directly from web. You just have to specify an URL: # pkgadd -d http :// www. blastwave. org / pkg_get. pkg ## Downloading %...50%...75%...100% ## Download Complete The following packages are available : 1 CSWpkgget pkg_get - CSW version of automated package download tool ( all ) [..] Installation of < CSWpkgget > was successful. # That s all. As the packages just have to be accessible by http, you can use an existing internal webserver to serve your favorite must-have extra packages and install them directly from there. Okay, and solves the problem nicely to get started with Blastwave without moving around the pkg get package via ftp ;) 276

277 29 About crashes and cores No software is without errors. This is a basic law of computer science. And when there is no bug in the software (by a strange kind of luck) your hardware has bugs. And when there are no bugs in the hardware, cosmic rays are flipping bits. Thus an operating system needs some mechanisms to stop a process or the complete kernel at once without allowing the system to write anything back to disk and thus manifesting the corrupted state. This tutorial will cover the most important concepts surrounding the last life signs of a system or an application A plea for the panic The panic isn t the bug, it s the reaction of the system to a bug in the system. Many people think of panics as the result of an instability and something bad like the bogey man. But: Panics and crash dumps are your friend. Whenever the system detects a inconsistency in its structures, it does the best what it could to: protect your data. And the best way to do this, is to give the system a fresh start, don t try to modify the data on the disk and write some status information to a special device to enable analysis of the problem. The concepts of panic and crash dump were developed to give the admin exactly such tools. A good example: Imagine a problem in the UFS, a bit has flipped. The operating environment detects an inconsistence in the data structures. You can t work with this error. It would unpredictably alter the data on your disk. You can t shutdown the system by a normal reboot. The flushing of your disks would alter the data on the disk. The only way to get out of the system: Stop everything and restart the system, ergo panic the system and write a crash dump. Furthermore: Some people look at the core and crash dumps and think about their analysis as an arcane art and see them as a wast of disk space. But it s really easy to get some basic data and hints out of this large heaps of data. 277

278 29 About crashes and cores 29.2 Difference between Crash Dumps and Cores Many people use this words synonymously ( The system paniced and wrote a core dump ). Every now and then im doing this as well. But this isn t correct. The scope of the dump is quite different: crash dump A crash dump is the dump of the memory of the complete kernel. core dump The core dump is the dump of the memory of a process 29.3 Forcing dumps Okay, a dumps are not only a consequence of errors. You can force the generation of both kinds. This is really useful when you want to freeze the current state of the system or an application for further examination Forcing a core dump Let s assume you want to have an core dump of a process running on your system: # ps - ef grep " bash " grep " jmoekamp " jmoekamp : 59: 39 pts /1 0: 00 bash Okay, now we can trigger the core dump by using the process id of the process. # gcore 681 gcore : core. 681 dumped Okay, but the kicker is the fact, that the process still runs afterwards. So you can get an core dump of your process for analysis without interrupting it. # ps - ef grep " bash " grep " jmoekamp " jmoekamp : 59: 39 pts /1 0: 00 bash Neat isn t it. Now you can use the mdb to analyse it, for example to print out the backtrace: # mdb core. 681 Loading modules : [ libc.so.1 ld.so.1 ] > $c libc.so.1 waitid +0 x15 (0, 2a9, 8047 ca0, 83) libc.so.1 waitpid +0 x63 (2a9, 8047 d4c, 80) waitjob +0 x51 ( ) 278

279 29 About crashes and cores postjob +0 xcd (2a9, 1) execute +0 x77d (80771 c4, 0, 0) exfile +0 x170 (0) main +0 x4d2 (1, 8047 e48, 8047 e50 ) _start +0 x7a (1, 8047 eec, 0, 8047 ef0, 8047 efe, 8047 f0f ) Forcing a crash dump Okay, you can force a crash dump, too. It s quite easy. You can trigger it with the uadmin command. bash # uadmin 5 0 panic [ cpu0 ]/ thread = db47700 : forced crash dump initiated at user request d50a2f4c genunix : kadmin +10 c (5, 0, 0, db ) d50a2f84 genunix : uadmin +8 e (5, 0, 0, d50a2fac, ) syncing file systems done dumping to / dev / dsk / c0d0s1, offset , content kernel 100% done : pages dumped, compression ratio 5.31, dump succeeded Press any key to reboot. Why should you do something like that? Well, there are several reasons. For example, when you want to stop a system right at this moment. There is an effect in clusters called split brain. This happens, when both systems believe their are the surviving one, because they ve lost the cluster interconncet 1. Sun Cluster can prevent this situation by something called quorum. In a high availability situation the nodes of a cluster try to get this quorum. Whoever gets the quorum, runs the service. But you have to ensure that the other nodes don t even try to write something to disks. The simplest method: Panic the machine. Another use case would be the detection of an security breach. Let s assume, your developer integrated a security hole as large as the Rhine into a web applicaiton by accident and now someone else owns your machine. The false reaction would be: Switch the system off or trigger a normal reboot. Both would lead to the loss of the memory content and perhaps the hacker had integrated a tool in the shutdown procedure to erase logs. A more feasible possibility: Trigger a crash dump. You keep the content of the memory and you can analyse it for traces to the attacker. 1 simplification warning ;) 279

280 29 About crashes and cores 29.4 Controlling the behaviour of the dump facilities Solaris has mechanisms to control the behaviour of dumps. different for crash and core dumps. These mechanisms are Crash dumps You can configure the content of crashdumps, where they are located and what you do with them after the boot. You control this behaviour with the dumpadm command. When you use this command without any further option, it prints out the actual state. # dumpadm Dump content : kernel pages Dump device : / dev / dsk / c0d0s1 ( swap ) Savecore directory : / var / crash / incubator Savecore enabled : yes This is the default setting: A crash dump contains only the memory pages of the kernel and uses /dev/dsk/c0d0s1 (the swap device) to store the crash dump in the case of a kernel panic. savecore is a special process, that runs at the next boot of the system. In the case of an crash dump at the dump device, it copies the dump to the configured directory to keep it for analysis before it s used for swapping again. Let s change the behaviour. At first we want to configure, that the complete memory is saved to the crash dump in case of a panic. This is easy: # dumpadm - c all Dump content : all pages Dump device : / dev / dsk / c0d0s1 ( swap ) Savecore directory : / var / crash / incubator Savecore enabled : yes Okay, now let s change the location for the crash dump. The actual name is an artefact of my orignal VM image called incubator. To get a new test machine I clone this image. I want to use the directory /var/crash/theoden for this purpose. # mkdir / var / crash / theoden # chmod 700 / var / crash / theoden # dumpadm -s / var / crash / theoden Dump content : all pages Dump device : / dev / dsk / c0d0s1 ( swap ) Savecore directory : / var / crash / theoden Savecore enabled : yes 280

281 29 About crashes and cores Now the system will use the new directory to store the crash dumps. Setting the rights of the directory to 700 is important. The crash dump may contain sensitive information, thus it could be dangerous to make them readable by anyone else than root Core dumps A similar facility exists for the core dumps. You can control the behaviour of the core dumps with the coreadm command. Like with dumpadm you can get the actual configuration by using coreadm without any option. # coreadm global core file pattern : global core file content : default init core file pattern : core init core file content : default global core dumps : disabled per - process core dumps : enabled global setid core dumps : disabled per - process setid core dumps : disabled global core dump logging : disabled This programm has more options than dumpadm. I won t go through all options, but some important ones. From my view the file patterns are the most interesting ones. You can control, where core dumps are stored. The default is to store the core dumps in the working directory of a process. But this may lead to core dumps dispersed over the filesystem. With core adm you can configure a central location for all your coredumps. # coreadm -i / var / core / core.%n.%f.%u.%p # coreadm -u With -i you tell coreadm to set the location for the per-process core dumps. The parameter for this option is the filename for new core dumps. You can use variables in this filename. For example %n will be translated to the machine name, %f to name of the file, %u to the effective user id of the process and %p will be substituted with the process id. The coreadm -u forces the instant reload the configuration. Otherwise, this setting would get active at the next boot or the next refresh of the coreadm service. Okay, let s try our configuration. # ps - ef grep " bash " grep " jmoekamp " jmoekamp : 59: 39 pts /1 0: 00 bash Now we trigger a core dump for a running process. 281

282 29 About crashes and cores # gcore - p 681 gcore : / var / core / core. theoden. bash dumped As you see, the core dump isn t written at the current working directory of the process, it s written at the configured position Core dump configuration for the normal user The both configuration described so far are global ones, so you can do this configuration only with root privileges. But a normal user can manipulate the core dump configuration as well, albeit only for processes owned by her or him. Let s login as a normal user. configuration: Now we check one of our processes for its coreadm $ ps - ef grep " jmoekamp " jmoekamp : 27: 38 pts /1 0: 00 - sh jmoekamp : 29: 15? 0: 00 / usr / lib / ssh / sshd jmoekamp : 29: 16 pts /1 0: 00 - sh jmoekamp : 27: 38 pts /1 0: 00 ps - ef $ coreadm : / var / core / core.%n.%f.%u.%p default Now let s check a process owned by root. $ ps - ef grep " cron " jmoekamp : 28: 13 pts /1 0: 00 grep cron root : 25: 24? 0: 00 / usr / sbin / cron $ coreadm : Not owner The system denies the access to this information. Now we change the setting for the process 669 from the first example. It s quite simple: $ coreadm -p / export / home / jmoekamp / cores / core.%n.%f.%u.%p 669 $ coreadm : / export / home / jmoekamp / cores / core.%n.%f.%u.%p default This setting ist inherited to all The per-process core file name pattern is inherited by future child processes of the affected processes. Why should you set an own path and filename for an application or an user? There are several reasons. For example to ensure that you have the correct rights to an directory 282

283 29 About crashes and cores for the cores, when the process starts to dump the core or to seperate the cores from certain applications a different locations Crashdump analysis for beginners Basic analysis of a crash dump with mdb Okay, now you have all this crash and core dumps, it would be nice to do something useful with it. Okay, I show you just some basic tricks to get some insight into the state of a system when it wrote a crash dump. At first we load the dump into the mdb # mdb unix.0 vmcore.0 Loading modules : [ unix genunix specfs cpu. generic uppc scsi_vhci ufs ip hook neti sctp arp usba nca lofs zfs random nsctl sdbc rdc sppp ] > Solaris has an in-memory buffer for the console messages. In the case you write a crash dump, obviously this messages are written into the crash dump as well. With the ::msgbuf command of mdb you can read this message buffer. > :: msgbuf MESSAGE SunOS Release Version snv_ bit Copyright Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms. features : df < cpuid,sse3,sse2,sse,sep,cx8,mmx,cmov,pge,mtrr,msr,tsc,lgpg > mem = K (0 x1439f000 ) root nexus = i86pc pseudo0 at root pseudo0 is / pseudo [...] devinfo0 is / pseudo / panic [ cpu0 ]/ thread = db3aea00 : forced crash dump initiated at user request d5efcf4c genunix : kadmin +10 c (5, 0, 0, db5c8a98 ) 283

284 29 About crashes and cores d5efcf84 genunix : uadmin +8 e (5, 0, 0, d5efcfac, ) syncing file systems... done dumping to / dev / dsk / c0d0s1, offset , content : all > So it s really easy to get this last messages of a dying system with mdb from the crash dump alone. A nice information is the backtrace. This helps you to find out, what triggered the crash dump. In this case it s easy. It was the uadmin syscall. > $c vpanic ( fea6388c ) kadmin +0 x10c (5, 0, 0, db39e550 ) uadmin +0 x8e () sys_sysenter +0 x106 () But it would be nice, to know more of the state of the system, at the moment of the crash. For example we can print out the process table of the system like we would do it with ps > :: ps S PID PPID PGID SID UID FLAGS ADDR NAME R x fec1d3d0 sched [...] R x d55f58a8 sshd R x d fmd R x d55fb128 syslogd [...] R x4a d55f19c0 ttymon We can even lookup, which files or sockets where opened at the moment of the crash dump. For example: We want to know the open files of the ssh daemon. To get this information, we have to use the address of the process from the process table (the eighth column) and extend it with "::pfiles": > d55f58a8 :: pfiles FD TYPE VNODE INFO 0 CHR d597d540 / devices / pseudo / : null 1 CHR d597d540 / devices / pseudo / : null 2 CHR d597d540 / devices / pseudo / : null 3 SOCK db socket : AF_INET6 ::

285 29 About crashes and cores And here we look into the open files of the syslogd > d55fb128 :: pfiles FD TYPE VNODE INFO 0 DIR d5082a80 / 1 DIR d5082a80 / 2 DIR d5082a80 / 3 DOOR d699b300 / var / run / name_ servic e_door [ door to nscd ( proc = d )] 4 CHR db522cc0 / devices / pseudo / : sysmsg 5 REG db / var / adm / messages 6 REG db6839c0 / var / log / syslog 7 CHR db / devices / pseudo / : log 8 DOOR db6eb300 [ door to syslogd ( proc = d55fb128 )] As the core dump contains all the pages of the kernel (or more, in the case you configure it) you have a frozen state of your system to investigate everything you want. And to get back to my security example: With the core dump and mdb you can gather really interesting informations. For example, you can see that an ssh connection was open at the time of the crash dump. > :: netstat TCPv4 St Local Address Remote Address Stack Zone db35f [...] A practical usecase You can do it like the pros and look at source code and crash dump side by side to find the root cause for an error. Or like some colleagues at the Sun Mission Critical Support Center who wouldn t surprise me, when they find the error by laying their hand on a system). For all others, there is a more simple way to analyse your crash dump to have at least a little bit more informations to search in a bug database. I will use a crash I ve analyzed a long time ago to show you the trick. Okay, you have to start a debugger. I used mdb in this example: bash -3.00# mdb -k unix.4 vmcore.4 285

286 29 About crashes and cores Loading modules : [ unix krtld genunix specfs dtrace cpu. AuthenticAMD.15 uppc pcplusmp ufs md ip sctp usba fcp fctl nca lofs cpc fcip random crypto zfs logindmux ptm sppp nfs ipc ] A prompt appears, just type in $C to get a stack trace. > $C fffffe80000b9650 vpanic () fffffe80000b x ffffff fffb () fffffe80000b96e0 segmap_unlock +0 xe5 () fffffe80000b97a0 segmap_fault +0 x2db () fffffe80000b97c0 s nf_sma p_desb free +0 x76 () fffffe80000b97e0 dblk_lastfree_desb +0 x17 () fffffe80000b9800 dblk_decref +0 x66 () fffffe80000b9830 freeb +0 x7b () fffffe80000b99b0 tcp_rput_data +0 x1986 () fffffe80000b99d0 tcp_input +0 x38 () fffffe80000b9a10 squeue_enter_chain +0 x16e () fffffe80000b9ac0 ip_input +0 x18c () fffffe80000b9b50 i_dls_link_ether_rx +0 x153 () fffffe80000b9b80 mac_ rx +0 x46 () fffffe80000b9bd0 bge_receive +0 x98 () fffffe80000b9c10 bge_intr +0 xaf () fffffe80000b9c60 av_dispatch_autovect +0 x78 () fffffe80000b9c70 intr_thread +0 x50 () Okay, now start at the beginning of the trace to strip all lines from the operating system infrastructure for error cases. Okay, vpanic() generates the panic. The second line is useless for our purposes to. The next both lines with segmap are generated by the error but not the root cause. The interesting line ist snf_smap_desbfree With this name you can go to Sunsolve or bugs.opensolaris.org. Et voila : System panic due to recursive mutex enter in snf smap desbfree trying to re-aquire Tx mutex. When you type this error into the PatchFinder, you will find a patch fixing this bug: Two hints: It s a good practice to know mdb. It s very useful at compiling open source software in the case your compiled code throw cores, but you don t know why. core files are not just for deleting them. Error reports with a stack trace are more usefull than an error report just with The system paniced when I did this 286

287 29 About crashes and cores 29.6 Conclusion The Solaris Operating Environment has several functions to enable the user or the support engineer in the case something went wrong. Crash and core dumps are an invaluable resource to find the root cause of a problem. Don t throw them away without looking at them Do you want to learn more? Documentation coreadm(1m) dumpadm(1m) uadmin(1m) mdb(1) Solaris Modular Debugger Guide Books Solaris Internals: Solaris 10 and Open Solaris Kernel Architecture - Richard McDougall and Jim Mauro Solaris Performance and Tools: DTrace and MDB Techniques for Solaris 10 and OpenSolaris - Richard McDougall, Jim Mauro and Brendan Gregg 287

288 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit 30.1 Automated Installation As wrote at several occasions in my tutorials, Solaris was designed with the enterprise customer in mind. It s quite common, that a company has dozens of servers and you have to put your customized operating system on all of them. A special management tool, some special admin tools, a certain configuration of the volume manager. The problem: Let s assume, you have 50 system, all of them will have a slightly different configuration. This is normal, when you install your systems manually. Humans aren t machines, and human work introduces variances in every instance of work. While this is nice for furniture or apparel, this can lead to long searches for needles in haystacks. On some occasions I had strange problems with systems: One system worked just fine, another made problems. Both were installed with a cookbook. At the end we ve used something similar to BART. We ve compared both system and found slight differences. On the problematic system, the admin made an typo. I was curious and looked after the working system. Even this system wasn t exactly like demanded by the cookbook. So: How can you prevent this subtle variances between your systems? The most obvious way is the automation of the installation. Let do the computer, what a computer can do at best: Repetitive tasks with the same quality over and over again. Jumpstart and Jet have several ways and means to do automatic installation, thus making the admins live much easier, after you ve done the final setup. And in this tutorial I want to show you, that this setup is really easy About Jumpstart One basic problem of automated installation is the provisioning of the operating system on the bare metal. Without OS any further configuration is obviously senseless. For several releases Solaris contains a feature called Jumpstart. The basic idea of Jumpstart is the installation of a system by using the network. 288

289 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit The Jumpstart mechanism for PXE based x86 The process of jumpstarting is relatively simple. 1. The system comes. It tries to gather informations about the network Its own IP, netmask and network address the boot server 2. It connects to the boot server via tftp, loads the network boot program (in this case pxegrub) and the menu.lst. 3. The pxegrub boots the an Solaris environment on the client. The menu.lst contains the locations of important sources: config server location of the sysid_config file location of the installation media location of the boot environment 4. The mini root starts. From now on,you have a Solaris Kernel running on your systems. 5. It gathers the rules.ok from the installation server. 6. It tries to find a matching profile based on the rules in the rules.ok file. 7. Based on the jumpstart profile it formats the disks, it mounts all filesystems like on the final system relative to the directory /a 8. The installer starts to install the packages relatively to the directory /a 9. After all, it writes the boot loader to the disks 10. Now you can reboot the system Jumpstart Server Albeit the Jumpstart Server is an important part in the process of installing the operating system on the server, it s a passive part. The Jumpstart process itself is executed on the client, not on the server. The server is only necessary to provide information and the installation media. It uses existing protocols for this task as RARP or DHCP for assigning informations about the network or NFS and HTTP for providing access to the installation files. 289

290 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Development At the beginning Jumpstart was just able to do the installation. Recent versions 1 include functions to automatically create boot mirrors Control Files for the automatic installation I will not describe the exact process of native Jumpstart in its multitude of configurations as the Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit does this job for us, but it s important to know some of the important internals of Jumpstart. I will describe the most important files. There are various others like /etc/ethers or the DHCP server configuration, but as you don t touch them manually even with the native configuration of Jumpstart I won t describe them here rules The first important file for the automatic installation is the rules file. This files associates system with a installation profile. # rule keywords and rule values begin script profile finish script # hostname aramaki setup webserver completion any - - genericprofile - The first rule can be divided in parts like this: When the hostname of the new server is aramaki, start the script begin on the client before starting the installation. For the installation use the profile file webserver. After the installation execute the script completion The second line is a catch-all condition. The file is used top down and the process of matching a system to a profile stops at the first match. Thus an installation for aramaki would reach the second line. This line can be translated like this. For any other host, use the profile genericprofile. There is no begin or finish script. You can t use the rules file directly. The Jumpstart server provides a script to do a syntax check on the rules. When the file is correct, the script adds it gets renamed to rules.ok 1 Recent in Solaris context means Solaris 9 and up ;) 290

291 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit profile The profile file controls what we install on the system and how we partition the disks for the installation. # profile keywords profile values # install_type initial_install system_type standalone partitioning default filesys any 512 swap cluster SUNWCprog package SUNWman delete cluster SUNWCacc You can have a multitude of profiles in your system. A profile for system with large disks, a profile for system with small disks, a profile with a selection of packages customized for a webserver, a profile customized for a developer workstation. The jumpstart framework will choose the correct one on the basis of the rules.ok set The profile is capable to control almost any important parameter for the installation on the disk. You can define pa The sysidcfg file Installing the packages on the system isn t enough to get the operating system up an running. You have to give the system a unique identity. Parameters for this identity are: configuration of network interfaces locales initial root password time zone etc. You can type in such information manually, but that wouldn t be a hands-off installation. The installation process of Solaris has a solution for this problem. You can set all the parameters in a file called sysidcfg. The Solaris installer will use this file to configure the system accordingly. keyboard =US - English timezone =US/ Central timeserver = timehost1 terminal =ibm -pc service_profile = limited_net 291

292 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit name_service = NIS { domain_name = marquee. central. example. com name_server = nmsvr2 ( ) } nfs4_domain = example. com root_password = URFUni9 But: Whenever some essential information is missing, the installer will go interactive and ask for the missing information. This obviously is against our objective of an automated installation Jumpstart FLASH Sometimes you don t to do a new install of a system. You just want to clone a system. For example think about a webserver farm. Let s assume you have thirty of them. You ve configured one and now you want to distribute this config to all of your system. You ve tuned the system extensively, you changed configurations throughout all components. And you don t want to do this 29 times again Full Flash Archives Solaris Jumpstart knows a special mode of operation for this task: It s called Jumpstart FLASH. The trick of Jumpstart flash is quite easy. At first a normal Jumpstart install and the FLASH install are identical. But when it comes to the installation of the Don t install the packages one by one. Instead jumpstart flash unpacks a archive of a running system on a new system. This archive is called FLASH archive. Technically speaking it s not much more than cpio archive of a running system Differential Flash Archives There is an interesting mode of operation for flash archives. You can create differential flash archives. Let s assume you created a basic flash archive and installed all your systems with it: your webserver, your mailserver, your database server. Most parts of the system are identical. Just a few additional binaries and configuration files differentiate your server from each other. Let s assume you want to create flash archives from all systems. Of course you could create a full flash archive for each system, but this would be waste of disk space. The differential flash archive creation works relatively simple. It compares the content of a flash archive with the actual state of an installed system and just archives the changed parts. The next time you want to install the system, you use both archives. At first the 292

293 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit full archive will be installed on the system, after this you use one or more differential flash archives to complete your installation. Table 30.1: differential archive behavior old new Action exists not exists File is included in archive exists exists but different The file from the new state is included in archive exists exists not File will be deleted, when the diff archive is used on a server flar creation is just a big wrapper around cpio, thus it s possible to some nifty tricks with it. The current states of the system doesn t have be the active one, and the old states doesn t have to be flar archives. It s possible to compare an old boot environment and the actual boot environment from Liveupgrade to generate a differential flash archive. This differential can be used to update other servers. You could even compare a remote system via NFS, when don t squash root Challenges of Jumpstart Flash for System Recovery Flash was designed with the task of system cloning in mind. So it removes the identity of the system after the installation by using the sysidunconfig command. The need for such a step at system cloning is obvious: One part of the systems identity is the networking configuration. You can t clone the network configuration. TCP/IP duplicates sysunconfig deletes the entire configuration, that makes the installation an unique instance: saves a copy of /etc/hosts and substitute it with a default one. removes any NFS mount from /etc/vfstab deletes NIS, NIS+,LDAP and DNS name service configuration removes the interface configuration of all configured interfaces. 2 I know this has some security implication, but hey... you should limit the access for such stunts to your admin networks and you can deactivate it afterwards. 293

294 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit removes the root password removes /etc/sysidcfg removes /etc/defaultrouter removes /etc/ined/netmasks regenerates the ssh-keys sets the timezones in /etc/timezone to PST8PDT Albeit it s not designed for system recovery, there is a trick you can use to recover the removed information. The knowledge about the removed part is important for the trick, thus I ve included a list of them in this tutorial. You will find a script at the end of this tutorial About the Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit The basic idea behind JET The Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit (JET) was designed as an add-on to the normal Jumpstart process. It solves two major challenges: Jumpstart works exceptionally well to install the operating system and to do configurations in conjunction to the operating system, but misses some easy to configure features to execute further configurations of higher-level configuration besides of having hooks for finish scripts. Some people find it a little bit complex to configure. While I strongly believe, this isn t the case, I have to admit, thats hard to remember the commands when this is not your everyday task With both issues in mind, some Sun Engineers start to develop the Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit. Basically it s a bunch of clever shell scripts. The Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit configures the Jumpstart Server accordingly to the configuration in a template. Furthermore it provides a framework for application specific modules to install and configure them. When using JET you don t have to hassle around with all this files explained before, making the installation easier. 294

295 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Additional features of JET JET isn t just a config generator for Jumpstart. You can configure JET in a way to fully customize your system. Much of this capability comes from a link called S99jumpstart or the respective SMF service. This script has an important role: It executes further actions on the system on following boots. For example, the mirroring of harddisks isn t done by integrated functionalities of Solaris Jumpstart 3. It s done by a script located on the server and made available by NFS, but executed on the server. This concept makes the JET a very flexible tool Prerequisites Systems For these tests, I need quite a few systems. I ve used VirtualBox in the preparation of this tutorial. I ve populated my /etc/hosts with the following hostnames 4 : aramaki togusa ishikawa In my tutorial aramaki will serve as the Jumpstart server, togusa and ishikawa are the installation targets Packages For this tutorial I ve used the following packages and ISOs: Solaris 10 Update 5 This is the operating environment I will use to demonstrate automated patching OpenSolaris Community Edition Build 87 aramaki runs with this operating environment and it s no problem to jumpstart OpenSolaris CE or DE with JET. Recommended Patch Cluster To demonstrate automated patching, I ve used the recommended patch cluster. You can gather it at 3 Those would make this action unavailable on Solaris 8 for example 4 In case you wonder about the hostnames, these names are characters from Ghost in a Shell. And just in case you search for kusanagi, this is the name for the system hosting the virtual machines 295

296 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit SUNWjet The Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit. You can get it at download/index.jsp?tab=2#j SUNWjass The Solaris Security Toolkit. You can get it from download/index.jsp?tab=2#s 30.9 Installation of JET Preparation of the system A jumpstart server doesn t have to be a big server. But it s good practice to take the following into consideration: You have to copy your installation media onto the server. A Solaris version needs up to 4 Gigabyte on disk. Additionally you need space for further products (like other applications) and patches 5.Depending on the amount of Solaris versions you want to provide, it s a good idea not to spend the rest of an existing partition to your Jumpstart server. It s a wise choice to have a fast network. As the system isn t hardened and unconfigured at the first install, the paranoid prefer to use a free Gigabit-Ethernet port at my jumpstart server and use a separated VLAN for initial configuration. Or you use your admin LAN for this purpose. Either ways, for an fast installation gigabit ethernet is nice The installation After copying the JET package on our new Jumpstart server, we have to install the package: # pkgadd - d jet. pkg The following packages are available : 1 JetEXPLO jet explo product ( sparc ) JetFLASH JET flash product ( sparc ) JetJASS JASS product ( sparc ) JetRBAC JET RBAC product 5 The actual recommended patch cluster for Solaris 10 x86 is over 300 MB large 296

297 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit ( sparc ) JetSAN JET san product ( sparc ) JetSBD Secure By Default product ( sparc ) JetSDS JET sds product ( sparc, i386 ) JetVTS JET VTS product ( sparc ) JetWanBoot JET WanBoot support ( sparc ) JetZONES JET Zones module ( sparc ) more menu choices to follow ; < RETURN > for more choices, < CTRL - D > to stop display : 11 SUNWjet Sun JumpStart Enterprise Toolkit ( sparc, i386 ) SUNWjetd JET Documentation ( sparc ) Select package ( s) you wish to process ( or all to process all packages ). ( default : all ) [?,??,q]: all JetEXPLO Installs and configures the Sun Explorer JetFLASH Module to control Jumpstart Flash installed JetJASS executes the Solaris Security Toolkit on the new host JetRBAC configures the Role Based Access Control JetSAN configures the SAN framework of Solaris JetSBD configures the Secure-by-default setting JetSDS configures the Solaris Volume Management JetVTS installs the Sun Validation Test Suite. It tests and validates Sun hardware by verifying the connectivity and functionality of hardware devices, controllers and peripherals. JetWANboot configures the Jumpstart facilities for installation over the WAN JetZONES configures Solaris Zones on the newly installed zones. As the package is quite small with half a megabyte, I always install all packages on a jumpstart server. 297

298 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Processing package instance < SUNWjet > from </ root / jet. pkg > Sun JumpStart Enterprise Toolkit ( sparc, i386 ) 4.4 Copyright 2007 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. Use is subject to license terms. The selected base directory </ opt / SUNWjet > must exist before installation is attempted. Do you want this directory created now [ y, n,?, q] y Using </ opt / SUNWjet > as the package base directory. [...] Processing package instance < JetSBD > from </ root / jet. pkg > Secure By Default product ( sparc ) # This is all we have to do for the installation Preparations for out first installation Now you have to copy your Solaris install media. You can do this on two ways From a mounted DVD media When you already have burned media, you can use it for the copy process. Just put it into the drive, the volume management mounts it and you can copy it from there. # / opt / SUNWjet / bin / copy_solaris_media -d / export / install / media / solaris / x86 / nv87 -n nv87 / cdrom / sol_11_x86 Copying Solaris image... Verifying target directory... Calculating the required disk space for the Solaris_11 product Calculating space required for the installation boot image Copying the CD image to disk... Copying Install Boot Image hierarchy... Copying / boot netboot hierarchy... Install Server setup complete 298

299 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Added Solaris image nv87 at the following location : Media : / export / install / media / solaris / x86 / nv87 removing directory / export / install / media / solaris / x86 /911 # Let s dissect the command: -d specifies the target, where you copy the operating system. -n specifies a name for this media. From now on you refer this solaris media as nv87 in the templates for JET. At the end you specify the location, where the media is located at the moment From a.iso file Okay, you ve downloaded your Solaris media. You don t have to burn it, you can use the.iso files directly: #./ copy_solaris_media -d / export / install / media / solaris / x86 / sol10u5 -n sol10u5 -i / export / home / jmoekamp sol -10 -u5 -ga -x86 - dvd. iso Created loopback device / dev / lofi /1 for / export / home / jmoekamp / sol -10 -u5 -ga -x86 - dvd. iso mounted / export / home / jmoekamp /sol -10 -u5 -ga -x86 - dvd. iso at / export / install / media / solaris / x86 /790/ slices /s0 (of type hsfs ) Copying Solaris image... Verifying target directory... Calculating the required disk space for the Solaris_10 product Calculating space required for the installation boot image Copying the CD image to disk... Copying Install Boot Image hierarchy... Copying / boot x86 netboot hierarchy... Install Server setup complete Added Solaris image sol10u5 at the following location : Media : / export / install / media / solaris / x86 / sol10u5 Unmounting / export / install / media / solaris / x86 /790/ slices /s0 removing device / dev / lofi /1 removing directory / export / install / media / solaris / x86 /790 The command line for using a.iso file is quite similar. You just specify with the -i that an =.iso= file has to be used and in which directory it should search for it. The last 299

300 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit parameter is the name of the.iso file itself. The system mounts the dvd image by using the loopback facility of Solaris and copies the media to its target location afterwards Looking up the existing Solaris versions JET provides script to lookup the versions of Solaris you ve copied to your Jumpstart Server. With the list_solaris_locations script you look up the version and the location of your solaris medias. #./ list_solaris_locations Version Location nv87 / export / install / media / solaris / x86 / nv87 sol10u5 / export / install / media / solaris / x86 / sol10u A basic automated installation At first we will do a really basic install. No tricks, just the pure operating system. Nevertheless this part will be a little bit longer as I will do a technical deep-dive into the process of installation in this example to show you the inner workings of JET with this installation as an example The template for the install At first we have to create a template for the system. This is really easy. # make_template togusa Adding product configuration information for + base_config + custom + sds + vts + explo + flash + san + jass + zones + sbd Updating base_config template specifics Client template created in / opt / SUNWjet / Templates 300

301 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Okay, this is too much... at start we don t want all this modules right now. We can add them later, without loosing the configuration. Let s just use the module for the basic configuration: # make_ template - f togusa base_ config Adding product configuration information for + base_config Updating base_config template specifics Client template created in / opt / SUNWjet / Templates Even the basic template is quite long. I ve reduced it for this tutorial by deleting all comments, all empty lines and all variables without a value. 1 base_config_clientarch = i86pc base_config_clientether =08:00:27:97:29:1 E 3 base_config_clientos = nv87 base_config_client_allocation =" grub " 5 base_config_sysidcfg_nameservice = NONE base_config_sysidcfg_network_interface = PRIMARY 7 base_config_sysidcfg_ip_address = base_config_sysidcfg_netmask = base_config_sysidcfg_root_password =" boajromu7gfmy " base_config_sysidcfg_system_locale ="C" 11 base_config_sysidcfg_timeserver = localhost base_config_sysidcfg_timezone =" Europe / Berlin " 13 base_config_sysidcfg_terminal = vt100 base_config_sysidcfg_security_policy = NONE 15 base_config_sysidcfg_protocol_ipv6 =no base_config_sysidcfg_default_route = base_config_x86_nowin =" yes " base_config_label_disks =" all " 19 base_config_profile_cluster = SUNWCuser base_config_profile_usedisk = rootdisk. 21 base_config_profile_root = free base_config_profile_swap = base_config_ufs_logging_filesys =" all " base_config_profile_del_clusters =" SUNWCpm SUNWCpmx SUNWCdial SUNWCdialx " 25 base_config_dns_disableforbuild =" yes " base_config_update_terminal =" yes " 27 base_config_enable_savecore =" yes " base_config_dumpadm_minfree ="20000 k" 29 base_config_noautoshutdown =" pm_disabled " Let s dissect this template. 301

302 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Line 1-3 This lines are the most basic ones. The first line defines the architecture of the system. The next line is the Ethernet-Address of the new system. The third one specifies the new operating system. Line 4 This line specifies, how the new system gathers the most basic informations like its own IP. Line 5-16 Do you remember the part about sysidcfg. The values for this files are defined in this part of the template. Line 17 This line tells the system to suppress the start of the windowing system. Line 18 Solaris needs a disk label on the disks for the system. This directive tells the system to write this label to all disks. Line Another known phrase... profile. Here you specify the partitioning for the system and what packages will be installed on it. Line 23-end There are several further statements. Please the original file for an explanation. Okay after this step, we have to generate the configuration for the Jumpstart mechanism. This is really easy: # make_ client - f togusa Gathering network information.. Client : ( / ) Server : ( / , SunOS ) Solaris : client_prevalidate Solaris : client_build Creating sysidcfg Creating profile Adding base_config specifics to client configuration Solaris : Configuring JumpStart boot for togusa Starting SMF services for JumpStart Solaris : Configure PXE / grub build Adding install client Doing a TEXT based install Leaving the graphical device as the primary console Configuring togusa macro Using local dhcp server PXE / grub configuration complete Running / opt / SUNWjet / bin / check_client togusa Client : ( / ) Server : ( / , SunOS ) Checking product base_config / solaris 302

303 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Check of client togusa -> Passed... The nice thing about the make_client command: It doesn t just generate the Jumpstart configuration. It checks for the most dumb errors like forget to share the directory of your Solaris media with NFS. So you can detect many problems at an early stage. You don t have to wait until the jumpstart client comes up just to detect, that there is no NFS or no DHCP config The generated Jumpstart configuration files Okay, let s look into the /tftpboot directory at first. As the system uses pxegrub we need a menu.lst -bash -3.2 $ cat / tftpboot / menu. lst E default =0 timeout =2 title Solaris_11 Jumpstart kernel / I86PC. Solaris_11-1/ platform / i86pc / kernel / unix - install nowin - B install_ config = :/ opt / SUNWjet, sysid_config = :/ opt / SUNWjet / Clients / togusa, install_media = :/ export / install / media / solaris / x86 /nv87, install_boot = :/ export / install / media / solaris / x86 / nv87 / boot module / I86PC. Solaris_ 11-1/ x86. miniroot -bash -3.2 $ In the GRUB configuration we not only load the Kernel, we additionally name the location of the Jumpstart server, the exact location and name of the sysidconfig file, the position of our installation media and at last the location of the miniroot. In our example all locations are NFS locations. Okay, the install_config directory is the first important location. We find the rules.ok file there. -bash -3.2 $ cat / opt / SUNWjet / rules.ok any any Utils / begin = Utils / finish # version =2 checksum =3114 Okay, now let s have a look in the specified profile file: 303

304 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit -bash -3.2 $ cat / opt / SUNWjet / Clients / togusa / profile # # This is an automatically generated profile. Please modify the template. # # Created : Mon May 19 21:47:50 CEST 2008 # install_type initial_install system_type server cluster SUNWCuser partitioning explicit # # Disk layouts # filesys rootdisk. s0 free / filesys rootdisk. s1 256 swap cluster SUNWCpm delete cluster SUNWCpmx delete cluster SUNWCdial delete cluster SUNWCdialx delete As I wrote before, we have to give the system an identity. The sysidcfg is responsible for this task, thus we find such a file in our directory. Our new system will use it when the installation has completed. -bash -3.2 $ cat / opt / SUNWjet / Clients / togusa / sysidcfg name_service = NONE root_password = boajromu7gfmy system_locale = C timeserver = localhost timezone = Europe / Berlin terminal = vt100 security_policy = NONE nfs4_domain = dynamic net work_i nterfa ce = PRIMARY { hostname = togusa ip_address = netmask = protocol_ipv6 = no default_route = } The installation boot This leaves you to do one thing. Configure the system to start with PXE in the BIOS of your system. And the system will boot via network and starts to install a system. 304

305 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit After a while the installation will be complete. installation at /var/sadm/system/logs: Configuring disk ( c0d0 ) - Creating Fdisk partition table You can look for the logfile of the Fdisk partition table for disk c0d0 ( input file for fdisk (1M)) type : 130 active : 128 offset : size : type : 100 active : 0 offset : 0 size : 0 type : 100 active : 0 offset : 0 size : 0 type : 100 active : 0 offset : 0 size : 0 - Creating Solaris disk label ( VTOC ) - Processing the alternate sector slice Creating and checking UFS file systems - Creating / ( c0d0s0 ) Warning : 1608 sector ( s) in last cylinder unallocated / dev / rdsk / c0d0s0 : sectors in 5167 cylinders of 48 tracks, 128 sectors MB in 323 cyl groups (16 c/g, MB/g, 5824 i/ g) super - block backups ( for fsck -F ufs -o b =#) at: 32, 98464, , , , , , , , , Initializing cylinder groups :... super - block backups for last 10 cylinder groups at: , , , , , , , , , Beginning Solaris software installation Installation of <SUNWkvm > was successful. [...] Installation of <SUNWsolnm > was successful. Solaris 11 software installation succeeded Solaris 11 packages fully installed SUNWkvm [...] SUNWsolnm Customizing system files - Mount points table (/ etc / vfstab ) fd - / dev /fd fd - no - / proc - / proc proc - no - / dev / dsk / c0d0s1 - - swap - no - / dev / dsk / c0d0s0 / dev / rdsk / c0d0s0 / ufs 1 no - / devices - / devices devfs - no - sharefs - / etc / dfs / sharetab sharefs - no - ctfs - / system / contract ctfs - no - objfs - / system / object objfs - no - swap - / tmp tmpfs - yes - - Network host addresses (/ etc / hosts ) - Environment variables (/ etc / default / init ) Cleaning devices Customizing system devices - Physical devices (/ devices ) - Logical devices (/ dev ) Installing boot information - Updating boot environment configuration file 305

306 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit - Installing boot blocks ( c0d0 ) - Installing boot blocks (/ dev / rdsk / c0d0s0 ) Creating boot_archive for / a updating / a/ platform / i86pc / boot_archive updating / a/ platform / i86pc / amd64 / boot_archive A basic automated installation - more polished Okay, now we ve done a basic installation. But mostly we do a standard set of customizations on every system we touch, like installing a few essential tools or integrating the actual recommended patch cluster. So we want to polish the standard installation a little bit. We will extend a basic Solaris 10 Update 5 installation with the following items: installing the SUNWstar script installing the recommended Patch Cluster configuring the Secure-by-default mechanism to limited Adding the recommended patch cluster Okay, at first we have to copy the patches into the jumpstart. copy_solaris_patches command to do so. # copy_solaris_patches 10 _x86 / export / home / jmoekamp /10 _x86_recommended Copied... JET provides the You don t have to configure anything in the templates. Every new Solaris 10 installation on x86 will be installed with the matching recommended patch cluster Adding custom packages Okay, almost everybody installs some customer packages on his/her system. For example, one of the first things im installing on new systems is joe to have an WordStar compatible editor: # pkgtrans joe sol10 -x86 - local / tmp all Transferring < SMCjoe > package instance # copy_custom_packages / tmp x86 SMCjoe Transferring < SMCjoe > package instance Packages copied 306

307 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit joe depends on the ncurses library. So we copy this package as well to our JET server. # pkgtrans ncurses sol10 - x86 - local / tmp all Transferring < SMCncurs > package instance # copy_custom_packages / tmp x86 SMCncurs Transferring < SMCncurs > package instance Packages copied Extending the template Okay, we need more modules to fulfill this tasks. You don t need to delete the old one and retype all the data in the template. The make_template script can use an old template to create a new one with while retaining all the old values. Basically you use the same name for the old and new template. #./ make_ template - f - T togusa togusa base_ config custom sbd Adding product configuration information for + custom + sbd Updating base_config template specifics Client template created in / opt / SUNWjet / Templates When you look into /opt/sunwjet/templates/togusa you will recognize your old configuration, with a large amount of new lines. But we have to change only a few ones: At first we change the operation system. We ve used OpenSolaris in the last example, but there are no patches. But we ve copied a Solaris 10 media with the name sol10u5 earlier. base_config_clientos = sol10u5 Okay, now we want to install the additional packages. You have to add the names of the packages in the line custom_packages. custom_packages =" SMCncurs SMCjoe " You don t have to configure the Secure by default module, as this module configures the limited service set when it s used in the template. Patching of the Solaris OE doesn t need configuration as well. So we have to change only this two lines. 307

308 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit The installation Okay, you can start the installation by starting a network boot. This time the installation takes a little bit longer. First the system starts to install the recommended patch cluster. As I ve used a quite actual update, most patches are already installed. but a few ones will find their way into the installation. BASE_ CONFIG : Installing base_ config... BASE_CONFIG : Product base_config started BASE_CONFIG : Installing additional patches from : 10 _x86_recommended BASE_CONFIG : Using patch_order file for patch installation sequence BASE_CONFIG : BASE_CONFIG : Installing patches for product : 10 _x86_recommended BASE_CONFIG : BASE_ CONFIG : Patch is already installed. BASE_ CONFIG : Patch is already installed. [...] BASE_ CONFIG : <<< (25 of 98) >>> [...] BASE_ CONFIG : Patch is already installed. BASE_CONFIG : Patch installation completed. BASE_CONFIG : No HW specific packages for platform i86pc BASE_CONFIG : No HW specific patches for platform i86pc Okay, now the system starts to install the additional packages. CUSTOM : Installing custom... CUSTOM : Installing SMCncurs from : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / js_media / pkg / custom / i386 Installation of < SMCncurs > was successful. CUSTOM : SMCncurs installation complete CUSTOM : Installing SMCjoe from : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / js_media / pkg / custom / i386 Installation of < SMCjoe > was successful. CUSTOM : SMCjoe installation complete The following module doesn t do really much, as the configuration of the service profile is activated by the sysidcfg file. SBD : Installing sbd... SBD : configured 308

309 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Effects of the new modules Let s check the results of the installation. At first, we look for the custom packages: # pkginfo grep " SMC " application SMCjoe joe application SMCncurs ncurses When we look for one of the installed patches, we will see its successful installation to the system: # showrev - p grep " " Patch : Obsoletes : Requires : , , Incompatibles : Packages : SUNWbzip, SUNWsmagt, SUNWsmcmd, SUNWsmmgr Automatic mirroring of harddisks Okay, in enterprise computing you wouldn t use a system without redundant boot disks (at least, when you haven t an application that can survive a loss of computing nodes without a problem). So it would be nice to automatically configure a mirror of the boot disks with the Solaris Volume Manager. I assume in the following part, that you have a working knowledge with the. When this not the case, it isn t really a problem, as this part it somewhat self-explanatory. # make_ template - f - M - T togusa togusa sds Adding product configuration information for + sds Configuration in the template As in the last example I will just include the interesting parts of the configuration: 1 base_config_products =" custom sbd sds " sds_product_version =" default " 3 sds_root_mirror =" c1d1 " sds_use_fmthard =" yes " 5 sds_database_locations =" rootdisk.s7 :3" sds_database_partition =" s7 :32" 7 sds_metadb_size ="" sds_root_alias =" rootdisk " 9 sds_root_mirror_devalias_name =" rootmirror " sds_mirrored_root_flag =" yes " 309

310 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit At first you have to include the sds module to the base_config_product line. Then choose the disk you want to use for mirroring, in my case it s /dev/dsk/c1d1. Line 4 orders the sds module to copy the vtoc of the first mirror to the second one. When there are only two disks in your system you have to specify the sds_mirror_root_flag with yes in line 10. want to see the metadb replica copies on at least three disks 6. You have to tell the system that it shouldn t obey this rule Effects of the configuration Okay, after the installation we can log into the system. You may notice after the installation a vast amount of accesses to the harddisk. The devices for / and the swap are not longer referenced by an device name. Instead of this you will find the names of the logical devices of the. - bash -3.2 $ cat vfstab # device device mount FS fsck mount mount # to mount to fsck point type pass at boot options # fd - / dev /fd fd - no - / proc - / proc proc - no - / dev /md/dsk / d swap - no - / dev /md/dsk / d10 / dev /md/ rdsk / d10 / ufs 1 no logging / devices - / devices devfs - no - ctfs - / system / contract ctfs - no - objfs - / system / object objfs - no - swap - / tmp tmpfs - yes - Let s look after the exact configuration of the volume manager. - bash -3.2 $ metastat d20 : Mirror Submirror 0: d21 State : Okay Submirror 1: d22 State : Okay Pass : 1 Read option : roundrobin ( default ) Write option : parallel ( default ) Size : blocks (258 MB) d21 : Submirror of d20 State : Okay Size : blocks (258 MB) Stripe 0: Device Start Block Dbase State Reloc Hot Spare c0d0s1 0 No Okay Yes 6 When you want to find out the correct state of an situation you need at least three copies to be sure. With only two copies, one or the other version may be correct, with three you have two correct copies, so there is a good chance that the two copies represent the correct state. Solaris Volume Manager likes to distribute those over at least three disk to ensure that the failure of a disk won t take out exactly half of the copies 310

311 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit d22 : Submirror of d20 State : Okay Size : blocks (258 MB) Stripe 0: Device Start Block Dbase State Reloc Hot Spare c1d1s1 0 No Okay Yes d10 : Mirror Submirror 0: d11 State : Okay Submirror 1: d12 State : Okay Pass : 1 Read option : roundrobin ( default ) Write option : parallel ( default ) Size : blocks (15 GB) d11 : Submirror of d10 State : Okay Size : blocks (15 GB) Stripe 0: Device Start Block Dbase State Reloc Hot Spare c0d0s0 0 No Okay Yes d12 : Submirror of d10 State : Okay Size : blocks (15 GB) Stripe 0: Device Start Block Dbase State Reloc Hot Spare c1d1s0 0 No Okay Yes Device Relocation Information : Device Reloc Device ID c1d1 Yes id1, = VB37711a7b cc9 c0d0 Yes id1, = VB97a d The default numbering scheme for the Solaris volume manager is quite simple: The mirror is designated with the first number in a decade (e.g. 10,20,30), the parts of a mirror are numbered with the next free numbers in the decade. For example: The first mirror half of the first mirror get the number 11, the second number gets the number 12. It takes a while until the mirrors are in sync, but after this you have a automatically installed, patched, customized and mirrored system Automatic hardening Preparing the Jumpstart for installation At fist you uncompress and untar the distribution. 311

312 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit # copy_product_media jass / export / home / jmoekamp i386 Transferring < SUNWjass > package instance Packages copied. Okay, but we have to do another step. There is a patch for the version of the : xx. At first we have to tell JET that there is a patch for this product and version. We have to modify the file patch.matrix in /opt/sunwjet/products/jass. # # Patch matrix for Solaris Security Toolkit ( JASS ) # # <os >: < arch >: < version >: < patchlist > # 10: i386 :4.2.0: Now it s easy to integrate the patch. I ve unpacked the patch in the directory /export/home/jmoekamp/pa before: # copy_product_patches jass / export / home / jmoekamp / patch_jass i386 Patches copied Configuring the template Okay, you have to configure only a few basic variables to trigger the automatic hardening of your new installation. base_config_products =" custom sbd sds jass " jass_product_version ="4.2.0" jass_execute =" secure. driver " After Jumpstarting Okay, it s time to reboot the machine we want to install again. At first, all is like at the runs before. But then we see some further lines in the logfile. JASS : Installing jass... JASS : Installing Solaris Security Toolkit ( JASS ) JASS : Installing SUNWjass from : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / js_media / pkg / jass /4.2.0/ i

313 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Installation of < SUNWjass > was successful. JASS : SUNWjass installation complete JASS : Register postinstall script postinstall for boot z It s important to know, that the above configuration installed the SUNWjass package on the system, patches it there and then run runs the toolkit installed on the system. The hardening of the system is started in the background.after a while you will recognize the work of the script. The backup files of the Solaris Security Toolkit are dispersed all over the directories. bash $ ls -l / etc /*. JASS * -rw -r--r-- 1 root other 372 May 23 19:48 / etc / coreadm. conf. JASS [...] -rw -r--r-- 1 root sys 362 May 23 19:43 / etc / vfstab. JASS bash $ After the completion of the background JASS run, you have a automatically installed, patched, customized, mirrored and hardened system Deep Dive to the installation with JET As I told you before much of the configuration takes place after the installation executed by the Jumpstart mechanism. We used several modules of the JET toolkit so far, thus this is a good moment to do a deep dive into the process, that takes place after the installation. The concept of this further installs pretty much relies on the concept of a so called finish script. Do you remember the rules.ok file? There was a finish script specified in that file for all installations: bash -3.2 $ cat rules.ok any any Utils / begin = Utils / finish # version =2 checksum =3114 The installation of the Solaris Operating Environment is equal to the normal Jumpstart process, as it relies on the same functions. But then JET comes into the game. After the installation has completed, the script Utils/finish is executed. But where is this file. It s relative to an directory we ve specified before. Or to be exact, JET did that for is. This is a snippet from the menu.lst for our system. 313

314 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit title Solaris_11 Jumpstart kernel / I86PC. Solaris_11-1/ platform / i86pc / kernel / unix - install nowin - B install_config = :/ opt / SUNWjet, sysid_config = :/ opt / SUNWje t/ Clients / togusa, install_media = :/ export / install / media / solaris / x86 /nv 87, install_boot = :/ export / install / media / solaris / x86 / nv87 / boot module / I86PC. Solaris_ 11-1/ x86. miniroot The Utils/finish is relativ to install_config, thus the executed finish script :/opt/SUN The NFS mount specified in install_config is one of the first mounts done on the new system and we can use the content of this directory throughout the installation process. By the way: This is the reason, why the rules.ok is located at this strange position. We can study the further process in logfile of the installation. The complete log is located at /var/opt/sun/jet/ in the file jumpstart_install.log. Let s start. At first the finish script starts to take copy some components from the Jumpstart server to the local disk. Creating directory : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / post_install Creating directory : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / Utils Creating directory : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / config Creating directory : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / js_media / patch Creating directory : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / js_media / pkg Copying file Clients / togusa / sysidcfg to /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / config / sysidcfg Copying file Clients / togusa / profile to /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / config / profile Copying file Clients / togusa / host. config to /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / config / host. config Copying file Utils / solaris / releaseinfo to /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / config / releaseinfo Copying functions to /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / Utils / lib Copying file Clients / togusa / module_hints to /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / config / module_hints As you see, the JET copies over part of the toolkit as well as configuration files to the new position. But why are all those directories relative to /a. Well this is easy. In the netbooted mini root, the local disks are mounted relative to /a. The reasoning behind this copy is relatively simple. In the next boots the contents of /opt/sunwjet/ aren t available any longer, as the system doesn t mount it in the next steps. The 314

315 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit post installation scripts rely on some helper function. The simplest way to ensure their availability under all circumstances 7 is a simple copy. The next step is the mounting of the directories with patches and product. Mounting nfs :// / export / install / patches on / var / opt / sun / jet / js_media / patch Mounting nfs :// / export / install / pkgs on / var / opt / sun / jet / js_media / pkg Now it get s a little bit complicated, but I will simplify it as far as I can. Depending on the complexity of the setup your configuration may use one or more so called products. A product in JET-speak is a JET module for the installation and configuration of a certain area of the operating system. In any case you will use the product base_config but there may be several ones. Our example uses the products base_config, custom, sds and jass. The JET framework gathers this information from the configuration template. It s stored in this line: base_config_products =" custom sbd sds jass " The framework takes this information and to execute the install script in any of this directories. For example it starts at first the install script in /opt/sunwjet/products/base_config/sol as this is default for every installation, after this it will step forward by executing the install script in any of the product directories. The install script has two important roles. At first it installs packages, patches and files according to the configuration in the templates. At second it registers so called post_install scripts Post installation scripts post_install scripts are executed at the next boots. You can order this scripts by specifing a certain boot level. After the execution of all scripts in a boot level, the system reboots. For example all scripts with boot level 1 are executed after the first reboot, all post_install scripts with the boot level 2 are executed after the second reboot and so on. These scripts are installed in /var/opt/sun/jet/post_install But how get this scripts to execution at the following reboots. JET copies a init.d script to the new system. On Solaris 10 it creates a matching SMF service. The function of this script is quite simple: Gather the actual boot level by reading the file /var/opt/sun/jet/post_install/platform, execute all scripts in the boot level, increment the bootlevel by one and reboot the system. 7 even when your installation disables the network 315

316 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit An example for boot levels and postinstall scripts We ve done the first boot. It booted from the network. The installation of the Solaris Operating Environment succeeded, thus the script from the finish column is executed by the netbooted installation system. After some configuration tasks the system starts to register postinstall scripts. SDS : Installing sds... SDS : Copying file sds_functions to /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / Utils / sds_functions SDS : Creating directory : /a/ var / opt / sun / jet / post_install / Platform /1 SDS : Register postinstall script create_fmthard for boot 1 SDS : Register postinstall script set_boot_device for boot 1 SDS : Register postinstall script create_ metadb for boot 1 SDS : Register postinstall script create_root_mirror for boot 1 SDS : Register postinstall script attach_mirrors for boot z SDS : Register postinstall script create_user_devices for boot 1 SDS : Register postinstall script attach_user_mirrors for boot z SDS : WARNING : unable to locate specified md. tab for SDS. SDS : Enable md: mirrored_root_flag in / etc / system You see, that the SDS product registered some scripts for boot level 1 and some for boot level z. Let s look further into the installation log. This happens after the first reboot: SDS : Running 001. sds create_ fmthard fmthard : New volume table of contents now in place. SDS : Running 001. sds set_ boot_ device SDS : Setting OBP nvramrc rootdisk path [...] SDS : Create 3 copies on c1d1s7 metadb : waiting on / etc / lvm / lock SDS : Running 001. sds.003. create_root_mirror SDS : Setting OBP nvramrc rootmirror path [...] SDS : Installing GRUB on Alternate Boot Disk. SDS : Running 001. sds.007. create_user_devices Later on you will recognize the scripts for boot level z Running additional install files for reboot z SDS : Running 003. sds attach_ mirrors SDS : Attach d12 to d10 316

317 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit SDS : Attach d22 to d20 SDS : Attach d12 to d10 d10 : submirror d12 is attached SDS : Attach d22 to d20 d20 : submirror d22 is attached SDS : Running 003. sds.002. attach_user_mirrors With this mechanism, you can implement installation processes, that needs package or programm installations that need several boots to fullfill The end of the post installation At the very end the init.d script is deleted together with the matching SMF service Using Jumpstart Flash As I stated before, the installation mechanism of Jumpstart Flash is quite different from a normal installation. So I will start with a new template on a new server to demonstrate Jumpstart Flash Creating a flash archive The first step to do a flash based install is the creation of a flash archive. Obviously you need an already installed system to create such an archive. To do so, I create a directory for the flar image at first: bash # mkdir / flardir bash -3.00# flarcreate -S -n " togusa " -x / flardir -R / / flardir / togusa. flar Full Flash Checking integrity... Integrity OK. Running precreation scripts... Precreation scripts done. Creating the archive blocks Archive creation complete. Running postcreation scripts... Postcreation scripts done. 317

318 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Running pre - exit scripts... Pre - exit scripts done. bash -3.00# The second command generates the flar image itself. With this command, I generate the flash archive togusa.flar in the directory /flar. The -x option excludes the directory /flardir from the flasharchive. The \verb-r= specifies that the flash archive should contain all filesystems descending to /. The -S flag bypasses the size checks. # scp togusa. flar export / flar / togusa / togusa. flar After the creation of the flash archive, you have to transmit it to a server. It doesn t have to be the jumpstart server. it doesn t even have to be an NFS server. It just have to be reachable with HTTP or NFS by the server you plan to install. In this example we will use the Jumpstart Server for this task, thus we will use a share on this system. Don t forget to share this directory via NFS: # echo " share -F nfs -o anon =0, sec =sys,ro -d \" Installation Images \" / export / install " >> / etc / dfs / dfstab # shareall Preparing the template Okay, we want to install our node ishikawa with the flash image of togusa. At first like with all jet installation we add a hostname to our /etc/hosts # echo " ishikawa " >> / etc / hosts \ end lstlisting } Now we generate the template. We need only a small template for the basic installation. \ begin { lstlisting } # make_template ishikawa flash Adding product configuration information for + base_config + flash Updating base_config template specifics Client template created in / opt / SUNWjet / Templates Okay, we have to fill the templates with standard settings. 318

319 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit base_config_clientarch = i86pc base_config_clientether =08:00:27: DE :91: AB base_config_clientos = sol10u5 The use operating system here isn t important. You will not install this operating system. You will install the operating system contained in the flash archive. Fill out the sysidsection of the system like with a normal system, you just need to fill the data to prevent the system from going interactive. Now we get to the configuration of the flash install. You just define one or more locations of flash archives. When the installation in your flash archive contains all recommended patches you can save some time at the installation and skip the installation by using yes for the flash_skip_recommended_patches parameter. flash_archive_locations =" nfs :// / export / flar / togusa / togusa. flar " flash_skip_recommended_patches =" yes " Now we have to create the Jumpstart environment for this client. # / opt / SUNWjet / bin / make_client -f ishikawa Gathering network information.. Client : ( / ) Server : ( / , SunOS ) Solaris : client_prevalidate Creating Client directory for ishikawa Solaris : client_build Creating sysidcfg Creating profile Adding base_config specifics to client configuration Adding flash specifics to client configuration FLASH : Modifying client profile for flash install FLASH : Removing package / cluster / usedisk entries from profile Solaris : Configuring JumpStart boot for ishikawa Starting SMF services for JumpStart Solaris : Configure PXE / grub build Adding install client Doing a TEXT based install Leaving the graphical device as the primary console Configuring ishikawa macro Using local dhcp server PXE / grub configuration complete Running / opt / SUNWjet / bin / check_client ishikawa Client : ( / ) 319

320 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Server : ( / , SunOS ) Checking product base_config / solaris Checking product flash FLASH : Checking nfs :// / export / flar / togusa / togusa. flar Check of client ishikawa -> Passed... Please note the single line with FLASH: at the beginning. The JET framework checks for the availability of the flash archive. This prevents one of the most occurring problems with flash... a unaccessible flash archive at the installation. When we look into the profile for ishikawa you will recognize, that all statements regarding cluster to install or similar stuff is removed. But there is a new statement. archive_location specifies the location of the flar image and install_type tells the system to do a flash install. # cat profile # # This is an automatically generated profile. Please modify the template. # # Created : Sat May 24 12:50:20 CEST 2008 # install_type flash_install archive_location nfs :// / export / flar / togusa / togusa. flar partitioning explicit # # Disk layouts # filesys rootdisk. s0 free / filesys rootdisk. s1 256 swap # pwd / opt / SUNWjet / Clients / ishikawa # While Jumpstarting When you look into the logfiles of your system, you will notice a big change. You won t see a large amount of messages from the package installation. Instead of this you will 320

321 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit just see the progress notifications of the extraction of the flar archive. You will find this information in the middle of: /var/sadm/system/logs/install_log [...] Beginning Flash archive processing Extracting archive : togusa Extracted MB ( 0% of MB archive ) [...] Extracted MB ( 100% of MB archive ) Extraction complete [...] The JET framework augments this with some housekeeping tasks like deleting the Solaris Volume Manager configuration. As usual you can look into the /var/opt/sun/jet/finish.log logfile to find the related messages: FLASH : Installing flash... FLASH : Disabling /a/ etc / lvm / mddb.cf -> /a/ etc / lvm / mddb.cf. disabled FLASH : Purging entries from /a/ etc / lvm /md.tab FLASH : Disabling mirrored_root_flag in / etc / system FLASH : Cleanout crash dump area FLASH : Clear out devfsadm files Using Jumpstart Flash for System Recovery The basic trick My colleague Mario Beck showed it to me several years ago. The problem is the sysunconfig as it deletes the configuration information. The basic trick is simple. Before you create the flash archive, just do a backup of those files in one of the directories covered by the archive creation. Later on you can use this data to recover the configuration by copying those files in their original location Using an augmented Flash archive The flash archive is just a cpio copy of the complete system minus explicitly excluded parts. Everything on the system is included in the flash archive, not just the OS 8. So we 8 otherwise the flash archives would make sense 321

322 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit can easily rescue the personality of the system into the flash archive. To ease up this task, I use the following script: #!/ bin /sh mkdir -p / var / opt / recovery mkdir -p / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / hosts / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / shadow / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / passwd / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / vfstab / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / nodename / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / hostname.* / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / dhcp.* / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / defaultdomain / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / TIMEZONE / var / opt / recovery / etc mkdir -p / var / opt / recovery / etc / inet cp -p / etc / inet / netmasks / var / opt / recovery / etc / inet / netmasks cp -p / etc / defaultrouter / var / opt / recovery / etc / defaultrouter mkdir -p / var / opt / recovery / var / ldap cp -p / etc /. rootkey / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / resolv. conf / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / etc / sysidcfg / var / opt / recovery / etc cp -p / var / ldap / ldap_client_cache / var / opt / recovery / var / ldap / lda p_clie nt_cac he cp -p / var / ldap / ldap_client_file / var / opt / recovery / var / ldap / ldap_client_file cp -p / var / ldap / ldap_client_cred / var / opt / recovery / var / ldap / ldap_client_cred cp -p / var / ldap / cachemgr. log / var / opt / recovery / var / ldap / cachemgr. log mkdir -p / var / opt / recovery / var / nis cp -p / var / nis / NIS_COLD_START / var / opt / recovery / var / nis mkdir -p / var / opt / recovery / var /yp cp -R -p / var /yp /* / var / opt / recovery / var /yp When you create a flar archive after running this script, it will include this directory in the archive, thus a newly installed machine with this flash archive will have this directory as well. So you can use it to recover the old status of the system. The process is simple. Just do a cp -R /var/opt/recovery/* /. The process of jumpstarting the server is identical of doing a normal flash install. 322

323 30 Jumpstart Enterprise Toolkit Conclusion JET and Jumpstart are incredible powerful tools to ease the installation of your Solaris systems. You can install your systems via network, configure and customize them. With tools like Jumpstart FLASH it s easy to clone systems for large computing cluster. Even when you have only a few systems, it s a good practice to install you systems by a Jumpstart server. A bare metal recovery of your system is much easier, you can use a common template to setup your system and beside the hard disk space the jumpstart server needs only resources at the moment of the installation Do you want to learn more? Documentation Solaris 10 5/08 Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation) 9 Misc. wikis.sun.com: JET Homepage 10 jet.maui.co.uk: JET resources

324 Part VII Nontechnical feature 324

325 31 Long support cycles 31.1 The support cycle Enterprise customers want to protect their investments. They don t want to use an operating system only to be forced in two years to use a different one, because they won t get any support. Most companies have a really long process of validating new configurations and they don t want to go through it without a good reason (bigger hardware updates or when they use a new software). Thus you have to support a commercial unix quite long. Out of this reason, Sun has an well defined and long life cycle for the releases of our operating environment. This is the policy of Sun for lifecycles. We won t shorten the time, but often the effective lifetime is much longer, as you will see in the next paragraph An example: Solaris 8 Okay, we started to ship Solaris 8 in February 2000.Last order date (E4) was at November 16, After that we shipped Solaris 8 Media Kits until February 16, Solaris 8 entered Retirement support mode Phase I on Mach 31, Thus it will reach Retirement Support Mode Phase II on March 31, End of Service Life is on March 31, Thus Solaris 8 has an service life of 12 years. 325

326 31 Long support cycles Table 31.1: Events in the lifecycle of a Solaris release Event Name E1 General Availability (GA) E2 E3 End of Life (EOL) Pre- Notification End of Life (EOL) Announcement E4 Last Order Date (LOD) E5 Last Ship Date (LSD) E6 End of Retirement Support Phase 1 E7 End of Retirement Support after E7 Phase 2 End of Service Life (EOSL) Description GA is a day of joy, celebrations and marketing. A new major release of Solaris is born, for example the first release of Solaris 10. In at least the next 4 and a half years your will see several updates to this version of the operating system. Okay, one year before we announce the formal End of Life of the product, Sun sends the first notification/warning to our customers. Okay, we announce the end of the development of a major Solaris release. As I told before, this is at least 54 month after the GA, sometimes longer than that. When we announce the EOL, we trigger the start of the next phase in the lifecycle of a Solaris release, the last order phase. 90 days after the EOL announcement is the Last-Order- Date. This is the last day, you can order a Solaris version as an preinstalled image and it s the last a purchased system includes the license for this specific operating system. This Last Order Date isn t effective for Support Contracts. You can order a support contract for a Solaris version until its End of Service Life. With the Last Order day the next phase is started: The last ship phase In the next 90 days all orders for a new version has to be fulfilled. Yeah, you can t order an EOLed operating system for delivery a year after its end-of-life (besides of special agreements). With the Last-Order-Date the retirement of the Solaris Version starts. For the next two years you have essentially the same service than before EOL with some exceptions. No fixes for cosmetic bugs, no feature enhancements, no quarterly updates. In the last phase of the lifecycle, you still get telephone support for a version and you can still download patches for the system, but there will be no new patches. After EOSL you can t get further support or patches with the exception of special agreements between the customer and Sun. 326

327 31 Long support cycles 31.3 Sidenote For a customer this long release cycles are optimal, but there is a problem for Sun in it. We don t force our customer to use new versions early. Some customers still use old Solaris 8 versions and they use Solaris 10 like Solaris 8 to keep the processes in sync. There are some technological leaps between 8 and 10, but they don t use the new features. They think they know Solaris, but they know just 8, not 10. The reputation of being somewhat outdated has its root partly in this habit. This is the bad side of the medal, but long support cycles are too important to change this policy Do you want to learn more Disclaimer: The following documents are the authoritative source. If I made a mistake at summarizing them, the informations in these both documents are the valid ones. Solaris Operating System Life Cycle Solaris Operating System Retirement End Of Life Matrix 327

328 Part VIII Licensing 328

329 31 Long support cycles This work is licensed under the Creative Commons License. 329

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