# Adaptive Network Intrusion Detection System using a Hybrid Approach

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2 close to line speed, and computes probability of occurrence of groups of incoming packets, windows. The NB model is used for online classification and HMM model is used for offline analysis of traffic. Traffic that were flagged as anomalous by the NB model were fed into an offline HMM that computed the probability of connections present in the window. Thus combining NB and HMM models we form a hybrid model, where in NB model computes probability of occurrence of windows and HMM computes the probability of each connection within the window. This way the output from the HMM, list of attacking IPs, can be used as an update to firewall on what IPs to block. HMM now can be used to generate IP blacklist and makes the hybrid model more efficient. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. A brief description of HMM is presented in Section 2. Section 3 describes our proposed HMM model and preliminary results obtained are presented in Section 4. Section 5 explains the problems that we anticipated that could be faced while implementing this system in real time. Section 6 describes hybrid model and Section 7 describes various experiments and results obtained. Section 8 describes related work that has been done by research community in this area. II. HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL HMM is a generative model that can model data which is sequential in nature. It is used to model data where the assumption of i.i.d. is too restrictive, like speech processing applications. A detailed tutorial on HMM is available in [1]. Markov Property: Consider a system with N states and at discrete time intervals, there is transition among states. Let these instances be t, t = 1,2,3,. Any process is Markovian if the conditional probability of future states, given the present state and past states, depend only upon the present state. In order to predict future state, the process by which the current state is obtained does not matter, i.e., Pr[q t = S i q t 1 = S j,q t 2 = S k, ] = Pr[q t = S i q t 1 = S j ] We have used HMM that follows the above first order Markov property. In a HMM, the states and their transitions are not visible. Instead an output symbol, from a discrete set of symbols, is emitted during every transition. This sequence of symbols are the observables used to train a HMM. The following figure explains this. Definition of a HMM: HMM [λ] is a five tuple, i.e., λ = [N,M,A,B,π]. The parameters of the model are N, number of states in the model, S = {S 1,S 2,,S N }. M, number of observation symbols, V = {V 1,V 2,,V M }. (1) Fig. 1. HMM Architecture A, state transition probability matrix, A={a ij }, where a ij = Pr[q t+1 = S j q t = S i ] 1 i,j N It is a N*N matrix. B, observation symbol probability matrix, B={b j (k)}, where b j (k) = Pr[v k at t q t = S j ] 1 j N It is a N*M matrix. 1 k M π, initial state probability matrix, π = {π i }, where It is a 1*N matrix. π i = Pr[q 1 = S i ] 1 i N Algorithms for HMM: The following two algorithms are used to model and use the HMM. 1) Baum-Welch algorithm is used to learn the parameters of the model, {A, B, π}, from input data. 2) Forward-Backward algorithm is used to learn the probability of occurrence of an observation sequence given the model, P[O λ]. III. DESIGN CHOICES Web servers in general use Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for communication between clients and server. TCP is a state based protocol, i.e., any TCP connection would progress through set of state transitions during its life time. This inherent stateful and temporal nature of TCP traffic could be captured well by using a HMM based classifier. This lead us to use HMM as our basic building block in our system design. In the remainder of this section, we describe parameters that were used to build our model and other design considerations that shaped our model design. (2) (3) (4)

3 A. Choosing Parameters The key aspect in building a HMM is to decide the states and symbols that are to be used to build the model. Choosing right set of attributes for a model is very important as this step would ensure effective usage of available data. For our experiments, we use TCP header information present in packets as features. States of the model are called hidden or latent variables and are used to describe the underlying distribution generating the data. In our approach, states of the HMM do not correspond to actual TCP states. They are used to model the HMM to best explain the traffic. They do not have direct physical significance. For example, network traffic can be assumed to consist of traffic from legitimate and malicious users. Transition from one state to another can be considered equivalent to switch from traffic between malicious and legitimate users. Next we had to decide upon what could be used to represent symbols in our HMM model. We use TCP flags as symbols for the HMM model, following Vijayasarathy et al. [2]. The other parameters of the HMM model - π, A, and B are estimated using Baum-Welch algorithm. B. Initial Approach Building anomaly based classifier involves two phases - training and testing. During the training phase, the classifier is made to profile over clean traffic, i.e., traffic stream which is devoid of any malicious traffic stream. During the testing phase, traffic which were not used during training are used to measure the performance of the model built. The classifier flags any traffic that deviates from clean traffic profile as suspicious. The intuition behind this approach is that clean traffic and malicious traffic are not generated from the same distribution. Training phase of our algorithm begins with source separating training traffic into separate streams. All packets between a source/destination constitute a stream. Each stream consist of series of TCP flags that were used in the packets throughout the connection. Then a single HMM model is used to learn the characteristics of all streams to the server. The HMM model takes these TCP flags as observables and other parameters of the model can be computed from them. Upon analyzing the traffic data, we found that only few flags were used in general for most TCP communication. We associated a number with each flag and a connection with sequence of flags is converted into a sequence of numbers. HMM model is trained over this sequence of numbers. The frequently used TCP flags and the ID which we used for our modeling are as follows. SYN - 0 SYN/ACK - 1 ACK - 2 PUSH/ACK -3 FIN/ACK - 4 RST - 5 other TCP flags - 6 The same procedure is followed in the testing phase. The TCP flag sequence is converted into a sequence of numbers and the probability of occurrence of this sequence is tested over the model. Since states of the model does not correspond to actual TCP states, the number of states can be chosen empirically. The testing phase of the above said approach is depicted in Figure 2. Incoming traffic to server Source Separation Fig. 2. Initial Approach HMM model Legitimate traffic Attack traffic DARPA data set for intrusion detection [3] is used for training and testing our HMM model. Preliminary results obtained for the above said approach were not satisfactory. The model had very high false positive rate, i.e., clean traffic stream were also being flagged as attack. The classifier did not succeed in discriminating between good traffic and bad traffic. This low performance might be attributed to using just one HMM to learn all clean traffic profile. A single HMM could not capture all the characteristics of clean traffic that were used for training. C. Alternate Design In order to overcome the above said shortcoming, we performed source separation on training/testing traffic according to destination ports of the server and then upon source/destination IP address. Instead of using a single HMM to lean all traffic coming to a server, we used separate HMMs for each frequently occurring server port. The reasoning behind such an approach is that not all traffic belonging to different applications behave in the same way. For instance, different traffic streams belonging to a particular application port, say port 25 (SMTP), have similar characteristics than to traffic at port 20 (FTP). This approach improved the results drastically, i.e., the model had higher accuracy and lower false positive rate compared to the single HMM approach. The implementation details of this model are as follows. Training traffic to the server is first separated based upon destination port number of packets. Traffic to particular ports are then source separated and trained by separate models for each port. Ports which have higher traffic, like ports for HTTP, telnet, FTP, etc., were modeled with separate HMM models. Traffic to other infrequent ports were modeled by a separate model. The testing phase proceeds the same way. Testing traffic is first separated based upon ports and then source

6 space to allocate, since we do not know the length of each connection. Aforementioned drawbacks prevent HMM based model from being implemented as a stand alone device for a server s security. In the next section, we will describe another approach where HMM model coupled with Naive Bayesian based model would overcome these issues. VI. HYBRID MODEL We propose a hybrid model combining our HMM based model with Naive Bayesian (NB) based approach proposed by Vijayasarathy et al. [2] to address the issues. Hybrid model would have NB model for online learning and HMM model for offline learning. The online classifier (NB model) would monitor incoming traffic and flag traffic blocks that are suspicious. The offline classifier (HMM model) would be fed with the traffic flagged by NB model. HMM model would then perform source separation for the connections present in the flagged traffic and classifies the connections as either attack or normal. The addition of HMM model to NB model is intended to narrow down on the attacking IPs present in flagged traffic rather than to improve the performance of it. Figure 5 depicts the proposed hybrid model. Fig. 5. A. Working of NB model Flow diagram Incoming traffic to NB model is split up into logical units called windows. Each window is a group of packets and modeling is based on TCP flags set in packets. Based on experiments, packets in a window can belong to any one of the following depending upon the TCP flag that is set. 1) RST - packets with reset bit set 2) SYN - syn packets 3) ACK - ack packets 4) FIN/ACK - fin/ack packets 5) PSH/ACK - push/ack packets 6) others - packets with other TCP flags set. This six tuple describes the mix of traffic present in a window. For example, for a window of size 100 with <3 RSTs, 8 SYNs, 48 ACKs, 1 FIN/ACKs, 40 PSH/ACKs, 0 other packets> could be considered normal, but <0 RSTs, 100 SYNs, 0 ACKs, 0 FIN/ACKs, 0 PSH/ACKs, 0 other packets> would represent a syn flooding scenario. Windows that are similar are grouped to form bands, so as to reduce the number of different events to model. During the training phase, the model computes the probability of occurrence of various event types. In the testing phase, traffic windows with very low probability of occurrence are flagged as attack. For a detailed description of NB based approach, refer to the original paper [2] B. Combining the models We used the same clean data set for training both NB and HMM models. In the testing phase, for every window, the NB model would classify if it were normal or abnormal. In our implementation, if there were five consecutive attack flags raised by the NB model, and incoming traffic from then on would be buffered and fed as input to the HMM model. Attack flag would be on until there are five consecutive normal windows to the server. Buffering of data is carried on between the raise and fall of flag. The number of windows to consider during time out mechanism is implementation specific, depending upon traffic characteristics of a server. The windows that were buffered when the attack flag is on, would be fed into HMM for further processing. Source separation is then performed on the IP addresses present in the flagged traffic. Individual streams, thus obtained are tested using HMM model and probability of occurrence of each sequence could be calculated. IP address of connections that were anomalous could be added to firewall black list. This way, HMM model could be used to blacklist IP addresses that have suspicious traffic characteristics. Experiments conducted using this approach are described in the next section. VII. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS We used CAIDA [5] data set for testing our hybrid model. It is an hour long Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack data at a server. Since the data set consist only of attack traffic, we mixed it with normal traffic and used hybrid model to classify it. We considered traffic to port 80 (HTTP protocol) for training and testing. We used same clean traffic trace from DARPA data set for training both NB and HMM models. For testing the classifier, we mixed traffic traces from CAIDA and DARPA together. The IP address of destination server of CAIDA data set traffic is changed to the same destination server used by DARPA traffic. This mixed traffic is used for testing our hybrid model. NB model processes incoming traffic online, and feeds offline HMM with flagged traffic. When an attack flag is raised, we start buffering from ten windows prior to the window where the attack flag was actually raised. This is done to ensure that we don t erroneously classify connections that began recently, just before attack flag was raised, as attack. Buffering continues until we receive five consecutive clean windows or upto the end of testing data file. Figure 6 describes this process. HMM was trained throughout with equal prior probability to all states. This is done to ensure not to flag any clean traffic stream that was buffered from middle as attack. When an attack flag is raised, there would connections that would have

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