IDS / IPS. James E. Thiel S.W.A.T.

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1 IDS / IPS An introduction to intrusion detection and intrusion prevention systems James E. Thiel January 14, 2005 S.W.A.T. Drexel University

2 Overview Intrusion Detection Purpose Types Detection Methods Output Examples Limitations Intrusion Prevention Purpose Types Examples Risks

3 Intrusions Any set of actions that attempts to undermine the integrity, confidentiality, or availability of a resource (R. Heady et al) Port scans Worms Application exploits (buffer overflow) Denial of Service Becoming Firewalls increasingly subtle provide only limited protection

4 Intrusion Detection An intrusion detection system (IDS) performs three actions: Obtain audit data from the system monitored Network System System traffic logs properties (load average, file use, login times, etc) Analyze the data, searching for evidence of attack Report any attack evidence to a human operator ( alert ) Work Typically in real time identified by the system monitored Individual host Network Also identified by audit data source and detection method

5 IDS Effectiveness Accuracy how often an IDS will report an alert when an attack has not occurred Known as a false positive (false alarm) Completeness how often an IDS will fail to report an alert when an attack has occurred Known as a false negative (missed detection) Performance Timeliness Fault rate at which an IDS can analyze audit data rate at which an IDS can raise an alarm tolerance the ability of the IDS to withstand an intrusion against the IDS itself

6 Network Intrusion Detection A network based IDS (NIDS) is configured to monitor a subnet Dedicated IDS machine sniffs network traffic near a central routing device (hub, span port) Pros: Internet Does not affect network performance Can Cons: be hidden Firewall Weak Single against denial of service attack point of failure NIDS Hub Host Host Host Host

7 Host Intrusion Detection A host based IDS (HIDS) is configured to monitor a single host machine (server, terminal, firewall, etc) Can monitor either incoming network traffic or operations on host Runs as a process on host Pros: Monitor Cons: for intrusions that only apply to host Internet Firewall Use Requires resources of system specific HIDS for specific system Hub HIDS HIDS HIDS HIDS Host Host Host Host

8

9 Distributed Intrusion Detection A All distributed IDS (DIDS) uses NIDS or HIDS or both as sensors analysis results are sent to a central management station Internet Also known as a hybrid IDS Pros: Widest Sensors Cons: in range can share and coordinate results NIDS Firewall Hub Results Results from sensors are sent across the [potentially compromised] network from sensors may not be sent if network is flooded Management Station HIDS Host

10 Detection Method Types Known Good desired/expected is defined; raise alarm at undesired Pros: Low Strong Cons: chance of missing intrusions against new vulnerabilities Known Extensive; High lots of work to implement chance of false alarms Bad undesired is defined; raise alarm at undesired Pros: Less Low Cons: work (potentially) chance of false alarms High Weak chance of missed intrusions against new vulnerabilities

11 Detection Methods Terminology varies among the different fields using IDS Researchers use abstract, general classifications IDS developers use concrete classifications System administrators use only the classifications that apply to their system Anywhere between two and five detection methods Rule based (signature) detection Protocol analysis Anomaly detection Specification detection Policy based detection

12 Rule based Detection IDS Alarm Example: has a database of pattern descriptions (rules) that indicate an attack is raised if pattern (signature) is detected in audit data Raise alarm if a TCP packet contains a GET request for 'passwd.txt' Pros: Fast Rules Easily (given a small rule set) are customizable and easy to write identify intrusion Cons: Weak Requires against newly discovered vulnerabilities constant updating to be effective Also known as misuse detection

13 Protocol Analysis IDS Alarm Example: contains protocol rules for system is raised for violations of protocol in audit data Raise alarm if response to TCP connection setup is anything other than an RST/ACK or SYN/ACK packet Pros: More flexible than rule based; can detect new types of intrusions Cons: Assumes Extensive Will that all applications adhere to protocol standards and difficult to write miss intrusions that do not violate protocol

14 Anomaly Detection IDS Alarm Example: 'learns' properties of the system in its normal operating state (profiling) is raised if system deviates from its normal state Raise alarm if network traffic volume is higher than a certain value at a specific time Pros: Customizable More Low to system flexible than rule based; can detect new types of intrusions chance of missing an intrusion Cons: Requires High Must complete profile of system behavior chance of false alarms be updated if system changes

15 Specification based Detection IDS Alarm Example: is given a defined description (specification) of the normal system state is raised if system deviates from specification Raise alarm if CPU load on a host goes higher than value in specification Pros: Customizable More Low to system flexible than rule based; can detect new types of intrusions chance of missing an intrusion Cons: Requires Requires High Must syntax for description of system complete knowledge of system behavior chance of false alarms be updated if system changes

16 Policy based Detection IDS Alarm Example: has list of predefined acceptable actions (policy) is raised if policy is violated Raise alarm if a GET request to a specific HTTP server is for any file other than those allowed to be viewed by users Pros: Customizable More to system flexible than rule based; can detect new types of intrusions Cons: Requires complete policy of system Must be updated if policy changes

17 Output Contact administrator directly E mail Page Record to data file Text file System log Binary packet log (tcpdump) Record Print to database to console window (verbose)

18 IDS Examples NIDS Snort lightweight rule based packet sniffer with limited protocol analysis and anomaly detection Bro heavyweight rule based and policy based packet sniffer HIDS PortSentry port scan detector LogSentry log analyzer Tripwire file integrity monitor Rkdet rootkit detector DIDS Prelude rule based packet sniffer, log analyzer, buffer overflow detection Osiris file integrity monitor

19 Limitations Must be kept up to date (signatures, protocols, etc) Assumes compromised network will be able to send alarm Accuracy and completeness depend largely on fine tuning of IDS by administrator Often weak against denial of service attacks IDSs give warning, but they do not prevent/stop attacks (usually)

20 Intrusion Prevention Many network intrusions take little time to execute Worms Backdoor exploits An An IPS IDS often does not provide enough time for an administrator to respond before the intrusion has damaged the system Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) is designed to identify potential attacks and autonomously execute countermeasures to inhibit them, without affecting normal system operation is the next step following IDS

21 IPS Types Typically Several network based (NIPS); analyze network traffic for exploits different types of countermeasures Session sniping Packet filtering Packet scrubbing IP blocking Deception Host based IPS (HIPS) also exists; prevent malicious actions on operating system (dangerous system calls, unauthorized file changes)

22 Session Sniping The IPS closes a network session involving a host that has sent malicious traffic TCP RESET for TCP sessions ICMP Host/Network/Port Unreachable for UDP traffic Pros: Easy to implement and use Cons: Can be prevented by attacker through various means Examples: IPtables (Linux firewall) can REJECT traffic from a given host using this method Snort has a flexible response option, which allows it to send resets when a rule is triggered

23 Packet Filtering The IPS drops traffic that contains malicious information Pros: Removes malicious traffic from the network Cons: Possibility of removing legitimate traffic Examples: Hogwash drops traffic when a rule is triggered Latest version of Snort has an inline feature that allows it to drop traffic when a rule is triggered

24 Packet Filtering Implementation Usually Disruption Also implemented as an Inline NIDS NIDS positioned inline on network; acts as a bridge between subnets NIDS redesigned to drop malicious traffic. of Inline NIDS will disrupt network deployed as smart switches Internet Firewall Hub Inline NIDS Host Host Host Host

25 Packet Scrubbing The IPS replaces malicious packet content with benign content Pros: Does not indicate that IPS detected intrusion Cons: Only works if the intrusion involves malicious packet content Example: Snort has a replace option that changes the malicious content to user defined content of the same length

26 IP Blocking The IPS changes the settings on a local firewall, causing it to block traffic from the malicious host Pros: Cons: Effectively removes attacker from the network Possibility of blocking legitimate hosts Example: SnortSAM firewall agent receives information from Snort rules and changes settings of firewalls (such as IPtables) accordingly

27 Deception The IPS sends traffic to the attacker indicating that the attack against a host succeeded or that the connection to the host is no longer available Pros: Cons: Usually a dedicated host (a honeypot ) on the network purposely exhibits vulnerabilities, drawing the attacker away from the rest of the network Can also fake service applications on the hosts Attacker proceeds with attack; obtain information about attack and attacker Attacker is still on the network; may be able to launch attacks on other hosts Possible legal implications Examples: The Deception Toolkit (DTK) simulates services on a host honeyd creates virtual hosts for the attacker to attack

28 IPS Examples Packet filtering Hogwash drop packets that trigger rules Snort_Inline drop packets that trigger rules FWSnort convert Snort rules to IPtables rules IP blocking SnortSAM block IP addresses based on Snort alerts PortSentry can automatically block IP addresses that run port scans Deception DTK simulate services on a host honeyd create virtual hosts on network

29 Risks Attacker may obtain information from the countermeasure taken Existence of IPS on network Type of IPS Operating system of host running IPS Attack If Should may still succeed if there is sufficient delay between detection of attack and deployment of countermeasure IPS blocks IP addresses or traffic, attacker may manipulate traffic to prevent communication between hosts or between networks only be used against attacks with certain characteristics (P. Proctor) The attack is rare The attack is catastrophic The attack cannot be spoofed (to cause another attack) The attack is positively identifiable as misuse

30 Experiences with Snort Pros: Rule syntax is simple Easy to configure Multiple output formats Multiple IPS features Large amount of documentation Cons: Difficult to write rules for binary data (applications, compressed files) Stateful inspection of network traffic is limited Never use ASCII packet logging mode!

31 Conclusions Intrusions are becoming increasingly fast and difficult to detect by traditional methods. An Intrusion Detection System searches system data for signs of attack and reports the results to an administrator. An IDS is defined by the system it monitors (host or network) and by its detection method. Several different detection methods exist, which either detect intrusive data or recognize legitimate data. An Intrusion Prevention System searches system data for signs of attack and autonomously activates countermeasures. It is the next step beyond IDS, which reports intrusions but does not stop them. Several different network based countermeasures exist, which either disable malicious traffic or disable the attacker. IPS deployment involves several risks from the use of countermeasures.

32 Questions?

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