ESA Climate Change Initiative contributing to the Global Space-based Architecture for Climate Monitoring

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1 ESA Climate Change Initiative contributing to the Global Space-based Architecture for Climate Monitoring Pascal Lecomte Head of the ESA Climate Office ESA/ECSAT

2 Global Space-based Architecture for Climate Monitoring

3 CCI and Climate Architecture Climate Architecture - The document outlines a strategy for an international architecture that ensures delivery of satellite observations for climate monitoring from space over the time frames required for analysis of the Earth s climate system. - It is produced by CEOS-CGMS-WMO. - The implementation starts with an ECV Inventory, including balance of past/current and future datasets. An approach for analysis of the data is being prepared. - Other activities to be started include Case Studies and Macroscale space system requirements.

4 Why an Architecture for Climate Monitoring from Space? Two main needs/usage scenarios for an architecture have emerged. - To promote a common understanding, amongst the various stakeholders, of the implementation implications of meeting the various climate monitoring requirements. - To support an assessment of the degree to which the current and planned systems meet the requirements, and the generation of an action plan to address any identified shortfalls/gaps. It is anticipated that such an action plan would help promote the fulfilment of user needs through the coordinated implementation of activities across agencies.

5 The second pillar The second pillar of the Climate Architecture concerns the Creation of Climate Record. ESA Climate Change Initiative contribute to this aspect of the Climate Architecture

6 The CCI as a contribution to the Climate Architecture

7 Objectives of the CCI Realise the full potential of the long-term global EO archives that ESA, together with its Member states, has established over the last thirty years as a significant and timely contribution to the ECV databases required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 6 Years 88 Meuro

8 Two climate action paths GCOS-82 in 2003 GCOS-92 in 2004 GCOS-138 in 2010 GCOS-107 in 2006 GCOS-154 in 2010 CEOS response 2006 New version in 2012 GEOSS 10-year plan in 2005 CEOS IP for GEOSS in 2007

9 GCOS IP 2004 Part of GEO task CL GEOSS IP 2005 ESA CCI: Production of Essential Climate Variables (ECV) according to GCOS requirements Precursor example ESA Ministerial Council, Nov 2008: Approval of 75.5 M for a six year programme that will contribute to about twenty satellite-based ECVs. A strong interaction with the scientific community is an essential part of the programme. (Funding since increased to 95 MEuro) The CCI initiative will ensure that ESA can play a full role in deriving relevant ECVs specified by GCOS, based on ESA current and archived EO data. ESA will work with CEOS agencies to ensure as complete a coverage of the entire suite of ECVs as possible.

10 ESA CCI & EUMETSAT ECV capability Atmosphere Ocean Terrestrial Composition Surface Aerosol Properties Sea Surface Temperature Land Cover Methane & Long Lived GHGs Sea Level Fire Disturbance Ozone Sea Ice Soil Moisture Carbon Dioxide Ocean Colour Glacier and Ice Caps Precursors (for Aerosol & O3) Sea State Ice Sheets Upper Air Current Snow Cover Cloud Properties Sea Surface Salinity Albedo Temperature Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure Leaf Area Index Water Vapour Phytoplankton FAPAR Wind Speed and Direction Ocean Acidity Lakes Earth Radiation Budget Sub Surface Above Ground Biomass Surface Carbon Permafrost Surface Air Pressure Current Ground Water Surface Air Temperature Nutrients River Discharge Surface Precipitation Ocean Acidity Soil Carbon Surface Radiation Budget Oxygen Land Surface Temperature Water Vapour (Surface Humidity) Salinity Near-surface Wind Speed Temperature Tracers Global Ocean Heat Content EUMETSAT CCI Started CCI Scope

11 System Context Satellites Ground Segments CCI Climate Data Users Level ESA 1b Climate Reanalysis Eumetsat Level 1b Level NASA 1b Level NOAA 1b Level Jaxa 1b Level 1b F C D R F C D R F C D R ECV DP ECV DP ECV DP Climate Modellers Level Others 1b Climate Services

12 CCI Master Schedule Inception Phase 1 Phase 2 Scientific User Consultation Algorithm Specification Delivery Scientific User Consultation Major System Development Prioritise ECV ECV Delivery Assimilation / Assessment PB-EO Implementation Mid Term Review Collocation Meetings CMUG Meetings #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 LP #1 #2 S #3 #4 #5 #6

13 CCI Phase 2 ITT ITT Phase 1 collocation RFQ mid-term programme review Phase 2 RFQ

14 CCI Results of Phase 1 9 CCI projects have been completed - Data are available via the CCI Web site ( - Climate Assessment Reports are being produced - Phase 2 for these 9 projects have been started. 1 CCI project (Fire) still to be completed - Mostly due to System Engineering aspects - Phase 2 of this project will be started with the last three projects CMUG is completing his phase 1 activities end of June CMUG Phase 2 will start on July 1 st, 2014 for three years 3 CCI projects (which started in January 2012) are on schedule - 4 projects will be started on January Ice Sheet project will be split into 2 projects Greenland and Antarctica

15 CCI Products Time Coverage Phase 1 Cloud 8 Ozone 3 Aerosol 3 GHG Sea Ice 2 2 Sea Level SST 1 2 Ocean Colour Glaciers Ice Sheet Land Cover Fire Soil Moisture measurements per glaciers over the period s 1990s 2000s 2010s

16 CCI Products Time Coverage Phase 2 Cloud 8 Ozone 3 Aerosol 3 GHG Sea Ice 2 2 Sea Level 2 SST 1 Ocean Colour Glaciers Ice Sheet Land Cover measurements per glaciers over the period 4 2 Fire Soil Moisture s 1990s 2000s 2010s

17 Where ESA data is cited in IPCC WGI AR5: highlights Chapter 2: Observations: Atmosphere and Surface The (A)ATSR series of sea surface temperature measurements (the ARC data set) has improved understanding of uncertainties and biases in SST records. Chapter 4: Observations: Cryosphere The cryosphere provides some of the most visible signatures of climate change. 20 years of ESA altimetry measurements have helped record the decline in Arctic sea ice thickness and volume. Cryosat-2 is beginning to have an impact, providing more accurate measurements of Artic sea ice at higher latitudes. Altimetry and SAR data from ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat have been vital in measuring changes in ice sheets. The ESA/NASA Ice sheet Mass Balance Intercomparison Exercise (IMBIE) provided a reconciled estimate of ice sheet mass balance changes from the satellite community. Chapter 13: Sea Level Change Altimeters on ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat not only provide a key role in measuring changes sea level but also the contributions to sea level change from ice sheets and glaciers.

18 The Climate Change Initiative in IPCC s WGI AR5 Results from the CCI are cited in AR5, notably: CCI Glaciers played a leading role in creating the first globally-complete glacier inventory, the Randolph Glacier Inventory. CCI Sea Level produced improved Global Mean Sea Level estimates using Envisat data. The Ice sheets Mass Balance Intercomparison Exercise, involving CCI Ice Sheets, has led to improved confidence in the measurement of ice sheet mass balance and the associated global sea level contribution. Further CCI projects are also cited in the report: Glaciers_cci Observations: Cryosphere Sea Level Change Greenhouse_Gases_cci Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles Ice_Sheets_cci Observations: Cryosphere Sea Level Change Ozone_cci Evaluation of Climate Models Sea_Level_cci Observations: Cryosphere Sea Level Change Sea_Surface_Temperature_cci Observations: Atmosphere and Surface Soil_Moisture_cci Observations: Atmosphere and Surface

19 First community assessment of ice sheet losses Replaces 40+ estimates 11 ± 4 mm SLR since / 3 from Greenland, 1 / 3 from Antarctica Factor 2-3 more reliable than AR4 Ice sheets up from 10% to 30% of SLR

20 First complete assessment of Antarctica ice losses CryoSat surveys 96% of Antarctica Provides five times improved sampling of ice margin Detects twice as much thinning

21 First complete global glacier inventory Includes 170k glaciers Allows ice loss double counting to be corrected Provides improved primary data source for predictive modelling Features heavily in AR5

22 First complete survey of Arctic sea ice Requires full polar survey GCM s still overestimate volume PIOMAS best model, but not predictive 400 km 3 /yr decline km 3 recovery in 2014

23 The Copernicus Data Policy

24 SENTINEL DATA POLICY: ESA AND EU APPROVED ESA Copernicus Sentinel Data policy (ESA/PB-EO(2013)30, rev.1 ) Anybody can access acquired Sentinel data; in particular no difference is made between public, commercial and scientific use and in between European or Non-European users The licenses for the Sentinel data itself are free of charge ( ) in the event specific data acquired by the Sentinels are assessed as sensitive, these data sets will be accessible only under a restrictive dissemination regime Additional access modes and the delivery of additional products will be tailored to specific user needs, and therefore subject to tailored conditions ( ) APPROVED EU European Delegated Act on Copernicus data and information policy (into force by end of November) defines two different regimes of data dissemination: defines conditions for full and open access to information produced by the Copernicus services and of data collected through the Copernicus dedicated infrastructure (e.g. Sentinels spacecraft), including criteria for restricting access to that information and data and conditions for user registration Security relevant Sentinel data (*) Restricted dissemination Terms and Conditions for end users of security relevant Sentinel data Any other Sentinel data Open Dissemination (all Sentinel data) Terms and Conditions for the use and distribution of Sentinel data (*) so far not Sentinel data has been quoted as security relevant

25 USE TYPOLOGIES Copernicus Core & Downstream Services Copernicus Services Other EU needs assimilated to Copernicus services e.g. EMSA, EEA, EUSC, JRC Scientific /Other use Science use Public Value Adding use Commercial Value Adding use MSs CollGS ESA/EU Member States needs (Collaborative GS) ESA funded R&D projects Int l Agreements International Agreements

26 CSC Ground Segment Data Access Tailored infrastructures adapted to different user typologies CSC GS Data Access Copernicus Services Access - CDS Scientific Other Access International Agreements Access MSs Collaborative Access Operated by int. partners Operated by MSs Copernicus Services International International Mirrors Mirrors Int l Access (Inc local station) National Mirrors (Inc National local National station) Mirrors (Inc local station) Access Scientific/ Other users e.g. scientific, commercial outreach, general public International users MSs CollGS Users e.g. public, scientific, commercial ESA funded R&D projects

27 Thematic Exploitation Platform

28 Exploitation Platforms Concept Legacy Model: Move data to users computers EO software Computing resources EO data In-situ data Legacy model: data and software distributed to users. Transferred many times; replicated in many places; loose user network.

29 Exploitation Platforms Concept Evolution: Move the use(rs) to the data The Place where data exploitation is done (Not so) New model: Move processing (the work-place) to the data (Thematic) Exploitation Platforms EO software Computing resources EO data In-situ data Legacy model: data and software distributed to users. Transferred many times; replicated in many places; loose user network. Evolution: Users access a platform work environment containing the data, tools, and resources required, as opposed to downloading, replicating, and processing data at home A scenario also for 4 th paradigm scientific exploration (but not only) - complementing, but not replacing the legacy operations concept for the Payload Data Ground Segment Thematic Exploitation Platform is a Virtual Workspace bringing together a Community + Relevant Data + Computing Resources + Third Party Tools + Workflows + Integrated User Interface + Documentation + Collaborative Tools + Help desk + User Services + Social network around a thematic domain.

30 Concept EO Exploitation Platforms in a Nutshell So in a nutshell: Move the workplace to the data An exploitation platform is a collaborative environment aimed at delivering the resources and capabilities required for users exploitation work The platform delivers a complete work environment for its users, and as such corresponds to the place where exploitation work is done; In the EO context the platform provides inter alia remote sensing and in-situ data from several sources, combined with data discovery and processing capabilities, tools, collaborative platform, as well as the (scalable) ICT resources required.

31 Questions

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