Sutton and Merton Community Services. High fibre diet. Community Nutrition and Dietetics. Patient information

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1 Sutton and Merton Community Services High fibre diet Community Nutrition and Dietetics Patient information

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3 Contents Contents What is a high fibre diet? 1 Why do I need fibre in my diet? 1 Good sources of fibre 1 Recommended intakes 2 Fibre content of foods High fibre foods Medium fibre foods Low fibre foods 3 Ways to increase your fibre intake 6 Fibre supplements 7 Gas forming foods 7 Fluids, exercise and bran 8

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5 What is fibre? High Fibre Diet The term fibre refers to components of food that are difficult to digest and therefore pass unabsorbed through our body. There are two different types of fibre; Insoluble fibre: this passes through the body mostly unchanged as it is mostly undigested. It absorbs water and consequently swells, resulting in a bulkier stool. Soluble fibre: this is broken down once it reaches the large bowel. The natural bacteria found in the gut feed on this broken down fibre, resulting in a softer stool. Why do I need fibre in my diet? Constipation: Fibre should be included in the diet to ensure that the bowels remain healthy and function properly. Fibre makes the stool softer and bulkier, helping to prevent or relieve constipation. It can also help control symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and diverticulitis. Weight control: High fibre foods are useful when trying to control your weight as they release energy slowly and leave us feeling fuller for longer. Cholesterol: Soluble fibre, found in fruit, vegetables, oats, beans and lentils can help to reduce cholesterol levels. A good level of fibre intake has been shown to reduce the risk of developing heart disease and certain types of cancer. Good sources of fibre Fibre is found only in plant foods such as unrefined cereals, fruits, vegetables, pulses, seeds and nuts. 5

6 Soluble Fibre Oatbran Nuts Legumes e.g. dried peas, beans and lentils Fruits such as prunes, bananas, apples, pears, plums Vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, broccoli and carrots Insoluble Fibre Wholegrain foods e.g. wholegrain bread, breakfast cereals and pasta Brown rice Bulgar wheat Wheat bran Fruit and vegetables peel and skins Nuts and seeds Seeds, fruits and vegetables are a mixture of both insoluble and soluble fibre. Raw fruit and vegetables have a higher fibre content, by peeling and cooking the fruits and vegetables it significantly reduces their fibre content. Recommended daily amounts The UK Department of Health recommends a daily intake of: 18g of fibre per day Most other countries, including America and Australia, recommend: 25-30g of fibre per day Overleaf is a table detailing the average amounts of fibre in common foods to help you calculate your daily fibre intake. 6

7 Fibre content of food high fibre foods High Fibre Diet High fibre (More than 6g/100g) Serving size Fibre content of 1 serving Bread Wholemeal 35g 1 slice 1.8g Flour Wholemeal 2.3g 25g Brown 1.6g Nuts Almonds 1.9g Hazelnuts 1.6g 25g a small handful Peanuts 1.6g Coconut 1.8g Breakfast cerals All-bran 40g 9.6g Bran buds 40g 8.8g Bran flakes 30g a small bowl (~ g Sultana bran 30g tablespoons of cereal) 3.0g Fruit n Fibre 30g 2.1g Muesli 40g 2.6g Biscuits and pastry Vegetables, beans and pulses Rye crispbread 25g 3 crisp bread 2.9g Oatcakes 25g 2 oat cakes 1.5g Broad beans Red kidney beans (cooked) 120g 7.8g 3 heaped 105g 7.0g tablespoons Haricot beans 105g 7.0g Okra (stir fried) 80g 16 okra 5.0g Fruit (raw) Dried figs 60g 4 figs 5.0g Dried apricots 50g 8 apricots 5.4g Prunes 40g 8 prunes 1.92g 7

8 Fibre content of food medium fibre foods Medium fibre (Between 3g-6g /100g) Serving size Fibre content of 1 serving Bread Brown 35g 1.2g 1 slice Hovis 35g 0.8g Flour White 25g 0.8g Oatmeal - raw 25g 0.8g Nuts Brazils 25g 1.1g Chestnuts 25g a small handful 1.1g Cashews 25g 0.8g Vegetables, beans and pulses Sprouts 100g 8 sprouts 3.1g Broccoli 90g 2 spears 3.5g Leeks 125g 4.4g Plantain - boiled 85g 4.9g Peas - canned 85g 4.1g Peas - frozen 65g 2.9g Baked beans 135g 3 heaped 5.0g tablespoons Green and brown lentils 120g 4.5g Parsnips 110g 5.2g Boiled chickpeas 120g 5.2g Runner beans 105g 3.3g Fruit (raw) Avocado pear 75g ½ avocado 2.6g Blackberries 80g 15 berries 3.1g Guava - in syrup 175g 6 halves 5.3g Dried dates 40g 9 dates 1.6g 8

9 Fibre content of food lower fibre foods High Fibre Diet Low fibre product (Less than 3g per/ 100g) Serving size Fibre content of 1 serving Bread White 35g 1 slice 0.7g Biscuits and pastry Digestive 12g 0.3g 1 biscuit Gingernuts 12g 0.2g Rice White, basmati 150g 5 heaped 0.2g tablespoons of Brown 150g cooked rice 1.2g Vegetables, beans and pulses Boiled new potatoes (in skins) 150g 3 egg sized potatoes 2.1g Jacket potatoes 140g 1 large potato 3.8g Carrots - raw 75g 2 medium 1.8g Spinach 100g 1.6g Cabbage - raw Cauliflower 90g 90g 3 heaped tablespoons 2.2g 1.4g Runner beans 90g 1.7g Lettuce 90g Small bowlful 0.9g Corn-on-the-cob 125g 1 cob 1.6g Sweetcorn - can 70g 3 heaped tablespoons 1.0g Onions 45g ½ an onion 0.5g Tomatoes - raw 85g ½ an onion 0.9g Fruit (raw) Apples 100g 1 medium 1.8g Banana 100g 1 medium 1.1g Cherries 100g a small handful 0.9g 9

10 Fibre content of food lower fibre foods continued Low fibre product (Less than 3g per/ 100g) Serving size Fibre content of 1 serving Fruit raw Raisins 24g 0.5g Sultanas 24g 0.5g a small handful Raspberries 60g 1.5g Grapes 120g 1.0g Grapefruit 80g ½ grapefruit 1.0g Melon - canteloupe 150g 1 medium slice 1.5g Mango 120g 2 slices 3.1g Orange 160g 1 medium 2.7g Pear 170g 1 medium 3.7g Pineapple 125g 1 slice 1.4g Ideas to help you increase your fibre intake Aim for at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day. Use granary or wholegrain bread instead of white. When baking use wholemeal flour. A mixture of half white, half wholemeal gives a lighter taste. Use wholemeal pasta instead of white. Use wholegrain/brown rice instead of white rice. Add lentils, pulses or beans to stews, soups and salads. Add chopped or grated vegetables to sauces where possible. 10

11 High Fibre Diet Ensure you use wholegrain breakfast cereals or porridge oats. Add dried fruit to breakfast cereals and desserts where possible. Leave skins on potatoes. Fibre supplements Several fibre supplements are available to purchase from pharmacies or health food shops for people with chronic constipation. You should consult with your GP or dietitian if you are considering using these. Fibre supplements such as ispaghula husk, sterculia or methylcellulose are available by prescription or can be bought in pharmacies. (Note: Ispaghula husk is gluten-free) Examples: Fybogel, Fibrelief (Ispaghula husk) Normacol (sterculia) Celevac (methylcellulose) Please note: these supplements will only be recommended by your GP or dietitian if increasing the dietary fibre in your diet has not been successful in alleviating your constipation. Gas forming foods Some people find that excessive wind and bloating can become a problem when they start to eat a lot more fibre. To prevent this it is important to introduce fibre-rich foods gradually. If this happens to you try to avoid large amounts of foods known to increase gas formation within the bowel. As your gut becomes used to the extra fibre, the bloating or wind will naturally settle. 11

12 Foods which can form gas during digestions and which may cause wind and bloating: Beans Broccoli Cabbage Cauliflower Corn Cucumber Lentils Lettuce Melons Mushrooms Onions Peas Peppers Radishes Sauerkraut Spinach Sweet potato Turnips Strong cheese Eggs Milk Yoghurt Nuts Popcorn Wheat germ Alcohol (beer) Caffeine Carbonated drinks Chewing gum Spicy foods If you do have problems with excess gas you may find the following suggestions useful also: Eat slowly, in a relaxed environment. Chew food with your mouth closed (avoid talking whilst eating). Avoid using straws. Avoid chewing gum. Avoid gulping. Other considerations when increasing fibre intake: Fluid As fibre passes through the colon it absorbs fluid. This helps make a soft bowel motion that is easy to pass. If you increase the fibre in your diet but have an inadequate fluid intake it may cause or worsen constipation. You are therefore encouraged to consume at least litres of fluid each day (~8-10 cups). 12

13 High Fibre Diet This includes all types of fluid such as water, tea, coffee, soup and fruit juice. Exercise Light exercise can also help to stimulate the gut and alleviate constipation. It is important to maintain a good physical activity. Bran Although Bran is a good source of fibre it is low in other nutrients, therefore we do not recommend adding it to foods. 13

14 14 Notes and questions

15 Copyright 2013 The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust All rights reserved Printed December 2013 Planned review December 2016 Sutton and Merton Community Services 120 The Broadway London, SW19 1RH This leaflet is evidence based wherever the appropriate evidence is available, and represents an accumulation of expert opinion and professional interpretation. Details of the references used in writing this leaflet are available on request from: The Royal Marsden Help Centre Freephone: No conflicts of interest were declared in the production of this booklet. The information in this booklet is correct at the time of going to print. SMCS

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online version Dietary Fibre Patient Information for the Gloucestershire Health Community GHPI0811_08_07 Author: Continence Review due: August 2010

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