Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

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1 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter October 2017 Volume 6 Number 2 ntu.edu.sg/ias Topological Phase Transitions and New Developments published by Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University and South East Asia Theoretical Physics Association (SEATPA) South East Asia Theoretical Physics Association

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3 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter October 2017 Volume 6 Number 2 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter publishes articles reporting frontier discoveries in physics, research highlights, and news to facilitate interaction, collaboration and cooperation among physicists in the Asia Pacific physics community. Editor-in-Chief Kok Khoo Phua Associate Editor-in-Chief Chi Xiong Editorial Committee Ngee-Pong Chang (USA) Da Hsuan Feng (USA) Yuan Ping Feng Leong Chuan Kwek Choy Heng Lai Hwee Boon Low Choo Hiap Oh Spenta R. Wadia (India) Editorial Team Chris Ong Han Sun Charlotte Wee Wen Yee Germaine Lim EDITORIAL COVER STORY A publication of the Singapore and SEATPA Workshop on Topological Phase Transitions and New Developments SPECIAL REPORTS OCPA9 Beijing - A Multi Faceted Meeting of Chinese Physicists and Astronomers Worldwide and International Colleagues and Friends PEOPLE Searching for Topological Quantum Matter An Interview with F. Duncan M. Haldane Phases and Phase Transitions An Interview with John Michael Kosterlitz Asia's Scientific Trailblazers: Wang Yifang 'Good Scientists Solve Problems, but Great Scientists Know What's Worth Solving': Abhay Ashtekar Designer Rion Goh F. Duncan Haldane Nobel Laureate in Physics (2016) John Michael Kosterlitz Nobel Laureate in Physics (2016) Wang Yifang Abhay Ashtekar

4 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter (APPN) is published jointly by Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University and South East Asia Theoretical Physics Association (SEATPA) and SEATPA Address: 60 Nanyang View #02-18 Singapore Tel: Fax: seatpa.org ntu.edu.sg/ias APPN is distributed by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Address: 5 Toh Tuck Link Singapore Tel: Fax: worldscientific.com Electronic edition APPN is also available online at: ntu.edu.sg/ias Subscriptions For subscription please contact: Advertisement For advertisement please contact: Authors APPN welcomes articles with general interests to the physics community. To recommend or contribute news, articles, history, book reviews, please write to: The views expressed in this Newsletter belong to the authors, and do not necessarily represent those of the publishers. Print ISSN: X Online ISSN: MCI(P)085/10/ ARTICLES Jeremy Bernstein's Monologue Thoughts on Stephen Hawking's 75th Birthday and the Cambridge Path of Success Nuclear Power Technology and Nuclear Power Development in Asean Nuclear Science as Big Science in Southeast Asia: The Case of Malaysia Standing Togther in Troubled Times Unpublished Letters by Wolfgang Pauli BULLETIN Breakthroughs in China's Nuclear Fuel Research China Launched Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope Most Precise Measurement of the Proton's Mass Type-II Dirac Fermions spotted in Two Different Materials Dark Matter Astronoers map the Universe with the Brightest Objects in the Sky Mimicking nature's colours with Transparent Particles Satellite-based Photon Entanglement Distributed over 1200 Kilometers Emergent Non-Eulerlan Hydrodynamics of Quantum Vortices in Two Dimensions Nanodiamond 'tiny machines' closer to reality with Global Finding OBITUARY Nan Rendong, Father of world's Largest Telescope (FAST), Dies at 72 CONFERENCE CALENDAR Upcoming Conferences in the Asia Pacific Region JOBS Academic Positions in the Asia Pacific Region SOCIETIES List of Physical Societies in the Asia Pacific Region

5 EDITORIAL In this issue of APPN we continue to bring you important and latest discoveries, headline news and exclusive reports in the Asia-Pacific physics community. As the topological studies in physics continue to develop rapidly, IAS hosted the workshop on Topological Phase Transitions and New Developments in the past summer, and two Nobel Laureates, Michael Kosterlitz and Duncan Haldane (Noble Prize in Physics 2016) and many renowned physicist attended this workshop, featured in Cover story; In Special reports, Albert Chang, Former President of the International Organization of Chinese Physicists and Astronomers (OCPA), reported the 9th Joint Meeting of OCPA which was held at Tsinghua University in July, with over 400 scientists and students, including four Nobel Laureates Steven Chu, Takaaki Kajita, Shuji Nakamura, and C. N. Yang at that time, plus Barry Barish who just won the Nobel Prize in Physics In People, interviews with Nobel Laureates Michael Kosterlitz and Duncan Haldane presented their education, research experiences and contributions to the topological studies in physics, respectively; The director of Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of China Wang Yifang reviewed the main high-energy physics projects in China and shared his vision for IHEP for the next five to ten years; Abhay Ashtekar, the founder of loop quantum gravity, talked about his inspirations, encounters with Subrahmanyan Chandraskhar and Roger Penrose and criticisms on string theory. In Articles, we included C. N. Yang s recent comment on Jeremy Bernstein s monologue and my own thoughts on Stephen Hawking s 75th Birthday and the Cambridge path of success. We also reported on the nuclear science, nuclear power technology and development in the ASEAN countries, via a public lecture by Lim Hock and an essay on the case of Malaysia. Breakthroughs in China s nuclear fuel technology, and many other recent research highlights from the Asia-Pacific area can be found in Bulletin. An obituary is devoted to the memory of Nan Rendong, builder of the world s largest telescope (FAST). Editor-in-Chief Kok Khoo Phua Founding Director, Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University President, South East Asia Theoretical Physics Association October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 3

6 COVER STORY Workshop on Topological Phase Transitions and New Developments Theoretical Physics Group, Universiti Putra Malaysia* In 2016, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences speakers at this particular workshop came from various in Stockholm, Sweden awarded the Nobel Prize fields working on topological matter with a total of 27 talks in Physics to three prominent physicists for their spread over four days. There were also poster sessions where theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions students and researchers around the world interacted and and topological phases of matter. They are Prof David J. presented their latest findings in the area of Topological Thouless (University of Washington), Prof F. Duncan M. Phase Transitions. Prof Jose and Prof Gunn expressed Haldane (Princeton University) and Prof J. Michael Kosterlitz their honour to host and co-chair the workshop, during (Brown University). To celebrate this discovery that leads the welcome session, and they believed that the workshop to the Nobel Prize, the Institute Advanced Studies (IAS) at will provide substantial insights into the subject for all the Nanyang Technology University (NTU), Singapore together audience. with University of Birmingham (to which both Prof Thouless and Prof Kosterlitz were associated for their celebrated work) organised a workshop on Topological Phase Transitions and New Developments on 5 to 8 June The workshop began with welcoming remarks from the co-chairs, namely Prof KK Phua (Director of IAS), Prof Jorge Jose (Indiana University), and Prof Mike Gunn (University of Birmingham). The other two co-chairs of the workshop were Prof Lars Brink (Chalmers University of Technology) and Nobel Laureate Prof Kosterlitz (Brown University). Prof Phua in particular was proud to announce that IAS has become the hub for promoting basic research as well as some applied research for countries in Asia for the last 12 years since its establishment in He also added that Prof KK Phua (Director of IAS) giving a welcome address to the audience. 4 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

7 COVER STORY Prof Thierry Giamarchi (University of Geneva) delivered the first talk on "Clean and Dirty Bosons in One-Dimensional Lattice". Dirty bosons in this case are systems where disorder or quasi-periodic potentials are present. He presented a technique called bosonization of bosons to solve problems involving phase transition for one-dimensional quantum. The next speaker, Prof Rosario Fazio (Scuola Normale Superiore), gave a talk on his latest work on "Majorana Quasi-Particles Protected by Z2 Angular Momentum Conservation". His work provides a good example of a symmetry protected topological matter. Both talks have relevance in the coldatom technology in quantum computing. Prof Michael Kosterlitz (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2016) presenting his keynote lecture. After the coffee break, Nobel Laureate Prof Michael Kosterlitz (Brown University) gave his personal account as well as a historical review concerning the development of topology in quantum phase transition and some of its applications in two-dimensional systems. He also provided the perspectives of physicists on condensed matter prior to 1972 when it was thought that no phase transition could occur for one- and two-dimensional systems. He then highlighted the key papers together that he did with Prof David Thouless during which marked the discovery of a phase transition now known as the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition, (also known as a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition or BKT transition), in two-dimensional system with a long range order. Just before lunch break, Prof Jorge Jose (Indiana University) spoke on the developments of theoretical physics after the publication of the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory. He also reviewed research works on KT phase transition on the two-dimensional XY model. He mentioned that the material for his talk could be gleaned from his recent compilation of articles in the book that he has edited on 40 Years of Berezinskii- Kosterlitz-Thouless Theory'' published by World Scientific. After lunch, experimentalist Prof John Reppy (Cornell University) introduced his work on critical phenomena of liquid helium that led eventually to the first realisation of a topological phase transition, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in thin films of 4He. He also listed down a number of significant dates to mark the milestone in his research involving helium. Next, Prof Wang Yao (University of Hong Kong), touched on the topological phenomena in moiré patterns of van der Waals (vdw) heterostructures. He began with an overview of valley physics (valleytronics) in monolayer and quickly progressed to vdw heterobilayers, showing visually stunning pictures of topological moiré patterns. After his wonderful talk, an experimentalist, Prof Arthur Hebard (University of Florida), gave his talk on "Heterogeneous Interfaces for Teasing out the Physics of Embedded Surface States". The last speaker of the first day was a mathematical physicist, Prof Pieralberto Marchetti (University of Padova), who spoke on the "Attraction between topological quantum vortices as the origin of superconductivity in cuprates". He presented the key idea on a new mechanism of charge pairing for which he applied to the t-j model as a paradigm for the hole-doped cuprates. He outlined the non-bcs mechanism of emerging superconductivity and proposed an explanation of some experimental signatures of superfluid density. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 5

8 COVER STORY Prof Yu ended the forum with a meaningful remark urging the younger generation to undertake challenges to solve new kind of problems that may benefit society eventually in the future. From left: Prof Lu Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Prof Rosario Fazio (Scuola Normale Superiore), Prof Michael Kosterlitz (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2016), Prof Duncan Haldane (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2016), Prof Valeri Vinokour (Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont) and Prof Nicola Reganult Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris). On the second day of the workshop, there were six speakers with Nobel Laureate Prof Duncan Haldane (Princeton University) kicking it off with an interesting talk entitled "Geometry of Flux Attachment in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect". The talk described the connection between noncommutative geometry and its physical phenomena in condensed matter physics. The talk was also closely related with the idea of Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), where he discussed about the possibility of Laughlin states, Landau levels, and flux attachments giving rise to nontrivial geometrical and topological properties. The second speaker was Prof Nicolas Regnault (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris) who continued on the topics that he gave during the short course held a week before the workshop at the School for Physical and Mathematical Sciences (SPMS) at NTU. Prof Nicholas spoke about the "Emergent Particle- Hole Symmetry in Spinful Bosonic Quantum Hall Systems". His talk also touched on the particle-hole symmetry arising from the projection of fermionic quantum Hall system into the Landau level. Finally, he discussed about how the density matrix renormalisation group could be used to study the entanglement of a two-component system. After the coffee break, talks were given by Prof Frank Pollmann (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris) and Prof Gerardo Ortiz (Indiana University). Prof Pollmann gave a talk entitled "Dynamical Signatures of Quantum Spin Liquids", which discussed about the idea of how anyonic statistics of fractionalised excitations displays characteristic features in threshold spectroscopic measurements, and the introduction to a matrix product state based method to obtain the dynamical function for two-dimensional microscopic Hamiltonians and different phases of Kitaev- Heisenberg model. Prof Gerardo Ortiz (Indiana University) gave a talk entitled "Topological Superfluidity with Repulsive Fermionic Atoms" that included ideas of topological invariants and Chern numbers. In addition, he mentioned that his group has proposed several experimental setups to characterise the state of superfluidity. After the lunch break, the afternoon session began with a talk by Prof Christopher Lobb (University of Maryland) through Skype entitled "Getting the Jump in the Kosterlitz- Thouless Transition". He complemented his talk with an interesting simulation on vortices showing the onset of Kosterlitz and Thouless (KT) transition. He proposed a theory that showed the vortex-vortex interactions were sufficiently close to logarithmic causing the KT transition to occur. This observation was also supported by the experimental works. The final speaker of that session was Prof Valerii Vinokour (Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont) who spoke on "Topological BKT Phases in Disordered Materials". Prof Valerii spoke about his research group findings on the establishment of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) physics as a universal platform for the dual superconducting and superinsulating states. The results point to a connection between the BKT physics and many-body localisation. Finally, the second day ended with a stimulating and 6 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

9 COVER STORY exciting forum moderated by Prof Lu Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The forum was called "Looking into the Future of Topological Transitions". The panel comprises of some of the speakers for the day as well as eminent speakers from the previous session the day before namely, Prof Duncan Haldane, Prof Rosario Fazio, Prof Michael Kosterlitz, Prof Nicola Reganult and Prof Valeri Vinokour. Many issues were discussed and some highlights were gleaned including the idea of machine learning for topological matter, the idea of studying non-hermitian Hamiltonian, and the classification of topological states using topological order. In reality, Prof Kosterlitz made the remark that the future cannot really be predicted, perhaps taking note of his own personal experience in which he started as a high energy physicist and ended up winning the Nobel Prize through his work on condensed matter physics in joint collaboration with David Thouless during his post-doctoral fellowship. The third day started off with Prof Stephen Teitel (University of Rochester) on ''Phase transitions: From Josephson junction arrays to flowing granular matter''. In his talk, the connection between Josephson junction arrays in magnetic field and XY model was discussed in two cases, namely continuous U(1) and discrete Z(2) symmetries. However the interaction of excitations gives rise to the phase transition where both orders are lost. In the second part, Prof Teitel also presented his recent study on transition from the rheological behaviour in granular materials. Next, Prof Yidong Chong (NTU) gave an interesting talk on topological phase transitions that can be realised in photonic lattices and he discussed about the transition between analogous conventional insulator and topological insulator phases in arrays of optical waveguides. The third speaker for the third day was Prof Mike Gunn (University of Birmingham) who spoke on ''Instabilities of Light and Atoms in 1D'' where light and phonons interact in a weak optical lattice. Next, Prof Zohar Nussinov (Washington University in St. Louis) spoke on consequences of supercooled liquid forming an amorphous state (glass) for which a glass phase transition problem can be studied. The next speaker, Prof Baile Zhang (NTU) further showed that topological phase study can also be made on sound waves by investigating the propagating sound waves in nonhomogeneous velocity field. Next, Prof Christos Panagopoulos (NTU) talked on "Skyrmions at Room Temperature" about the states influenced by spin-orbit coupling and inversion symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces. After the tea break, Prof Phillip W Phillips (University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign) gave an overview about the research in the past three decades on the superconducting film where there were evidences of possible metallic state for bosons. He also discussed about the theory related to Bose metal and possible future experiments. The third day finally ended with a talk on nuclear structure study from the topology point of view discussed by Prof Martin Freer (University of Birmingham). His talk reviewed the complex interplay of topology of nuclear molecules formed from α-particles. Later in the evening, dinner comprising of local foods like Laksa, Kueh Pie Tee, Otah and Satay, were served at the Function Hall above the auditorium. On the fourth day the talks started with a mathematical tour de force by Prof Zidan Wang (University of Hong Kong): Realizing and Manipulating Topological Metals and Their Exotic Properties. He spoke about the topological A poster session featuring a total of 18 poster presentations from students and researchers attending the workshop on the first day. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 7

10 COVER STORY Distinguished guests from Malaysia taking group photo with Co-Chair Prof Mike Gunn at the workshop. gapless systems, including Z2 topological metals/semimetals and theory of disordered topological semimetals. His talk was followed by Prof Herbert Fertig (Indiana University) on Magnetic Ordering on the Surface of a Topological Crystalline Insulator (TCI's). Prof Fertig spoke about the analytic and numerical methods involved in studying the effect of bulk magnetic impurities on a model of (Sn, Pb) Te alloys which are believed to be TCI s in their topological state. After the coffee break, Prof John Saunders (Royal Holloway University of London) showed that Helium films provide model systems for strongly correlated quantum matter and topological superfluidity. He ended his talk by saying that there were numerous possibilities for engineering surface and interfaces. In addition, the study of mesoscopic 3He will drive new techniques. Next, Prof Yayu Wang (Tsinghua University) talked about the transport phenomenon on magnetically doped TI thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In Cr-doped BiSeTe, they observed a magnetic quantum phase transition accompanied by the sign reversal of the anomalous Hall effects induced by Se substitution of Te. Lastly, Prof Justin Song (NTU) talked about the topological matter where he described in detail how the combined action of Berry curvature and electron interactions dramatically alters the collective behaviour of interacting electron liquids, yielding a new class of collective excitations Berry plasmons with some illustrative examples. Overall, this workshop has been an eye-opener to our group from Malaysia. We learnt how abstract ideas in topology can play an important role in condensed matter, leading to new technological applications. We were very impressed with how the workshop was organised at IAS, NTU and we were also deeply impressed with remarkable research progress within NTU itself in this area. We would like to express our gratitude to the organisers for this opportunity to attend this informative workshop and we look forward to future workshops. *Footnote: Nurisya Mohd Shah, Ahmad Hazazi Ahamad Sumadi, Mohd Faudzi Umar, M.A.A. Ahmed, Ganesh Subramaniam & Nor Syazana Shamsuddin 8 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

11 SPECIAL REPORTS OCPA9 Beijing A Multi-Faceted Meeting of Chinese Physicists and Astronomers Worldwide and International Colleagues and Friends Albert Chang Former OCPA President Duke University Over 400 colleagues, distinguished scientists, postdoctoral associates and students, came to Beijing to participate in the 9th Joint Meeting of Chinese Physicists and Astronomers Worldwide (OCPA9), held at Tsinghua University, July 17-20, 2017 (Fig. 1 Conference Photo). The OCPA9 Conference continues the tradition of the previous eight conferences, and follows the OCPA8 Singapore conference, held in As in the past, the conference featured two main components: (1) latest scientific results, and (2) physics education. The full program included 16 plenary talks, 60 parallel sessions in 13 subfields, 3 general forums, and 2 topical forums. In addition, a well-attended High School program took place on Sunday, July 16, with the participation of 650 selected high school students and teachers from around Beijing, and all parts of mainland China (Fig. 2). The conference was co-hosted by OCPA the International Organization of Chinese Physicists and Astronomers, and Tsinghua University. Prof Albert M. Chang, Duke University and OCPA President , and Prof Qi-Kun Xue, Vice President, Tsinghua University, served as the respective conference co-chairs. The local organizing institutions included: Tsinghua University, Peking University, the Institute of Physics (Chinese Academy of Sciences), and the Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter. The program committee co-chairs were Profs Xincheng Xie (Peking Unversity), Zhong Fang (Institute of Physics CAS), Gui-Lu Long (Tsinghua) on the local side, and Prof Haiyan Gao (Duke and Duke Kunshan) on the OCPA side. In addition, current OCPA president, Prof Nu Xu (Central China Normal University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), was instrumental in much of the organization, including the High School Program. OCPA divisional Fig. 1 OCPA9 Conference Photo. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 9

12 SPECIAL REPORTS coordinators and many local colleagues organized the large parallel session program. OCPA vice president Prof Dongping Zhong organized the APS-OCPA Outstanding Conference Poster Award program. The themes of the conference were on New Opportunities in Physics, and on International Collaboration regarding Physics Education. As such, the topical focus of the scientific program included topological matter, quantum computing, neutrino physics, gravity wave and dark matter detection, next generation particle colliders and photon sources, nanophotonics, and cutting-edge protein structure determination, next generation light-emitting diodes, and novel medical applications such as high resolution ultra-sound imaging. The general forums included a Nobel Laureate/ Distinguished Scientist forum (please see below), a Forum on Women in Physics, and a Physics Education Forum on International Collaboration. For the Physics Education Forum, Dr Amy Flatten (Director of International Affairs for the American Physical Society), and Dr Joseph Niemela (ITP, Trieste, and the European Physical Society leader for their Physics for Development Program) were on the forum panel and provided a broad, global perspective. The topical forums were in the accelerator and nuclear areas. As an added attraction, Nobel Laureate Prof Steven Chu (Stanford) gave a public lecture on Climate Change and Paths to a Sustainable Energy Future, to an overflowing and captivated crowd on Sunday, July 16, evening (Fig. 3). Four Nobel Laureates participated in OCPA9: Profs Steven Chu (Stanford), Takaaki Kajita (Univ. of Tokyo- ICCR), Shuji Nakamura (UC Santa Barbara), and C.N. Yang (Tsinghua, Institute of Advanced Studies-IASTU). Profs Chu, Kajita, and Nakamura each gave a riveting plenary talk in the Monday (July 17) morning opening session chaired by Qi-Kun Xue. Chu spoke on Bio-imaging, Batteries, and Beyond, Kajita on Neutrino Oscillations, and Nakamura on Blue-Green Lasers and the Future of Lighting. The Nobel laureate plenary session was followed by a Forum of Nobel Laureates and Distinguish Scientists. The discussion centered on the topic, Different Approaches to Cutting- Edge Research. The forum panelists included Profs Yang, Nakamura, Kajita, Chu, and Prof Barry Barish (Caltech, LIGO Gravity Wave Detector, 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics), with Prof Albert M. Chang as the moderator (Fig. 4). In addition to the invaluable insight put forth by each of the panelists, active audience participation helped make this a truly productive and memorable event. The plenary talks were uniformly stimulating. The full list of internationally well-known speakers, in addition to Profs Chu, Kajita, and Nakamura, included: Profs Barry Barish, Hui Cao (Yale; Mesoscopic Optics), Zhong Fang (IoP CAS, on Weyl fermion semimetals), Shangjr Gwo (Taiwan National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; on the latest synchrotron status), Xiangdong Ji (Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., and U. Maryland; on PandaX Dark Matter detection), Yuxin Liu (Peking Univ., on Physics Education in China), Chris Monroe (U. Maryland; on ion trap quantum computing), Zhixun Shen (Stanford; on High Tc superconductors), Yigong Shi (Tsinghua, on protein structure), Yayu Wang (Tsinghua; on Topological Insulators), Yifang Wang (IHEP, Beijing; on the future of particle colliders in China), Yu Wei (Southeast University; on Physics Education Research in China), Shoucheng Zhang (Stanford; on Topological Insulators). Fig. 5 shows several speakers. The 60 parallel sessions on the 13 topical areas (below) saw well-attended sessions (Fig. 6) with many colleagues holding discussions in the hallways during intermission and Fig. 2 OCPA9 High School Program, which took place on Sunday, July 16, Left panel Prof Qi-Kun Xue (Vice President, Tsinghua University), delivering a talk to the students. Middle panel Prof Albert M. Chang (Duke University; OCPA President) delivering his talk. Right panel high school student audience. 10 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

13 SPECIAL REPORTS Fig. 3 Nobel Laureate, Prof Steven Chu (Stanford), delivering a public lecture on Climate Change and Paths to a Sustainable Energy Future, on the evening of July 16, afterwards. The enthusiasm of the speakers and audience in these parallel sessions was remarkably consistent throughout the conference. There were too many outstanding talks to be able to cover in this short article. The full list of talks will be made available on the OCPAWEB website of the OCPA organization ( in the near future. The 13 topical areas include: accelerator physics, atomic and molecular physics, astrophysics and astronomy, biophyiscs, chemical physics, computation and mathematical physics, condensed matter physics, cosmology and gravitation, high energy and particle physics, nuclear physics, physics education, plasma physics, and statistical & nonlinear physics. The conference participants came from many regions of the world, making this a truly international conference. Mainland China, US, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Canada, Europe (UK, Italy), and Australia, were all represented. Of the 16 plenary speakers, 2 were female colleagues (Profs Hui Cao and Yu Wei). Overall, the percentage of female participants is estimated to be ~ 12 %. The conference reception and banquet provided participants the opportunity to socialize in a more informal setting. At the banquet on Wednesday, July 19, the 2016 OCPA Award ceremony took place. The prestigious awards include the Achievement in Asia Award (Robert T. Poe Prize), Outstanding Young Researcher Award (Macronix Prize), the inaugural Outstanding Dissertation Award, and the 2017 APS-OCPA Outstanding Conference Poster Award. Fig. 7 shows several award recipients receiving their Awards. The conference reception, held on Monday evening in the Gymnasium, featured a large dance floor, and a Tsinghua student traditional music orchestra (Fig. 8). During the reception, conference participants had the opportunity to enjoy good food, good music, and even listen to conference participants sing Chinese opera and karaoke of popular songs. Tsinghua University was an extraordinary partner for hosting OCPA9. The University provided the venues, manpower and the resources to make OCPA9 a success. In addition, OCPA9 gratefully acknowledges funding support by the organizing institutions, and the China National Natural Science Foundation. The organization and smooth running of this important conference could not have taken place without the expertise and diligence of the local staff at Tsinghua and student volunteers. Fig. 9 shows Prof Qi-Kun Xue with the staff: Cuiyun Gan (coordinator), Wanchen Liang (OCPA9 Web administrator and registration coordinator), Chang Lin (travel coordinator), and Yalan Feng (conference workbook editor), along with the volunteers. The next OCPA conference, OCPA10, is tentatively scheduled to take place in 2020, in Taichung city, Taiwan. If the planning is successfully completed, the co-hosts will the National Chung-Hsing University and the Academia Sinica, Taipei. On behalf of OCPA, I cordially invite you to OCPA10. Fig. 4 The Nobel Laureates/Distinguished Scientists Forum on Different Approaches to Cutting-Edge Research. The panelist from right to left: Profs Barry Barish (Caltech), Takaaki Kajita (Univ. Tokyo, ICRR), Steven Chu (Stanford), Shuji Nakamura (Univ. California, Santa Barbara), with Albert M. Chang (Duke University; OCPA President) on the left. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 11

14 SPECIAL REPORTS Fig. 5 Plenary talks delivered by: Profs Barry Barish (Caltech, LIGO, 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics) middle, Yifang Wang (IHEP, Beijing) right; and Yu Wei (Southeast University, China) left. Fig. 6 A parallel session (top), which took place in Building No. 6 on Tsinghua campus (above). Fig. 7 Left panel Macronix International Co., Ltd., Chairman, Mr Miin Wu, presenting the 2016 Outstanding Young Researcher Award to Prof Haibo Yu (Univ. California, Riverside), with Prof Albert M. Chang (Duke; OCPA President) on the right; middle panel Prof Tu-Nan Chang (University of Southern California) presenting the 2016 Achievement in Asia (Robert T. Poe Prize) to Prof Zheng-Ming Sheng (Shanghai Jiao-Tong Univ.); right panel APS Director of International Affairs, Dr Amy Flatten, co-presenting the OCPA9 APS-OCPA Outstanding Conference Poster Award to Mr G.Y Zhang (University of Science and Technology, Hefei, China), along with Prof Dongping Zhong (Ohio State and OCPA Vice President) on the left, and Prof Nu Xu (Central China Normal University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and current OCPA President) on the right. 12 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

15 SPECIAL REPORTS Fig. 8 OCPA9 conference reception scene (left), and the student ensemble playing traditional Chinese music (right). Fig. 9 The Tsinghua team includes: (in the second row, 4th from the left) Wanchen Liang, Prof Guilu Long, Prof Yayu Wang, Chang Lin (with flowers), Prof Qikun Xue, Cuiyun Gan and Yalan Feng in the first row (4th from the right). October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 13

16 PEOPLE Searching for Topological Quantum Matter An Interview with Nobel Laureate Professor Frederick Duncan Michael Haldane Juan Xia and Chi Xiong Nanyang Technological University Professor Frederick Duncan Michael Haldane is a British born physicist. He is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics at the physics department of Princeton University, and a Distinguished Visiting Research Chair at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. He was awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics with David J. Thouless and John Michael Kosterlitz. Professor Haldane worked as a physicist at Institut Laue-Langevin in France between 1977 and 1981, before joining the University of Southern California. He is known for a wide variety of fundamental contributions to condensed matter physics including the theory of Luttinger liquids, the theory of one-dimensional spin chains, the theory of fractional quantum hall effect, exclusion statistics, entanglement spectra and much more. Professor Haldane was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1996 and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Boston) in 1992; a Fellow of the American Physical Society (1986) and a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (1996) (UK); a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2001). Besides the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics, he was awarded the Oliver E. Buckley Prize of the American Physical Society (1993); Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Research Fellow ( ); Lorentz Chair (2008), Dirac Medal (2012) and Doctor Honoris Causae of the Université de Cergy-Pontoise (2015). After receiving the Nobel Prize, what s your plan to spend the money? I don t know and I haven t got it yet actually. I haven t decided what to do with the money and I don t think I can take it before September. Some Nobel laureates said that their lives have changed a lot after winning the Nobel Prize and their voice might have amplified to a thousand times louder than it was. What was your experience or how did you feel in the last half year? I try not to accept too many things, and I also put off a lot of things until this summer. I haven t let it change my life too much, even though I certainly get a lot of s all the time, e.g. conference, workshop invitations. There are a lot of invitations and most of the time it s not so useful. People ask me to say no to a lot of things. I don t get too many new assignments from university, public schools or any other communities. Instead, I have been trying to finish the projects I am working on after being disrupted by winning the Nobel Prize, but I haven t let it change my life. 14 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

17 PEOPLE The Princeton University President Christopher Eisgruber joked during the press conference I was physics major, but I couldn t even begin to tell you what he won his prize for. Is it possible to explain your work to general audience, say in public lectures or similarly? You have probably done so a few times now. In public lectures, all I can say is that, it s cool stuff in quantum mechanics that we didn t expect. Finally, after 90 years we are starting to be able to work with quantum mechanics from a much subtler level, trying to manipulate quantum states, and it s a difficult thing to explain. I usually give a talk about entanglement, and the theme is Einstein s second biggest mistake. The claim is that all the mistakes Einstein made are incredibly interesting. The first one is the cosmological constant, and second one is EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox). Trying to shoot down quantum mechanics by pointing out that entanglement at long distances is so crazy, and it has to be that quantum mechanics is wrong. We can now produce entanglement at long distances, so I guess the entanglement is the heart of these. Why this kind of topological quantum states have these unexpected properties, is because it has topologically different entanglement with regular things that we are familiar with before. Therefore, the entanglement is probably the heart of topological quantum states. The theoretical science is kind of hard for general audience to learn, but have you tried to emphasise the applications, or how useful the topological properties are? Right, I don t want to oversell quantum information processing, but I think it is also amazing how much progress it has been made. Some kinds of technology gradually came out especially because people put so much effort into things, like Microsoft put efforts into semiconducting nanowires, which make it possible for topological quantum computation. We are finally starting to manipulate quantum states, trying to notch them, and rather than bash things with hammer that people have done for the previous 90 years. I think there is a high possibility in the new quantum revolution, and the way we look at quantum mechanics have been changed tremendously in last 20 years or so, especially with those ideas of quantum information coming out. Entanglement was kind of a philosophic aspect to quantum mechanics. People were getting into discussions about these quantum mechanics compatible with the free will, like someone deciding to measure the polarization of photon but actually choosing it. This kind of philosophy stuff doesn t get you anywhere, but now we actually realise that entanglement is a concrete thing, the fuel that will drive quantum information process in the future. I think there are a lot of new ways to think about things, for example with cold atoms we can switch things on and off, change the Hamiltonian as a function of time. We are going to have a lot of new breakthroughs in quantum mechanics in the next 10 to 20 years. There seem to be some difficult stuff in your research one is quantum mechanics, and the other is topology. Both are kind of hard for the general audience to understand. Did you have any difficulty conveying concepts like topological phase transition to the general audience? About the topological aspect, we always talk about bagels as an analogy. But the underlying things are that Gauss- Bonnet theorem has much more abstract generalisations to mathematical abstract processes. The topological thing comes down to the whole numbers you can measure for the topological states, and topology is used to classify things by number of holes or something like that. It is something more abstract than quantum mechanics states but still the same basic thing. It s difficult to go beyond the picture of the coffee cup and donut as I am not a mathematician, so in this sense, we found these kind of states and topological ideas, and tried to understand what makes this so essential in condensed matter physics. Regarding this topological research area, are the potential applications, such as quantum computers, more attractive to the general audience? I think understanding the way the nature works provides the seeds for future technologies, at least in the past years, but you still don t know what the technology really is, as it is a complicated thing actually. Just knowing the technology is a good idea doesn t mean it will be successful eventually. I guess scientists are not the best people to predict what the successful technology is going to be, because there are a lot of other issues to decide whether a great technology eventually comes from a great idea. However, it provides a good understanding of how things behave and what is allowed. Most of the time, it is a question of imagination, but there are a lot of things you cannot imagine and yet still able to get an idea for technology. I guess the progresses are something we came across the states of matter that we have imagined before, so this is a kind of question where, once your understanding has improved, you understand that all these things are possible, and then you have a general October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 15

18 PEOPLE picture of this topological classification which is possible and just a usual state of matter, then I guess this is a good way to understand the concept of quantum mechanics. One of the possible ways for overcoming the decoherence of quantum information is to use topological states to incarnate, which may or may not be the final way if we do achieve the quantum information processing, but it happens and it is one possibility, like Microsoft s study on T-junctions, Google s study on nanowires. It is not very clear but the important thing is to get new understandings that we don t have before. We dreamed about the topological states in the past, and suddenly we had them. There are a lot of incredible things going on with quantum states, especially when you can do these rapid changes, such as switch things on and off, and do quenches, which are usually impossible in semiconductor based condensed matter physics, but now cold atoms can finally drive things across transition. Therefore, there are a lot of new ways to look at quantum states through cold atom ideas and experiments. Some of your students called you a giant in the field of condensed matter theory and your previous advisor Phil Anderson said it s been in the back of his mind for several years that you really deserved the Prize because of the absolutely fundamental nature of your work. Could you share with us a little more on how you were guided by the training and mentorship of Phil Anderson, and how will you guide your own students? Phil Anderson is an incredible advisor I have, and of course I found his ideas very inspiring. Sometimes when I went to talk to him about some research problems, he ended up telling me something completely different from what I wanted to talk to him about. But he had interesting ways of thinking about things, trying to organise condense matter into why something is a superconductor and why something is a magnet. I think the most important thing I learnt from him is to simplify everything down, and make them useful to condensed matter between people who do accurate material calculations or ab initio calculations, and the people who do the simple models, e.g. Hubbard model and other toy models. Both models have their importance, but what has certainly happened in topological field is that the toy models have been incredibly vindicated, because in the process of simplifying something down to find the simplest model that still apparently exhibits the phenomenon you are trying to describe, you actually learnt that the other stuff didn t matter they might matter quantitatively but not qualitatively. And in fact, the toy models turned out to be 16 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

19 PEOPLE simple enough to calculate with, so I think this whole area can come together because of these three separate things that we need: One is the underlying profound and abstract mathematical principles, like topology and Berry phases. The second thing is to build up a simple model that you can do some calculations to see how the things work out and how these kinds of deep principles work in practice. The third one is that you need someone to make materials to verify your models and assumptions. Once these three things come together, you can get an explosion where a lot of things can happen. For the topological insulator business, it came from a very simple formula found by Fu and Kane. You could actually look up a band structure calculation and count the inversion symmetry quantum numbers of high symmetry points and determine whether this material is a topological insulator or not. So these materials have been sitting there for many years, but no one suspected that there was anything interesting about them, and it only requires very simple physical principles. Once this formula came out, you can just go and search the literature for the topological thing and then do some experiments to look at the surfaces. I think it is a powerful but simple idea. Now people have been looking for the simple ideas for high temperature superconductivity for so many years, playing with various toy models but it doesn t seem to have any solution yet. I think the idea of getting something simple enough may not be a regular thing to public, but it is regular in condense physics. The underlying thing is not that complicated, and it is only a simple model instead, e.g. the graphene model I found turned out to be very useful for a lot of things. The power of simplification is cutting away all the unnecessary parts of description. For example, what I have been interested in the last few years is to understand the geometric issues in the quantum hall effect, where a lot of models incorporate rotational symmetries. If you play models with high symmetry, it often helps you to solve them by removing as many as unnecessary degrees of freedom, but on the other hand, high symmetry can also hide generic aspects. Therefore, the general thing I learnt from Phil Anderson is to try to simplify models and to look at toy models basically, and try to create one that is simple enough. Were you a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell labs from 1985 to 1988? Is this experience useful to your research? Yes, I was in USC (University of South California) and was recruited by Bell labs. That was after the period when AT&T was broken up. In the end, I felt happy when I went back to university. Actually, I found that it was a great balance between research and teaching. If you are stuck on some research problem, you will feel useful doing some teaching, and actually it may force you to think about something that is not the problems you are working on, kind of like unblocking something. Sometimes you could bash your head against the wall, if you keep doing the same thing all time without making any progress. So engaging in more than one activity is useful. In the end, I found that I preferred to be back in the university. Just when I left, High-Tc (high-temperature superconductor) was discovered. You called your Prize-winning work a sleeper that didn t become such a big thing until it was extended by other scientists, and you said that all these things are things that no one expects, you stumble over something and then you find the big picture after. Do you consider yourself as a curiosity-driven researcher who doesn t care about applications? Talking about this work on the Chern insulator on the top of quantum hall effects, it has been a toy model for a long time. It was a generalisation to find time inverse topological insulators and finally realized experimentally. I think this Nobel Prize is probably made possible by the subsequent developments in the topological studies in last ten years. It was nice that this early work was recognized. Do you consider yourself as a curiosity-driven researcher? I think so. It is just great to understand something and find new things in an amazing field. There are a lot of problems out there, and I guess the challenge is just developing a way to understand things such that it is a great satisfaction to yourself. Understanding things has led in the past to practical uses, but most of the interesting discoveries were not made because people were looking for practical applications which came after discoveries. There are other kinds of work which make things worth a practical application. I think this is a rule for all kinds of working in physics and material sciences, from theoretical degree down to practical applications. Singapore is much like a technology-driven society, so for the Singaporean students, how do you convince them to do a curiosity-driven work or research? I think working on how to make things better is also such a curiosity in some way, and I always believe there is a place for everything in research, so you don t have to look for the most mysterious things. The most important thing is whether you try to find how to improve, like transition temperature October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 17

20 PEOPLE in a material, or struggling for some kind of understanding for whatever to come, and see if you can make something happen. In the end, everything in those sciences is about you trying to make something happen and you need to put enough efforts to solve some puzzles and what you need to do to make it possible. I don t think there is one kind of science that is only good for curiosity, and another one is only good for technology there is no clear boundary between them. You can be curious about things which can also turn into technology someday. Based on your experiences, if someone wants to build his/ her own research group and be the group leader in the future, what suggestion can you give on how to inspire students, how to cope with difficulties and so on? I think you have to encourage people to work things out for themselves. Also you need to give them some guidance if they don t proceed well or do something crazy. From my own experiences, I think one should try to follow calculations through to the end and don t assume the answer. A lot of times people wanted to avoid doing calculation and prefer to guess the answer instead. However, sometimes you cannot predict and have to do the work, and don t accept arguments that are too easy. Most scientific discoveries came from when one followed something slightly usual and then found out that it was really unusual but you never know whether it will finally come. Could it happen sometimes that you make some guesses and suggest your students or postdocs to do the calculations? There were a number of things, for example, the model found by Kane and Mele. People were very interested in spin Hall effect in 2004, and I also considered making two copies of my model and glue them together in a time-reversal invariant way, but I didn t. At that time we didn t know that there is a new topological principle beyond the Chern number that Kane and Mele found by doing the calculation, but I assumed that once you put anything realistic to the model, it will destroy this, and there wouldn t be any topological stability or topological insulators. I should have done the calculation. Another time I told some students that there won t be anything interesting in some calculations but it turned out to be the fractional Chern insulators. I think it is not good to assume in advance what the result of calculations is going to be, as an excuse not to do it. As a group leader, you have to handle other issues, e.g. funding cut which now seems to become a normal phase to the American physics society, is there any effect on you and your research team, and how do you deal with it? I guess the funding suppresses the ability to find graduate students, to some extent, through teaching assistantship. Physics department has a lot of engineering classes, so it takes a little bit pressure off to find funding to pay the tuition and everything for the graduate students. (CX: In summer, they can work as research assistants?). Yes, we try to support them during the year too as much as possible, so that s one of the big problems. (CX: Since you are a Nobel Laureate, it s probably hard for them to cut your funding?). In democratic USA, no extra funding is given to Nobel Prize winners, while other countries may be different. They can get tremendous money, and obviously they like it. It s quite difficult to keep research going after winning Nobel Prize, as it always gets distracted by increased reputation and other things. Do you have any collaboration with Asian physicist or any collaboration plans? How will the prospect of condensed matter physics be in Asia, e.g. Singapore, China, Japan, Korea? I have a lot of Asian students from China, Korea, India and etc. Usually I like personal collaborations with people, not particular groups in Asian countries. China is putting a tremendous amount into physics, and they found this anomalous quantum Hall effects that I sort of came up with, e.g. the toy model was eventually done by Xue Qikun in Tsinghua University. They certainly put a lot of quite new labs in China, and it s not just the question of having great labs to do things. China is definitely putting a tremendous amount, and I am sure that many more things are going to come out of it. For example, they are planning to have a giant collider. Although this plan is still in debate, it already shows that putting more into condensed matter physics and quantum evolution may be more useful to China. There are many other fundamental projects in China which can also receive a lot of money and support from the Government. (CX: This is the reason why I asked you if you have any collaborations with Asian countries, because it looks like they are willing to spend a lot of money in doing experiments to test models and theories). A huge number of students from China are trained in USA, and at least some of them are going back for nice positions. A big problem for developing countries is to have too much hierarchy in things like professor promotions, so I think it is promising to have young people come back 18 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

21 PEOPLE and have good positions for them to go into. In general, it is quite nice to have a lot of good positions to attract people who study abroad to go back. How do you response to queries from people, such as, how your results or publications can be utilised in real world? Is it useful to make specific devices or machines? How long it will take before it can be widely used by public? Compared with other areas, the output in physics area is very poor, how do you cope with this contrast? I know that, as my wife doesn t understand my work either, even I have been trying a lot to express and explain. We don t see quantum mechanics around us. Quantum mechanics prevents you from falling through the floor, because the Pauli Exclusion Principle brings the atoms bound to your shoes, so the floor exerts a force on your shoes. The intrinsic principle of this world is very different from our human scale. It s quite difficult for people to understand but the more we understand about the way that the things really are, we have more chances to control things and to basically manipulate the world for our purposes and get new technologies. Smart phone is a thing like a magic, and what s hidden there is something you need quantum mechanics and semiconductors to understand. At this stage, what s your next plan after winning Nobel Prize? I have been trying to finish a lot of interesting problems, and to get a better understanding on some aspects of fractional quantum hall effect. There are also a lot of interesting things going on with the Weyl semimetals on which I have done some work. I hope to keep on going, and can still do interesting work. It s really a recognition of how exciting the topological physics has been and it is amazing how similarly young people are inspired by ideas of topology. I think some of them get very attracted to some incredibly simple mathematical principles and I cannot wait to see a big picture in some way being discovered. Both experimentalists and theorists will be excited by topological states. The amazing thing is these things that people used to dream of suddenly came out and got a lot of people very excited and stimulated. I think there are a lot of more interesting things that will be coming out soon. I found that you received the Bachelor of Arts degree, and I am wondering if this is a real Arts degree or Arts and Sciences. What are your hobbies in your daily life? This is a funny thing in Cambridge University. My degree is not called Bachelor of Sciences, but Bachelor of Arts, and I think it should go back to historical reasons. It seems like I didn t do it on a major degree. My hobby is physics, and I also like walking and hiking. I guess when you really enjoy physics, it seems you ve been paid to what you like best. I think I spend too much time in physics. I think you should have a balance between doing calculations and talking with people to share good ideas. You were born in Britain and had worked in France, and then became a United States permanent resident. Having so many experiences on education and research, which period of experience contributed the most to your Nobel Prize? I think the main aspect is the mentorship of Anderson. When he was in Cambridge, he had a position in the University of Cambridge before switching to working half time at Princeton University and half time at the Bell labs. At the time, Britain was going through a brain-drain period and there were a lot of talking that people should be doing useful things and should be working on turbulence in gas pipelines and etc., rather than particle theory. Therefore, there was a kind of bad atmosphere at that time in Britain for quite a while and people were told that the money should be going to somewhere that is useful, but you actually never know what exactly is useful. However, USA at that time was definitely more vibrant for research, and there were a lot of curiositydriven researchers as well. Another nice experience is that I have many collaborations in France. It is a rich experience to travel and do postdoc in a foreign country. So if you are a Singaporean, it is also a good to go abroad for different experiences. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 19

22 PEOPLE Phases and Phase Transitions An Interview with John Michael Kosterlitz Hasan Mehedi and Chi Xiong Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Michael Good Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan Professor John Michael Kosterlitz is a British born Anglo-American physicist. He is a professor of physics at Brown University and the son of biochemist Hans Kosterlitz. He was awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics along with David Thouless and Duncan Haldane for their work on condensed matter physics. Professor Kosterlitz received his bachelor and master degree from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and his Ph.D. from Oxford University. He does research in condensed matter theory, one- and two-dimensional physics; in phase transitions: random systems, electron localization, and spin glasses; and in critical dynamics: melting and freezing. He has been awarded the Maxwell Medal from the British Institute of Physics, and the Lars Onsager Prize from the American Physical Society for his work on the Kosterlitz Thouless transition. What is your opinion about 'big-science' (SSC, CERN, Hubble telescope etc.) as compared to the other fields, namely condensed matter physics? They are all science. Some fields require big machines and others don't. This particularly depends on the energy scale and the precision you are after. For example, highenergy physics experiments do need a big undertaking to accomplish the desired range of energy and the precision, as compared to condensed matter physics experiments that are mostly table-top experiments. After all, it's all science and it doesn't really matter the extent, as long as you are making progress in that particular field you are working in. Will you use your influence to get your own community more grants from e.g. NSF? I wouldn't try to influence the system. I was dumped by NSF like 20 years ago and I do things without excellent funding. What would you suggest young minds to do big science or smaller science? My suggestion would be to do what you like most. Anything you don't enjoy, is not worth doing. My main advice would be, if you happen to love physics, go for it and then follow your heart. A hypothetical question: If you were a graduate student now, what would you do? The trouble is I wouldn't know. I think, trying to predict the future is a terrible waste of time and effort. There will always be surprises and you are not going to know ahead of time. After all, 30 years ago, who would have thought that the Quantum Hall effect would come and it would be important? Now it is an interesting thing both from fundamental and technological perspectives. So you would never be able to guess or predict the future. My one-line answer would be do your thing and always be prepared for surprises. 20 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

23 PEOPLE From Left: Michael Good, Prof Kosterlitz, Mehedi Hasan and Chi Xiong Your father was a physiologist. Do you think that growing up in an academic environment shaped your way of thinking? It certainly shaped my future and my way of thinking. My father came from a Jewish family and my mother was from an Arian family. In Hitler s time, 1930s, this couple couldn't possibly get married. My father was working in a hospital in Berlin, and he found out that he could work there but couldn't get married. So he decided that it was time to leave and go somewhere else. He never considered himself as Jewish. I have inherited this sort of thinking, when it comes to religion, and I tend to shut down. As a scientist, I would like to think, anything I can't measure, you can speculate about, but you cannot draw conclusive remarks. You are always open to new interpretations that predict observation. You have a chance to change your theory at any moment. This is what I like about physics. Speaking of theory, when you were working on the problem which we now call the KT transition (Kosterlitz- Thouless transition), the experimental data was looking at it straight in the face. Did you guess that there is a transition going on? I pretty much knew that something was going on. There was direct conflict between the interpretation of the rigorous theory and the definitive data from the observation. At the end of the day, the observation was certainly right, far more right than anything else and what we did was to reconcile the interpretation of the rigorous theory and the experimental data. We cooked up a reason, why the system was doing what it was doing. At that time, the only reason people thought that there was no phase transition was because of Landau s theory that predicted there was no long range order in this kind of system. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 21

24 PEOPLE When you were working with Prof David Thouless, how did you two get along? We worked together quite well. I was a postdoc and every time I did a little calculation, I went to him and he had a look at it and made comments. He was the genius, he knew anything about everything, and I knew almost nothing. This worked well for both of us. And basically we came up with the idea of congruence to two-dimensional electrostatics and that was a fairly standard physics problem. We eventually did the calculation that explained the physics. It s understood that meeting David Thouless was a significant event for your scientific career. How would you comment? Oh yeah! Before that I was a lowly high-energy physicist who wanted to do something. I was getting more and more disillusioned. The reason for that was that in high-energy physics, everyone was working on the same problem that answers the most important question at that time. I was working alone at that time and was going around and around in circles, getting nowhere. So I decided to do something else, and at that time condensed matter physics seemed like a good idea because it has many small problems, and I thought I might do something with one of the problems. Then I got to meet David Thouless. So it seems like being in the right place at the right moment and doing the right things with the right people, are key ingredients of a successful story? Right! That's how things happen. Success is 90% luck and the rest 10% is having enough smarts to do the calculations. As far as the 10% goes, at a personal level, do you have any particular story on that? I suppose the main lesson I learnt is to be flexible. Be able to make your mind work on problems that are important and ignore the irrelevant ones. Often it works and then you might get lucky and you may make progress. You should ignore all the conventional wisdom. As I said, the two dimensional system we were working on was a mechanical problem with an exact solution, however the experiment said "Sorry! Something is happening here." In this case, the conventional wisdom took us nowhere. So when there is a conflict between theory and experiment, most often than not, the experiment is right and what is wrong is either Mike Kosterlitz & Oliver Spence on the Yellow Edge on the Tre Cime di Lavaredo (Photo Glyn Hughes, Source: The Alpine Club, United Kingdom) 22 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

25 PEOPLE the theory or the interpretation of the theory. No matter how fancy your theory is, it has to be compliant with the experiment. Richard Feynman was quick to stress the importance of consistency between theory and experiment. You had good collaborations with several experimentalists namely John Rappy. How would you comment on that part of your scientific career? We didn't collaborate as such, but we certainly followed the experiment results. They were looking at the particular problem, the helium film, as a perfect experimental realization of the theory. So it was a bit of luck that the theory should describe some detail of the film and as a matter of fact, it does. Did you have interaction with Feynman at a scientific or personal level? No, not scientifically. The only interaction I had with him was at Asphalt. It was 6 in the morning, the phone rang, my wife took it and said, Mike, it s for you. It s Dick Feynman. I was thinking what he would want from me. It turned out that few of his friends didn t return from the mountain. I suggested to him to wait before we go over there and rescue anyone. My guess was that his friends got caught up in the dark and they should be back by noon. As it turned out, I was right. The simplest explanations are the right ones. You always start with the simplest thing and then add complexity to it slowly. Can you tell me about your mountain climbing? There is 6a+ graded route bearing your name in the Orco Valley of the Italian Alps named Fessura Kosterlitz. Oh! That s a funny story. I was introduced to the young people in the climbing club of Taurino. We were driving along the road and there was crack by the boulder, the boulder was about 8 meters high. I said, Stop the car!. I put on my climbing shoes and it turned out that none of the Italian climbers could repeat that for 10 years and it got quite famous! Is there any connection of rock climbing and physics? Yes and no. To me, rock climbing is winding down and doing something completely different from the humdrum life of academia. I did rock climbing at every spare moment I had. It was a good way of unwinding. It worked fine for me. Sometimes research in physics is a bit uncertain, not knowing where it is going. Climbing also has this component of uncertainty of not knowing the next thing that is going to happen. Depending on how hard you push, there is punishment of mistakes, anything up to death. Living a life with this uncertainty perfectly suited me. Have you tried free-solo then? Climbing without any safety? No really. Living with that much uncertainty is too much (laugh). I have seen people do it and I have always admired them but I have never thought of doing it. You have trained a few generations of physicists and a lot of them were educated by you. How would you evaluate the contrast between the different generations of physicists? I don t see much difference in the qualities of people. I do see a lot difference in their attitude. People are more worried about jobs and positions these days. When I went to graduate school, things were easier because it didn t seem necessary to think a lot about what s going to happen after graduate school. Certainly, graduates are lot more worried and I would not like to be a graduate student now. Do you see any difference in the ways graduate students approach new physics problem and the ways people used to do it earlier? Graduate study these days is more uptight about getting publications than it used to be in my days. I remember, when I went to graduate school the whole Physical Review journal issue could be held in one hand. All new advances in physics were in it it came once a month. Now see what s happening Phys Rev is travelling along the library shelf faster than the speed of light. There are so many papers coming out and so many journals to follow. It s a shame that you cannot follow all the developments now from the journals. In my days there were people who knew a lot of different things. We should be open minded and read a lot outside our area of study. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 23

26 PEOPLE Asia s Scientific Trailblazers: Wang Yifang Jeremy Chan Asian Scientist Professor Wang Yifang shares about his fascination with neutrinos and elaborates on China s ambition to become a major international center for particle physics research. AsianScientist (Sep. 15, 2017) - Given his significant contributions to particle physics research, it may come as a surprise to readers that Professor Wang Yifang started out as a reluctant physics student at Nanjing University. During the early 1980s, particle physics was a narrow and nascent field in China, and Wang knew he was entering unchartered waters. He dived right in nonetheless, and has since gone on to make his mark as a pioneer of particle physics research in China. He is recognized internationally as a heavyweight in the domain of neutrino physics. After obtaining his PhD at the University of Florence in 1991, Prof Wang spent a decade conducting research at MIT and Stanford University in the US before returning to China as a Professor at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in He proposed the Daya Bay experiment to study neutrino oscillations in 2003, which eventually resulted in the first conclusive measurement of the mixing angle θ 13 in In 2016, Prof Wang was awarded the prestigious Bruno Pontecorvo Prize and the Breakthrough Prize for his groundbreaking experiments at Daya Bay. His other awards include the 2015 Nikkei Asia Prize, the 2014 Panofsky Prize and the 2013 Science and Technology Progress Award, just to name a few. Read on to find out more about his award winning work! Why did you decide to work on particle physics? It was not really a conscious decision for me to work on particle physics. In fact, when I began my university education, there was no mature field of particle physics research to speak of in China, and I actually hesitated to take the course. But among all the different academic modules in university, nuclear and particle physics at the very fundamental level was interesting to me. Then after I obtained by bachelor s degree in physics, I was selected from among many candidates to join Professor Samuel Ting at CERN to participate in the L3 experiment which involved the Large Electron-Positron Collider. And so began my journey in particle physics. What are neutrinos and why was the Daya Bay experiment important? Neutrinos are one of the elementary particles that make up the universe. They are the least well studied among the other subatomic particles in physics, and they have very strange properties. One such property is neutrino oscillation, which, put simply, is the spontaneous change in neutrino flavor as it propagates through space. So, the motivation for the Daya Bay experiment was to learn more about neutrino oscillation. When neutrino oscillation was observed in 1998 and 2002, the whole particle physics community became interested in discovering the last unknown neutrino oscillation amplitude, what we call 24 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

27 PEOPLE the mixing angle θ 13, which has been assumed to be zero or very small. Then in 2011, months before we began collecting data at Daya Bay, there were a few reports indicating that sin 2 2θ 13 is not zero. However, these were just indications statistically speaking, they were not firmly conclusive. The results were at a level of less than 3σ, which means the signals being recorded could just be statistical fluctuations; there was still a few percent possibility of sin 2 2θ 13 being zero. It was the Daya Bay experiment in 2012 that first provided a firm conclusion, at a level of 5.2σ, that sin 2 2θ 13 is not zero. There were many factors which, in the end, determined the success of the Daya Bay experiment. First, we needed very high-power reactors, so the Daya Bay nuclear power plant was ideal for that purpose. We also needed to build an underground laboratory that was shielded from cosmic ray backgrounds. Luckily, nearby Daya Bay there are mountains, and they provided the necessary shielding. Finally, we needed to design our experiment to keep uncertainties and experimental errors to a minimum. In the end, we were able to come up with a design that fully leveraged the advantages of the experimental location, thus producing a clear result. Can you tell us more about the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO)? JUNO is a continuation of our efforts from Daya Bay to study neutrino physics. Technologically, we are still using reactors and liquid scintillators, but on a larger scale. From a scientific point of view, however, we are attempting to do something different with JUNO. Because the mixing angle has already been measured, we now want to measure the next mixing parameter known as the mass hierarchy; that is, we want to determine which is heavier the type 3 neutrino or the type 2 neutrino. In fact, JUNO will measure almost all the neutrino mixing parameters with very high precision, improving the precision of earlier measurements by almost a factor of 10. In addition to what I ve mentioned, JUNO can record data from astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae and solar neutrinos, so it is really a multipurpose detector which can do a lot of physics. It is the culmination of our existing knowledge and experience with detector construction, and we intend to build on that solid foundation to reach for higher science goals. Do recent discoveries and new pursuits fit into or challenge the Standard Model of physics? The standard model works extremely well, much better than Professor Wang Yifang at a ceremony to receive an honorary doctorate from Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany. Credit: Ruhr-Universität Bochum. people anticipated, say, 20 or 30 years ago. However, the success of the standard model has posed some problems for the particle physics community; foremost among them, it has left us with a very narrow window into the future some physicists don t know which direction to head towards in their research. On the other hand, we clearly know that the standard model is not the theory of everything. There is definitely something more to be discovered; we just don t know where to take the next step. This is a challenge to the whole community. Some people believe that there is one direction towards the future, which is the detailed study of the Higgs particle the last particle of the standard model to be discovered. There are many uncertainties and unknowns surrounding the Higgs particle and it is very much related to the so-called defects of the standard model. It is also my personal belief that the Higgs is the next frontier of particle physics. In the world, there are three proposals or ideas to study the Higgs in greater detail. The first is the International Linear Collider, and Japan would like to host this machine. The second is at CERN where they may build a circular e+/- collider, although this idea is not very favored. Most people at CERN would prefer to build a very high-energy proton-proton collider instead. In China, we would like to build, as soon as possible, a circular electron positron collider as a Higgs factory. Particle physics experiments often involve international collaborations and very high cost. How are these collaborations and costs managed in China? October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 25

28 PEOPLE Professor Wang Yifang addressing a crowd at a CEPC conference. The Daya Bay experiment is considered as a smaller scale experiment that has quite a bit of international participation. Having said that, JUNO will be a much larger international project we already have roughly 550 scientists and engineers from 71 different institutions in 17 different countries and regions involved in it. The funding arrangements from different countries are complicated. The Chinese government does not have the same rules and the same funding model for every contributing country. They certainly encourage international collaborations, but they don t strictly dictate the conditions of collaborations. Typically, the Chinese funding agencies put up the initial funding for the project so that things can get started. Afterwards, more international funding will pour in once people have seen the prospects and the great science that could come out of the project. As a whole, I think the physics community is in a very reasonable kind of arrangement such that every country and region has its own projects, but on the other hand, we participate in and mutually support one another s programs. So, some level of collaboration and some level of competition is actually a very good atmosphere to get things moving. What is your vision for IHEP for the next five to ten years? My vision is for the IHEP to become one of the major international centers for science, in particular for particle physics and astroparticle physics. We will have world-class accelerator-based facilities to study synchrotron radiation and spallation neutron sources. Importantly, we must strive to be the best in all our projects-once we commit to them, they have to be the best, otherwise we will either halt them or improve them until everyone in the institute is convinced of the projects value and satisfied with the progress being made. Certainly, we will continue collaborate with the rest of the world to work on various particle physics projects. What would you say to young physicists who are just starting out in their careers? Never think that you are too late. There is always new science, new physics to be discovered. Every generation of scientists in the past 200 years or so, many of them thought they were too late, that things have been discovered by their predecessors. This is clearly not the case. We always overestimate what we know. While there are some people who believe that the standard model is an end point and there is no future, history has time and time again proved these people to be wrong. Science is never going to stop, and particle physics will continue to develop. We still have a lot of unknowns ahead of us, and there are still a lot of problems to be solved by the next generation of young scientists. What s important is to keep an open mind and constantly innovate. Dr Jeremy Chan received his PhD from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The Asian Scientist Magazine and the Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University collaborated on this interview which is also published on the Asian Scientist Magazine website 26 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

29 PEOPLE Good Scientists Solve Problems, but Great Scientists Know What s Worth Solving Nithyanand Rao and Swetamber Das IIT Madras, India Abhay Ashtekar is a theoretical physicist and the founder of loop quantum gravity, an increasingly popular branch of physics that attempts to unify quantum mechanics with Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity (which celebrates its centenary this year). Currently the Director of the Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry at Pennsylvania State University, Ashtekar spoke to Nithyanand Rao and Swetamber Das at IIT Madras on October 7, 2015 about his inspirations, his encounters with Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Roger Penrose, work on gravity and cosmology, and his criticisms of string theory. The freewheeling interview has been edited for clarity and divided into four parts: I. Getting started on gravity and cosmology II. Learning from Chandra III. Challenges in loop quantum gravity IV. Arrogance in string theory Part I Getting started on gravity and cosmology How did you get interested in gravity? Since the very beginning you have been working in this area. Well, I grew up in a small town and not in a big city. My father was in the civil services and he was transferred to a small town called Kolhapur. There, somehow I managed to find some books by George Gamow. Now, I don t know how. That was very interesting for me, particularly this book called One Two Three Infinity. That had some cosmology that Gamow had written about in a popular manner. That s what got me interested in this kind of science. Then, I went to Bombay to do the last two years of my B.Sc. At that time, I was very fortunate that some senior professors at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) started a project in which they were to get a few students from colleges undergraduates to come to TIFR once a week to discuss things. So inspired by Gamow s books and things like that, I tried to construct some cosmological theories like how Newton s [gravitational] constant was changing in time and if that happens, how does the cosmological scenario change? I have to say that Gamow s were semi-popular books. They were not serious scientific books but still there were a few formulae in it, so I just used that. Then, there were people like S. M. Chitre he retired many years ago but is still active and lives in Bombay. I gave him the paper and he encouraged me very much. When you went to the US, you were specific that you wanted to work on gravity Yeah. In those days, there was no internet. It s impossible for you to imagine! [Laughs] Therefore, one did not have too much information. So one had to go to the United States Information Service which was in the US consulate. They used to have these little brochures from various US universities which described their graduate programs. So I looked up graduate programs there. There were two one in Maryland which had a strong program in gravity, general relativity and cosmology; and the second was in October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 27

30 PEOPLE [the University of] Texas. So I applied to these two places. Maryland wrote back immediately saying that they don t consider students from India until they finish their Master s, but Texas admitted me and gave me an assistantship. Probably this was due to the letters I got from various people at TIFR. But it worked out. I was extremely under-prepared as you can imagine. So you went right after your B.Sc.? Yes, I was not quite 20, I think, when I went. I had what was more like a sophomore-level of preparation, but I was in a graduate program. The first year in particular was extremely tough; I had a lot of work ahead of me to catch up, that was very hard. These were quantum jumps. In a way it was also helpful, because I did not have time to get a culture shock as I was too tired to do anything other than work! Also, the people at TIFR had suggested we all go through the Feynman Lectures on Physics, which were more fresh at that time. There were problems to be solved at the end of each chapter. There was one particular problem nothing really profound in the first volume itself. I did the problem at first and my answer matched with the answer given at the back of the book. Then I realised that something was wrong with the answer conceptually. So, I re-did it and I got a different answer. I presented that at TIFR; they said yes, this is right. And then like an aggressive, cheeky kid, I decided to write to Feynman, saying there s a mistake in the book it was not really in the book, just in the answers. I wrote that if you do the problem naively then you get the answer given at the back of the book but, in fact, it s wrong and it should be done this way. He was very kind he replied. He said, yes, the book is wrong and you are right. So I think that letter probably helped me later to get an assistantship and admission to Texas, even though I was not prepared at all. Anyway, I caught up in a couple of years. That must have been a huge morale booster for you. Yes, it really was. Feynman was very kind to young people but he also wanted to put some distance he ended the letter by saying you know the subject well enough to rely on yourself. Basically telling me not to bother him again! [Laughs] At least, that s how I understood it. Then, I started working with a young faculty member at the same time that I was doing these basic courses [at the University of Texas]. His name was Robert Geroch; and Chandra [Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar], was actually very impressed with him. He offered Bob [Geroch] a position in Chicago. Bob offered to take me with him to Chicago. So I finished in Chicago. Professor Abhay Ashtekar. (Credit: pitt.edu) 28 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

31 PEOPLE Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. (Source: YouTube screengrab) Part II Learning from Chandra I guess you took classes by Chandra as well. Yes, I came to know him quite well. I was very fortunate. After my Ph.D., I went to Oxford to work with Roger Penrose. That was also because of Chandra. But then they asked me to come back to Chicago. So I went to Chicago again. Particularly in this second stage, I came to know Chandra and his wife very well. They were kind. They used to invite me for dinners and so on. Chandra was so reserved; he was god-like, a completely different level of human being. But then he would get into the flow of things and he would tell all the stories his memory was just phenomenal; there is nobody who comes anywhere close to him. He would remember what he was doing in, say, August 1931 and what had happened then. He would recall it with all the details all the people and all the names and everything. I have trouble remembering what happened yesterday! He would tell these fantastic stories. I was really fortunate that I got this exposure to three great people, my great teachers: One was my Ph.D. advisor Robert Geroch. Chandra told me that he felt that except for John von Neumann, he has never seen anyone as brilliant as Bob; and it was true. Bob is extremely brilliant. But then something happened and he suddenly stopped working. I don t know what happened but before that he was totally off-scale. He had such clarity of thinking, such crispness. I learnt by osmosis the way of thinking, how to think from scratch. He would take us once a week for a pizza dinner or something and hand us a new research paper. Those days, everything came by mail because there was no arxiv or anything. We were supposed to look at the abstract of the paper and try to guess what it was about and how did they did it. That was very good, because you have to start from scratch and you didn t know much to begin with; and we were just graduate students. He used to put us in this situation it was like being thrown into the water and being asked to swim. With Chandra, I got this deeper sense of values which is about what is right, a moral compass about how to be a good scientist and a good human being. A proper sense of values. Chandra was the one who said that I should go to Oxford for my postdoc. I was fortunate again as I had got several offers but Chandra said I should go to Oxford, so I went there. I went to Roger Penrose. With Penrose also, it was really unique. He was not as brilliant as Bob Geroch was, or as quick. But he had this way of dreaming, looking into the future, groping in the dark and coming up with completely unbelievable ideas. That s also something that you cannot learn from a book you see these people in action and you learn. I think with all these three people I learnt things which I could never have learnt from books. Robert Geroch s clarity, crispness and speed; with Chandra the backbone, the hard and deep stuff which always makes life meaningful; and with Roger Penrose it was a dream-like quality that is so essential for research. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 29

32 PEOPLE The hardest thing about research is always I tell this to my students and postdocs this balance. When you do something and you are in the middle of it, you need like Chandra said a certain amount of scientific arrogance. There s nothing wrong about scientific arrogance. There s everything wrong about personal arrogance. Scientific arrogance is basically the belief that, yes, I am going to solve this problem. Even if other people have thought about it, it doesn t matter; I will solve it. You really have to get into it. You want to get into the details, you want to understand the intricate structure which is laid out in front of you, find the missing links. And things that are completely wrong in your thinking and maybe also in other people s thinking. At that time you just have to be an extreme optimist. You have to believe that it s going to work and completely disregard scepticism from other people. But then once it is finished, you have to turn around 180 degrees and you have to look at in cold blood. Does it even make sense? And then poke every possible hole in it. It s just the opposite of what you first did. First you make progress, do things; and then be your worst critic. These two skills are draining. You can go with the first skill quite a bit, but after a while you don t advance. You need to have this ability of really going back and looking at things critically and seeing the solidity and poking every hole that anybody else can poke. If you don t have this solid foundation, you cannot build on it further. You can just do the first things and not go much further. I think that psychologically and mentally this is tiring, to be able to go back and forth. One has to be able to cope with frustration as well. Yes, it can be frustrating because you believe in it, and you have spent so much of energy and passion and time on this problem. But then, you have to get used to it and work on the next problem. This is the skill. This is, I think, how you achieve good productivity on a long range. The other important thing is that I learnt this from Chandra more than anybody else many people can solve a problem. I mean, I can solve many problems even more elegantly than Chandra might have solved. But the skill is to come up with a problem to come up with the right problems. Things that are going to change the direction. Things that are not going to be only incremental progress but really could make a difference. And that, I think, is not easy. That is what distinguishes great scientists from good scientists the ability to really spot this, what is really worth working on. I don t mean to trivialise the second ability, which is the ability to solve a given hard problem, because it requires both the arsenal of tools and some brilliance. But it s not the same as coming up with the right questions to ask. That is, I think, something that students should be aware of. It is not enough to be extremely smart and to be able to solve a problem. That is a different skill than things that will shift paradigms. Of course, you need both of them to make real progress. You won the first prize for an essay from the Gravity Research Foundation back in It s a funny foundation. It started in a slightly crackpot-ish manner. But then very senior scientists like Bryce DeWitt, Roger Penrose, Stephen Hawking all submitted essays. The essays were supposed to be about ideas more than just technical papers. Something which is more important than just a technical result, something which looks at a problem in a certain way, a new direction not paradigm-changing, not that big. You had completed your Ph.D. by the time? Yeah, I was actually on my second postdoc at the time. I think I was in Chicago. I had some ideas and I wrote it up. I had done my homework by seeing how to write those things so that it makes an impact. Because even if you have a good idea, if you don t put it in the right way it doesn t have the same impact as somebody else who might have a lesser idea but puts it in the right framework and makes interconnections. It was not something really great, but it was satisfying to be recognised. I think it s not very often that people who are postdocs get it. Usually more senior people got it. When we re young and try to do something new, it s always there at the back of our minds, how well will it be received by the experts. Even for a technical paper, the title and the abstract are really important even if you may think what s the big deal? But those things are important. Somehow those are the skills that you don t always learn. Maybe because your advisors never tell you. But it s important. The number of people who d actually look at that paper would depend on how you write these things. So yeah, it was good. I got it somewhat early compared to some other people. 30 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

33 PEOPLE Part III Challenges in loop quantum gravity If we can now come to loop quantum gravity, which you ve been working on for a long time. It is a fact that unifying ideas from general relativity and quantum mechanics has been a long-standing problem. The motivation for loop quantum gravity comes from multiple directions. Technically, it had to do with these ideas that Penrose had about twistor space. When I was a postdoc, I learned twistor theory. Though I never worked on it, I learned completely about what was happening at that time. The big breakthroughs happened around that time in twistor theory. They re happening again now, but there was a little bit of a quiet period for a long time. And there were some critical ideas that Penrose had, about what the role played by helicity or self-duality was. That is to say, there are some symmetries of solutions of Einstein s equations [of general relativity], and Penrose felt that this symmetry has to do with duality. For example, if you have a photon, just like every zero rest-mass particle, it has two helicities. It is spinning either in the direction of the four-momentum or in the opposite direction. So you get these two helicity states. The same thing is true in the weak-field limit for gravitons. So Penrose was trying to generalise that idea in the nonlinear context. I felt that the way that it was happening in twistor theory was very, very interesting, but that somehow it was not going completely in the right direction. They were emphasising complex manifolds a lot, and not real manifolds. I felt that one has to take those ideas but formulate them in terms of real space-times, real metrics. Because that s what we experience it s more directly, physically relevant. I felt that there was some deep idea but it was not being used in the most fruitful way. That was the one technical aspect of the problem. So one deep motivation came from some of the important ideas from twistor theory and, as I say that, they re becoming important again now. The second thing was about the idea that, because gravity arises from the space and time in general relativity, if you have a quantum theory of gravity it should also be a quantum theory of geometry. Therefore, this continuum geometry we see around us should be an approximation. Just like this table, for example, looks very smooth and continuous to me. But if I look at it under an electron microscope, I see there s this discrete structure there are atoms in a lattice, and there s a lot of vacuum between them. So the idea is that there should be atoms of geometry, that there should be some fundamental building block out of which geometry arises. And then, coming from these ideas that I was telling you, (Photo credit: Robert Couse-Baker/Flickr, CC BY 2.0) which were inspired by twistor theory, it turned out that the fundamental excitations of the geometry should not be like gravitons but it ll be deeper. Gravitons will be an approximate concept later on. But it ll be deeper and they turn out to be one-dimensional. So the fundamental excitations are one-dimensional, which is a little like a polymer. If I take this shirt, and I take a magnifying glass, I can see that the shirt is fundamentally one-dimensional, because the threads are one-dimensional. It s just that those threads are so densely packed that I get an illusion that it s two-dimensional. What comes out in loop quantum gravity is that the geometry of space is like that. It s woven by these one-dimensional fibres, it s like a polymer. But this polymer is so intricately woven and tightly spaced that we get this illusion of continuum. It s coarse-graining. If you go to the atomic size, it s not continuum at all. But if I coarse-grain it, there are so many atoms that, for all practical purposes, it s a continuum. The same thing is true of geometry. The geometry we use in Einstein s theory, general relativity, where space-time is a smooth continuum, is an approximation. To go beyond, one has to work with this fundamental building block, these atoms of space-time. That s the basic idea of loop quantum gravity. Then one has to come up with proper equations for this. In the 1990s, several colleagues, particularly Jerzy Lewandowski at Warsaw who was a postdoc with me developed this quantum theory of geometry. Since then, it has been used for black holes, for cosmology, the Big Bang. So there are about people in the world who work on this now. We have meetings called Loops every two years just this year we had one, in Germany. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 31

34 PEOPLE Do you foresee any experimental tests? In any approach to quantum gravity, experimental tests are hard to come by, just because technology has not caught up with the theory. I mean, general relativity is a hundred years old, and it s only now that we can hope to see hard tests of general relativity. We still don t have a single hard test of the strong field regime of general relativity. All the tests we ve had are more or less about weak gravity strong compared to Newton s, but weak compared to Einstein gravity. The hard test would be two black holes colliding and they d produce gravitational waves. There s great excitement now because the gravitational wave observatory [Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory] has come online. So even with general relativity, it has taken so long, a century. Quantum gravity is even harder to test. Therefore it s not likely that we re going to get direct tests of any quantum gravity theory tomorrow, but we would have observational evidence coming in. And that would be through to me at least, it seems cosmology, the very early universe. In the last three years, we ve been working very hard on that, trying to push the so-called inflationary scenario. Inflationary scenario starts very early when the density of matter was extremely high, but still very low compared to what s called the Planck density where quantum gravity effects would come up. It s about times Planck density. Planck density is about kg/m 3. So the density relevant for inflationary cosmology is kg/m 3. Nuclear density is only about kg/m 3. So we re already talking about around 70 orders of magnitude higher than nuclear density. But we want to go even beyond it was very hard work, but very satisfying also. It s like what I was telling you before during those years, you just have to believe that somehow it s going to work. We did succeed, we did complete the program. So you re essentially looking for the signatures in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Exactly. But it could also be large-scale structure [in the universe], ultimately. It s amazing that this large-scale structure arose from the CMB. There are limitations as to what you would be able to see with CMB and what large-scale structure can show you. It s just the CMB structures that have got magnified to the large-scale structure and, therefore, looking at galaxy-galaxy correlations and such things, it really came from some correlations of the CMB. So, the inhomogeneities [of the CMB] there will be some deviations because of the pre-history, which is even before inflation have to do with quantum gravity. Then the question is: are they observable or are they not observable? I have been working on it for so long and now one can actually make contact with observations and say that there should be deviations from what the standard inflation is and these deviations would be the imprints of what happened before. And that has to do with the Planck epoch and quantum gravity and so on. We are still not in the stage in which one would say well, this is the smoking gun. Even inflation is not the smoking gun of anything. People would say that there are other scenarios. There isn t any other obvious explanation which works so well, so one takes it very very seriously. Similarly, there are these deviations from inflation, for which there should be some natural, fundamental explanation. So, with improved observations, it should be possible to have experimental tests. Yes, in fact Planck [a European Space Agency satellite that studied the CMB] data may be useful. The Planck collaboration is now going to release the data that we need. They plan to release it within a year from now in the middle of next year. So, these are interesting times! Part IV Arrogance in string theory There was this Strings conference recently at Bangalore. A claim was made there, in fact quite explicitly, that it s the only way to quantise gravity and so on. There are many things I have to say. First of all, I think that string theory has really enriched our understanding enormously, especially with new connections in mathematics and this so-called AdS/CFT correspondence. In some sense, it has expanded the reach of Einstein s gravity because you can use methods from gravitational physics for example, some Green s function on black hole background space-time in order to calculate some quantities in superconductivity. It s pretty amazing that you can do such things. Of course, hard condensed-matter physicists will say while that s useful, it s a model which mimics superconductivity at some level but it really is not high-temperature superconductivity we actually see in materials. I think, say, 80% or 90% of the condensed matter physicists would say that. But to me it is still interesting that one can actually do such things. So there is no question that string theory has enriched us. What is unfortunate is that they are extremely intolerant, in my opinion. It s everywhere. There is no need to be so 32 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

35 PEOPLE Strings and stars. (Credit: yogomozilla/flickr, CC BY 2.0) intolerant. Because in science there should be a competition of ideas. Let it be a free competition of ideas rather than declarations. It s not faith; and somehow when you say this is the only true thing, I don t see much difference between that and some guru saying that his is the only true path. One of them even made a claim that alternative approaches have been incorporated to string theory and, therefore, it s the only true theory. Joe Polchinski, a very prominent string theorist, he did say explicitly that this was some years ago, at KITP [Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics] Santa Barbara at its 25th anniversary. He said, well, string theory has incorporated everything. String theory is a little like Microsoft because at that time Microsoft was incorporating everything. He said loop quantum gravity was more like Apple. I thought it was a great complement! [Laughs] He explicitly said so. I said somehow I could accept Apple; at least Microsoft wouldn t gobble us up! That was a huge compliment. Well, yes. In retrospect, it was a huge compliment, exactly! String theory has achieved a lot. I don t know why science needs such statements; indeed, scientists should not make such statements. Let the evidence prove that it s the only theory. Let the evidence prove that it is better than other theories or let its predictions be reproduced more than those of others. Science should not become theology. And, somehow such statements have a strong smell of theology, which I don t like. There s even been talk of post-empirical science. Yes. There was another Strings conference in India at TIFR, in I happened to be in India at that time people had just discovered that the universe is going through accelerated expansion, so that the cosmological constant may be positive. And I saw in newspapers that Tom Banks and Edward Witten had said that, no, the cosmological constant cannot be positive because it is incompatible with string theory. It has to be negative, they said. And that these observations are premature. They were completely wrong. The fact is that nobody goes back to these things and says, well, let us be a little more modest about it. It s like shifting the goal post. Exactly! There is nothing wrong with making the statement. But then ignoring completely that you made that statement that is wrong. And then to say that this is the only theory. It has not had hard experimental/observational success, and it has not made that much progress in quantum gravity. It does not tell us, for example, what really happens when a black hole evaporates. There is some dual description of it but there is no space-time description of it. It doesn t tell us what happens to the singularities of general relativity. All the October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 33

36 PEOPLE hard questions that are there in quantum gravity, they are not answered by string theory. The second thing is that, in fact, the big progress of string theory since 1997 with Juan Maldacena s conjecture, AdS/ CFT; so, it s now been 18 years or so has been in the applied ideas of gravity to other areas of physics and there it has been successful. I am impressed by the success. Other people who actually work in other areas may not be as deeply impressed but I feel that to have seen an underlying unity in science at some level, even though it is not at an exact level that one wants it to be, I think that is good. That s progress. We seem to be using these gravity ideas in other domains of physics rather than solving quantum gravity problems. I don t think that the quantum gravity problems have been solved. And I have said this explicitly in conferences with panels in which Joe Polchinski, Juan Maldacena and I were panellists that, in my view, this is very powerful and these are good things. However, the AdS/CFT conjecture is the only definition of non-perturbative string theory one has and it s a definition, it s not a proof of anything. It talks about duality, but there s no proof of duality. To have a duality, A should be well defined, B should be well defined and then you say that A is dual to B. Since we don t have another definition of string theory, we cannot hope to prove that string theory is dual to its conformal field theory. You can define string theory to be the conformal field theory. You have to construct a dictionary relating string theory in the bulk and conformal field theory on the boundary. That dictionary has not been constructed in complete detail. Again, nobody is taking anything away from the successes that the AdS/CFT duality has had; but there is a big gap between the successes and the rhetoric. The rhetoric is at a much higher level than the successes. So, for example, in this conjecture, first of all the space-time is 10 dimensional. The physical space-time is supposed to be asymptotically anti-de Sitter, which has a negative cosmological constant. But we look around us, and we find a positive cosmological constant. Secondly, the internal dimensions in the conjecture, or this definition, are macroscopic. The Kaluza-Klein idea is that there are higher dimensions but because they are all wrapped up and microscopic, say, at Planck scale, we don t see them. That s plausible. But here, in AdS/CFT duality, they need the radius of the internal dimensions to be the same as the cosmological radius. If so, if I try to look up I should see these ten dimensions; I don t. So, it can t have much to do with the real world that we actually live in. These are elephants in the room which are not being addressed. There is a Centennial volume of General Relativity which was just published. I was editor-in-chief of that work. The volume has four parts the fourth part is called Beyond Einstein and deals with quantum gravity. At the beginning, there is an introduction for a general audience, a not-tootechnical introduction as to how the field of quantum gravity has evolved. There s a subsection called Elephants in the Room and I say explicitly that there are these obvious issues and practitioners just pretend that they don t exist. And that to me is unconscionable; I feel that that s not good science. I don t mean to say string theory is not good science, but publicizing it the way it s done is not good science. I think one should say what it has done, rather than this hyperbole. What did you think of Lee Smolin s book The Trouble with Physics? I believe you ve worked with him. I ve worked with Lee but I have not read that book. That s a qualifier that I have here. Some of my close friends who are very good physicists who have read the book who are not in gravity, but very good condensed-matter physicists said that they liked it. They thought that he made good sense at the end. But string theorists say that the book is misleading, it has wrong or false historical statements. I don t know because I was not there. So, I don t know much about that. I feel it s very good that people like Lee, who understand things, write such books expressing their point of view of it. But personally, I feel that I would like to do science. Let its value be decided by what comes after maybe it s not worthwhile. That s fine. I had a good time, and somehow that s enough for me in some ways. But I do believe, as I told you before, that I wouldn t be spending so much energy and time and concentration unless I believe that it has some very good ideas. I firmly believe that whatever the final theory is it s not going to be loop quantum gravity as we know it today but it would have some essential ideas that come from loop quantum gravity; it would probably also have some essential ideas from string theory I certainly think that the idea of quantum geometry is going to survive. It is going to be there. It might be much more transformed, but it is going to be there. So, I feel that I personally don t want to get into these debates. I would like to talk more about doing science. Nithyanand Rao is a freelance science writer based in Bangalore. Swetamber Das is a Ph.D. student in the Department of Physics at IIT Madras. This interview was originally published by The Wire ( thewire.in), reprinted in APPN with permissions from The Wire, the authors and Professor Abhay Ashtekar. 34 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

37 Jeremy Bernstein s Monologue ARTICLES C. N. Yang Institute for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, P. R. China There appeared recently on the web a monologue [1] by Jeremy Bernstein (1929 ) about how he had written his famous New Yorker article in The following is a transcription of the monologue: Since the recording on the web was not of good quality, the transcription probably contains mistakes. Still had no idea how to do this. But I was going back to CERN in Geneva for the summers. Now about a year had gone by, I hadn t come up with anything. But life works in a strange way. I played a lot of tennis, and I sprained the ankle. And I lived in a building in which T. D. and his wife lived. And they took sympathy with me. I drove back and forth with him to CERN every day from where we were living. And I talked to him and I got to know him. And I thought, you know, I think what I can do is, I can do a profile of Lee and Yang. So I said: can I do this? He was not enthusiastic, but was not totally negative. So I went back to do a profile of Lee and Yang. And Shawn edited it actually.... I forget exactly how I had done that. When I referred to things, I think I may have called them Lee and Yang. I don t know, anyway. There was a strange thing, because when thinking back, Lee and Yang were changed occasionally to Yang and Lee, it was kind of odd. So Shawn called me and said, you know, they have changed from Lee and Yang to Yang and Lee in various places, do you have any idea why? And I said No, I don t know why. It turned out that they had a terminal fight and broke up. And, some people blamed me, but, you know, I didn t do anything. I think Dyson blamed me. But I certainly just wrote this profile and didn t do anything. And then the next summer I had to talk with T. D. about it. He was very disturbed. But I think what happened often in the collaborations is that, when the collaboration started, Lee was younger and a junior person, Yang was older and from a different social class in China. And in the course of things, I think that, Lee began getting most of the ideas and Yang was getting most of the credit. I think that was the source of their tension. I ve seen this before. I saw this with Gell- Mann and Pais. I say it was a canonical thing that happened in these collaborations. So I felt very very badly about it. I felt that... I just really felt very badly that this had happened, and I had some responsibility for it. Lee left the Institute and went back to Columbia, which was good for them. I got a note from Dyson, saying once we forgive you but twice we won t, which was very disturbing. And then I tried to do a profile of Dirac, I had a one-day interview. I think Oppenheimer got hold of it and told me not to do it. It was a pity because I could have done a very nice profile of Dirac.... My comment: This monologue in a way is a confession by Bernstein in his old age. He was quite confused, splicing real and imagined events from different periods together. But the main theme is clear: Now he felt very badly about the publication of the article, for I had some responsibility for it. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 35

38 ARTICLES Chen-Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee at Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics (1957). A scientific collaboration is built on contributions by several individuals, each with his/her special talent and special experience. The more successful the collaboration is, the more trust and consideration are required to keep the collaboration going. Media probing of the intimate details of successful scientific collaborations are potentially very destructive. Oppenheimer, I, and several friends knew this in1962, and had tried to stop the publication of the article, but without success. There was, in between WWI and WWII, a very successful collaboration between two powerful British mathematicians, Hardy ( ) and Littlewood ( ).They were entirely different persons: different in personal character, different in style of research. Yet they produced beautiful mathematics together for almost 30 years. Many people were, of course, interested in how they could have done so. C. P. Snow was one of them. He was in addition a close friend of Hardy s. In a very perceptive passage [2] he revealed the fundamental secret about that famous collaboration: Hardy talked to me, over a period of many years, on almost every conceivable subject, except the collaboration. He said, of course, that it had been the major fortune of his creative career: He spoke of Littlewood in the terms I have given; but he never gave a hint of their procedures. I did not know enough mathematics to understand their papers, but I picked up some of their language. If he had let slip anything about their methods, I don t think I should have missed it. I am fairly certain that the secrecy quite uncharacteristic of him in matters which to most would seem more intimate was deliberate. I wonder, if this passage had been written before 1962, and if Bernstein had read it and had learned deeply of Hardy and Littlewood wisdom, would he realize that he should not meddle into the very successful Lee Yang collaboration? References: [1] Web of Stories, [2] Foreword by C. P. Snow, in A Mathematician s Apology, G. H. Hardy (1967). This article has been published in Modern Physics Letters A, Vol. 32, No. 19 (2017) Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

39 ARTICLES Thoughts on Stephen Hawking s 75th Birthday and the Cambridge Path of Success Kok Khoo Phua Founding Director of the Institute of Advanced Studies, Nanyang Technological University Recently, I made a trip to Cambridge to attend a celebratory conference held in honour of Professor Stephen Hawking s 75th birthday. Over 200 scientists and university directors attended the four day conference which kicked off on 2 July. Professor Hawking expressed pessimism on the future of mankind in his speech, particularly in relation to the question of environmental pollution. When discussing his personal condition, his words moved the audience. He recalled he first realised his medical problems when he went skating with his mother. I fell over and had great difficulty getting up, he said. At first I became depressed. I seemed to be getting worse very rapidly. However, he concluded that, While there is life, there is hope. As he neared the end of his speech, the modest Professor Hawking said, Our picture of the universe has changed a lot in the last 50 years and I am happy if I have made a small contribution. He concluded his speech with a reminder to the audience: Remember to look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Be curious and however difficult life may seem, there is always something you can do and succeed at. Professor Hawking is currently one of the preeminent scientists in the world despite his disability. While he has been ill from a young age, he has continually engaged in ground-breaking research in astrophysics. This article will not discuss his important breakthroughs in physics, such as his theory on black holes, instead, it will discuss the fine traditions and atmosphere of Cambridge in the hope of inspiring students and the youth in Singapore and throughout Asia. Cambridge University has a history of over 800 years and has been an important base for scientific innovation and invention for the world in the last few centuries. It has nurtured many of the best scientists in the arena of science, including Newton, Darwin, Maxwell and Paul Dirac among others. It has produced dozens of Nobel Prize winners and 10 Fields medallists. The question we should ask is why Cambridge University has been able to cultivate so many outstanding scientific talents? The answer may be the following excellent traditions which are worthy of further thought and research. Firstly, the Cambridge residential collegiate system which fosters close relationships between mentors and students. When teachers and students live in the same college accommodation, students have the opportunity to work closely and communicate with designated mentors (tutors). Secondly, the students are good at asking questions. A special characteristic of Cambridge is its ability to trigger students interests, its encouragement of students raising different types of questions and engaging in open discussion. This may be related to the residential collegiate system, where rapport is built between students themselves and between students and mentors. In such an environment, problems and questions are discovered, discussed and knowledge is exchanged at all times. Much knowledge may not just be taught in the classroom, but exchanged in private discussion. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 37

40 ARTICLES Thirdly, Cambridge greatly values basic knowledge as well as the teaching of general knowledge. Apart from their chosen disciplines, students are able to take other basic courses. Students are encouraged to read widely and cultivate a broad range of interests, such as art, literature, philosophy, politics and so on. Actually, it is what is widely referred to as liberal arts education today. Let s take Francis Bacon as an example. In 1573, a 12 year-old Bacon entered Trinity College, Cambridge University, studying theology, logic, mathematics, astronomy, Greek and Latin. With such a broad knowledge base, Bacon became a philosopher, politician, scientist, jurist, speaker and essayist! We are all familiar with his famous motto: "Knowledge is power!" Fourthly, not only does Cambridge emphasise the breadth of knowledge, it also values depth. Hence, Cambridge students try to become experts in certain fields. For example, if they choose to specialise in mathematics, they will explore in great depth the new directions in mathematics and will try to understand the dynamics of mathematical frontlines. Lastly, Cambridge students are not only modest, but also have the ability to think and analyse problems independently. This is worthy of study and emulation, because most Asian students pay more attention to examinations and focus on textbook content. The Big Bang and Black Holes by Professor Stephen Hawking, published by World Scientific Summing up, we know the success of Cambridge University and its top position in the world's current rankings is justified. Asian universities have much to learn from Cambridge University in many ways. We hope that Asian universities may propose specific educational policies and work with universities such as Cambridge. Steven Hawking with some guests; Mrs Phua (Middle) and Prof Phua (Far Right) 38 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

41 Nuclear Power Technology and Nuclear Power Development in ASEAN Public Lecture by Professor Lim Hock ARTICLES Jeremy Goh Nanyang Technological University, Singapore The Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Hwa Chong Institution (HCI) and Tan Kah Kee Foundation coorganised the public lecture on Nuclear Power Technology and Nuclear Power Development at HCI on 29 April The eminent speaker was Prof Lim Hock, IAS Senior Fellow and Director, Research Governance and Enablement Office of the Deputy President (Research and Technology), National University of Singapore (NUS). Prof Lim started by explaining concepts relevant to nuclear science, such as atomic structure, chemical reactions, nuclear force and binding energy, nuclear decay, half-life and chain reaction. He highlighted four pertinent points. First, nuclear energy excess energy released from a nuclear reaction, in which a nucleus breaks up or two nuclei combine into one is much stronger than chemical energy. For example, the energy released from the fission of a uranium atom is approximately 50 million times more than the energy released by a chemical reaction. Second, the process of nuclear decay releases low levels of radiation. The beneficial and harmful effects the process poses to humans is a controversial issue. For instance, diagnostic imaging releases radiation, but Prof Lim counters that the usefulness of the resulting images in aiding doctors far outweighs these risks. Third, the half-life of uranium-235 is much shorter than uranium million years as compared to 4.5 billion years. This means that uranium-235 is more dangerous, as nuclei with short half-lives tend to decay faster, thus emitting more radiation per unit time. Hence, the fission of uranium- 235 releases a huge amount of energy. Hypothetically, at 200 MeV per atom, the energy produced from the fission of 1 kg of uranium-235 is 23x106 kwh, enough to fulfil the power needs of 1000 to 3000 families in Singapore. This brought Prof Lim to the fourth point: the chain reaction was discovered as a weapon during the Second World War in the late 1930s. To make a bomb, uranium with a purity exceeding 85 percent of uranium-235 is needed. The process of enhancing the percentage of uranium-235 in uranium is called enrichment, and it is a tedious and expensive process. For this reason, Little Boy, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, was the only uranium-235 bomb ever made. Nuclear power technology is an area that has received much attention since the end of the Second World War. For nuclear power plants, uranium with a four percent purity level of uranium-235 is sufficient to manufacture Low Enrichment Fuel, an indispensable by-product needed for them to operate. Prof Lim also highlighted the need to have control rods containing neutron-absorbing materials such as B-10, Cd-113 and Hafnium as a mechanism to slow down the fission neutrons after their generation in the nuclear fuel manufacturing process. He also explained the role of coolants, such as water, helium gas, carbon dioxide, molten sodium and molten lead, in maintaining the nuclear reactor core at optimal operating temperature by carrying heat away from it. There are five generations of nuclear plant designs. Generation I plants were prototype nuclear reactors used during the 1950s and 1960s, such as Dresden and Magnox. Most reactors in operation, including the ones used at the Fukushima Daiichi Plant, adopted Generation II designs having active safety features, which comprised electrical or mechanical operations that are initiated automatically October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 39

42 ARTICLES or manually. Generation III plants emerged after 1990 with improved design in several areas, including fuel technology, thermal efficiency, modularised construction, and particularly the use of passive safety systems which can work without electrical power. Its successor, the Generation III+ plant design conceptualised since 2010, witnessed significant improvements for safety. According to Prof Lim, the latest nuclear plant designs are the ones categorised under Generation IV. Remaining in the research stage, these revolutionary nuclear reactor designs aim to achieve improved safety, sustainability, efficiency, and cost, with most of them expected to be available for commercial construction after However, the pebble bed design-based reactor in Shandong is an exception given the high possibility that it would begin operations later in 2017 or The pressurised water reactor is the most commonly adopted model in countries such as the United States, France, China, Russia, Japan and Korea. This model consists of a primary and secondary circuit, which ensures water remains in liquid state under 315 C and pressure of 153 atm, and steam is generated to drive the turbines. Both circuits are surrounded by a series of physical barriers solid ceramic pellets, zirconium alloy tubes, reactor vessels and a containment building to prevent the release of fission products to the environment. Nonetheless, the presence of these barriers does not fully eliminate the dangers inherent in the production of nuclear energy. Handling and storing nuclear waste safely is a perpetual problem, as the waste will be radiative for two million years. In the event of a plant accident, radioactive pollutants such as I-131, Cs-137 and Sr-90, could potentially be released. I-131 tends to be absorbed at the thyroid, and is known to cause thyroid cancer. A possible counter to this is to take a dose of KI before expected exposure, as the non-radioactive iodide saturates the thyroid, so that it would not take up the radioactive I-131 during exposure. With half-lives of approximately 30 years, Cs-137 and Sr-90 could both remain in top soil for centuries. This is dangerous, as plants and livestock can absorb both pollutants, which will be passed on to humans through food intake. Another source of risk in nuclear plants arises from fission products. These products can be the main cause of nuclear plant accidents, demonstrated through the case of Fukushima on 11 March Despite the proper shutting down of the Fukushima Daiichi plant after the earthquake on 11 March 2011, vital backup power systems were destroyed in the tsunami that followed, thus stopping the pumps that kept the fuel cool. As a result, heat built up, and the fuel melted through the steel wall of the pressure vessel, but was still contained inside the concrete structure of the primary containment. The next day, hydrogen explosions tore open the roofs and released radioactive pollutants into the environment. In spite of these dangers, Prof Lim emphasised that the production of nuclear power itself is safe when looking at the numbers in terms of human casualties. He gave a range of Energy Source Mortality Rates (ESMR, in deaths/year/ TWh) to support this information. Coal, oil and wind have ESMRs of 161, 36 and 0.15, vis-à-vis 0.04 for nuclear power. Despite this excellent safety record, nuclear power continues to face strong public opposition because of the severe socio-economic impacts of accidents, which falls within the category of low- probability, high-consequence events. Countries who use nuclear power enjoy a number of benefits. First, the high energy density of nuclear fuel results in a lesser amount of waste. For example, a 1GWe coal powered station generates about 500 tons of ash per day, whereas a 1GWe nuclear power plant generates only 20 tons of spent fuel per year. Second, nuclear power brings greater energy security, since nuclear fuel is relatively cheap, and more importantly, much more stable in price compared to fossil fuels. Moreover, the high energy density of nuclear fuel also makes it possible for states to stockpile it for the long term. Third, nuclear power does not produce greenhouse gases, thus contributing towards the making of a sustainable future. Stephen Tindale, former Executive Director of Greenpeace, personally endorsed nuclear power in Prof Lim summed up the discussion on this aspect by acknowledging that most governments would consider several aspects mentioned above, mainly economics, security, environment and safety, before deciding whether to adopt nuclear power in their countries. Moving on to the state of nuclear power development in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, mainly Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore, Prof Lim noted that these countries have been actively exploring the adoption of nuclear energy. For example, Vietnam signed intergovernmental agreements with Russia and Japan in October 2010 to build nuclear power plants, to be operational by about With a similar goal in mind, Indonesia announced the launch of the Nuclear Energy Program Implementation Organisation in January 2016, to oversee the task of developing up to four operational nuclear reactors by In Malaysia, a 2 GWe nuclear power plant, to be in working order by 2021, was included in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programme launched by the Prime Minister in October Meanwhile, the 2015 Power Development Plan of Thailand included two 40 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

43 ARTICLES Prof Lim Hock addressing a group of Public Lecture attendees. nuclear power plants, of 1 GWe each, to be operational by 2035 and At the same time, these plans are fraught with delays. In November 2016, the construction of the nuclear power plants was deferred in Vietnam, which may be attributed to cost considerations, and Malaysia rescheduled the target date for its first plant to These developments are pertinent to Singapore, as any nuclear plant accident in the region can lead to transboundary consequences, which may threaten the security and safety of Singapore. Prof Lim also postulated the need to monitor food imports from regions where there is risk of contamination by radioactive materials. As such, the Singapore government engaged in a two-year pre- feasibility study on producing nuclear power locally. The findings were summarised by Minister S. Iswaran on 15 October Prof Lim highlighted three important points from these findings. First, based on existing technology of nuclear power plants, Singapore will not pursue nuclear power at present. It will wait for further improvements in nuclear plant technology and safety before reconsidering this option. Second, in view of regional development, Singapore needs to strengthen its capabilities in nuclear science and technology by supporting relevant research and educational programmes in local and overseas universities. Third, the Singapore government will play an active role in global and regional cooperation on nuclear safety. Prof Lim cited the 13th ASEAN Summit held in Singapore on 20 November 2007, when the ASEAN Heads of State declared their commitment to forge ASEAN-wide cooperation to establish a regional nuclear safety regime. Elaborating on the second point, Prof Lim proposed the need to develop a wide range of expertise to support the national effort in promoting regional nuclear safety. In particular, there is a demand for legal experts on nuclear safety, security, and civil liability for damages caused by nuclear incidents, as well as deep technical knowledge of nuclear power plants and the best practices for safe operation, transportation and storage. Prof Lim concluded his talk by going through existing research efforts and educational activities in Singapore s universities. He introduced the Singapore Nuclear Research and Safety Initiative (SNRSI), the research arm of the Nuclear Safety Research and Education Programme (NSREP), supported by the National Research Foundation. With an emphasis on radiochemistry, radiobiology and nuclear safety analysis, this initiative implements the research programmes of NSREP and attracts, develops, and sustains a thriving community of nuclear science and technology experts. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 41

44 ARTICLES Nuclear Science as Big Science in Southeast Asia: the Case of Malaysia Clarissa Ai Ling Lee Jeffrey Sach Center on Sustainable Development at Sunway University, Malaysia More than any of the other sciences, nuclear science occupies the dubious place of honour when it comes to exciting the imagination or rousing fears about an impending holocaust. Although it shares the spot with quantum physics and relativity as being the pioneering sciences of the twentieth century to have circulated, quite early on, outside of the Euro-Atlantic centres of knowledge, it is also an area that benefitted immensely from improved understanding of the nucleon because of concurrent developments in the area of quantum field theories, especially that pertaining to strong nuclear interactions. Moreover, quantum physics had developed concurrently in the East and West, with original contributions coming from India and Japan through such well-known luminaries as C.V. Raman, J.C. Bose, S.N. Bose, Hideki Yukawa, Yoshio Nishina, and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga incidentally, the work of Yukawa and Tomonaga had direct implications on the development of theoretical nuclear physics therefore giving a more international flavour to the development of posttwentieth century physics in a manner unprecedented prior to the onset of modern physics. The immediate technological applicability of nuclear physics to sectors ranging from energy generation (for electrification purposes), defence, and the life sciences (medicine included), as well to the development of other subfields within the physical sciences (nuclear chemistry), meant that nuclear science immediately occupies that intersection between fundamental, curiositydriven research, and that of applied research. Another fascinating aspect of nuclear science is how its development has close ties to nationalistic developmental agenda, science and technological diplomacy. and national as well as transnational and international science and technology policies and research agenda, even if these ties may not always be immediately evident. In 1955, at what was then the Federation of Malaya (Malaysia), the soon to be first Generic scale model of a nuclear rod cluster control assembly premier of the state, Tunku Abdul Rahman, had expressed enthusiasm over the potential of nuclear technology to be deployed to the improvement of industries such as rubber; the existence of a research nuclear reactor facility is also seen as a tool for advancing fundamental and applied research as well as improving scientific education. In 1955, University of Malaya had only been in existence for six years in Singapore, while its campus in Kuala Lumpur was still four years away from being established. By that time, India, which had the closest profile to the Federation and State of Singapore, although it had been independent since 1947, had already been developing its nuclear programme for 17 years was a year after the establishment of the Atoms For Peace project, with the purported aim of bringing nuclear science and technology to the developing worlds as part of science diplomacy meant to counter Soviet influence and control for the potential proliferation of nuclear stockpiles that could be used to develop nuclear weapons. The publicised agenda of the Atoms for Peace 42 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

45 ARTICLES programme to advance nuclear technology for peaceful purposes was well-received by most of the developing worlds, comprising mostly of newly independent states and soon-to-be-independent states that saw an opportunity for receiving both resource and financial aid to drive their developmental agenda in Southeast Asia, the Philippines became the earliest recipient of a research nuclear reactor under the Atoms for Peace programme, in However, even if the science behind the technology had begun to undergo the process of declassification, that process of declassification involved access to knowledge and concomitant technologies that would not be threatening to the donor nation. Therefore, neither the toolkit of the science underlying the technology nor the necessary expertise were fully transmitted. What was transmitted was a socio-politically dependent relationship where the recipient would have to continuously rely on the donor to provide maintenance support, which itself could be seen as neither sustainable nor encouraging of greater innovation on the part of the recipient. However, dependence can turn into independence, such as one finds in the case of China. China had developed its own nuclear technology from a combination of knowledge pieced together from the knowledge transferred from the Soviets, and that acquired by its scientists working in foreign institutions and laboratories, before indigenizing and elaborating on the knowledge the former had been able to piece together, therefore allowing the country to grow its big science in areas such as nuclear physics, high energy physics, space science, and astrophysics. However, the ability of countries such as China to progress in such manner could be inferred as a direct result of developing fundamental research in parallel with applied research for socio-technical problem solving, something which was never built into the agenda of developing states such as Malaysia until fairly recently. Although nuclear physics had been taught at the University of Malaya since the inception of the Faculty of Science in the Singapore campus, and a nuclear science department would be established at the National University of Malaysia s (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) by 1980, a couple of years before the TRIGA reactor by General Atomic, which was obtained through an agreement between the Malaysian government, US government, and the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), went critical, the very attitude echoed in the enthusiasm of the first Malayan premier over the possibility of nuclear science would later be taken up by latter day bureaucrats, wedded to the idea of science and technology for development, as privileging the development of science with immediate technological Generic scale model of a nuclear power plant as public education, as seen in the visitors' gallery of the Nuclear Agency of Malaysia application over that of fundamental research at the frontier. Therefore, the training of future scientists and technologists through scholarship programs such as that offered under the Colombo Plan and the Public Service Department, had focussed largely on the applied sciences although there were minority who were able to obtained higher degrees through work in more foundational sciences. Theoretical physics, including nuclear physics, had developed at about the same time as when nuclear facilities and technologies were being developed in Malaysia, there was little encouragement to pursue that line of research, with little to no money provided towards that end, although that had not prevented the experimentalists and theorists from working together within the constraints of the resources they had one could see the fruits of the labour in some of the conference proceedings from the 1970s and 1980s which showed that the nuclear physicists of the developing worlds were up-to-date with what was going on in relation to what was developing at more matured centres of research. However, the continual neglect by a government that had bought into the rhetoric of science and technology for October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 43

46 ARTICLES As seen at the 2017 Future Energy World Expo in Astana, Kazakhstan the sake of development, narrowly construed, had starved the country from developing strong expertise in the fundamental sciences, as those who returned with training in the fundamental sciences found themselves having to give up their line of research in pursuit of a more expedient research agenda, and those who chose to continue in that area of research never returned or had left for elsewhere after a short stint back home. This lack of strong expertise and brain drain was not a problem exclusive to Malaysia, as its neighbouring ASEAN countries had experienced a similar situation even if their conditions might have been different. Therefore, a vacuum was created in terms of expertise over time, as the older generation of physicists still left in Malaysia, who had once worked in more fundamental areas of physics, moved on to other areas of applied physics or engineering to sustain their career (including those who had trained and worked within more fundamental fields of physics) and the knowledge and expertise gap merely increase over time. Despite the problematic implementation of transferred scientific knowledge, and over-interference into the scientific research agenda by bureaucrats in decades following the independence of Malaya/Malaysia in 1957, it does not detract from the fact that nuclear science had come to Southeast Asia, and to Malaysia, as a big science, because of the four important characteristics possessed by what could be characterised as attributes of big science: the multidisciplinary contributions from the trickle-down effect of the science; the high-level of transferability from fundamental research to industry and as solutions to other sectoral needs; the national and international institutionalization of the research and knowledge transfer process through the development of national and international agencies; and the level of international collaboration fostered through the sharing of facilities, resources, data, and even experimental analyses. More importantly, it was also the earliest big science to arrive in Malaysia, for there was no other sciences in the country that fulfiled all of the characteristics above in the twentieth century, from the time when modern sciences had begun to gain a stronger foothold in Southeast Asia more generally, and Malaysia more specifically, in the aftermath of the Second World War. It so happens that the programming of the national development plan of the country had coincided with the time when the Atoms for Peace programme was taking root and was in search of recipients for its technology transfer programme therefore, the infrastructures for implementing nuclear research and development were put in place early on, despite the shortcomings in implementation. Besides the possibility for industrial application, another 44 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

47 ARTICLES reason for Malaysia s early interest in nuclear technology stems from the urgency of having to address its energy needs for development. Although Malaysia currently relies heavily on fossil fuel, it has already considered the possibility of nuclear energy seriously, although the politicisation of this energy has led to continuous vacillation by the government rather than more concerted effort at research, development, and public information in addition, agnotology, or the culture of ignorance, perpetuated by long-term policies, led to poor literacy over most matters pertaining to science and technology, including and especially that of nuclear science and technology, or radiation physics. At the time of writing, small steps are currently being taken to counter this agnotology by introducing content in radiation sciences into the Malaysian school science curriculum, with practical elements included. It is possible, with proper planning, for Malaysia to recuperate a previous lost opportunity by using its current position as an emerging nuclear market player to learn from the mistakes of others and use that to make technological contributions in its own right. Nevertheless, despite the interest, at a knowledge generation level, to contribute to the development of nuclear technology, the resource and infrastructural gap, coupled by a lack of critical mass in terms of expertise, could make the possibility for Malaysia to enter the phase of knowledge generation in nuclear technology a challenge, though not impossible. Given that Malaysia is entering a new phase of big science by becoming a member of the CMS collaboration at CERN, there have been attempts in recent years to bring together high energy particle physics with that of nuclear physics to further the development of both fields in the country. Moreover, physicists had been, and are continuing to form, collaborations with nearby regions in East Asia with facilities for conducting experiments in fundamental areas of nuclear physics and particle physics. Further, in terms of the possibility of bringing in nuclear fuel as clean energy, much more still has to be done at the legislative level (which is the responsibility of the Malaysian Atomic Licensing Board in existence since the first half of the 1980s) as well as in public education before nuclear power plants could even be brought to Malaysia. Given that Southeast Asia is currently going through a renaissance in scientific development and international collaboration, Malaysia could certainly leverage on its early foundations to build up its current capacity for making original contributions to nuclear science and technology, especially in the physics that had started it all. NOTES See Charles Weiner, Retroactive Saber Rattling?, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 34/4 (1978), ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&an= &site=ehost-live&scope=site and Masakatsu YAMAZAKI, An Early Development of Nuclear Physics in Japan - In the Case at Osaka Imperial University, Historia Scientiarum, 0 (1982), 69 < proquest.com/docview/ ?accountid=10598>. See When Twentieth Century Physics Arrived in British Malaya-Establishing Physics Literacy in the April 2017 issue of this magazine for information on what was going in the physical sciences in 1950s Malaya. See Phalkey (2013). Atomic State: Big Science in Twentieth Century India. Ranikhet, Permanent Black See C.C. Bernido, F.L. Santos and L.S. Leopando, Decommissioning the Philippine Research Reactor (Under R2D2P): Updates and Challenges (unpublished Powerpoint presented at the Technical Meeting on Establishment of an International Decommissioning Network, Vienna, 2007). Yanqiong Liu and Jifeng Liu, Analysis of Soviet Technology Transfer in the Development of China s Nuclear Weapons, Comparative Technology Transfer and Society, 7/1 (2009), < Much of the information from this came from oral interviews with senior and emeritus scientists. However,as I have not obtained permission to quote them here, I am not able to release the names of my interview sources. The essay is inspired by the author's forthcoming article Nuclear Science and Technology in the Malaysian Context: Three Phases of Technoscientific Knowledge Transfer in Studies in History and Philosophy of Science: Part A, for the special issue Knowledge Transfer and Its Contexts. It is also a part of a larger work that considers the development of nuclear science as big science in Southeast Asia. The author is leading a project on Nuclear Science and Technology and its role in Sustainable Development in Southeast Asia as a research fellow at the Jeffrey Sachs Center on Sustainable Development at Sunway University. She also runs a blog on Nuclear Studies in Southeast Asia ( October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 45

48 ARTICLES Preface of "Standing Together in Troubled Times" Unpublished Letters By Wolfgang Pauli & Others Mikhail Shifman University of Minnesota, USA This book grew from my work on the collection Physics in a Mad World [1] which was largely devoted to physics and physicists who had the misfortune to live and work under the Nazi regime in Germany and the communist regime in the USSR. I used to think that I knew all about the atrocities committed by these regimes from history textbooks and abundant literature. It turned out that tracing the destinies of physicists whose theories I explain to my students every year created a much more personal picture, adding a totally new " human " dimension to the tragic events triggered by two of the most disastrous experiments in social engineering that shaped the history of the 20th century. The 2015 Nobel Prize laureate in literature, Svetlana Alexievich, entitled her book War s Unwomanly Face. She characterizes it as the testimony of women recollecting their past, on how girls who dreamed of becoming brides, became soldiers in They had to kill the enemy who had attacked their homes and homeland with unprecedented cruelty. Reading Alexievich s book I thought that, perhaps, its title was not quite accurate. Through the ugly faces of war I saw the human faces of people - young men and women - who were sent to slaughter against their will, by their ruthless dictators, with no regard for human lives. Dictatorships may pursue different ideologies but under closer examination they are all based on the presumption that the end justifies the means, no matter how horrific the means might be... Still, despite all this, friendship, love and compassion survive even under these inhuman circumstances. This is the nature of the book you are now opening. It is about the friendship between Wolfgang Pauli, one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century, and Charlotte Houtermans. They met at the very onset of the quantum era, in the late 1920s in Germany where Charlotte was a physics student at Göttingen University. At that time Göttingen was right at the heart of groundbreaking developments in physics. Both Pauli and Houtermans personally knew major participants in the quantum revolution. In the 1920s and 30s the emergent quantum world was very much around 46 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

49 ARTICLES central Europe: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Denmark, and Switzerland. Both Wolfgang Pauli and Charlotte Houtermans went through trials and tribulations so abundant at the time of the clash of the two barbarian ideologies and the two dictatorships which served them. Newly found letters from Pauli, Einstein, Franck, Oppenheimer and others to Charlotte give a valuable and rare insight into physicists relationships beyond science, in troubled times. Wolfgang Pauli was a great physicist, a trailblazer of the quantum era and whose life is well documented. Pauli s truculent style of scientic discourse gave rise to legends. However, some aspects of Pauli s human side are less known to the general public. His letters to Charlotte Houtermans, their life-long friendship, show in more than one way that Wolfgang Pauli was a man of warm heart, a tender and caring friend who tried to help his friends whenever they needed help and whenever he could. This is a precious addition to Pauli s scientific biography (e.g. [2]) revealing to us Pauli the human being. In a broader context this book is about a brotherhood of physicists. Charlotte Houtermans who found herself between two evils - Soviet communism and German National Socialism - would have probably perished if it were not for this brotherhood. It was not a deliberately organized society, nor a formal organization.rather, professional physicists and people related to physics all over the world acted on impulse, out of the kindness of their hearts, in an attempt to save or help their colleagues who found themselves entrapped in simmering pre-war Europe. Charlotte s husband Friedrich (Fritz) Houtermans, a German physicist who suggested that the source of stars energy was thermonuclear fusion, in early 1935 fled to the Soviet Union in an attempt to save his life from Hitler s Gestapo. Fritz Houtermans who had been a member of the German Communist Party since 1926 could expect no mercy from the Nazis. Charlotte followed him with their daughter Giovanna who was born in Berlin in Half a century later Annika Fjelstad, Charlotte s granddaughter, wrote: "two dreamers in Berlin, the political womb of an unborn war. Fritz Houtermans took an appointment at the Ukrainian Physico-Technical Institute in Kharkov and worked there for three years. In the Great Purge of 1937, he was arrested by the NKVD (the Soviet Secret Police, the KGB s predecessor) in December He was tortured and confessed to being a Trotskyist plotter and German spy, out of fear of threats against his wife and children (his son Jan was born in Kharkov, USSR, in 1935). The story of Charlotte s escape from the USSR, with her two children (see Chapter 4), belongs in a Hollywood thriller. In the last days of 1937 she managed to escape from Moscow to Riga, Latvia. However,this was only the beginning of her long journey out of turbulent Europe to a new life in the New World. Niels Bohr helped her to reach Copenhagen, Denmark. Many physicists - from Bohr s colleagues in Copenhagen to Patrick Blackett in England - were instrumental in Charlotte s relocation to London. While she could not find any job in England, her friends Bohr, Blackett and especially Robert Oppenheimer, as well as the Academic Assistance Council, supported her financially. The most outstanding physicists, such as Frederic Joliot, Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, and many others joined the fight for Fritz Houtermans release. Alas... to no avail. Her friends helped her emigrate to the United States where she worked as a physics educator for the rest of her life. There she appealed to the First Lady, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, who became interested in the fate of Charlotte s husband and contacted Soviet authorities at various levels. Charlotte s correspondence with Mrs. Roosevelt is also published in this book. In the aftermath of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact the NKVD turned Fritz Houtermans over to... the Gestapo in Nazi Germany (in May 1940). Thus, he traded Soviet prisons for a prison in Berlin. In the United States mortal danger for Charlotte and her children was over, but not her problems: starting a new life from scratch, establishing herself as a college professor, Giovanna s and Jan s cultural adaptation, a October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 47

50 ARTICLES painful and highly unjust divorce from Fritz to name just a few... She overcame all these obstacles with the help of her friends. Wolfgang Pauli was among them. *** Wolfgang Pauli, the 1945 Nobel Prize winner in physics, was known among his colleagues not to be an easy or forthcoming person to deal with. He applied extremely high criteria of cleanliness both to his own works and to those of other theoretical physicists and was not afraid of open conflicts in those cases when he saw gaps or imperfections in the line of reasoning. Peter Freund once called him [3] an inquisitor defending physics, Now mediator bringing his friends to their senses, now merciless critic of the hopeless dead end, now spoilsport who discouraged many a major discoverer, now brilliant discoverer himself, Wolfgang Pauli hovers over his contemporariesas a kind of conservative and thoroughly honest supreme judge, an inquisitor defending physics. His colleagues dubbed him "the conscience of physics." Abraham Pais recollects [4]: [In 1946 Pauli] had already long been recognized as one of the major figures in twentieth-century physics, not only because of his own contributions, but also because of his critical judgments - which could be quite sharp, but nearly always to the point - of others' work. He was known as the conscience of twentieth-century physics, as is reflected in his voluminous correspondence, a very rich source of information concerning the development of physics in the first half of the twentieth century [...] His letters are nearly all in German, which he wrote masterfully. This feature of Pauli s character as a physicist - his sharply critical attitude to his colleagues work - is documented in many scientific biographies, see e.g. [2]. This might have created an impression of a negative aura around him. Moreover, sometimes Pauli s biographers place an emphasis on a remark of his that women [are] pleasant things to play with, but not something to take seriously. I hope that Pauli s letters to Charlotte published in this book will persuade the reader that the above remark was taken out of context. Pauli certainly had a complicated personality. His character was not one-dimensional. Rather, it was a combination of a deep love of physics and determination to defend it, with sincerity, humanism, and kindness. Pauli s critical mind could not bear unsound results, incomplete works, or hand-waving arguments. It was important that he applied the same high criteria to his own results. Very illustrative in this respect is the story of his last work with Heisenberg, which remains unpublished. After Germany s defeat in WWII, Heisenberg found himself in scientific isolation, especially among American colleagues. If before the war the front-line of scientic research in physics belonged to Germany, after the war the physicists working in the US defined the cutting edge. I think that Heisenberg made a deliberate choice to distance himself from popular topics on which the major efforts of the American theoretical community were focused. Naturally, such topics were also points of attraction for young and ambitious researchers. Instead, in the mid-1950s Heisenberg embarked on the investigation of a unified field theory of elementary particles based on four-fermion interactions. Heisenberg s idea was to use a fundamental Dirac field, endowed with a four-fermion interaction of a special type, to write and solve the emerging nonlinear field equations. He hoped to get in this way a complete set of elementary particles known at that time (both, hadrons and leptons) and dynamically describe their properties in terms of one or two input constants. From today s perspective it is absolutely obvious that this direction was a dead end. 1 Not only could it not be made viable theoretically, but it also contradicted experimental data which started appearing in the 1960s. The man who carried out this research did not seem like the Heisenberg of the pre-wwii time. In late fall of 1957, Heisenberg came to see Pauli in Zurich in search of Pauli s mathematical advice on one of the aspects of his (Heisenberg s) unified field theory. For over a year Pauli had resisted Heisenberg s previous invitations to collaborate on this topic. But this time Heisenberg was more insistent. For reasons unclear to me, Pauli got involved in Heisenberg s construction. As a result, Heisenberg prepared a joint preliminary report which, although unpublished, is reprinted in Heisenberg s CollectedWorks [8]. On January 20, 1958, Pauli wrote [2]: The preliminary report which Göttingen now sends out should not yet be printed in this form. Surely it still contains mistakes in the detail. On February 1 and 2, 1958, Pauli wrote to Heisenberg from New York, mentioning the discussions he had after his seminar at Columbia University, and insisting on postponing their joint publication. In a month, Pauli came to the conclusion that he could no longer participate in the dubious endeavor initiated by Heisenberg. On April 7, Pauli announced to Heisenberg his final decision: I must totally drop the plan to publish with you a work "On the Isospin Group in the Theory of Elementary Particles." On April 8, 1958, he sent the following circular letter to all his colleagues who had received the preprint: 48 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

51 ARTICLES As essential parts of the preprint with the above title don't agree any longer with my opinion, I am forced to give up the plan to publish a common paper with Heisenberg on the subject in question. Particularly, I am now convinced that the degeneration of the vacuum should not be used in order to explain the possibility of a half-integer dierence between ordinary spin and isospin for some strange particles. The idea of an unification of the spinor field seems to fail here and I believe that one should try to introduce, besides spinors with isospin 1/2 either other spinors with isospin 0, or at least one scalar field with isospin 1/2 ("Goldhaber 2 model"), in order to reach an interpretation of the elementary particles. *** While working on this book, I read some of Pauli s and Heisenberg s works, original publications, and review articles of other authors released in the 1950s. Since that time, quantum field theory underwent two profound revolutions which completely changed its face: (i) the discovery of Yang- Mills theories [9] and their asymptotic freedom [10], and (ii) the discovery of supersymmetric field theories [11]. These discoveries happened in 1954 and the 1970s, respectively. Surprisingly, Wolfgang Pauli could have been a pioneer in both revolutions were it not for his supercritical attitude to incomplete works. In fact, he discovered Yang-Mills theories before Yang and Mills (as described in detail on p. 12) but did not publish because at the time of discovery he did not know what to do with massless vector fields (Yang and Mills just ignored this question). Moreover, as early as in 1950s, Wolfgang Pauli delivered a landmark series of lectures at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich. They were published in English by MIT Press only in In Section 9 of Volume 6 [12] Pauli discusses the vacuum energy density in various field theories known at that time. He observes that adding the Dirac spinor contribution to that of two complex scalar fields cancels divergences and produces zero vacuum energy - the first ever hint to supersymmetry! *** This volume consists of four parts and six chapters. Part I is devoted to Wolfgang Pauli and Charlotte Houtermans, the two main characters in the narrative which follows in the main body of the book. Of course, every physics student knows that Pauli was a great physicist who invented the exclusion principle and predicted the existence of neutrinos. However, details of his personal biography are known to a lesser extent. In Chapter 1, I shall briefly summarize Pauli s life, both scientific and non-scientific, with the emphasis on the latter. His journey in life was by far not as smooth as it might seem to young people today. The story of Charlotte Houtermans, who at the crucial moments of her life found herself at the epicenters of quantum revolution in physics (in Göttingen, Berlin and Copenhagen), and the social cataclysms in Europe, was practically unknown to the western reader until recently. The first publications in English appeared a few years ago [1; 13]. Chapter 2 narrates Charlotte s biography which I have compiled using various sources: Charlotte s diaries and other documents from her personal archive, recollections of her children, Giovanna Fjelstad and Jan Houtermans, archival documents from Russia and elsewhere, and, finally, memoirs of people who knew her. Part II (Chapter 3) presents a collection of Pauli s letters to Charlotte dating from December 31, 1937, to February 16, In Chapter 3, I also include a letter from James Franck to Pauli of October 31, 1937, and the first half of Pauli s letter toweisskopf of January 13, The latter had been published in full previously. I thought, however, that presenting a fragment of this letter in English would give the reader a more complete idea of the events in my narrative. Part III presents Charlotte s Recollections (Chapter 4). To be more exact, it is one of a few manuscripts she prepared in the 1960s and later. Although in some parts they do overlap with each other they are not identical. A different version of Charlotte s diary was published in[1]. Charlotte Houtermans was a talented writer. It is a pity that she never published her memoirs and stories when she was alive. Well... as they say, better late than never. In Chapter 5, some more (i.e. other than Pauli s) previously unpublished letters to and from Charlotte are collected. Here the reader will find letters from Albert Einstein, Patrick Blackett, Max Born, James Franck, Max von Laue, Robert Oppenheimer, Christian Mller (Bohr s assistant), Eleanor Roosevelt, and others. To my mind, they are of broad interest not only to historians of science but to the general public as well. Finally, in Part IV (Chapter 6), the German originals of some Pauli s letters are reproduced. Footnotes in this book are mine if not stated to the contrary. Wolfgang Pauli ( ) October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 49

52 ARTICLES Footnotes: 1. In 1966, Heisenberg published a book [5] where he summarized his work on unified field theory."although Heisenberg himself did not want to admit that his attempt was a failure, others did; I do not think that many people in the world studied this book carefully. In fact, it was to a large extent obsolete by the time of its publication. One might say that the whole program was a wasted effort. Well, perhaps not all of it... On the other side of the Iron Curtain, Heisenberg's book ignited the imagination of Dmitry Volkov [6], a theoretical physicist from Kharkov (Ukraine) who used it in an indirect way, as an impetus to developing nonlinear supersymmetry and then supergravity, see [7]. 2. Maurice Goldhaber ( ) was an American physicist of Austrian-Jewish descent. In the 1950s M. Goldhaber proposed (with Edward Teller) that the socalled "giant-dipole nuclear resonance" was due to the neutrons in a nucleus collectively vibrating against the proton component. References: [1] Physics in a Mad World, Ed. M. Shifman (World Scientific, Singapore, 2016); see also M. Shifman, Physics in a Mad World. Corrections and Addenda, Update , in a Mad World Ed. M. Shifman World Scientific Singapore 2015 Corrections and Addenda Update [2] Charles Enz, No Time to be Brief: A scientific biography of Wolfgang Pauli, (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010), [3] Peter Freund, A Passion For Discovery, (World Scientific, Singapore, 2007), pp [4] Abraham Pais, The Geniuses of Science. A Portrait Gallery, (Oxford University Press, 2000). [5] W. Heisenberg, Introduction to the Unified Field Theory of Elementary Particles, (Interscience Publishes, London, 1966). [8] W. Heisenberg and W. Pauli, \On the Isospin Group in the Theory of the Elementary Particles," unpublished report, in Werner Heisenberg. Collected Works. Series A: Original Scientific Papers, Eds. W. Blum, H.-P. Durr and H. Rehenberg (Springer, Berlin, 1989), Vol. 3, p [9] C. N. Yang and R. L. Mills, Conservation of Isotopic Spin and Isotopic Gauge Invariance, Phys. Rev. 96, 191 (1954). [10] D. J. Gross and F. Wilczek, Ultraviolet Behavior of Nonabelian Gauge Theories, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1343 (1973); H. D. Politzer, Reliable Perturbative Results for Strong Interactions?, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1346 (1973). [11] Yu. Golfand and E. Likhtman, JETP Lett. 13 (1971) 323, reprinted in Supersymmetry, Ed. S. Ferrara, (North- Hollands/World Sci, 1987), vol. 1, page 7]; On the Extension of the Algebra of Generators of the Poincare Group by Bispinor Generators, I. E. Tamm Memorial Volume Problems of Theoretical Physics, (Nauka, Moscow 1972), page 37; D.V. Volkov and V.P. Akulov, Phys. Lett. 46B (1973) 109 [reprinted in Supersymmetry, Ed. S. Ferrara, (North-Hollands/World Sci, 1987), vol. 1, page 11]. J. Wess and B. Zumino, Nucl. Phys. B70 (1974) 39 [reprinted in Supersymmetry, Ed. S. Ferrara, (North-Hollands/ World Sci, 1987), vol. 1, page 13]. [12] W. Pauli, Pauli Lectures on Physics, Vol. 6, Selected Topics on Field Quantization, (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1973), p. 33. [13] E. Amaldi, The Adventurous Life of Friedrich Georg Houtermans, Physicist ( ), Eds. S. Braccini, A. Ereditato, and P. Scampoli, (Springer, Heidelberg, 2012); see also a brief article by I. Khriplovich in Physics Today, July 1992, p. 29. [14] Under the Spell of Landau: When Theoretical Physics was Shaping Destinies, Ed. M. Shifman (World Scientific, Singapore, 2013). [6] M. Shifman, From Heisenberg to Supersymmetry, Fortschr. Phys. 50 (2002), 552. [7] D. V. Volkov and V. P. Akulov, Phys. Lett. B46 (1973) 109; D. V. Volkov and V. Soroka, JETP Lett. 18 (1973) 312; Theor. Math. Phys. 20 (1974) Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

53 BULLETIN Breakthroughs in China s Nuclear Fuel Research Photo credit: Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science Apress conference was held today by the Chinese Academy of Sciences to show the latest progress in the original Accelerator Driven Advanced Nuclear Energy System (ADANES), which was proposed by Institute of Modern Physics. This system has successfully increased the usage rate of uranium materials, from current less than 1% to more than 95%. Meanwhile, it produces less than 4% of the spent fuel after the nuclear waste processing and shortens the radiation lifetime from several hundred thousand of years to about 500 years. These improvements have laid a solid foundation for the exploration of a more efficient and safer nuclear fuel cycle system, which would contribute to the strategy of developing a sustainable, safe and clean nuclear fission energy for the future. Researcher Xu Hushan, deputy head of the Institute of Modern Physics under Chinese Academy of Sciences, told the press conference that the strategic development of a clean, efficient, safe and reliable nuclear fission energy can help counter future energy shortages and keep our economic society grow sustainably. However, in order to achieve this goal, we must solve problems of the nuclear fuel usage rate and the spent fuel waste disposal, which is challenging the whole international nuclear community. The Chinese Academy of Sciences launched a program named the future advanced nuclear fission energy -ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical) transmutation system in 2011, Xu Hushan added. This project is of great importance and was listed in the Strategic Leadership in Science and Technology Projects (A level). After 6 years of unremitting efforts and hard work, the researchers of the institute started from scratch and made breakthroughs in a number of core and key technologies, in some areas even beyond the international level. After realizing the ADS system had little economic competitiveness and huge technological challenges, Chinese researchers raised a new concept of ADANES system and did the massively parallel computing to prove its feasibility. In other words, they have carried out laboratory simulations to prove the effectiveness of this new system. The original ADANES proposed by Chinese scientists has changed the international separation-transmutation pattern into a new system that could use up all resources, which is like how we used to rely on intensive cultivation and eat refined grain but now we start to try coarse grain and eat them up. This is an economical way as well as a contribution to people s peaceful use of nuclear energy. Written by: Yuying Li (Nanyang Technological University) October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 51

54 BULLETIN China launched Hard X-ray Modulation Telecscope Insight On the morning of June 15, China successfully launched the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), also known as Insight ( 慧眼 ). Insight joins other satellites like NASA s Chandra, the European Space Agency s XMM-Newton, and the Russian Federal Space Agency s Koronas-Foton, in humanity s quest to uncover the secrets of the cosmos. The remarkable event was held at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, on the plains of Inner Mongolia s Gobi desert. As the Long March-4B rocket pulls away from Earth, carrying Insight into space, its deafening roar marks China s latest success and technological breakthrough. While circling our planet, the 2.5-tonne Insight is poised to receive X-rays and gamma rays from black holes, neutron stars, and other energetic big boys. It not only handles a wide range of X-rays from 1 to 250keV, but can also catch gamma-ray bursts of around 3 million electron-volts (3 MeV). Clearly, Insight was designed precisely to detect wide capability spectra. A satellite like this has long been in China s pipeline since 2000, but delays in the project pushed back the timeline. Now, however, great things lie ahead. Over its 4-year lifespan, Insight aims to capture data from large-scale cosmic events like the collapse of massive stars or the formation of black holes. These events cannot be detected from the Earth s surface due to interference from the atmosphere. Equipped with three separate X-ray telescopes that can pick up energy signals between 20 to 200 kilo-electron volts, Insight is designed to capture the most complicated of cosmic data. Cambridge theoretical astrophysicist Andrew Fabian, finds China s latest achievement very meaningful. In particular, he imagines that the satellite will contribute to the capturing of data from transient X-ray sources that fade away soon after emerging. He thinks that any satellite looking at that phenomenon is going to find interesting things and do good science. This spells exciting times ahead for Insight s collaborating bodies the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Tsinghua University. Those who cannot quite imagine any immediate relevance of astronomical knowledge to our present lives need only a quick primer. Part of Insight s research programme also explores the use of X-ray pulses for advancing present technologies in autonomous spacecraft navigation. Like the Wukong Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) launched in 2015, and the Mozi satellite of the Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) of 2016, Insight joins the ranks of the Monkey King and the wise Sage in their silent but critical observation of our universe. Centuries of pre-modern Chinese astronomers would have been proud to witness this historical moment. Written by: Hai Guang Lian (Nanyang Technological University) (Photo credit: chinanews.com) 52 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

55 BULLETIN Most Precise Measurement of the Proton s Mass What is the weight of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan have made an important step toward better understanding this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they were able to improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value. To determine the mass of a single proton more accurately, the group of physicists from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and RIKEN in Japan performed an important high-precision measurement in a greatly advanced Penning trap system, designed by Sven Sturm and Klaus Blaum from MPI-K, using ultra-sensitive single particle detectors that were partly developed by RIKEN s Ulmer Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory. The proton is the nucleus of the hydrogen atom and one of the basic building blocks of all other atomic nuclei. Therefore, the proton s mass is an important parameter in atomic physics: it is one of the factors that affect how the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. This is reflected in the spectra, i.e., the light colours (wavelengths) that atoms can absorb and emit again. By comparing these wavelengths with theoretical predictions, it is possible to test fundamental physical theories. Further, precise comparisons of the masses of the proton and the antiproton may help in the search for the crucial difference besides the reversed sign of the charge between matter and antimatter. Penning traps are well-proven as suitable scales for ions. In such a trap, it is possible to confine, nearly indefinitely, single charged particles such as a proton, for example, by means of electric and magnetic fields. Inside the trap, the trapped particle performs a characteristic periodic motion at a certain oscillation frequency. This frequency can be measured and the mass of the particle calculated from it. In order to reach the targeted high precision, an elaborate measurement technique was required. The carbon isotope 12 C with a mass of 12 atomic mass units is defined as the mass standard for atoms. We directly used it for comparison, says Sven Sturm. First we stored each one proton and one carbon ion ( 12 C 6+ ) in separate compartments of our Penning trap apparatus, then transported each of the two ions into the central measurement compartment and measured its motion. From the ratio of the two measured values the group obtained the proton s mass directly in atomic units. The measurement compartment was equipped with specifically developed purpose-built electronics. Andreas Mooser of RIKEN s Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory explains its function: It allowed us to measure the proton under identical conditions as the carbon ion despite its about 12-fold lower mass and 6-fold smaller charge. The resulting mass of the proton, determined to be (15)(29) atomic mass units, is three times more precise than the presently accepted value. The numbers in parentheses refer to the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. Intriguingly, the new value is significantly smaller than the current standard value. Measurements by other authors yielded discrepancies with respect to the mass of the tritium atom, the heaviest hydrogen isotope (T = 3 H), and the mass of light helium ( 3 He) compared to the semiheavy hydrogen molecule HD (D = 2 H, deuterium, heavy hydrogen). Our result contributes to solving this puzzle, since it corrects the proton s mass in the proper direction, says Klaus Blaum. Florian Köhler-Langes of MPIK explains how the researchers intend to further improve the precision of their measurement: In the future, we will store a third ion in our trap tower. By simultaneously measuring the motion of this reference ion, we will be able to eliminate the uncertainty originating from fluctuations of the magnetic field. The work was published in Physical Review Letters. Comparison of the current result to previous values for the proton s atomic mass Mainly two Penning-trap experiments contributed to the literature value, the UW-PTMS at the University of Washington and the SMILETRAP spectrometer in Stockholm. The current value disagrees with the latest CODATA value at a level of 3.3 standard deviations. This article is reproduced with the kind permission from RIKEN. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 53

56 BULLETIN Type-II Dirac fermions spotted in two different materials The first experimental evidence of a quasiparticle known as a type-ii Dirac fermion has been found by three independent research groups one based in South Korea and two in China. Two of the groups found signs of the quasiparticle in the crystalline material palladium ditelluride. This could mean that the material is a topological superconductor a hypothetical material with unique properties that could be useful as components in the proposed technology known as a topological quantum computer. The third group found evidence for type-ii Dirac fermions in a similar material called platinum ditelluride. Dirac fermions are subatomic particles with half-integer spin that are not their own antiparticles. Electrons in solids can also exhibit particle-like collective behaviour that can be described in terms of Dirac-fermion quasiparticles, which obey the same physics as their subatomic counterparts. These quasiparticles can exist as a so-called topological phase of matter with unique properties that condensed-matter physicists think could eventually be useful in quantum computing. A type-ii Dirac fermion is a special type of Dirac fermion that has a specific electronic band structure resembling a tilted cone. Prior theoretical calculations suggested that they could be lurking in palladium ditelluride, says Han-Jin Noh of Chonnam National University, who is a member of the South Korean group. To confirm this, his team used a technique called angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), in which high-energy photons strike the material from different directions, causing the material to emit electrons. The researchers measure the energy and momenta of the emitted electrons and use that data to map out the material's electronic band structure. Telltale sign ARPES measurements were also carried out on platinum ditelluride by Mingzhe Yan from Tsinghua University. Both teams found that the conduction and valence bands meet at a single point called a Dirac or Weyl point. This point is the telltale sign that the materials could harbour Dirac fermions and in this case, type-ii Dirac fermions, because of the specific geometries of the materials' band structures. Meanwhile, a group that included Xiangang Wan of Nanjing University in China performed a different type of measurement on palladium ditelluride. The researchers placed the material in a magnetic field and measured its resistivity, which oscillated back and forth. These Shubnikov de 54 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter Tilted cone: the band structure of a type-ii Dirac fermion is shown on the right. The electronic band structure of a type-ii Dirac fermion is shown on the right as a tilted cone. The band structure of a normal Dirac fermion is on the left. The vertical axis is electron energy and the horizontal axes are electron momentum in the X and Y directions. (Courtesy: Dominik Gresch / APS) Haas oscillations are also a consequence of the Dirac-point geometry in the material's electronic band structure, Wan says. Noh says that the evidence for Dirac fermions in palladium ditelluride is exciting, particularly because the material is also a superconductor below 1.7 K. Since it is a superconductor and can host topological states, it could be an exotic new material known as a topological superconductor. "We still don't know whether it is a topological superconductor, but we expect it might be," Wan says. Anyone for anyons? Topological superconductors have different properties compared with regular superconductors, says Alexey Soluyanov of ETH Zürich in Switzerland, who was not involved in the research. They could host another soughtafter quasiparticle known as an anyon. Anyons could be used in topological quantum computers, a proposed type of quantum computer that relies on topological states of matter that should be more stable than the quantum computers currently being built. But these technologies are all speculative, and now the teams need to show that the palladium ditelluride actually is a topological superconductor. The groups are also focused on understanding the basic science of these quasiparticles and exotic states of matter. Noh's group plans to introduce impurities into the material to make its exotic properties easier to access in experiments. "Academically, they are really interesting things," Noh says. "They're really something new in the condensed-matter physics world." This article is reproduced with the kind permission from Physics World where it first appeared. The article can be found here:

57 BULLETIN Astronomers map the Universe with the brightest objects in the sky Astronomers with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) have created the first map of the large-scale structure of the Universe based entirely on the positions of quasars. Quasars are the incredibly bright and distant points of light powered by supermassive black holes. Because quasars are so bright, we can see them all the way across the Universe, said Ashley Ross of the Ohio State University, the co-leader of the study. That makes them the ideal objects to use to make the biggest map yet. The amazing brightness of quasars is due to the supermassive black holes found at their centers. As matter and energy fall into a quasar s black hole, they heat up to incredible temperatures and begin to glow. It is this bright glow that is detected by a dedicated 2.5-meter telescope here on Earth. These quasars are so far away that their light left them when the Universe was between three and seven billion years old, long before the Earth even existed, said Gongbo Zhao from the National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the study s other co-leader. To make their map, scientists used the Sloan Foundation Telescope to observe an unprecedented number of quasars. During the first two years of the SDSS s Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eboss), astronomers measured accurate three-dimensional positions for more than 147,000 quasars. The telescope s observations gave the team the quasars distances, which they used to create a three-dimensional map of where the quasars are. But to use the map to understand the expansion history of the Universe, they had to go a step further, using a clever technique involving studying baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). BAOs are the present-day imprint of sound waves which travelled through the early Universe, when it was much hotter and denser than the Universe we see today. But when the Universe was 380,000 years old, conditions changed suddenly and the sound waves became frozen in place. These frozen waves are left imprinted in the three-dimensional structure of the Universe we see today. The good news about these frozen waves the original baryon acoustic oscillations is that the process that produced them is simple. Thus, we have a good understanding of what BAOs must have looked like at that ancient time. When we look at the three-dimensional structure of the Universe today, it contains these same BAOs grown out to a huge scale by the expansion of the Universe. The observed size of the BAO can be used as a standard ruler to measure distances. Just as by using the apparent angle of a meter stick viewed from the other side of a football field, you can estimate the length of the field. You have meters for small units of length, kilometres or miles for distances between cities, and we have the BAO scale for distances between galaxies and quasars in cosmology, explained Pauline Zarrouk, a PhD student at the Irfu/CEA, University Paris- Saclay, who measured the projected BAO scale. Astronomers from the SDSS have previously used the BAO technique on nearby galaxies and then on intergalactic gas distributions to push this analysis farther and farther back in time. The current results cover a range of times where they have never been observed before, measuring the conditions when the Universe more than two billion years before the Earth formed. The results of the new study confirm the standard model of cosmology that researchers have built over the last twenty years. In this standard model, the Universe follows the predictions of Einstein s General Theory of Relativity but includes components whose effects we can measure, but whose causes we do not understand. Along with the ordinary matter that makes up stars and galaxies, the Universe includes dark matter invisible yet still affected by gravity and a mysterious component called Dark Energy. Dark Energy is the dominant component at the present time, and it has special properties that cause the expansion of the Universe to speed up. Our results are consistent with Einstein s theory of General Relativity said Hector Gil-Marin, a researcher from the Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de hautes Énergies in Paris who undertook key parts of the analysis. We now October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 55

58 BULLETIN have BAO measurements covering a range of cosmological distances, and they all point to the same thing: the simple model matches the observations very well. Even though we understand how gravity works, we still do not understand everything there is still the question of what exactly dark energy is. We would like to understand Dark Energy further, said Will Percival from the University of Portsmouth, who is the eboss survey scientist. Surveys like eboss are helping us to build up our understanding of how dark energy fits into the story of the Universe. The eboss experiment is still continuing, using the Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, USA. As astronomers with eboss observe more quasars and nearby galaxies, the size of their map will continue to increase. After eboss is complete, a new generation of sky surveys will begin, including the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and the European Space Agency Euclid satellite mission. These will increase the fidelity of the maps by a factor of ten compared with eboss, revealing the Universe and Dark Energy in unprecedented detail. This article is reproduced with the kind permission from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). A slice through largest-ever three-dimensional map of the Universe. Earth is at the left, and distances to galaxies and quasars are labelled by the lookback time to the objects (lookback time means how long the light from an object has been traveling to reach us here on Earth). The locations of quasars (galaxies with supermassive black holes) are shown by the red dots, and nearer galaxies mapped by SDSS are also shown (yellow). The right-hand edge of the map is the limit of the observable Universe, from which we see the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) the light left over from the Big Bang. The bulk of the empty space in between the quasars and the edge of the observable universe are from the dark ages, prior to the formation of most stars, galaxies, or quasars. Click on the image for a larger version. Image Credit: Anand Raichoor (École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland) and the SDSS collaboration Mimicking nature's vivid colours with Transparent Particles Scientists have long known that certain birds and butterflies get their vivid plumage from structures in the wings and feathers that control how light is scattered and reflected, with the "structural colour" often changing depending on the angle with which the animal is viewed. However, the Stellar Jay a bright blue bird has underneath the light-scattering structures a layer of black particles that absorb any wavelengths that are scattered towards it, which makes the bird appears blue at all angles. Now, a team led by Yukikazu Takeoka of Nagoya University in Japan has recreated this layering effect. They covered a black plate with layers of transparent, 190 nm silica particles that scatter and reflect the light. By controlling the thickness of the silica, the researchers were able to control the colour intensity if too thin, the coating was transparent but if too thick, it became white. They found a 1 2 μm-thick layer created bright blue when on a black background, while on glass it was a much less vivid colour. Furthermore, Takeoka and team tested different sized silica particles, which can scatter light to different degrees. The researchers were able to create green 56 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter using 260 nm particles and purple using 300 nm. The artificial structural colours, presented in Advanced Materials, could be useful for applications where light control is important, such as solar cells or adaptive camouflage. This article is reproduced with the kind permission from Physics World. Nature's blueprint: transparent particles and black backgrounds equal blue. Silica particles coated on black can produce bright colours. (Courtesy: Yukikazu Takeoka)

59 BULLETIN Satellite-based Photon Entanglement Distributed over 1200 Kilometers Ateam of Chinese scientists has realized the satellitebased distribution of entangled photon pairs over 1200 km. The photon pairs were demonstrated to be still entangled after travelling long distances and Bell s inequality was shown to be violated under strict Einstein locality conditions. This experiment was made through two satellite-toground downlinks with a summed length varying from km. The obtained link efficiency is orders of magnitude higher than that of the direct bidirectional transmission of two photons through telecommunication fibers. Quantum communication scientists have a fundamental interest in distributing entangled particles over increasingly long distances and studying the behavior of entanglement under extreme conditions. So far, entanglement distribution has only been achieved at a distance up to ~100 km due to photon loss in optical fibers or terrestrial free space. One way to improve distribution lies in the protocol of quantum repeaters, whose practical usefulness, however, is hindered by the challenges of simultaneously realizing and integrating all key capabilities. Another approach makes use of satellite- and space-based technologies, as a satellite can conveniently cover two distant locations on Earth. The main advantage of this approach is that most of the photons transmission path is almost in vacuum, with almost zero absorption and de-coherence. To prove the feasibility of satellite- and space-based distribution research, ground-based studies were done that demonstrated bidirectional distribution of entangled photon pairs through a two-link terrestrial free-space channel, over distances of 600 m, 13 km, and 102 km, with an ~80-dB effective channel loss. Quantum communications on moving platforms in a high-loss situation and under turbulent conditions were also tested. After these feasibility studies, a quantum science experiment satellite Micius was developed and launched from Jiuquan, China on August 16, 2016 with a mission of entanglement distribution. Cooperating with Micius are three ground stations (Delingha in Qinghai; Nanshan in Urumqi, Xinjiang; and Gaomeigu Observatory in Lijiang, Yunnan). The distance between Delingha and Lijiang (Nanshan) is 1203 km. The distance between the orbiting satellite and these ground stations varies from km. Due to the fact that the entangled photons cannot be amplified as classical signals, new methods must be developed to reduce link attenuation in satellite-to-ground entanglement distribution. To optimize link efficiency, the scientists combined narrow-beam divergence with a highbandwidth and high-precision acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT) technique. By developing an ultra-bright space-borne two-photon entanglement source and highprecision APT technology, the team established entanglement between two single photons separated by 1203 km, with an average two-photon count rate of 1.1 Hz and state fidelity of ± Using the distributed entangled photons, the scientists performed the Bell test at space-like separation and without locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes. Compared with previous methods of entanglement distribution by direct transmission of the same two-photon source using the best performance and most common commercial telecommunication fibers, respectively the effective link efficiency of the satellite-based approach is 12 and 17 orders of magnitude higher, respectively. Distributed entangled photons are readily useful for entanglement-based quantum key distribution, which, so far, is the only way to establish secure keys between two distant locations on Earth without relying on trustful relay. Another immediate application is to exploit distributed entanglement to perform a variant of quantum teleportation protocol for remote preparation and control of quantum states. This satellite-based technology opens up bright prospects for both practical quantum communications and fundamental quantum optics experiments at distances previously inaccessible on the ground. This article is reproduced with the kind permission from CAS and the original author. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 57

60 BULLETIN Unveiling China's "baby" Quantum Computer On a table of 3 square meters are dozens of lenses and odd devices, with wires suspended above and a machine chirping ceaselessly. It is a prototype quantum computer developed by about 20 Chinese scientists at the Shanghai-based Institute for Quantum Information and Quantum Technology Innovation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The "baby" quantum computer, unveiled in early May, is the first quantum computing machine based on single photons that could go beyond the early classical or conventional computer. The principle of quantum computing is based on one of the strangest phenomena in quantum physics: quantum entanglement. The ancients would see modern electronic technology as akin to witchcraft; most people today would have a similar view of future quantum computing technology. Scientists say quantum computing exploits the fundamental quantum superposition principle to enable ultra-fast parallel calculation and simulation capabilities. In normal silicon computer chips, data is rendered in one of two states: 0 or 1. In quantum computers, data can exist in both states simultaneously, holding exponentially more information. The computing power of a quantum computer grows exponentially with the number of quantum bits that can be manipulated. This could effectively solve large-scale computation problems that are beyond the ability of current classical computers, scientists say. Photon Wizardry Lu Chaoyang, a 34-year-old professor at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) and one of the developers of the prototype quantum computer, is nicknamed "the photon wizard." "You can't find two identical leaves in the world, but we can make two identical photons even God couldn't tell them apart. With identical photons, we can produce quantum interference and entanglement," says Lu. The identical photons are produced by a device called a single photon source. The chirping machine is a refrigerator that keeps the single photon source at a temperature of minus 269 degrees centigrade. "As a result of technological breakthroughs in 2013, our single photon source is the world's best, as 99.5 percent of the photons it produces are identical. It is ten times more efficient than its counterparts abroad," Lu says. "Using former technology, the protons were like twins playing in the mud -- you could distinguish them by the droplets of muds on their bodies. But our technological innovation makes protons like clean indistinguishable twins" Since the "baby" quantum computer was born, it has done just one thing: play a "game" named Boson sampling, which was designed to enable a quantum computer compete with a classical computer. "We can manipulate five entangled photons so the machine defeats the early classical computer," says Lu. In fact, the wizard and his colleagues set a new world record of manipulating 10 entangled photons at the end of They aim to realize manipulation of 20 entangled photons by the end of this year. "Although the 'baby' quantum computer can't even beat the mobile phone in your hand, it's a milestone. The first electronic computer in human history, which is so big that it filled several rooms, is worthless today, but it is of great scientific significance. We have to develop step by step from science to technology and then to application," Lu says. "When the car was first invented, it was unreliable and uncomfortable compared with the carriage. But cars eventually surpassed carriages as a result of technological progress." Green Shoots Lu Chao Yang University of Science and Technology of China, UTSC Developer of prototype quantum cpu Lu's tutor, Pan Jianwei, a CAS academician and a leading quantum physicist, has spent more than two decades researching the manipulation of microscopic particles. "At first, our road was very hard, but now our progress is faster and accelerating. It heralds the coming of a key period in the development of quantum computing. This is like bamboo shoots popping up after the rain," Pan says. Due to the enormous potential of quantum computing, Europe and the United States are actively collaborating in their research. High-tech companies, such as Google, Microsoft and IBM, also have massive interests in quantum computing research. The photon-based system is just one of the means scientists are trying to achieve quantum computing. 58 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

61 BULLETIN USTC Professor Zhu Xiaobo, who is researching superconducting quantum computing, says there are at least seven or eight different technical routes. Several Chinese research teams are on different roads. "Nobody knows which route could eventually lead to a quantum computer of practical value. Maybe all roads lead to Rome. Maybe there will be different kinds of quantum computers to solve different problems. There is another possibility that a dark horse from an unknown road reaches the goal first," Zhu says. The research team led by Pan Jianwei is exploring three technical routes: systems based on single photons, ultra-cold atoms and superconducting circuits. Although Pan's team has an advantage in photon-based system, Pan says a system based on ultra-cold atoms might be the first of practical value. In addition, the superconducting system, with its integration and coherence, cannot be ignored, says Pan. High-tech companies, such as Google and IBM, have made large investments in this field. Pan estimates that Chinese scientists could realize manipulation of around 50 quantum bits to construct a superconducting quantum computer that can exceed the most powerful supercomputer by Another "Baby" In another lab of the Institute for Quantum Information and Quantum Technology Innovation, a superconducting quantum computer is under incubation. Unlike the photon quantum computer displaying all its "organs" on the table, the superconducting quantum computer "baby" hides its key parts in a big cylinder more than a meter tall. The cylinder keeps the superconducting quantum chip at a temperature of minus degrees centigrade. Zhu Xiaobo, one of its main developers, and his colleagues have broken a record set by the research team from Google, NASA and the University of California at Santa Barbara, who achieved high-precision manipulation of nine superconducting quantum bits in The Chinese team independently developed a superconducting quantum circuit containing 10 superconducting quantum bits. Holding a superconducting quantum chip as big as a nail, Zhu says the most difficult thing is to increase the control accuracy of the chip. Although the team developed the chip, Zhu says the system cannot be called a superconducting quantum computer. "A quantum computer is totally new. Many top scientists are uncertain how a quantum computer will work." He hopes to construct a prototype superconducting quantum computer with 10 quantum bits by the end of this year. Pan reckons Chinese scientists could realize manipulation of 100 quantum bits within 10 years, which means the capacity of one quantum computers would be a million times the total capacity of all the computers currently in use. Will everybody have a quantum computer in future? Pan predicts there will be tens of thousands or millions of quantum computers in the world. "But I don't need one at home, as it's very difficult to make my mobile phone or laptop extremely cold. But I can use cloud technology to send tasks to the quantum cloud platform," says Pan. "We don't need a quantum computer to do what traditional computers can do well. We need it to solve problems that are difficult for traditional computers, such as code cracking, weather forecasting and pharmaceutical design. Quantum computing will also push the development of artificial interlligence." Pan Jianwei CAS academican and a leading quantum physicist "We still don't know if quantum computers will enter common use. Maybe future quantum computers will be totally different from what we imagine today." (Source: Chinese Academy of Science, Newsroom, english.cas.cn/newsroom/news/201705/t _ shtml and Xinhua News Agency). October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 59

62 BULLETIN Emergent Non-Eulerian Hydrodynamics of Quantum Vortices in Two Dimensions When a fluid rotates, it can form a vortex. These localized energetic structures carry angular momentum, and play a central role in the violent dynamics of fluid turbulence. Even when confined to planar motion, the complexity of fluid turbulence has posed a major challenge for understanding this universal natural phenomenon. A recent promising pathway has been to study two-dimensional quantum vortex motion: these tiny superfluid tornadoes have much simpler dynamics than normal fluid vortices, and can be created in atomic Bose- Einstein condensates. Yet, crucially, their collective motion still exhibits many hallmarks of classical fluid turbulence. Indeed, quantum turbulence may offer a minimal model of fluid motion that contains all the complexity of the turbulence problem. If the mean separation is much larger than the core size, quantum vortices can be viewed as point-like particles with charges that associated with two possible orientations (up and down). The motion of such point vortices has been understood since the work of Helmholtz in the late 19th century. Yet, when many vortices interact new behaviour can emerge on a larger scale where the individual vortices lose their identity. New work appeared in PRL [1] shows that collective laws of motion for many planar quantum vortices can be understood as a new kind of fluid within a fluid: a vortex fluid. Each quantum vortex is a toplogical excitation in a superfluid, and when many vortices move collectively, they do so as a fluid that may be described in the language of hydrodynamics. Due to the quantum nature of its constituents, the emergent vortex fluid has many unusual properties that are absent in ordinary Eulerian fluids. The authors generalize the seminal work of Wiegmann and Abanov [2] to systems of positive and negative vortices, arising in planar superfluid systems. Developing a coarsegrained hydrodynamic formulation of systems involving a large number of vortices and anti-vortices, they find that the vortex system behaves as an inviscid non-eulerian fluid at large scales. The emergent vortex fluid obeys a compressible hydrodynamic equation containing an asymmetric Cauchy stress tensor, and an anomalous stress that is analogous to viscous stress, whilst conserving energy. A conspicuous feature of the binary vortex fluid is that it supports orbital angular momentum exchange with the internal vorticity and density degrees of freedom. The consequence is that FIG. 1. A vortex shear flow in a doubly periodic box. (a), (b) and (c) show the time evolution of point vortices (red: positive charge; green: negative charge). The vortices initially located at x = 0 are labeled by blue and their velocities are used to characterize the shear flow. (d) Comparison between the analytical result (red) and simulations (circles). By averaging the velocities over the increasing bin size (from bottom to top), the coarsegrained vortex velocities approach the analytical result. For clarity the results for dierent bin sizes are vertically shifted by 0.2. the orbital angular momentum of binary vortex flow is not conserved. Examples of the such fluids are relatively rare, and are associated with interactions between internal degrees of freedom and the bulk fluid flow, as occurs in liquid crystals. The validity of the theory, and its potential for describing emergent point-vortex dynamics is also shown by large-scale numerical simulations. An analytic solution for vortex shear flow driven by anomalous stresses shows excellent agreement with numerical simulations of the point-vortex model for around nine thousand vortices (See Fig. 1). The topological nature of quantum vortices persists at large scales, evident in the non-eulerian dynamics of the emergent vortex fluid that appears as anomalous stresses. Vortex fluid hydrodynamics reveals that the collective motion of many vortices emerges as a fluid with rich phenomenology. This work opens a significant new area of research into states of collective vortex motion, and paves the way to new theoretical and experimental studies of two-dimensional quantum turbulence. [1] X. Yu and A. S. Bradley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, (2017). [2] P. Wiegmann and A. G. Abanov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, (2014). Xiaoquan Yu & Ashton S. Bradey Department of Physics, Centre for Quantum Science, and Dodds-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand 60 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

63 BULLETIN Nanodiamond 'tiny machines' closer to reality with global finding Sydney quantum physicists have played a leading role in global research towards the development of non-invasive nanodiamond imaging linking the gold standard MRI with synthetic industrial diamonds for targeted drug delivery. Nanoparticles are rapidly emerging as a viable future medicine technology for the targeted delivery of vaccines, chemotherapy agents, immunotheraputics and as a means of tracking tumour distribution on whole-body scales, with nanodiamonds tracking diseases and lighting up in a patient s body like a Christmas tree. Research by a collaboration of scientists in Australia and the United States demonstrates that using nanodiamonds somewhat like tiny machines inside living patients has taken a quantum leap closer to reality. The findings are published in Nature Communications. Lead author, University of Sydney quantum physicist David Waddington said key to the new research was the demonstration of biocompatible nanodiamond contrast, overcoming a major challenge of competing techniques where nanodiamond must be prepared in freezing conditions before injection. People are very interested in using nanoparticles for targeted delivery of vaccines and chemotherapy agents, said Mr Waddington, who is completing his PhD this year. Mr Waddington said the research was three years in the making and was initiated with a Fulbright Scholarship awarded early in his PhD at the University of Sydney, where he works in the team led by Professor David Reilly, in the new $150m Sydney Nanoscience Hub the headquarters of Artist's impression of nanodiamonds attached to cancer-targeting molecules. The nanodiamonds act as lighthouses in an MRI, lighting up cancers that bind to the chemicals on their surfaces. Credit University of Sydney. the Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (AINST), which launched last year. Supported by Professor Reilly, Mr Waddington used the Scholarship to establish an ongoing collaboration with Associate Professor Matthew Rosen's lab in the Martinos Center at Massachusetts General Hospital one of the world's most successful biomedical imaging centers and Professor Ronald Walsworth's group at Harvard University. Key to researchers being able to determine the differences between successful and unsuccessful treatments is the ability to monitor the nanoparticles in vivo, as opposed to in a test tube, which is challenging with current approaches, Mr Waddington said. In our paper, we detail a new technique we have developed and demonstrated for imaging nanoparticles this technique is particularly promising as it will enable imaging of nanoparticles over the long timescales necessary for in vivo tracking. As a result of our new research, we can repeatedly perform hyperpolarisation in a biocompatible environment. This enables nanodiamond imaging over indefinitely long periods of time and opening up the study of a range of diseases such as those affecting the brain and liver. The initial research published in Nature Communications in late 2015 led by Professor Reilly laid the groundwork for nanodiamond imaging based on a technique known as hyperpolarisation. Mr Waddington said: Our close collaboration with the Rosen lab at the Martinos Center world leaders in ultra-low field MRI has been essential to the completion of this work, which began during the time I spent there on the Fulbright scholarship. Professor Reilly, who leads a team that includes Mr Waddington and is focused primarily on developing quantum machines, said the nanodiamond finding was a great example of the benefits of experimental physics in generating unintended discoveries. It's estimated that such ultra-low field MRI scanners could be produced at a fraction of the cost of conventional MRI scanners, which could lead to this imaging technique being widely accessible in the future, Professor Reilly said. This article is reproduced with the kind permission from David Waddington and the University of Sydney. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 61

64 OBITUARY Nan Rendong, Father of World's Largest Telescope (FAST), Dies at 72 Father of the world largest telescope Five-hundredmeter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) has passed away from lung cancer in Boston on September 15, 2017 at the age of 72. His untimely passing was just ten days before the celebration of FAST s first anniversary on September 25, For the last two years, Nan had been suffering from lung cancer and he was in Boston seeking treatment when he contracted lung infection and his physical conditions suddenly took a turn for the worse, according to National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Born in 1945 in the city of Liaoyuan, northeast of China s Liaoning Province, Nan studied radio technology at Tsinghua University from 1963 to He had to work as a technician at a local radio factory after his graduation due to the Cultural Revolution in China. In 1978, Nan entered the Graduate School of CAS (now the University of CAS) and earned his PhD in radio astronomy in During his career as a researcher first at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory and later at NAOC, Nan was not only well known domestically but internationally as well. In the 1980s and 1990s he was visiting scientist in the Netherlands and Japan. He played a key role in initiating the Sino-Dutch partnership in radio astronomy, and China s participation in the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry project. Nan was also the President of Division X Radio Astronomy of the International Astronomical Union from 2006 to According to an obituary posted on the NAOC website, as the chief scientist and general engineer of FAST, Nan was responsible for the telescope from the very beginning from its conception to site selection, pre-research, project proposal, identification of scientific goals and eight years of construction until its completion on September 25, Back in 1994, the biggest radio telescopes China had were the Sheshan 25m radio telescope at Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and the Nanshan 25m radio telescope at Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. The telescope Nan had proposed then was one of a kind on Earth: with a total collecting area equivalent to the size of 30 soccer fields, FAST is the biggest and most sensitive radio antenna for the search of pulsars, the neutral hydrogen sky, interstellar molecules and even extraterrestrial life. Not only is it bigger Nan Rendong, Founder of the FAST telescope led the development as the chief scientist and chief engineer. than the Arecibo telescope, FAST is innovative in many ways, including a much larger sky coverage thanks to its active main reflector, and a light-weight, adjustable feed cabin for movement with high precision. However, searching for a suitable spot to place such a gigantic facility took Nan and his men nearly a decade before finding it in the mountains of southwestern China where they used the Dawodang depression in Pingtang, Guizhou to be the home of FAST. During its construction, Nan led his team to overcome numerous formidable technical challenges, for instance the development of super strong cables for the unique cable-net structure of FAST so that its surface, which is made up of 4,450 aluminum reflecting segments, can transform from a spherical to parabolic shape to focus the signals. One year since its completion and entering into commissioning and test observation, FAST has been making steady progresses. We have completed the integrated test of the adaptive reflector, the feed cabin and the wide band receiver, said Xue Suijian, deputy director of NAOC. Meanwhile, some initial findings are expected according to FAST project scientist Li Di. 62 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

65 CONFERENCE CALENDAR Upcoming Conferences in the Asia Pacific Region NOV 2017 International Workshop on High Energy Circular Electron Positron Colliders Date: 6-8 Nov 2017 Location: Beijing, China Organiser(s): Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) The International Workshop on the CEPC aims at gathering scientists around the world to study the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) as a Higgs factory. The focuses will be the measurement of the Higgs properties with high precision, probing new physics through the Higgs boson, to study the full spectrum of the physics cases, to report on the conceptual design of the CEPC accelerator and the detector, as well as the simulation studies and the R&D of critical technologies. The possible upgrade path of the CEPC, including a high energy Super proton-proton Collider (SppC), will be explored. One main purpose of the workshop is to make the CEPC study much more international by having broad participation and contributions globally, and to elevate the CEPC study group to an international organization. 12th International Workshop on Heavy Quarkonium (Quarkonium 2017) Date: 6-10 Nov 2017 Location: Beijing, China Organiser(s): Quarkonium Working Group Quarkonium 2017 will be held on at Schoole of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China, during November 6-10, The scientific program of this wokshop will include topics related to heavy quarkonium in particle and nuclear physics as well as those in related fields. Workshop of recent developments in QCD and quantum field theories Date: 9-12 Nov 2017 Location: Taipei, Taiwan Organiser(s): National Taiwan University This workshop covers a broad range of recent developments in QCD and quantum field theories involving perturbative QCD (with applications in the nucleon structure and heavy ion collisions), AdS/CFT correspondence and non-perturbative physics, lattice QCD, nucleon and nuclear structures and reactions, quantum field theory at finite temperature/density, the theory of cold atoms, and anomalous effects such as chiral magnetic/vortical effects rooted in quantum anomalies and topology. The primary goal of the workshop is to gather researchers in the relevant fields to exchange ideas and establish future collaborations. The workshop expects to welcome participants who are interested in the aforementioned topics. STORI'17-10th International Conference on Nuclear Physics at Storage Rings Date: Nov 2017 Location: Kanazawa Theatre, Japan Organiser(s): RIKEN Nishina Center Following the long tradition of previous conferences held at Sankt Goar, Lund, St. Petersburg, Bernkastel- Kues, Bloomington, Uppsala, Jülich, Lanzhou and Frascati, we would like to invite you to discuss recent developments and future prospects of nuclear physics using storage rings and related fields. a. Nuclear structure and astrophysics b. In-ring nuclear reactions c. Hadron spectroscopy and sub-nucleonic degrees of freedom d. Antiproton-nucleus interactions e. Stored radioactive beams f. Fundamental symmetries and interactions g. Elementary atomic processes explored with cooled few-electron ions h. Nuclear properties by atomic physics techniques i. Beam-cooling, manipulation and diagnostics j. Targets and detectors k. Ion traps and electrostatic rings l. Future facilities ICC nd International Conference on Condensed Matter & Applied Physics Date: 24 Nov - 25 Dec 2017 Location: Govt. Engineering College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India Organiser(s): Govt. Engineering College, Bikaner The scientific deliberations at the conference will cover a wide range of topics in condensed matter physics, in the form of Keynote talk, invited talks and contributory papers. The proceeding of ICC-2017 will be published by AIP (American Institute of Physics) conference proceedings. The Proceeding will have a Volume number, ISBN, ISSN, and will be registered with the Library of Congress. Topics: Nano Materials, Phase Transition, Semiconductor & Dielectric Material, Photonic materials & Plasmonics, Single Crystals & Noval Materials, Organic, Inorganic & Biomaterials, Glasses & Ceramics, Composites, Surface, Interface & Thin Films, Electronic Structure & Phonons, Superconductivity, Magnetism & Spintronics, Structural-dynamical and mechanical properties, Computational methods and Applied Physics. A Fractured Universe? Fundamental Physics, Symmetry and Life Date: 30 Nov - 1 Dec 2017 Location: Seminar Room 3003, Sydney Nanoscience Hub, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Organiser(s): School of Physics, University of Sydney Our cosmos displays a curious mixture of symmetry and asymmetry. Why is it that some symmetries hold (electric charge, spin, mass-energy), some almost hold (baryon number, lepton number, parity, cosmic homogeneity), some are broken (chiral symmetry, electroweak gauge symmetry), and some don't hold at all (macroscopic time asymmetry)? Does the answer to these fundamental questions lie in their effect on the creation of observers like us? Or do symmetry principles, as John Wheeler argued, merely summarise while hiding the real machinery of nature? In light of these challenges, this workshop will bring together physicists, cosmologists, astronomers and philosophers of science for two days of invited and contributed talks. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 63

66 CONFERENCE CALENDAR DEC 2017 Workshop on Quantum Resources and Correlation Beyond Entanglement Date: Dec 2017 Location: Nanyang Executive Centre, Singapore Organiser(s): Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Quantum technologies such as computing, communication, and metrology, lie at a rapidly growing cross-disciplinary frontier between information science, optics, semiconductor and superconductor physics, and materials science. These technologies promise feats that are classically either infeasible or impossible. This advantage can be traced back to certain uniquely quantum resources, of which quantum entanglement is an iconic example. The last decade has seen growing evidence that entanglement is not the only such resource, setting off a surge of activity in the study of quantum resources: quantum discord, coherence, asymmetry, thermal nonequilibrium, exotic states of light or matter, and many more. This ushers in an age of new technologies harnessing quantum resources, possibly in environments that may not support entanglement. 9th International Workshop on Multiple Partonic Interactions at the LHC 2017) Date: Dec 2017 Location: Shimla, India Organiser(s): Panjab University Chandigarh, India MPI are experiencing a growing popularity and are widely invoked to account for observations that cannot be explained otherwise: the activity of the Underlying Event, the rates for multiple heavy flavour production, the survival probability of large rapidity gaps in hard diffraction, etc. At the same time, the implementation of MPI effects in Monte Carlo generators is quickly proceeding at an increasing level of sophistication and complexity, which can have far reaching implications for LHC physics. The ultimate ambition of this workshop is to promote MPI as a unifying concept between apparently distinct lines of research, to profit from experimental progress in order to constrain their implementation in models, and to evaluate their impact on the LHC physics program. This workshop targets to bring experimentalist and theorist in the field of MPI, Diffraction, small-x QCD, High Multiplicity physics to discuss recent findings in the fields and prepare for the future. 14th International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CosPA 2017) Date: Dec 2017 Location: Kyoto, Japan Organiser(s): Yukawa Institue for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Research Center for the Early Universe(RESCEU), The University of Tokyo The CosPA, International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, is a series of conferences which was initiated in Taiwan and has been organized in Asia Pacific region annually as an activity of the Asia Pacific Organization of Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (APCosPA). This time it will be held as an official conference of the recently established Division of Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation (DACG) of AAPPS. Joint CNA/JINA-CEE Winter School on Nuclear Astrophysics Date: Dec 2017 Location: Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Organiser(s): Joint CNA (Center for Nuclear Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University) and JINA-CEE (The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics - Center for the Evolution of the Elements) The focus of the school will be to enhance international collaborations among young researchers from nuclear physics, astrophysics, and astronomical observations. We invite especially graduate students and postdocs with interest in nuclear astrophysics, who would like to learn more about forefront nuclear astrophysics research topics of common interest for US, China, and other international communities. These include: - experiments at underground laboratories - experiments at radioactive beam facilities - neutrino physics in explosive astrophysical scenarios - nuclear theory for astrophysics The school will comprise lectures and other invited short talks and seminars given by the participants. International School for Strangeness Nuclear Physics (SNP School 2017) Date: Dec 2017 Location: J-PARC, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan Organiser(s): J-PARC, RCNP-Osaka, ELPH-Tohoku, APCTP, ASRC JAEA, ANPhA, RIKEN Nishina Center and GP-PU of Tohoku Univ The school will have several lectures and topical talks on strangeness nuclear physics as well as other general subjects such as hadron physics and cold atom physics, which are expected to play central roles in the 21st century nuclear physics research at accelerator facilities for hadron beams such as J-PARC (Japan), GSI and FAIR (Germany), RCNP (Japan) and for electron beams as CEBAF at Jefferson Lab (USA), MAMI-C at Mainz University (Germany) and ELPH at Tohoku University (Japan) etc. Lectures by leading physicists will overview related subjects both from experiment and theory, and topical talks on recent progress and future prospects of the fields will be also given. The tour to visit accelerator facility of J-PARC is planned as a part of the school. In addition, the school will organize a young researchers session to give a chance of presentations by young participants. We encourage you to present your research activities in this session as well as to enjoy the lectures. 62nd DAE-BRNS Symposium on Nuclear Physics Date: Dec 2017 Location: Patiala, India Organiser(s): Department of Atomic Energy DAE Symposia on Nuclear Physics covering a wide range of topics are conducted annually. The aim of this series of symposia has been to provide a scientific forum to the nuclear physics community to present their research work and to interact with the researchers in this area. Topics: a. Nuclear structure b. Nuclear reactions c. Nuclear astrophysics d. Hadron physics e. Relativistic nuclear collisions and Quark Gluon Plasma f. Electroweak interaction in nuclei g. Nuclear instrumentation and techniques JAN nd Bangkok Workshop on Discrete Geometry and Statistics (BKK2018DSCR) Date: 8-12 Jan 2018 Location: Bangkok, Thailand Organiser(s): Chulalongkorn University The workshop will focus on mathematical statistical physics of discrete systems, and in particular its applications to random geometries. Real-life motivations for such studies range from attempts to quantize gravity to problems in condensed matter physics to mathematical modelling of cooperative phenomena in macroscopic communities. 64 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

67 CONFERENCE CALENDAR Some concrete directions include: 1) Discrete random geometries with applications to gravity quantization, 2) Discrete mathematical models in equilibrium and and non-equilibrium statistical physics (the Ising model and its relatives, percolation, lattice gases, etc), 3) Random matrix and tensor models, 4) Random graphs and dynamics of complex networks, 5) Topics in lattice gauge theory (especially with emphasis on analytic approaches), 6) Conformal field theories (especially with connections to the above subjects). The talks are expected to be informal and interactive, with a substantial pedagogical component. 7th Bangkok Workshop on High- Energy Theory (BKK2018HEPTH) Date: 29 Jan - 2 Feb 2018 Location: Bangkok, Thailand Organiser(s): Chulalongkorn University The workshop will focus on a broad range of issues in high-energy theory, such as gravity quantization (including string and matrix theories), nonperturbative dynamics of gauge theories, fundamental theoretical aspects of early cosmology, etc. The talks are expected to be informal and interactive, with a substantial pedagogical component. The 42nd Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting Date: 30 Jan - 2 Feb 2018 Location: Conference Centre of Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga campus Organiser(s): Charles Sturt University The conference topics cover a broad range of specialty areas in condensed matter physics and materials science, including novel multifunctional properties, solid-state magnetism and superconductivity, 2D quantum materials, advanced characterisation methods, and other recent developments in condensed matter and materials research. The delights of the Charles Sturt University venue include the beautiful weather, the nearby vineyards, the abounding wildlife on campus, and the attractive countryside. We invite you to take this special opportunity to enjoy an interesting scientific program at a wonderful and characteristic Australian location. FEB 2018 Julian Schwinger Centennial Conference Date: 7-12 Feb 2018 Location: Nanyang Executive Centre, Singapore Organiser(s): Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Julian Schwniger Foundation, Centre for Quantum Technologies Julian Schwinger (February 12, 1918 July 16, 1994) is best known for his work on the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), in particular for developing a relativistically invariant perturbation theory, and for renormalizing QED to one loop order. For his substantial contributions to many areas, he is widely recognized as one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century. Along with Feynman and Tomonaga, he won the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum electrodynamics. YKIS2018a Symposium on General Relativity - The Next Generation (YKIS2018a) Date: 19 to 23 Feb 2018 Location: Panasonic Auditorium, Yukawa Hall, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Organiser(s): Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITU), Yukawa Memorial Foundation This is the symposium meant for the intensive symposium week on general relativity held on the 4th week of the YITP long-term workshop "Gravity and Cosmology 2018" (GC 2018). This is also meant for the Yukawa International Seminar for the fiscal year 2017 (YKIS 2018a). Topics: a. Observational cosmology b. Inflation c. Dark matter and dark energy d. Modified gravity e. Gravitational-wave astronomy MAR 2018 Conference on New Frontiers Particles and Cosmology Date: 5 to 9 Mar 2018 Location: Nanyang Executive Centre, Singapore Organiser(s): Nanyang Technological University (NTU) About 14 billion years ago our Universe was created by a big explosion, the "Big Bang". In this explosion the matter in our Universe as well as space and time were created. The matter was a plasma of quarks, gluons, photons, electrons and neutrinos. The dynamics of those particles is described by the Standard Theory of Particle Physics. Thus Cosmology and Particle Physics are strongly correlated. New discoveries in Particle Physics, e.g. the discovery of the masses of the neutrinos, change Cosmology, and new discoveries in Cosmology, e. g. the dark matter or dark energy in the Universe, will be important for Particle Physics. APPN CONFERENCE CALENDAR welcomes conference information in the Asia Pacific Region. To submit, please send to October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 65

68 JOBS Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Young and research-intensive, Nanyang Technological University (NTU Singapore) is ranked 13th globally. It is also placed 1st amongst the world's best young universities and ranked 6th globally for Engineering and Technology. FULL PROFESSOR WITH TENURE IN OPTICAL PHYSICS AND BIOPHYSICS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Job Description: The School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at NTU invites applications for a position at the rank of tenured Full Professor. We are looking for candidates in Experimental Physics with particular interests in Optical Physics and Biophysics. Salary will commensurate with the candidate's qualifications and experience. Pages/Full-Professor-with-Tenure-in-Optical-Physics-and-Biophysics.aspx Requirement: The candidate should possess an international reputation as a leader in his/ her research field and a record of distinguished academic and scholarly achievements. The successful applicant is expected to establish a vigorous research program and to participate in teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. As a tenured Full Professor, he/she is also expected to provide research excellence in the area of imaging for the School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences and establish a research program on high precision optical and biophysical measurements with the Singapore Center for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, a Research Center of Excellence. Experience in leadership would be advantageous. How to apply: To apply, please refer to the Guidelines for Submitting an Application for Faculty Appointment at Faculty-Positions.aspx and send your application package consisting of the following to Documents to be submitted: Cover letter Curriculum Vitae (including names and addresses of three referees) Research statement Teaching statement Records of teaching feedback (if available) Copies of transcripts of undergraduate and graduate degrees Personal Particulars Form (as provided in the link above) consider their applications unsuccessful. Applications will be accepted until the positions are filled. All applications and materials submitted will be held in strict confidence. Only shortlisted candidates will be notified. TENURED FULL PROFESSOR POSITION IN PHYSICS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Job Description: The School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at NTU invites applications for a position at the rank of tenured Full Professor. We are looking for candidates in all areas of physics and applied physics, but with particular interests in quantum physics, quantum information and computational physics. Salary will commensurate with the candidate's qualifications and experience. Pages/Physics.aspx program and to participate in teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. As a tenured Full Professor, he/she is also expected to provide research excellence in the area of quantum physics, quantum information or computational physics for the School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Experience in leadership would be advantageous. How to apply: To apply, please refer to the Guidelines for Submitting an Application for Faculty Appointment at Pages/Faculty.aspx and send your application package and any enquiries to Applications will be accepted until the position is filled. All applications and materials submitted will be held in strict confidence. Requirement: The candidate should possess an international reputation as a leader in his/ her research field and a record of distinguished academic and scholarly achievements. Successful applicant is expected to establish a vigorous research 66 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

69 POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOWS / PREJCT LEADERS IN NANOPHOTONIC QUANTUM TOOLKIT ON FIBRE JOBS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) The Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT) at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, recently secured a substantial research project on proof-of-principle demonstrations of the fibre-integrated quantum devices for photon generation, switching, manipulation and detection. The Centre, a part of The Photonics Institute at NTU, is a cluster of high-end nanophotonics laboratories and nano- prototyping and characterization cleanroom, develops new photonic technologies with outlook of 15+ years. According to the QS World University Rankings NTU is ranked 13th in the world and 2nd in Asia. Working at CDPT provides exceptional personal development opportunities in a vibrant international environment. Job Description: To undertake the project we are seeking to appoint, with immediate effect, three postdoctoral research fellows/project leaders with one of the following expertises, or their combinations: - Quantum optics and quantum devices - Quantum plasmonics & metamaterials - Photonic nanodevices and nanofabrication - Fiber technology, device packaging Requirements: Candidates shall possess a PhD degree or equivalent and demonstrate strong background in photonic technologies and quantum optics. Posts will be offered for the initial period of one or two years with possible extension, subject to review. How to apply: Formal application for the posts shall be submitted to sg. For informal queries please write to the CDPT Program Manager, Dr. Giorgio Adamo TENURE OR TNEURE-TRACK ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR POSITION WITH AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FOCUS ON EXPERIMENTAL QUANTUM PHOTONICS AND ULTRACOLD ATOM PHYSICS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Job Description: The Division of Physics and Applied Physics from School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at NTU invites applications for a position at the rank of Associate Professor (tenure or tenure-track). The salary will commensurate with the candidate's qualifications, experience and level of appointment offered. SPMS/Pages/Tenure-or-Tenure-track-Associate-Professor-Position-with-aninterdisciplinary-focus-on-experimental-Quantum-Photonics-and-U.aspx Requirements: Applicants should have demonstrated independent high-quality experimental research and excellence in undergraduate and graduate level teaching. Successful candidate is expected to establish a vigorous research program and to participate in teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. How to apply: To apply, please refer to the Guidelines for Submitting an Application for Faculty Appointment at Faculty-Positions.aspx and send your application package and any enquiries to Documents to be submitted: Cover letter Curriculum Vitae (including names and addresses of three referees) Research statement Teaching statement Records of teaching feedback (if available) Copies of transcripts of undergraduate and graduate degrees Personal Particulars Form (as provided in the link above) Applications will be accepted until the position is filled. All applications and materials submitted will be held in strict confidence. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 67

70 JOBS RESEARCH FELLOW Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Job Description: A Research Fellow position is currently available in the School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (NTU). The candidate will be responsible for planning research projects together with the supervisor. They will also be responsible for: background research and searching of the literature; the design and development of theoretical concepts and tools; the analysis of results; the dissemination of research results in scientific journals. The candidate will also be tasked with presenting their results at internal seminars as well as at international conferences and schools. Where appropriate the candidate will also play a leading role in establishing collaborations with other scientists, both theoretical and experimental, inside and outside of the NTU. Pages/Research-Fellow-.aspx Requirement: - PhD in Physics - Minimum of three publications in peer-reviewed international journals Looking for a motivated research fellow in the field of theoretical excitonpolariton physics. The candidate should have previous experience in academic research, with a record of publications in peer reviewed international journals. The candidate should be capable of working independently or as part of a team. How to apply: Interested applicants, please submit the full CV, with the names and contacts (including addresses) of 3 referees, all relevant academic certificates and transcripts and to Associate Prof Timothy Liew at Only shortlisted candidates will be notified. National University of Singapore(NUS) The Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore brings together quantum physicists and computer scientists to explore the quantum nature of reality and quantum possibilities in technology. Established in December 2007 as the city-state's first Research Centre of Excellence, CQT is now home to over 150 scientists and students. The Centre boasts a world-class research program with strong theory and experiment groups. POSTDOCTORAL POSITION IN "QUANTUM OPTICS/QUANTUM INFORMATION AND QUANTUM MANY-BODY PHYSICS (THEORY)" Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: The positions are in the group of Dimitris G. Angelakis ( org). The group's research interests range from quantum simulation with quantum optical setups (especially with light-matter systems), to non-equilibrium manybody dynamics, periodically driven systems, and topological and exotic quantum phases among others (see group website). The group has active collaborations with world leading theory and experimental groups in Europe and US. The positions are available as soon as possible and can be up to 3 years with possible extension. More senior research appointments can also be considered for experienced candidates. We accept applications until a suitable candidate is found. Salary for junior appointments will be between S$ per annum depending on experience with access to travel funds as well. Tax in Singapore for this level is roughly 5-7%. Requirements: We are looking for highly motivated candidates with a strong research background and a PhD in theoretical quantum optics/physics and/or quantum information and/or quantum many-body physics/quantum condensed matter. A strong publication record in high impact research journals and a solid background in analytical and numerical modeling of physical problems in any of the above areas is a requirement. Experience in collaboration with experimentalists and working in team will also be a plus. How to apply: Applications should be sent by to They should contain: a CV, a summary of past research (2 pages), a motivation letter (1 page), 1 paper/draft you consider your best work, and the contact details ( ) of three referees. Records of teaching feedback (if available) Copies of transcripts of undergraduate and graduate degrees Personal Particulars Form (as provided in the link above) Applications will be accepted until the position is filled. All applications and materials submitted will be held in strict confidence. 68 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

71 JOBS POSTDOCTORAL POSITION IN QUANTUM MATTER LAB Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: We have open postdoc positions available at our experiments with Fermionic lithium and with dipolar LiK molecules. More detail about the research group: Requirement: - PhD in Physics - Minimum of three publications in peer-reviewed international journals Looking for a motivated research fellow in the field of theoretical excitonpolariton physics. The candidate should have previous experience in academic research, with a record of publications in peer reviewed international journals. The candidate should be capable of working independently or as part of a team. How to apply: Applicants should have obtained a PhD with an adequate background in our scientific field or relevant technology. RESEARCH FELLOW IN EXPERIEMENTAL AMO PHYSICS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: The group of Loh Huanqian is actively searching for a postdoctoral research fellow to work on cold and ultracold molecules. We are building a new lab on single-molecule quantum control. Our scientific goal is to establish quantum state engineering at the single-molecule level. To get into this regime, we will explore novel methods to cool and control atoms and molecules. These molecular building blocks, with rich internal structure and tunable long-range anisotropic interactions, are ideal for studying few- to many-body physics. The postdoctoral fellow will have the opportunity to: 1. play a leading role in the experiment setup development from ground up, including its design and construction; 2. study new phenomena at the forefront of quantum physics and chemistry using strongly interacting particles; 3. mentor junior team members. Further details about the research group can be found at wordpress.com Requirement: Talented and motivated candidates with a PhD in experimental physics and a strong scientific and technical background in AMO physics are highly encouraged to apply. How to apply: Applicants are invited to contact Huanqian Loh directly at RESEARCH FELLOW IN EXPERIMENTAL ENTANGLED PHOTON SYSTEMS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: One position is available for a postdoctoral fellow to develop robust entangled photon systems. The team of Alexander Ling is working on space-based quantum communication experiments which involve the operation of entangled photon systems on earth-orbiting satellites. A postdoctoral position is available within the scientific team to lead the development of next generation compact and bright entangled photon systems that can work reliably in robust environments. More detail about the research group: Requirement: The successful candidate will have demonstrated a strong background in the design, building and testing of entangled photon systems and the associated opto-electronic systems. The candidate will be a senior member of the scientific team and will guide junior members in the development process. The candidate will work closely with the technical-support team to ensure that the quantum optics systems can be integrated successfully into satellites. This position is ideal for a candidate who has a strong scientific background and also interested in deploying quantum systems for real-world applications. How to apply: Interested applicants are invited to send their inquiries to Alexander Ling at October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 69

72 JOBS RESEARCH FELLOW IN QUANTUM INFORMATION AND COMPLEXITY SCIENCE (3 POSITIONS AVAILABLE) Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: The Quantum and Complexity Science Initiative (QuSCI) is seeking multiple research fellows to conduct interdisciplinary research that interface quantum and complexity science. The positions are based in the Quantum and Complexity Science Initiative ( at Nanyang Technological University(NTU). Key activities include: 1. Developing quantum protocols for understanding complex systems and generalizing information theoretical concepts to complexity science. 2. Pioneering novel interdisciplinary lines of research by exploring how their own areas of expertise in quantum information can impact complexity science or vice versa. 3. Initiating collaborative projects with international experts in quantum and complexity sciences. Up to 3 research fellowships are currently available, with initial tenure of 1-2 years, and extensions possible for up to 4 years. Requirements: The ideal candidate should be enthusiastic about novel interdisciplinary research, interested in working with researchers in diverse scientific backgrounds, and possess evidence of research excellence one or more of the following areas: 1. Quantum resource theories, quantum channels, and quantum communication 2. Quantum protocol design, and their implementation of current laboratory environments. 3. Information theoretic approaches to complexity science, especially computational mechanics Excellent candidates in other areas of quantum and complexity science are also most welcome to apply. How to apply: Informal inquiries should be directed to Mile Gu and more information, including formal application procedures are available at RESEARCH FELLOW IN QUANTUM COMPUTATION Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: Applications are invited for a two year postdoctoral position in Quantum Computation at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT), Singapore. The position is associated with the research group of Joe Fitzsimons and located at CQT on the campus of the National University of Singapore. CQT is one of the leading centres for quantum computing research in the world, and there is ample opportunity to interact with many senior researchers. Requirement: Candidates should be creative, highly motivated, and interested to work in an interdisciplinary and very collaborative environment. The candidate will have a PhD in theoretical physics, theoretical computer science or mathematics and have a strong background in quantum computation, ideally with experience with the measurement based model. How to apply: Applications should consist of a full CV, list of publications, a brief statement of research interests (one page) and names and electronic contact details of three referees. Applications and informal inquiries should be sent via to Joe Fitzsimons Applications will be accepted until the position is filled. RESEARCH FELLOW IN ULTRA COLD ATOMS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: We invite applicants for a position at the Postdoctoral level. The successful candidate will work in the group R. Dumke hosted on the NTU "garden" campus. The candidate will play a leading role in one of our main projects. The responsibilities are reaching from the daily project work to representing the research on meetings/conferences all over the world. The group is well equipped, has sufficient funding and is actively supporting new ideas which could lead to independent research projects. Requirement: This position requires a PhD with the research focus on ultra cold atoms or ions. How to apply: If you have further questions please send an to: 70 Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

73 JOBS RESEARCH FELLOW IN GAUGE POTENTIALS WITH ULTRACOLD FERMIONIC STRONTIUM Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: One of the main motivations is to use, in the future, ultracold gases as quantum emulators and study, for example, the physics of quantum Hall phenomena. Furthermore, non-abelian gauge fields arise quite naturally from the adiabatic evolution of quantum systems with some internal degenerate eigenstates. Non-Abelian gauge potentials have thus been proposed to create, for example, magnetic monopoles or to induce spin-orbit coupling, opening new connections between ultracold atoms, spintronics and high-energy physics. Since the Fermionic Strontium isotope has a pure nuclear spin ground state which can be addressed by optical means, we are thinking that an ultracold Strontium gas is a promising medium on which Abelian and non-abelian gauge fields can be generated. To do so we will use the so-called Electromagnetically- Induced Transparency (EIT) or/and Tripod schemes. The successful applicant will work on this abounding and competitive research field. Requirement: The candidate should have a Ph.D. or a postdoctoral experience in AMO physics. How to apply: Applications with a full CV, list of publications, a brief statement of research interests (one page) and names and electronic contact details of three referees should be sent via to David Wilkowski Applications are accepted until the position is fulfilled. RESEARCH FELLOW IN THEORETICAL QUANTUM OPTICS AND QUANTUM INFORMATION Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: The Centre is looking for a talented and driven Research Fellow to work on theoretical aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. Duties & Responsibilities - Lead the research program on quantum synchronisation, focusing in particular on the theoretical description of experimental setups involving "quantum devices". - Collaborate with the experimental groups in the context of a common project on "quantum synchronisation". - Contribute to the design and simulation of experimental quantum synchronised systems such as in ion traps, spin systems, and atoms. Remuneration will commensurate with the candidate's qualifications and experience. Duration of Contract: Up to 3 years. Requirement: 1. Minimum Qualification: Ph.D. in Physics. 2. Familiarity with both theoretical and experimental research. 3. A readiness to work closely and collaboratively with experimentalists and to contribute to their work. 4. Proven capacity of working with several co-workers. 5. Record of peer-reviewed publications in the field of quantum optics or quantum information. 6. Experience of teaching and/or follow-up of younger students' projects in the university context. 7. Readiness to travel overseas for workshops and collaborations. 8. Strong communication skills and writing skills. How to apply: Interested applicants are invited to send a covering letter specifying their research interests and experience, their latest Curriculum Vitae (including complete list of publications/ presentations) and contacts of three references to RESEARCH FELLOW IN EXPERIEMTNAL ATOMIC PHYSICS Work Location: Singapore Company/Institute: Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at National University of Singapore (NUS) Job Description: Two positions open for application. Applications are invited for a postdoctoral position in experimental atomic physics at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT), Singapore. The position is associated with the research group of Murray Barrett and located at CQT on the campus of the National University of Singapore and will involve working with ion traps and/or cavity QED. Requirement: The successful candidate will have a Ph.D. in experimental physics with a very strong background in atomic physics and laser cooling techniques. Experience with ion trapping or cavity QED is preferred. How to apply: Applications with a full CV, list of publications, a brief statement of research interests (one page) and names and electronic contact details of three referees should be sent via to Murray Barrett Applications are accepted until the positions are filled. October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 71

74 SOCIETIES List of Physical Societies in the Asia Pacific Region Association of Asia Pacific Physics Societies President: Seunghwan Kim Address: Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics/POSTECH, 77Cheongam-Ro Nam-gu, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea Australian Institute of Physics President: Warrick Couch Address: PO Box 546, East Melbourne, Vic Bangladesh Physical Society President: A. A. Ziauddin Ahmad Address: Dhaka Dhaka 1216 Bangladesh Chinese Physical Society President: Zhan Wenlong Address: Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing http: // Physical Society of Hong Kong President: Ruiqin Zhang Address: Department of Physics and Materials Science City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Indian Physics Association President: S. L. Chaplot Address: PRIP Shed, Room No. 4, B.A.R.C.,Trombay, Mumbai India Indian Physical Society President: D K Srivastava Address: IACS Campus, 2A&B Raja Subodh Chandra Mullick Road, Kolkata , India Indonesian Physical Society President: Ing. Mitra Djamal Address: d/a Komplek Batan Indah Blok L No 48 Serpong Tangerang Banten Indonesia Israel Physical Society President: Yaron Oz Address: School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University Physical Society of Japan President: FUJII Yasuhiko Address: Yushima Urban Building 8F, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo , Japan Japan Society of Applied Physics President: Kazuo Hotate Address: Yushima Urban Building 7F, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo , Japan Korean Physical Society President: Y. P. Lee Address: The Korean Physical Society, Yeoksam-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul , Korea Malaysian Institute of Physics President: Kurunathan Ratnavelu Address: INSTITUT FIZIK MALAYSIA (MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS) C/O Jabatan Fizik, Universiti Malaya, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Mongolian Physical Society President:Orlokh Dorjkhaidav Address: Institute of Physics and Technology Enkhtaivan avenue 54b, Bayanzurkh district, Ulaanbaatar 13330, Mongolia Nepal Physical Society President: Jeevan Jyoti Nakarmi Address: Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Ghanta Ghar, Ranipokhari, Kathamndu Asia Pacific Physics Newsletter

75 SOCIETIES New Zealand Institute of Physics President: David Hutchinson Address: Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic & Quantum Technologies, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Pakistan Physical Society President: Hassan A. Shah Address: Room No 205, Technical Block, NCP, Islamabad, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan Physical Society of Philippines President: Romeric Pobre Address: 3/F National Institute of Physics University of the Philippines, Diliman 1101 Quezon City, Philippines Institute of Physics Singapore President: Rajdeep Rawat Address: Institute of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore Physical Society of the Republic of China President: Minn-Tsong Lin Address: National Taiwan University, No.1 Sec. 4 Roosevelt Road, Taiwan Thai Physical Society President: Sukit Limpijumnong Address: School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Ave, Nakhon Ratchasima Thailand National Committee of Russian Physicists President: Leonid V. Keldysh Address: Moscow, Leninsky Prospekt, 32a Vietnam Physical Society President: Nguyen Dai Hung Address: PO box 607, Bo Ho, Hanoi, Vietnam South East Asia Theoretical Physics Association (SEATPA) President: Phua Kok Khoo Address: Nanyang Executive Centre #02-18, 60 Nanyang View, Singapore October 2017, Volume 6 No 2 73

76 Sponsored by Co-organiser Institute of Advanced Studies TOPICAL WORKSHOP ON DARK MATTER 13 to 15 November 2017 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Co-Chairs Lars Brink (Chalmers University of Technology) Lars Bergström (Stockholm University) Kok-Khoo Phua (Institute of Advanced Studies, NTU) Speakers Elisabetta Barberio (University of Melbourne) Karim Benabed (IAP) Lars Bergström (Stockholm University) Gianfranco Bertone (University of Amsterdam) Alexey Boyarsky (Leiden University) Ali Chamseddine (University of Beirut) Jin Chang (Chinese Academy of Sciences) Ilias Cholis (John Hopkins University) Joakim Edsjö (Stockholm University) Carlos Frenk (Durham University) Richard Gaitskell (Brown University) Luca Grandi (The University of Chicago) Jianglai Liu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) Kentaro Miuchi (Kobe University) Oleg Ruchayskiy (Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen) Pierre Sikivie (University of Florida, Gainesville) Michael Tobar (University of Western Australia) Erik Verlinde (University of Amsterdam) Frank Wilczek (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2004; MIT) One of the most intriguing problems in present-day physics, astrophysics and cosmology revolves around the nature of dark matter the dominant form of matter in the universe. Discovered first by pioneers such as Lundmark and Zwicky in the early decades of the last century, the prominence of the dark matter problem has become more acute in recent years. Theoretical and observational evidence agree that dark matter outweighs visible matter by at least five to one, but the identity of dark matter remains a mystery even now. This workshop will feature the most up-to-date research in this field and introduce various candidates for dark matter. The axion is one such candidate proposed by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek, who will be at the workshop in person for discussion. The workshop will also cover the ongoing hunt for dark matter signatures at accelerators and in underground and space experiments, the verification of the existence of dark matter from studies of the cosmic microwave background, and new theoretical ideas about dark matter and dark energy paradigms. Frank Wilczek Nobel Laureate in Physics 2004 Henry Tsz-King Wong (Academia Sinica Taiwan) For more information, please visit IAS website at

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