Analysis on Innovative Ideas of Print Teaching Based on Constructivism Teaching Theory

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1 Analysis on Innovative Ideas of Print Teaching Based on Constructivism Teaching Theory Dong Li Guilin Normal College, Guilin , China Abstract Constructivism teaching methods focus and emphasize on that students can, through collaboration, learn in authentic context, gain in practice and solve problems in the real world upon knowledge they learnt in which the relationship between teachers and students are democratic and interactive in a constructivist classroom. And print teaching relatively pays more attention to practical ability of students, so the feasibility that constructivism is incorporated into print teaching in junior middle school will be in compliance with requirements more. Therefore, this paper interprets the definition and principle of constructivism teaching theory first, aimed at original print teaching model, puts forward two entirely new models of teaching-anchored Instruction and Random Access teaching, in order to achieve the innovation of print teaching. By applying Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method, combined with Grey System Theory, the evaluation model of print teaching can be constructed, which is aimed at, under constructivism theory, revealing effectiveness of new teaching model, breaking through traditional model of print, improving operational ability of multiple intelligence of students, providing teachers with more favorable references to facilitate the perfection of teaching scheme, and then serve students with better teaching service. Keywords: Constructivism, Teaching Theory, Print Teaching, Innovation. 1. BACKGROUND 1.1 Literature review Art Course Standards of Compulsory Education explicitly points out in general objective: Students participate in art activities through individual or collective collaboration to inspire originality, understand means and approaches of expression in art language; apply a variety of tools and materials to create, express emotion and thought, improve environment and life. Print collects painting and hand making as a whole, which is extremely fit to aesthetic characteristics of primary and middle school students owing to flexible composition, simple and generous application of colors (Wang, 2015). Print teaching is conducive to rising aesthetic ability, observation ability, molding ability and practical ability of students, can enrich aesthetic experience and imagination of students, edify sentiment of students and boost all-round development of students. The traditional teaching model is teacher-centered and depends on teachers activities, while students are passively involved, currently, many teachers of print teaching pay attention to the significance of students experience and students to be centered in groups in the classroom as well; yet most of them still remain in the form of surface and fail to consider students from the perspective of creation, thus, their teaching routines are immutable and frozen, short of interesting and true expression of students in the classroom (Liu, 2015). Constructivism theory is to make students learn knowledge and construct network of knowledge in situational teaching model presented by teachers in which students are encouraged to take initiative for the processor of information and active constructor of network of knowledge throughout the course of study. 1.2 Purpose Due to the effect of traditional educational model, print applies original teaching method as before in actual teaching and fails to embody the students to be centered, and teachers also ignore the strong practicality of print and implant knowledge compulsively, which lack of interactive atmosphere between teachers and students in classroom, so that the students passively receive information. In the course of time, it will not only cause them to lose interest of print learning, but also independent thinking gradually at the same time (He, 2015). Print occupies the important position in art education and contains broad and profound historical national culture of 323

2 our country. Therefore, for the sake of making the contemporary students fully cognize print afresh, improving learning interest of students and enhancing the effectiveness of print teaching, this paper integrates, through the constructivism theory, teaching ideas and methods into print teaching, and fully implements teaching reform to further evoke the interest of students in learning, improve the practical ability of students, thus, the students can, through print teaching, be aware of excellent historical culture of our country, arouse their enthusiasm and imitative participating in classroom activities, discover their potential, cultivate their innovative consciousness and ability so as to elevate the efficiency and quality of print teaching in all aspects. 2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSTRUCTIVISM TEACHING THEORY Constructivism, also translated as structuralism, is a branch of cognitive psychology. One key concept of constructivism theory is schema, which refers to individual perceptual comprehension and way of thinking towards the world, or thinks of as frame or organization structure of mental activity (Qiu, 2015). Schema is the starting point and pillar of cognitive structure or foundation that human beings know things. Thus, the formation and change of schema is the essence of cognitive development, and cognitive development is affected by three processes: assimilation, accommodation and balance. Assimilation refers to filtration or change process of learning individual to stimulus input. That is to say, when individual is affected by stimulus, stimulus will be incorporated into existing schema in mind to be one part of their own. Accommodation refers to the process of reorganization and transformation occurred on cognitive structure of children, when the external environment is changed and the original cognitive structure cannot assimilate information provided by new environment, which is the changing process of individual cognitive structure due to the impact of external stimulus. (Wen, 2014) Balance refers to the transitional process in which learning individual develops cognitive development from one balanced state to another balanced state through self-regulatory mechanism. Figure 1 is the schematic diagram of constructivism teaching theory. Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of Constructivism Teaching Theory In constructivism teaching theory, the positions and functions for roles of teachers and students are illustrated in the aspects as follows: 2.1 The role of teacher is a loyal supporter of students in constructing knowledge (Wei, 2016). The function of teacher is changed from authority imparting knowledge traditionally to tutor of students in learning, turns into senior companion or partner of students in learning. Teachers should present students with authentic complex questions. They have to not only develop or discover these questions, but also understand a variety of answers to these complex questions, encourage student to answer the questions in multiple perspectives, which closely coincide with the purpose of creative teaching activity obviously. Teachers must establish a good learning environment where students can carry out their learning through experiments, independent exploration, collaborative learning or other ways. Teachers should guarantee the balance between learning activities and learning contents. Teachers must provide students with cognitive tool and psychometric tool, train critical cognitive processing strategy of students, as well as their own psychological model of constructing knowledge and understanding (Chen, 2016). Teachers should recognize teaching objectives, including cognitive objective and emotional objective. Teaching is the process lessening external control and increasing self-control learning of students step by step. 2.2 Teacher should be the active helper and guider of students in constructing knowledge, stimulate the interest of students in learning, trigger and maintain learning motivation of students, through creating the scene that meets the requirements of teaching contents and prompting hints of relationship between old and new knowledge, facilitate students to construct meaning of current knowledge they learn (Yuan, 2016). In order to 324

3 make the meaning construction of students more effective, teachers should organize collaborative learning as much as possible, perform discussion and exchange, and drive the course of collaborative learning so as to develop in the direction in favor of meaning construction. 2.3 The role of students is the active participant in teaching activities and the active constructor of knowledge. Constructivism requires that students cater to and cognize complex situation of the authentic world, then accomplish task in such complex authentic situation. Therefore, a new learning style and new cognitive processing strategy to form the psychological model that their own are constructors of knowledge and understanding are wanted for students (Zhong and Sheng, 2016). Constructivism teaching requires that, compared with traditional teaching, students should undertake more chances to manage learning of their own; teachers should leave the chances in recent development zone of students presented by Lev Vygotsky and provide students with some help. Figure 2 is the scaffolding instruction framework of constructivism. Figure 2. Scaffolding Instruction Framework of Constructivism 3. INNOVATIVE IDEAS OF PRINT TEACHING BASED ON CONSTRUCTIVISM TEACHING THEORY 3.1 Anchored instruction Anchored instruction refers to the teaching based on authentic events and questions. As mentioned in the book- Art for life: Authentic Instruction in Art by Tom Anderson about the teaching that teachers guide students to construct the knowledge of life experience, art for life is to construct art teaching model in real life, and the strategy of teaching and learning is to take meaningful things in the life of students as the key point to express self and society. The teaching contents and teaching process of anchored instruction are mainly determined by authentic events and questions (Wang, 2013). More about anchored instruction is to solve problems in real situation in which students try to grasp the rules and steps in solving problems. Only the learners with personally experience will have such insights. So the features of anchored instruction are the situational teaching, the teaching based on topic and the case teaching. This also accords with the ideas- learning in practice and art is experience, put forward by Dewey. Figure 3 is student-centered instruction process diagram. Figure 3. Student Centered Instruction Process Diagram The print teaching based on education in life is to encourage collaborative learning in groups in the link of print teaching in which topics are found in life, research notes are recorded in groups, group representatives will be 325

4 sent to share the topic and teachers mainly guide and summarize the knowledge fit to each group so as to further understand knowledge and construction between new and old knowledge of students. The homework of print can vary in many forms (Yue, 2017). Collaborative learning should be carried out throughout the course of print teaching in the classroom, which plays a connecting role in learning of knowledge contents, receiving information of students, expanding thinking depth and extent of students; in this course, the communication skill, practical ability and collaborative ability of students all play their roles. In print teaching of junior middle school, teachers should pay attention to students desire to communicate with each other, establish the platform for students collaboration and exchange, and design the procedure for students independent collaboration and exchange. Collaborative learning can adapt to students with different levels of knowledge and facilitate the meaning construction of learners. 3.2 Random access teaching Random access teaching is from the point view of viewing problems, and the minor accord to the way of viewing problems names the minor unity of conclusion. The print teaching developing multiple intelligences of students as its objective applies random access teaching, which is conducive to cultivation of students ability; teacher should, for the same teaching content, encourage students to view problems in multiple perspectives, including the way of viewing problems and problems to be solved from the situation and connection amid viewpoints; at the same time, encourage students to have a try boldly, open up the creative mind and give play to subjective initiative of students to discover and explore the solution. Random access teaching is with a positive impact on the development of multiple intelligences of students. Multiple intelligence theory holds that people have eight kinds of intelligences with minor accord, which are related to specific regions of human brain and relatively independent units (Lu, 2017). They are spoken language- linguistic intelligence, logic-mathematical intelligence, vision- spatial intelligence, body- sport intelligence, music- rhythmic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, self-awareness intelligence and naturalistic observational intelligence. These eight kinds of intelligences are independent but interrelated, in the course of print teaching, one of sections may be the cultivation of concentrated intelligences, and each student is an independent individual, with otherness in multiple intelligences. Teachers can, in print teaching of junior middle school, apply development of multiple intelligences to serving students with better learning guideline, making advantage intelligence work with other intelligences each other to advance all-round development of students as far as possible; everyone is unique and can pay valuable contributions to human culture in the one and only way (Du, 2012). In teaching of print appreciation, applying random access teaching and importing, two pieces of works from Chinese print masters are took out for appreciation, then students savor print works by themselves and think accompanied with the questions. Figure 4 below is the flow chart of random access teaching. Figure 4. Random Access Teaching Flow Chart Take appreciation of Zhao Zongzao s Lu Xun Portrait and Henri Matisse s Woman with a hat as the example. By comparison, what is the minor accord between the effects of two print works? Teachers can, through observation and imagination, cultivate visual space of students to know about monochromatic print and teach new course intelligently. The monochromatic woodcut print works- Autumn produced by Miao Fabin is showcased and let students observe and think about questions- what kind of aesthetic feeling does monochromatic print have? With large amount of information, the question can be further investigated. Teacher can, through questions, guide students to analyze the works and cultivate linguistic intelligence and visual spatial intelligence of students: the array of dots and generalized lines in black block with a large area manifest 326

5 pliable and tough, dignified lotus leaf and lotus seed pot with sense of light and shade. In white with a small area, by means of artistic expression- black highlighted by white, fishes with small shape contrary to lotus leaf with large proportion are depicted (Guo, 2017). Representatives are sent to summarize linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence and self-awareness intelligence for group discussion: monochromatic print is printed by only one color, with a concise, sprightly and strong contrast layout. Manufacturing process: cuttingplatemaking- painting- rubbing- effect check for completion. A series of manufacturing process for print can cultivate sports intelligence, rhythmic intelligence and naturalistic observational intelligence of students. The works are showcased and students carry out self-evaluation, evaluation between each other, then teachers evaluate interpersonal intelligence, self-awareness intelligence and naturalistic observational intelligence; random access teaching can, based on grasping the active learning of students, give full freedom to students and will achieve a better effect. 4. PRINT TEACHING EVALUATION MODEL FRAMEWORK BASED ON CONSTRUCTIVISM TEACHING THEORY 4.1 Teaching quality evaluation methods This paper applies correlation degree theory of grey system theory to improving fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is a kind of comprehensive evaluation method to evaluation object based on fuzzy mathematics fuzzy set theory, which complies with fuzziness of education phenomenon and comprehensively collect the opinions of each evaluation personnel; the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine the weight, which solves the problems with multiple objects and multiple criteria and without quantitative analysis that is difficult to make accurate analysis only relying on qualitative analysis and logical judgment (Wang, 2012). Grey correlation of grey system theory is the method of correlation degree of each factor in analytic system and applies correlation degree to improving fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, when overcoming the principle of maximum degree of membership, only considers maximum degree of membership, being with more loss of information, even the anomalous conclusion is brought forth. 4.2 Steps This paper combines fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method with grey system theory, and the steps for teaching evaluation are as follows: Set factor set, which is index set composed of evaluation index: U=[u 1, u 2,, u n] Set evaluation set, which is a set that illustrates pros and cons of evaluation object: C=[c 1, c 2,, c m] The weight matrix of index can be obtained by analytic hierarchy process (AHP): W=w 1, w 2,, w m In which, the weight value of each index is listed, and consistency test is carried out according to the formula below, to analyze its credibility: CR = CI n RI n (1) In which, the evaluation consistency index of n-order judgment matrix is given, which is the average consistency index of n-order reciprocal matrix. When CI n 0.10, it can be thought that the evaluation is generally compatible and the analysis result is credible; on the contrary, it can be thought that the degree of inconsistency of evaluation is high, so the evaluation is suggested to be revised The evaluation matrix R with single factor is constructed, in which R i=(r i1, r i2,, r in) is the evaluation result of factor No. i. r 11 r 12 r 1n R = [ r 21 r 22 r 2n ] (2) r m1 r m2 r mn 327

6 4.2.5 The weighted average comprehensive evaluation model is applied: n M(, ) ( W i r mn ) (3) i 1 Three kinds of models are often used to calculate comprehensive evaluation matrix A in fuzzy mathematics, while the weighted average model is most widely used in educational assessment, which can make full use of factor fuzzy matrix to provide information and make the weight play its real function; the biggest advantage is converting multi-level evaluation into single level evaluation, so that the process of evaluation is greatly simplified. r 11 r 12 r 1n A = W R = [w 1, w 2,, w m ] [ r 21 r 22 r 2n ] (4) r m1 r m2 r mn Calculate grey correlation degree and determine correlation order: η ij (k) = min i min k i(k)+p max i max i(k)+p max i max k i(k) k i(k), P (0, 1) (5) ij (k) = A j (k) A i (k) (6) η ij = 1 k η k 1 ij(k), k = 1, 2,, n (7) In which, A i and A j are image of initial value, P is distinguishing coefficient, η ij is correlation degree. 5. CONCLUSION The so-called traditional print teaching is that only traditional technique and inherent knowledge are taught in print teaching, in the course of teaching, teachers instill, through single teaching method, knowledge into students, which seriously restricts the imaginative thinking of students to be played. Therefore, the current print teaching must break through the traditional teaching model, more unearth the development of multiple intelligences of students, combine with the concepts- teach students in accordance with their aptitude, learn in practice and independent collaboration of students, aimed at different students with different features of intelligence, create educational methods and means suitable for students with different receptivity and promote the development of multiple intelligences for each student. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2015 Guangxi vocational education teaching reform project "cross-school cross-school" college prints curriculum diversified practice teaching model research and practice "(Project Number: GXGZJG2015B084); 2016 Guangxi Vocational Education Teaching Reform Research Key Project "Specialization of Transitional Period of Normal University, Research and Practice of Talent Training Mechanism of Applied Normal Teachers" (Project Number: GXGZJG2016A062). REFERENCES Chen M. (2016). Referring to constructivist educational theory to promote teaching reform, Forum on education and teaching, (11), Du Y.Y. (2012). Reform of Higher Vocational Teaching Mode under the guidance of constructivism theory, Forum on higher education, (06), Guo L.J. (2017). Analysis of the significance of Printmaking Teaching in art education in Colleges and universities, Manager, (26), 392. He G.F. (2015). Teaching of printmaking in comprehensive universities, Popular literature and art, (11),

7 Liu C.C. (2015). Current situation and Countermeasures of Printmaking Teaching in art education in Colleges and universities, Drama House, (10), Lu Q. (2017). Analysis of the application of comprehensive materials in University Printmaking Teaching, Forum on education and education, (11), Qiu M.X. (2015). The application of constructivism teaching method in junior high school Printmaking Teaching, Beauty and times (middle), (06), Wang M. (2013). The current situation and Countermeasures of Printmaking Teaching in fine arts education in Universities, Digital fashion (New Visual Arts), (03), Wang R. (2012). The cultivation of creative thinking in Contemporary Printmaking Teaching, Art education, (09), 143. Wang Y.X. (2015). Exploration on the reform of Printmaking Teaching, Journal of Changchun Institute of education, 31 (03), Wei X.Y. (2016). The practice of space in Printmaking Teaching in the view of contemporary art, Art education research, (05), Wen M.J. (2014). Comprehensive university Printmaking Teaching, Arts, (09), Yuan J.Y. (2016). Print teaching in University Art Education in the role of the family of the drama, (14), 201. Yue J. (2017). Influence of Printmaking Teaching on students' comprehensive quality, Art education research, (01), Zhong L.J., Sheng Q.L. (2016). Of E-education research to construct scientific teaching theory, 37 (10),

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