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1 P o s t a w y s p o і e c z e t s t w a w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h z e s z c z e g у l n y m u w z g lb d n i e n i e m o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a T h e a t t i t uodf e ss o c i te ot wy a r d s d i s a b l e d p e o p l e w i t h p a r t i c u l pa r e o ep ml pe h wa is ti hs o n D o w n s y n d r o m e A n n a N a w a l a n 1 2, a A n n a M a j d a 1 St u d e n t k a k i e r u n k u P i e l b g n i a u gr ise t gw o s t o u p d ina i a s, to a W Zy c dj dr o zo, in wa Ui і r J u NnCa e M u k dw r K r a k o w i e 2 P r a c oa w nt ie o r i i i P o d s t a w, P ii en l s bt gy Pnt i ueat l rbs gt nw ia i a r Ps ot іw o a і n, i Wc yt dw za i a і N a u k o, ZU dj r oc wm i uw K r a k o w i e A U T O R D O K O R E S P O N D E N C J I : A n n a M a j d a P r a c o w n i a T e o r i i i P o d s t a w P i e l b g n i a r s t w a W N Z U J C M u l M i c h a і o w s k i e g, o K r a k у w e m a i l m: a j d a n n p o c z t a o n e t p l S T R E S Z C Z E N I E P o s t a w y s p o і e c z e s t w a w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h z e s zd cn zi e gn уi le nm y m o s uу wb z gz l z e s p o і e m D o w n a C e l p r a cuyk a z a n i e p o s t a w s p o і e c z n y c h w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h z e s z c z eogіуelm n ydm o wunwa z g l d n i e n i e m o M a t e r i a і i m e t o daynkaal i z a d o s t p n e j z lg io td en ri ae t uz r yk r y t e r i a m w i pz ya tw a nr it ay cm h i b a d a w c z y c h W y n i k i O s o b y n i e p e і n o scpz r aswtno e w z b u d z a j w s p o і e c z e s t w i e r e a k c j e e m o c j o n a l n e, t a k i e j a k : g n i e w, w i e d z y n a t e m a t n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o c i s t w a r z a r y z y k o p o w i e l a n i a i s tonіieem j Dcoy wcnh a swt ieer le o kt ry op tу nw i e O s o b y z c h a r a k t e r y z o w a n e s w e d і u g u t a r t y c h s c h e m a t у w, n p j a k o i n f a n t y l nte r, z ncy z y c z a sset ko s uoad lbni e e r aincy h jweys gtl d j a k o b r z y d o t a c i e l e s n a, c z y l i r o d z a j p i t n a N i e p e і n o s p r a w n o s tі e k w i n a e ls ei p s z e k ai t e ggo or ry sz zo e w a noi re am z j p r a k t y k a m i d y s k yr jy nm yi nm ai c W n i o s k i N a p r z e s t r z e n i d z i e j у w m o n a d o s t r z e c e w a l u a c j p o s t a w w o b e c o s zу eb s pn oi іe ep m e і Dn o ws np a r a w n y c h, w t P o s t a w y s k r a j n i e n e g a t y w n e, t a k i e j a k : e l i m i n a c j a, i z o l a c j a z o s t a bj a r dsztioepj n i po rw zo y czhayslt n ypmoi w a n e p o N i e s t e t y w r o d o w i s k u s p o і e c z n y m, t a k e m e d y c z n y m n a d a l f u n k c j o n uoj s у b k rnz iy ew pd ez і nc oe s ps rt ae wr ne yo ct h y, p y n a t e k t у r e w r a z z u p r z e d z e n i a m i i p r o c e s e m p i t n o wg ao nr is a z ecj z yk na i t e gz o rni i c h l u d z i S і o w a k l u c z o ws e t : e r e o t y p y, u p r z e d z e n i a, p i t n o, n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o І, z e s p у і D o w n a A B S T R A C T K e y w o r d s : T h e a t t i t uodf e ss o c i te ot wy a r d s d i s a b l e d p e o p l e w i t h p a r t i c u l pa er o pe lm e p h wa is ti h s Do on w n s y n d r o m e A i m S h o w i n g s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s d i s a b l e d p e o p l e w i t h p a r t i c u lraor m e e m p h a s i s o n p e o p l e w i t h D o M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t haondasl y s i s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e c r i t e r i a o f t h e r R e s u l t sp e o p l e w i t h d i s a b i l i t i e s o f t e n e v o k e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s iln a c sk o co if e tky n, o wsl ue cd h g e a s a b ao nu gt e r, f e a d i s a b i l i t y p o s e s a r i s k o f p e r p e t u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s t e r e o t y pu e s n t l Py e oc ph la e r a wc it te h r i Dz oe wd n a sc yc no dr rd oi mn e g at ro e c o m m o n p a t t e r n s, l i k e b e i n g i n f a n t i l e o r a s e x u a l T h e i r a p p e l a r ua gn lc ie n ei s s o f at ne d n ip s e r a c e ti yv pe e d oa f s s ta i gp mh ay D i s a b i l i t y i n v o l v e s c a t e g o r i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o b e t t e r ap nr d a c t wi oc re s e, a l o n g w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t o C o n c l u s i o nos v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s w e c a n o b s e r v e t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a t t i t u d ehs o ste o wwair td h s Ddoi wsna b l e d p e o p l s y n d r o m e E x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s, s u c h a s, e l i m i n a t i o n c oe r d ib sy o lm ao tr ie o n f a av ro e r a b el ie n g a t gt ri at du ud ae ls l y U n f o r t u n a t e l y, i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t, i n c l u d i n g t h e m e d itc ea rl e o tn ye p, e s t hae br oe u t a rde i s at bi l el d spo em oe p lh e a, r m f w h i c h t o g e t h e r w i t h p r e j u d i c e a n d s t i g m a t i z a t i o n p r o c e s s m a k e t h e m s e c o n d c l a s s i n d i v i d u a l s s t e r e o t y p e s, p r e j u d i c e, s t i g m a, d i s a b i l i t y, D o w n s y n d r o m e l N r 2 ( 4 3 ) /

2 W P R O W A D Z E N I E W l i t e r a t u r z e m o n a s p o t k a m n у s t w o r у n o r o d n y c h d e f i n i c j i p o s t a w y, z w i z a n e j e s t t o m i n z t y m, i p o jі c i e t o z n a j d u j e w y dґ w iі k w t e r m i n o l o g i i w i e l u n a u k s p o і e c z n y c h, t a k i c h j a k n p p s y c h o l o g i a, p e d a g o g i k a, s o c j o l o g i a, c z y t e n a u k h u m a n i s t y c z n y c h, d o k t у r y c h z a l i c z a m y m i n f i l o z o f iі [ 1 ] W c e l u z m n i e j s z e n i a r y z y k a w y s t p i e n i a l i c z n y c h n i e p o r o z u m i e i n i e j a s n o fl c i w y n i k a j c y c h z d u e j l i c z b y d e f i n i c j i p o s t a w y, p o s t a n o w i o n o w y o d rі b n i k i l k a j e j k o n c e p c j i, k t у r e b e z p o fl r e d n i o o d z w i e r c i e d l a j s z t a n d a r o w e o r i e n t a c j e t e o r e t y c z n e w n a u k a c h s p o і e c z n y c h, a t y m s a m y m t w o r z t r у j k o m p o n e n t o w s t r u k t u rі t e g o t e r m i n u W e d і u g S M i k i n a w i z u j o n e d o : k o n c e p c j i s o c j o l o g i c z n y c h ( g d z i e o g r o m n e z n a c z e n i e o d g r y w a e m o c j o n a l n y s t o s u n e k d o o b i e k t u, bі d c e g o p r z e d m i o t e m p o s t a w y ), t e o r i i p o z n a w c z y c h, k t у r e j a k s a m a n a z w a w s k a z u j e p o d k r e fl l a j p o z n a w c z y a s p e k t p o s t a w y o r a z b e h a w i o r y z m u, p s y c h o l o g i i u c z e n i a s iі, g d z i e o g r o m n e z n a c z e n i e o d g r y w a z a c h o w a n i e M o n a w iі c z a u w a y, i p o s t a w a t o s u m a t r z e c h k o m p o n e n t у w : a f e k t y w n e g o, p o z n a w c z e g o o r a z b e h a w i o r a l n e g o, k t у r e s z e s o b s p r zі o n e i w z a j e m n i e s iі p r z e n i k a j A n a l i z u j c s k і a d o w e p o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b z m a g a j c y c h s iі z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i n a l e y u w z g lі d n i k i l k a k l u c z o w y c h p o jі, t a k i c h j a k : u p r z e d z e n i e ( z w i z a n e z e m o c j o n a l n y m s k і a d n i k i e m p o s t a w y ), s t e r e o t y p ( z w i z a n y z k o g n i t y w n y m s k і a d n i k i e m p o s t a w y ) o r a z s t y g m a t / p iі t n o ( z w i z a n y z b e h a w i o r a l n y m s k і a d n i k i e m p o s t a w y ) [ 2 ] C h a r a k t e r y z u j c p o s t a w y s p o і e c z e s t w a w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h m o e m y w y k o r z y s t a p o d z i a і z a p r o p o n o w a n y p r z e z p s y c h o l o g a T M d r z y c k i e g o U c z o n y t e n, p o s і u g u j c s iі m i n t z w k i e r u n k i e m ( j e d n z c e c h p o st a w y ), r у n i c o w a і j e n a : d o d a t n i e p o z y t y w n e o r a z u j e m n e n e g a t y w n e N i n i e j s z y a r t y k u і s k u p i a s iі n a t y c h d r u g i c h, c z y l i p o s t a w a c h n i e p r z y c h y l n y c h, p e j o r a t y w n y c h, j a k i e p r e z e n t o w a n e s w o b e c o s у b z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i i k t у r e t o w a r z y s z c z і o w i e k o w i o d z a r a n i a d z i e j у w [ 3 ] C E L P R A C Y U k a z a n i e p o s t a w s p o і e c z n y c h w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h, z e s z c z e g у l n y m u w z g lі d n i e n i e m o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a P y t a n i a b a d a w c z e : 1 J a k i j e s t z w i z e k m iі d z y u p r z e d z e n i a m i a a f e k t y w n y m k o m p o n e n t e m p o s t a w y? 2 J a k i j e s t z w i z e k m iі d z y s t e r e o t y p a m i, a k o g n i t y w n y m k o m p o n e n t e m p o s t a w y? 3 J a k j e s t z w i z e k m iі d z y p iі t n o w a n i e m, a b e h a w i o r a l n y m k o m p o n e n t e m p o s t a w y? M A T E R I A Ј I M E T O D Y K A W n i n i e j s z e j p r a c y w y k o r z y s t a n o a n a l i zі p i fl m i e n n i c t w a z l a t D o b у r p o z y c j i u w a r u n k o w a n y b y і k r y t e r i a m i z a w a r t y m i w p y t a n i a c h b a d a w c z y c h P o n a d t o w y k o r z y s t a n o w і a s n e o b s e r w a c j e i n t e r a k c j i, j a k i e z a c h o d z m iі d z y o s o b a m i p e і n o s p r a w n y m i i n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y m i, a t a k e l i c z n e s t e r e o t y p o w e w y p o w i e d z i, m i t y i p r z e s d y n a t e m a t o s у b z t r i s o m i c h r o m o s o m u 2 1, u s і y s z a n e w n a j b l i s z y m fl r o d o w i s k u, w t y m t a k e m e d y c z n y m J a k i j e s t z w i t z e k m i b d z y u p r z e d z e n i a m i a a f e k t y w n y m k o m p o n e n t e m p o s t a w y? W p r z y p a d k u o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h w i e l o k r o t n i m a m y d o c z y n i e n i a z u p r z e d z e n i e m, k t у r e o k r e fl l a n e j j a k o n i e u z a s a d n i o n e, n i e p r z y j e m n e u c z u c i e w s t o s u d o k o g ofl, c z e g ofl ; n e g a t y w n y s t o s u n e k, n i e c hі, z і e w i e n i e d o k o g ofl, c z e g ofl, o p a r t e n a n i e s p r a w d z o n z a і o e n i a c h [ 4, s ] Z d a n i e m G W A l l p o r t a u p d z e n i e m o n a d e f i n i o w a j a k o a n t y p a t iі w y n i k a j z b іі d n e g o l u b n i e e l a s t y c z n e g o u o g у l n i e n i a U p r z e d m o n a o d c z u w a l u b w y r a a M o e b y s k i e r o w a n e d c a і e j g r u p y a l b o d o j e d n o s t k i, k t у r a j e s t c z і o n k i e m t p y [ 5, s 2 9 ] A n a l i z u j c t e d e f i n i c j e m o n a d o s t w i e n z w i z e k z a f e k t y w n y m k o m p o n e n t e m p o s t a w y Z a s a d n i c z r o lі o d g r y w a j w n i m e m o c j e j a k i e g e n e r o n e s w o b e c p r z e d m i o t u p o s t a w y o r a z o c e n a w a r t o fl c i u j z g o d n i e, z k t у r j e d n o s t k a m o e b y o k r e fl l a n a, n p j d o b r a l u b z і a M o n a z a u w a y, i o s o b y n i e p e і n o s w n e w i e l o k r o t n i e w z b u d z a j w s p o і e c z e s t w i e r у n o n e r e a k c j e e m o c j o n a l n e, t a k i e j a k : i r y t a c j a, g n i e w, l i t ofl C zі s t o j e s t t o t a k e s t r a c h, p r z e d n a w i z a n i e c j i, k o n t a k t u, w y n i k a j c y z n i e u m i e jі t n o fl c i o d n a l s iі w i n t e r a k c j i z t y m c o i n n e, n i e t y p o w e N a l e z n a c z y, i j u n a p r z e s t r z e n i w i e k у w, o s o b y o d m i e n c h a r a k t e r y z u j c e s iі, n p d e f i c y t e m w s f e r z e i n t e l e l u b d e f o r m a c j a m i w w y g l d z i e f i z y c z n y m w z b u d z a і y n e g t y w n e e m o c j e, c o s k u t k o w a і o o d r z u c e n i e m t y c h j e d n o p r z e z s p o і e c z e s t w o, a w iі c w p r o w a d z e n i e m s e g r e g a c k t у r m o n a z a l i c z y d o p r a k t y k d y s k r y m i n a c y j n y c h p r z y k і a d m o n a w y m i e n i s t a r o y t n e c y w i l i z a c j e G i R z y m u, g d z i e o s o b y s і a b e, c h o r e ufl m i e r c a n o, l u b w y pі d z a n o z m i a s t a R у w n i e w m r e d n i o w i e c z u i s t n i a і o p r z e fl w i a d c z e n i e, i w s z e l k i e c i e r p i e n i a i c h o r o b y s k E p o k a t a p e і n a b y і a s p r z e c z n o fl c i, z j e d n e j s t r o n y j e d n i e p e і n o s p r a w n e b y і y w z g a r d z a n e, p o n i a n e i i z o l o w z d r u g i e j e r a c h r z e fl c i j a s t w a n a k a z y w a і a, a b y c z і o w i e k fl r e d n i o w i e c z a ( ) l i t o w a і s iі n a d n i e s z c zі fl l i w c a m i, i m s c h r o n i e n i e i і y kі s t r a w y [ 6, s 8 9 ] A n a l i z u j c d a p r z e b i e g h i s t o r i i m o n a z a u w a y, i t a k e o k r e s I I fl w i a t o w e j p r z e p e і n i o n y b y і w r o g o fl c i, n i e n a w i fl c i o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h, k t у r e z g o d n i e z i d e c z y s t r a s o w e j p r o m o w a n p r z e z A H i t l e r a n a l e a і o w y e l i m w a, a b y n i e z a fl m i e c a і y n a c j i n o r d y c k i e j [ 6 ] M o w iі c p r z y p u s z c z a, i t e j o k r u t n e j s e g r e g a c j i, j a k a w a і a n a p r z e s t r z e n i w i e k у w p o d l e g a і y t a k e o s o b y z z і e m D o w n a, z e w z g lі d u n a w y s tі p u j c e u n i c h u p o fl l e d z n i e i n t e l e k t u a l n e o r a z s p e c y f i c z n y w y g l d, k t у r y m у o d b i e r a n y j a k o s p r z e c z n y z u t a r t y m i k a n o n a m i p i i e s t e t y k i N a l e y z a z n a c z y, i w e d і u g n i e k t у r y c h l o s n i e z a w s z e b y і t a k o k r u t n y d l a o s у b z t r i s o m i m o s o m u 2 1 O d m i e n n ofl o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h c zі s t o w z b u d z a і a f a s c y n a c jі, z a i n t e r e s o w a n i e i і c z o n z d z i a і a n i e m s i і n a d p r z y r o d z o n y c h I s t n i e j p r z y p u s z c z e n a p r z e s t r z e n i w i e k у w wfl r у d n i e k t у r y c h p l e m i o n i s t k u l t o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a J a k o p r z y k і a d m o n a p o d a O m l e k у w z a s i e d l a j c y c h o d r p n e d o r n s z a r y w o k у і Z a t o k i M e k s y k a s k i e j W i e l u u c z o n y c h d o t r u j e s iі w i c h d z i e і a c h s y l w e t e k o s у b p r e z e n t u j c y c h m o g c e fl w i a d c z y o z e s p o l e D o w n a, n a l e y j e d n a k z a z c z y, i n i e z o s t a і o t o p o t w i e r d z o n e n a u k o w o [ 7 ] 4 8 P i e l g n i a r s t w o X X I w i e k u P o s t a w y s p o і e c z e s t w a w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h z e s z c z e g у l n y m u w z g l d n i e n i e m o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a

3 J a k i j e s t z w i t z e k m i b d z y s t e r e o t y p a m i a k o g n i t y w n y m k o m p o n e n t e m p o s t a w y? B r a k w i e d z y n a t e m a t d a n e j n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i / j e d n o s t k i c h o r o b o w e j o r a z b r a k d o fl w i a d c z e w r e l a c j a c h z o s o b a m i, k t у r e s iі z n i z m a g a j s p r z y j a j p o s t a w a n i u n i e t y l k o u p r z e d z e, a l e t a k e s t e r e o t y p у w S t e r e o t y p j e s t t o f u n k c j o n u j c y w fl w i a d o m o fl c i s p o і e c z n e j s k r у t o w y, u p r o s z c z o n y i z a b a r w i o n y w a r t o fl c i u j c o o b r a z r z e c z y w i s t o fl c i o d n o s z c y s iі d o r z e c z y, o s у b, g r u p s p o і e c z n y c h ( ) c zі s t o o p a r t y n a n i e p e і n e j i l u b f a і s z y w e j w i e d z y o fl w i e c i e, u t r w a l o n y j e d n a k p r z e z t r a d y c jі i n i e u l e g a j c y z m i a n o m [ 8, s ] P o jі c i e t o p o r a z p i e r w s z y z o s t a і o w p r o w a d z o n e d o l i t e r a t u r y p r z e z a m e r y k a s k i e g o d z i e n n i k a r z a W L i p p m a n a U w a a і o n, i s t e r e o t y p y s t o u m y s і o w e o b r a z y o p i e r a j c e s iі n a w і a s n y c h w y o b r a e n i a c h, k t у r e w a r t o fl c i u j j e d n o s t k i, c zі s t o b e z o b i e k t y w n y c h i n f o r m a c j i n a i c h t e m a t, a t y m s a m y m u p r a s z c z a j t o c o z і o o n e i s k o m p l i k o w a n e T e g o t o w e o b r a z y b a r d z o c zі s t o p o z b a w i a j j ed n o s t kі i n d y w i d u a l n o fl c i, a t y m s a m y m w t і a c z a j j w u t a r t e s c h e m a t y [ 5 ] M o n a z a u w a y, i t e r m i n t e n w i e s iі z k o l e j n y m s k і a d n i k i e m p o s t a w y, k t у r y m j e s t k o m p o n e n t p o z n a w c z y O d n o s i s iі o n d o w i e d z y o r a z p r z e k o n a n o s i c i e l a p o s t a w y o o b i e k c i e p o s t a w y K r e o w a n i e s t e r e o t y p o w e g o w i z e r u n k u o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h w i e l o k r o t n i e o d b y w a s iі z a p o fl r e d n i c t w e m m e d i у w C zі s t o s t a n o w i o n e j e d y n e ґ r у d і o w i e d z y o fl w i e c i e W e d і u g A H u l k a j e d n o s t k o w e i s p o і e c z n e p o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h w d u e j m i e r z e z a l e w і afl n i e o d t e g o, w j a k i s p o s у b fl r o d k i m a s o w e g o p r z e k a z u, t a k i e j a k : t e l e w i z j a, r a d i o, k s i k a, p r a s a u k a z u j i c h p r o b l e m y M e d i a l n y w i z e r u n e k o s o b y n i e p e і n o s p r a w n e j c zі s t o o s c y l u j e m iі d z y d w o m a s k r a j n y m i s p o s o b a m i j e j c h a r a k t e r y s t y k i C z і o w i e k z j e d n e j s t r o n y p r e z e n t o w a n y j e s t j a k o b i e d n y n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y, k t у r e m u t o w a r z y s z y c i e r p i e n i e, w s p у і c z u c i e i w s z e c h o b e c n a l i t ofl, z d r u g i e j j a k o b o h a t e r, h e r o s, s u p e r k a l e k a d z i e l n i e p o k o n u j c y w s z e l k i e p r z e c i w n o fl c i l o s u, b a r i e r y s p o t y k a n e n a s w e j y c i o w e j d r o d z e, c z y m z d o b y w a s p o і e c z n e u z n a n i e i p o d z i w W c h a r a k t e r y s t y k a c h t y c h z a p o m i n a s iі, e n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl n i e o d b i e r a p r a w a d o b y c i a n o r m a l n y m c z і o w i e k i e m a n i e c z і o w i e k i e m b i e d n y m, c z y t e h e r o i c z n y m W a n e j e s t, a b y p a m iі t a, i n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl j e s t t y l k o p e w n y m a s p e k t e m i s t n i e n i a j e d n o s t k i, k t у r a s iі z n i z m a g a, a n i e c a і y m j ej y c i e m [ 9 ] N a l e y z a z n a c z y, i o s o b y z z e s p o і e m D o w n a c zі s t o p o d l e g a j s t e r o t y p i z a c j i, c z y l i p r o c e s o w i k a t e g o r y z o w a n i a j e d n o s t e k j a k o c z і o n k у w d a n e j g r u p y o r a z w n i o s k o w a n i a, e c h a r a k t e r y z u j s iі o n e c e c h a m i w і afl c i w y m i d l a t e j g r u p y [ 1 0, s 2 3 ] O s o b o m z t r i s o m i c h r o m o s o m u 2 1, w i e l o k r o t n i e p r z y p i s u j e s iі : і a g o d n ofl, u c z u c i o w ofl, u s p o і e c z n i e n i e, p o s і u s z e s t w o, p o c z u c i e h u m o r u, a n a w e t s k і o n n ofl d o b і a z e n a d y J u s a m J L D o w n d o k o n u j c i c h c h a r a k t e r y s t y k i w y m i e n i і k i l k a c e c h o s o b o w o fl c i, t a k i c h j a k : p r z y j a z n y s t o s u n e k d o l u d z i i z w i e r z t, u p у r, z d o l n ofl d o n a fl l a d o w a n i a [ 1 1, s ] I n n y u c z o n y J E W a l l i n w y r у n i і wfl r у d o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a d w a t y p y : 1 y w y, d o b r o d u s z n y, u p r z e j m y, u c z u c i o w y, r a d o s n y i і a g o d n y i 2 n i e fl m i a і y, m a і o m у w n y, a p a t y c z n y, d e s t r u k t y w n y, h a і afl l i w y, n e g a t y w i s t y c z n y [ 1 1, s ] N a l e y z a z n a c z y, i w i e l u u c z o n y c h p r z y j m u j e o d m i e n n e s t a n o w i s k o t w i e r d z c, i o s o b y t e c h a r a k t e r y z u j e r у n o r o d n ofl t e m p e r a m e n t у w i n i e m a c e c h, k t у r e b y і y b y t y p o w e t y l k o d l a n i c h W fl w i a d o m o fl c i s p o і e c z n e j f u n k c j o n u j e p r z e flw i a d c z e n i e, i o s o b y u p o fl l e d z o n e i n t e l e k t u a l n i e p o z o s j w i e c z n y m i d z i e m i p o m i m o s w e j b i o l o g i c z n e j d o r o s і ofl c i Z d a r z a s iі, e t e r a p e u c i, c z y t e i n n i c z і o n k o w i e z e s p o і m e d y c z n y c h s t o s u j w o b e c n i c h p i e s z c z o t l i w e z d r o b n i e n i a, o k r e fl l e n i a, c z y z m iі k c z e n i a i m i o n N a l e y z a s t a n o w i s iі, c z y t a k i s p o s у b z w r a c a n i a s iі d o o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h j e s t s t o s o w n y i c z y n i e u t r w a l a i n f a n t y l n e g o w i z e r u k u o s o b y u p o fl l e d z o n e j u m y s і o w o S t e r e o t y p w i e c z n e g o d z i e c k a w iі s iі z e s t e r e o t y p e m b e z u y t e c z n o fl c i s p o і e c z n e j, z g o d n i e z k t у r y m o s o b y n i e p e і n o s p r a w n e i n t e l e k t u a l n i e s n i e s a m o d z i e l n e, n i e z a r a d n e, c a і k o w i c i e z n e o d i n n y c h, a c o z a t y m i d z i e s n i e z d o l n e d o p e і n i e n i a r у l s p o і e c z n y c h i f u n k c j o n o w a n i a z a w o d o w e g o D o i n n y c h s t e r e o t y p o w y c h p o g l d у w n a t e m a t o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a, m o e m y z a l i c z y s p o і e c z n e p r z e fl w i a d c z e n i e o i c h a s e k s u a l n o fl c i o r a z w c z e s n e j u m i e r a l n o fl c i N i e r z a d k o p j a w i a j s iі t a k e o p i n i e, i w y s tі p u j c e u n i c h u p o fl l e d z e u m y s і o w e w i e s iі z n i e d o r o z w o j e m e m o c j o n a l n y m, p r z e z c o n i e p o s i a d a j u c z u w y s z y c h N a l e y z a z n a c z y, i n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl i n t e l e k t u a l n a c zі s t o u t o s a m i a j e s t z c h o r o b p s y c h i c z n [ 1 2 ] O s o b y z z e s p o і e m D o w n a n i e r z a d k o p o s t r z e g a n e s j a k o e k s p e r y m e n t P a n a B o g a, a l b o w rі c z p r z e c i w n i e j a k o j e d n o s t k i s p e c j a l n i e p r z e z N i e g o o b d a r o w a n e I c h c h o r o b a w i e l o k r o t n i e d e f i n i o w a n a j e s t w s p o s у b s t e r e o t y p o w y, j a k o k a r a, a t a k e b a l d l a r o d z i n y J a k i j e s t w i t z e k m i b d z y p i b t n o w a n i e m, a b e h a w i o r a l n y m k o m p o n e n t e m p o s t a w y? Z t e m a t y k u p r z e d z e i s t e r e o t y p у w n a l e y w i z a t a k e p r o b l e m a t y kі d o t y c z c p iі t n o w a n i a P r o c e s t e n p o l e g n a p r z y c z e p i a n i u j e d n o s t c e k o n k r e t n e j e t y k i e t y : p o z y w n e j l u b n e g a t y w n e j, c o w k o n s e k w e n c j i m o e p r o w a d z i d o j e j d o w a r t o fl c i o w a n i a ( e t y k i e t a p o z y t y w n a ) l u b d e w a l u o w a n i a ( e t y k i e t a n e g a t y w n a ) W i e l o k r o t n i e d o t y c z y o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h, k t у r y m p r z y p i s u j e s iі e p i t e t y o w y dґ w iі k u p e j o r a t y w n y m, n p w y b r a k o w a n y, n i e p e і n o w a r t o fl c i o w y, c z y b e z u y t e c z n y, k t у r e s z u f l a d k u j j e d o k a t e g o r i i j e d n o s t e k g o r s z y c h P iі t n o w a n m o e b y o g r a n i c z o n e t y l k o d o w y r a a n i a n i e c hі c i i d y s t a n s u l u b w i z a s iі z u j a w n i o n y m i z a c h o w a n i a m i a g r e s y w n y m i w o b e c o s у b p iі t n o w a n y c h [ 2, s ] A n a l i z u j c z n a c z e n i e t e g o p o jі c i a, m o n a d o s t r z e c z w i z e k z k o l e j n y m, b e h a w i o r a l n y m s k і a d n i k i e m p o s t a w y P iі t n o w a n i e j e d n o s t k i, z w i z a n e j e s t z p e w n y m p o s i a d a n y m p r z e z n i a t r y b u t e m, k t у r y n i e j e s t s p o і e c z n i e a k c e p t o w a n y E G o f f m w y r у n i і t r z y r o d z a j e p iі t n a o r a z c e c h, k t у r e u r u c h a m i a p r o c e s p iі t n o w a n i a : 1 B r z y d o t a c i e l e s n a d e f o r m a f i z y c z n e, 2 W a d y c h a r a k t e r u z a b u r z e n i a p s y c h i c z n n a і o g i, b e z r o b o c i e, 3 P iі t n a g r u p o w e r a s a, p і e w z n a n i e, n a r o d o w ofl [ 2 ] N a l e y z a z n a c z y, i s t y g m a ( p iі t n o ) m o e d o p r o w a d z i d o w y s t p i e n i a s k r a j n e j p o s t a w y n e g a t y w n e j : p r z e m o c y ( n p f i z y c z n e j, p s y c h i c z n e j, s e k s u a l n e j ) w o b j e d n o s t k i n a z n a c z o n e j o s o b y n i e p e і n o s p r a w n e j W p r z y p a d k u o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a a t r y b u t e m d y s k r e d y t u j c y m m o e b y c h a r a k t e r y s t y c z n y w y g l d z e w nі t r z n y o r a z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl i n t e l e k t u a l n a J e d n o s t k i, u k t r y c h w y s tі p u j e t a c h o r o b a g e n e t y c z n a, b a r d z o c zі s t o o k r N r 2 ( 4 3 ) / A n n a N a w a l a n a, A n n a M a j d a

4 fl l a n e s m i a n e m d o w n у w, m o n g o і у w, c z y i d i o t у w Z w r o t y t e s o b r a ґ l i w e i u t r w a l i c h n e g a t y w n y w i z e r u n e k w s p o і e c z e s t w i e Z d a r z a s iі, e o s o b y z z e s p o і e m D o w n a, z a l i c z a n e s d o k a t e g o r i i : o b c y c h, o d m i e n n y c h, c o m o e s p r z y j a p o d e j m o w a n i u w o b e c n i c h z a c h o w a d y s k r y m i n a c y j n y c h U w i d a c z n i a s iі t o z w і a s z c z a w fl r o d o w i s k u s z k o l n y m w k l a s a c h i n t e g r a c y j n y c h, g d y d z i e c i z d r o w e n i e z a w s z e a k c e p t u j s w o i c h n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h r у w i e fl n i k у w N a p o d s t a w i e d a n y c h z a p r e z e n t o w a n y c h w r a p o r t a c h C B O S m o n a z a u w a y, i w z r у s і o d s e t e k b a d a n y c h ( z 5 8 % w r n a 6 8 % w r ), k t у r z y u w a a l i, i m i e j s c e p r a c y o s o b y n i e p e і n o s p r a w n e j p o w i n n o z n a j d o w a s iі w z w y k і y c h z a k і a d a c h p r a c y, m iі d z y z d r o w y m i o s o b a m i, p r z y s p e c j a l n i e p r z y s t o s o w a n y c h d l a n i c h s t a n o w i s k a c h p r a c y [ z a : 1 3, s ] M o n a s t w i e r d z i, i s p o і e c z e s t w o d o s t r z e g a k o n i e c z n ofl u c z e s t n i c t w a o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h w y c i u s p o і e c z n y m i k u l t u r a l n y m T a k i e n a s t a w i e n i e s p r z y j a i n t e g r a c j i, c z y l i b u d o w a n i u w iі z i i n a w i z y w a n i u p o z y t y w n y c h r e l a c j i N a l e y j e d n a k z a z n a c z y, i o s o b y z z e s p o і e m D o w n a m a j n i e w i e l k s z a n sі r e a l i z o w a n i a o k r efl l o n y c h c z y n n ofl c i z a w o d o w y c h P o z a k o c z e n i u k s z t a і c e n i a m і o d z i e t a z d e r z a s iі z r z e c z y w i s t ofl c i, w k t у r e j b a r i e r y r y n k u p r a c y u t r u d n i a j p o d jі c i e z a t r u d n i e n i a, a c o z a t y m i d z i e u c z e s t n i c t w o w y c i u s p o і e c z n y m P O D S U M O W A N I E A n a l i z u j c k o m u n i k a t y w y d a n e p r z e z C e n t r u m B a d a n i a O p i n i i S p o і e c z n e j m o n a z a u w a y, i n a p r z e s t r z e n i l a t z w iі k s z y і s iі o d s e t e k r e s p o n d e n t у w t w i e r d z c y c h, i s p o і e c z e s t w o p o l s k i e m a p o z y t y w n e n a s t a w i e n i e d o o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h W r a n k i e t o w a n i c i s t a n o w i l i 3 9 % b a d a n y c h, a w r j u 4 6 % b a d a n y c h [ z a : 1 3 ] N a j n o w s z y k o m u n i k a t p o c h o d z c y z r ( u w z g lі d n i a j c y o p i n iі o s у b ) p o k a z u j e, i 4 5 % r e s p o n d e n t у w u w a a і o, i o s o b y n i e p e і n o s p r a w n e s p o z y t y w n i e o c e n i a n e p r z e z P o l a k у w ; 4 8 % b a d a n y c h b y і o p r z e c i w n e g o z d a n i a, a t y l k o 8 % n i e p o t r a f i і o w s p o s у b j e d n o z n a c z n y w y r a z i s w o j e j o p i n i i [ 1 4 ] P o m i m o t e g o, i n a p r z e s t r z e n i l a t n a s t p i і a p o p r a w a p o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h, s p o і e c z e s t w o n a d a l j e s t p o d z i e l o n e, c o p o t w i e r d z a j t a k e b a d a n i a A O s t r o w s k i e j P o k a z u j o n e, i p o n a d p o і o w a a n k i e t o w a n y c h ( 5 2 % ) s t w i e r d z i і a, i s p o і e c z e s t w o m a n e g a t y w n y s t o s u n e k d o o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h, n a t o m i a s t 3 9 % r e s p o n d e n t у w o k r e fl l i і o, i j e s t o n p o z y t y w n y [ 1 5 ] P o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h w i e l o k r o t n i e d e t e r m i n o w a n e s p r z e z r o d z a j n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i W e d і u g A Sі k o w s k i e g o n a j b a r d z i e j n e g a t y w n e p o s t a w y d o t y c z o s у b, u k t у r y c h n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl i d e f o r m a c j e f i z y c z n e s s z c z e g у l n i e w i d o c z n e j u w p i e r w s z y m k o n t a k c i e, j a k w p r z y p a d k u o s у b u p o fl l e d z o n y c h u m y s і o w o, o s у b z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i s p r zі o n, d e f o r m a c j a m i t u і o w i a i i n n y c h c zі fl c i c i a і a o r a z z e z n i e k s z t a і c e n i a m i t w a r z y [ z a : 1 6, s ] S p o і e c z e s t w o w i e l o k r o t n i e o c e n i a j e d n o s t kі b i o r c p o d u w a gі w y і c z n i e j e j w y g l d z e w nі t r z n y, c z y l i j e j w i d o c z n ofl D l a t e g o t e w s z e l k i e o d s tі p s t w a o d u t a r t y c h k a n o n у w p iі k n a t r a k t o w a n e s j a k o p e w i e n r o d z a j s t y g m y, c z y l i n a z n a c z e n i a N i e w t p l i w i e j e s t t a k w p r z y p a d k u o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a, k t у r e c h a r a k t e r y zu j s iі o k r e fl l o n y m i c e c h a m i f e n o t y p o w y m i w y n k a j c y m i z a b b e r a c j i c h r o m o s o m o w e j R J J o n e s s t w i e r d z i і, i ( ) p o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h r у n i c s iі w z a l e n o fl c i o d s t o p n i a f i z y c z n e g o k a l e c t w a, p s y c h o s p o і e c z n y c h i u p o fl l e d z e n i a u m y s і o w e g o i p r z e w i a j s iі p o p r z e z z a c h o w a n i e s p o і e c z n e g o d y s t a n s u w t u a c j a c h s p o і e c z n y c h [ z a : 3, s 8 9 ] T a k e z d a n A G i r y s k i e g o i S P r z y b y l s k i e g o s p o і e c z e s t w o o b a r d z i e j n e g a t y w n i e p a t r z y n a o s o b y z u p o fl l e d z e u m y s і o w y m n i n a o s o b y, u k t у r y c h w y s tі p u j e i n n y r o d z n ie p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i, n p z a b u r z e n i e w z r o k u, c z y s і u c h u N a l e y z a z n a c z y, i p o s t a w y p r a c o w n i k у w o c h r o z d r o w i a w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h s n i e j e d n o k r o n i e o d z w i e r c i e d l e n i e m n i e p r z y c h y l n y c h p o s t a w j a k i e n a d o s t r z e c w s p o і e c z e s t w i e P o t w i e r d z e n i e m t e g o m o b y w y n i k i b a d a j a k i e p r z e p r o w a d z o n o wfl r у d c z і o n k у p e r s o n e l u P O Z ( l e k a r z y, p i e lі g n i a r e k, r e h a b i l i t a n c e p c j o n i s t у w ) W y n i k a z n i c h, i p o s t a w y w o b e c o z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i i n t e l e k t u a l n s p r z e c iі t n s z a a n a l i z a s k і a n i a d o w y s u n iі c i a w n i o s k u, i o s o b y p o s t r z e g a n e s t e r e o t y p o w o, a p e r s o n e l c zі s t o p r z e j a b e c n i c h u p r z e d z e n i a W o p i s i e p a c j e n t a u p o fl l e d z o n i n t e l e k t u a l n i e p a d a і y s t w i e r d z e n i a s u g e r u j c e, i n i e s a m o d z i e l n y, n i e z a r a d n y o r a z m a m a і e z d o l n o fl c i l e k t u a l n e B a d a n i t w i e r d z i l i, i p a c j e n t t e n m a t w n a w i z a n i u k o n t a k t u ( 7 0 % ), n i e u m i e w і afl c i w i e z a p r z e n t o w a o b j a w у w s w o j e j c h o r o b y ( 6 9, 9 % ), n i e r o z u m z a l e c e t e r a p e u t y c z n y c h ( 6 5, 2 % ) o r a z n i e d b a o h i g ( 6 4, 5 % ) N a l e y z a z n a c z y, i p o s t a w y p e r s o n e l u P O Z b a r d z i e j n i e k o r z y s t n e w o b e c o s у b z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i i n t e l e k t u a l n n i o s у b z z a b u r z e n i a m i p s y c h i c z n y m P o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h m o g b y t a k e u w a r u n k o w a n e t a k i m i c z y n n i k a m i, j a k : p і e, w i e k, r o d o w ofl, c z y p o z i o m w y k s z t a і c e n i a o s o b y bі d c e j n o s i c i e l e m p o s t a w y L i c z n e b a d a n i a p o k a z u j, i w p r z e c i w i e s t w i e d o mі c z y z n c zі fl c i e j p r e z e n t u j p w y p o z y t y w n e w o b e c o s у b z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i ( c h n i e j u d z i e l a j i m p o m o c y, c h a r a k t e r y z u j s iі w y s p o z i o m e m a k c e p t a c j i ) [ 1 8 ] M o n a p r z y p u s z c z a, i w k a t o z c e c h j a k i e w p i s a n e s w k o b i e c n a t u rі, t a k t r o s k l i w ofl, o p i e k u c z ofl, a l t r u i z m W i e l e ґ r у d e і t a k e, i o s o b y m і o d s z e ( n p u c z n i o w i e, m і o d z i e d i u j c a ) o r a z p o s i a d a j c e w y s z y p o z i o m w y k s z t a і c e n c hі t n i e j d e k l a r u j g o t o w ofl d o n i e s i e n i a p o m o c y o s o z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i O d m i e n n ofl k u l t u r o w a t a m o e w a r u n k o w a p o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h B a d a n i a p r z e p r o w a d z o n e p r z e z M T W e s t b r o o k, p o k a z u j, i n a r o d o w ofl m o e b y c z y n n i k i e m, k t у r y r у n i c u j e N a j b a r d z i e j p r z y c h y l n e p o s t a w y w o b e c n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h p r e z e n t u j N i e m c y, A n g l i c y i W і o n a t o m i a s t p o s t a w y n e g a t y w n e c h a r a k t e r y s t y c z n e s C h i c z y k у w, G r e k у w i A r a b у w W y m i e n i o n e n a r o d o w o fl c i n a j m n i e j a k c e p t u j o s o b y c h o r u j c e n a A I D S, c h o r o p s y c h i c z n e o r a z o s o b y, u k t у r y c h w y s tі p u j e n i e p e і n o s w n ofl i n t e l e k t u a l n a [ 1 8 ] P o m i m o t e g o, i P o l a c y n i e u w z g lі d n i e n i w b a d a n i a c h, f u n k c j o n u j e p r z e fl w i a d c z e w p o r у w n a n i u d o s p o і e c z n o fl c i k r a j у w z a c h o d n i c h p r z e n t u j ( ) m n i e j s z t o l e r a n c jі w o b e c o d m i e n n y c h z c h o w a o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h, a t y m s a m y m b a r d z i e j o d r z u c a j c e i n i e p r z y c h y l n e w o b e c n i c h p o s t a w y [ z s 9 3 ] 5 0 P i e l g n i a r s t w o X X I w i e k u P o s t a w y s p o і e c z e s t w a w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h z e s z c z e g у l n y m u w z g l d n i e n i e m o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a

5 O g r o m n e z n a c z e n i e w k s z t a і t o w a n i u p o s t a w m o e m i e t a k e p r o c e s i n t e g r a c j i, a w iі c c zі s t o t l i w ofl k o n t a k t у w o s у b z d r o w y c h z t y m i, u k t у r y c h s t w i e r d z a s iі d y s f u n k c j e w a r u n k u j c e n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl P r z e b y w a n i e w t o w a r z y s t w i e o s o b y n i e p e і n o s p r a w n e j u m o l i w i a l e p s z e j e j p o z n a n i e, i d e n t y f i k a c jі j e j p o t r z e b i p r o b l e m у w, a c o z a t y m i d z i e p o z w a l a n a w i z a r e l a c jі o p a r t n a a k c e p t a c j i Z d a n i e m W i s h a r t i J o h n s o n ( ) r z a d k i k o n t a k t i s t e r e o t y p y s p r z y j a j k s z t a і t o w a n i u p o s t a w n e g a t y w n y c h w o b e c d z i e c i z z e s p o і e m D o w n a [ z a : 1 6, s ] W s z e l k i e o g r a n i c z e n i a s p o w o d o w a n e c h o r o b b a r d z o c zі s t o s c z y n n i k i e m s p r z y j a j c y m m a r g i n a l i z a c j i o s o b y, k t у r a s iі z n i z m a g a Z j a w i s k o t o s p r z y j a p o w s t a w a n i u p o d z i a і u n a : m y z d r o w i i o n i n i e p e і n o s p r a w n i K l a s y f i k a c j a t a m o e p r o w a d z i d o w y s t p i e n i a s k r a j n e j p o s t a w y n e g a t y w n e j j a k j e s t p r z e m o c A n a l i z u j c w y n i k i b a d a j a k i e z o s t a і y p r z e p r o w a d z o n e w r p r z e z I n s t y t u t P s y c h o l o g i i P o l s k A k a d e m iі N a u k, m o n a z a u w a y, i p o n a d 3 0 % P o l a k у w z n a p r z y p a d k i s t o s o w a n i a p r z e m o c y w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h [ z a : 1 9 ] D o d a t k o w o n a l e y z a z n a c z y, i b a d a n i a p r z e p r o w a d z o n e p r z e z P M S u l i v a n i J F K n u t s o n w N e b r a s c e p o k a z u j i d z i e c i, u k t у r y c h w y s tі p u j e n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl s 3 4 k r o t n i e c zі fl c i e j m a l t r e t o w a n e p r z e z r o d z i c у w, n i d z i e c i z d r o w e [ z a : 2 0 ] m r o d k i m a s o w e g o p r z e k a z u, t a k i e j a k n p t e l e w i z j a, r a d i o, i n t e r n e t i p r a s a m o g m i e o g r o m y w p і y w n a k s z t a і t o w a n i e p o s t a w w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h W p u b l i k a c j i M I і o w i e c k i e g o m o n a p r z e c z y t a, e a 7 0 % P o l a k у w p o z a k o c z e n i u s w o j e j n a u k i w s z k o l e, z d o b y w a w i e d zі o fl w i e c i e z a p o fl r e d n i c t w e m t e l e w i z j i [ z a : 9 ] W o s t a t n i c h l a t a c h o g r o m n p o tі g s t a і s iі t a k e i n t e r n e t, z k t у r e g o, k o r z y s t a c o r a z w iі c e j P o l a k у w B r a k w і a s n y c h d o fl w i a d c z e o r a z k i e r o w a n i e s iі w y і c z n i e t y m c z y m k a r m i m e d i a m o e s p r z y j a p o w s t a w a n i u k r z y w d z c y c h s t e r e o t y p у w n a t e m a t n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i M e d i a p o k a z u j o s o b y d o t k n iі t e t c h o r o b g e n e t y c z n ( s e r i a l e, r e k l a m y ), j e d n a k m i m o t o n a d a l s o n e p o w o d e m a r t у w i k r z y w d z c y c h k o m e n t a r z y W N I O S K I N a p r z e s t r z e n i m i n i o n y c h e p o k m o n a z a o b s e r w o w a s t o p n i o w e w a l u a c jі p o s t a w w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h : o d i z o l a c j i i s e g r e g a c j i d o i n t e g r a c j i, t o l e r a n c j i i a k c e p t a c j i N a l e y j e d n a k z a z n a c z y, i s t e r e o t y p y, u p r z e d z e n i a i s t y g m a t y n a d a l f u n k c j o n u j w e w s p у і c z e s n y m fl w i e c i e i m a j z w i z e k z t z w p o s t a w a m i u k r y t y m i, c z y l i n i e ufl w i a d o m i o n, a u t o m a t y c z n r e a k c j o c e n i a j c P o s t a w y w o b e c o s у b z m a g a j c y c h s iі z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o fl c i m o n a z a p r e z e n t o w a w p o s t a c i k o n t i n u u m o d p o s t a w n a j b a r d z i e j p o z y t y w n y c h, k t у r e w i s iі z a k c e p t a c j, e m p a t i, i n t e g r a c j, d o p o s t a w m a k s y m a l n i e / s k r a j n i e n e g a t y w n y c h, k t у r e c h a r a k t e r y z u j e, n p p r z e m o c f i z y c z n a, e m o c j o n a l n a, z a n i e d b a n i e, o d r z u c e n i e M o n a w iі c z a u w a y, i p o s t a w y s p o і e c z n e s z і o o n e, r у n o r o d n e i c zі s t o m a j z m i e n n y c h a r a k t e r P o t w i e r d z e n i e m t e g o j e s t d y s o n a n s j a k i w i e l o k r o t n i e m o n a z a u w a y m iі d z y p o s t a w a m i d e k l a r o w a n y m i p r z e z j e d n o s t kі w s p o s у b w e r b a l n y, a j e j z a c h o w a n i e m p r e z e n t o w a n y m w b e z p o fl r e d n i c h r e l a c j a c h z o s o b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n R o z b i e n ofl t a m o e b y s p o w o d o w a n a lі k i e m p r z e d u j a w n i e n i e m r z e c z y w i s t y c h p o s ta w n e g a t y w n y c h ( c zі s t o w r o g i c h ), k t у r e n i e s t o l e r o w a n e p r z e z s p o і e c z e s t w o H L a r k o w a [ z a : 1 8 ] z a u w a y і a, i p o s t a w y w e r b a l n e s z w y k l e p o z y t y w n e, n a t o m i a s t p o s t a w y n i e z w e r b a l i z o w a n e, k t у r e d r z e m i g іі b o k o w c z і o w i e k u s n e g a t y w n e N i e z w y k l e w a n y m a s p e k t e m j e s t p o d e j m o w a n i e p r у b, d z i a і a m a j c y c h n a c e l u k s z t a і t o w a n i e w і afl c i w y c h, p o d a n y c h p o s t a w s p o і e c z n y c h ( t a k e p r a c o w n i k у w o c h r o n y z d r o w i a ) w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h, w t y m o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a O g r o m n e z n a c z e n i e m a t a k e z a p o b i e g a n i e i c h s p o і e c z n e j m a r g i n a l i z a c j i i p r z e c i w d z i a і a n i e t r a n s m i s j i m iі d z y p o k o l e n i o w y c h s t e r e o t y p у w n a t e m a t n i e p e і n o s p r a w n ofl c i P I = M I E N N I C T W O 1 B u j n o w s k a A U w a r u n k o w a n i a p o s t a w s t u d e n t у w p e d a g o g i k i w o b e c o s n y c h L u b l i n : W y d a w n i c t w o U n i w e r s y t e t u M a r i i C u r i e S k і o d o w s k i e j, 2 K a z a n o w s k i Z P r z e m i a n y p o k o l e n i o w e p o s t a w w o b e c o s у b u p o l e d z o n b l i n : W y d a w n i c t w o U n i w e r s y t e t u M a r i i C u r i e S k і o d o w s k i e j, K o s s e w s k a J U w a r u n k o w a n i a p o s t a w N a u c z y c i e l e i i n n e g r u p y z a w o d c j i s z k o l n e j d z i e c i n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h K r a k у w : W y d a w n i c t w o N a u k o g i c z n e j, D u n a j B r e d S і o w n i k w s p у і c z e s n e g o j z y k a p o l s k i e g o K r a k у w : W y d a ; t o m V : N e l s o n T D P s y c h o l o g i a u p r z e d z e G d a s k : G d a s k i e W y d a w n i c t w o P s y 6 C y t o w s k a B E w o l u c j a w z o r у w z a c h o w a i p o s t a w w o b e c l u d z i n i e p e і n o t u a l n i e K w a r t a l n i k P e d a g o g i c z n y ; 1 : M i n c z a k i e w i c z E M Z e s p у і D o w n a K s i g a p y t a i o d p o w i e d z i G d a s k : m o n i a, M i k r u t A S t y g m a t u p o l e d z e n i e u m y s і o w e a r y z y k o z o s t a n i a o f i a r S p e c j a l n a ; 3 : B i e g a n o w s k a A M o d e l n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o c i w m e d i a c h a p o s t a w y w o b e s p r a w n y c h S z k o і a S p e c j a l n a ; 5 : Z a c h a r u k T, Z a r e m b a W N i e p e і n o s p r a w n o І j a k o c z y n n i k d y s k r y m i n u j c m і o d z i e y R a p o r t z b a d a O p i e k a, W y c h o w a n i e, T e r a p i a ; 3 : K o s t r z e w s k i J C e c h y o s o b o w o c i l e t n i c h d z i e c i z z e s p o і e m D o w R o c z n i k i P e d a g o g i k i S p e c j a l n e j ; 1 2 / 1 3 : C h o d k o w s k a 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h n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o c i P r z e g l d P s y c h o l o g i c z n y ; 4 ( 5 4 ) : B o r e c z e k A, O t r b s k i W, W i c e k G U s t o s u n k o w a n i e p r a c o w n i k у w p o z d r o w o t n e j w o b e c p a c j e n t у w z n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o c i i n t e l e k t u a l n y c h i c z n y m i [ w : ] Z a s p a E r e d C h o r o b a, n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o І, c i e r p i e n e c n i c h w t e o r i i i w b a d a n i a c h W a r s z a w a : W y d a w n i c t w o a k a d e m i i P e n e j ; : Z a s p a E, C z a b a і a C z, S t a r z o m s k a M P o s t a w y w o b e c n i e p e і n o s p r a w n o c i i o s s p r a w n y c h C z і o w i e k N i e p e і n o s p r a w n o І S p o і e c z e s t w o ; 1 : D u r d a R N i e w i d z i e І, n i e s і y s z e І, n i e m у w i І N i e b i e s k a L i n i a ; 4 ( 7 5 ) : J a r o s z E N i e p e і n o s p r a w n o І i k r z y w d z e n i e d z i e c i N i e b i e s k a L i n i a ; 4 ( 7 5 ) : P r a c a p r z y jі 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