# ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = = = 25 or 2

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2"

Transcription

1 Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right triangle" (see below) which is a triangle with one of the three angles being 90 degrees. We can use these triangles to determine the heights of buildings, survey property boundaries and determine the length of the waves in the spectrum of colors. Even the heights of mountains on the moon can be determined. This exercise will apply the Pythagorean theorem to calculating wavelengths of light that you will measure. You also will need to do a percent calculation to estimate the error in your result as illustrated below. This illustration above is the general right triangle whose sides have lengths called A, B and C. The angle A is the value in degrees of the angle illustrated. Pythagorean theorem: The ancient Greek mathematical schools discovered that the hypotenuse (side "C" above) of the triangle as well as the sides of the triangle ("A" and "B") are all wonderfully connected in a simple formula. The hypotenuse squared is equal to the sum of the square of each side. This is known as the Pythagorean theorem and can be represented by the following formula: C = A + B ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = = = 25 or 2 C = 25 To find the value of "C" we take the square root of the number since C "squared" means what number times itself will give 25 in this case. The answer in this case is 5. That is, 5 x 5 = 25 or squareroot 25=(25) 1/2 =5 or we would state that C = (25) 1/2 = 5 is the answer for the hypotenuse of a triangle whose sides are 3 and 4. or 5 x 5 =25! ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: USING THE WINDOWS CALCULATOR set in View as Scientific FOR THIS EXAMPLE WE COULD PROCEED AS FOLLOWS (you can use your own calculator) Enter the 3 and click X^2 key then store in memory with the MS key Enter the 4 and click X^2 key then add to memory with the M+ key Recall the Memory with the MR key (you should have the number 25) Then take the square root by clicking the INV (inverse operation) and the X^2 key. If all goes well you will get a 5 for the answer 2 other portable calculators have M+ and MR and X keys but the square root function has it s own key QUESTION 12. USE A SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR FOR THE FOLLOWING Given a triangle whose sides are A = 8 and B = 13 find C? C =? The Wavelength( in very small units called Nanometers or nm) of one of the colors produced by a Helium emission spectrum using a device that sets up a right triangle of physical variables is given ultimately as Wavelength = x B/C in nm! 2 2 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE:Wavelength = x B/C nm with C = ( A + B ) 1/2 by the Pythagorean theorem 2 2 : given A=20 B=10 then C= ( ) 1/2 = ( ) 1/2 = (500) 1/2 =22.36 Hence Wavelength = x B/C= x 10 /22.36 = x = nm units of wavelength. QUESTION14.: Given A =20 B=12 Solve for THE Wavelength using the formula above: Wavelength =?

2 Problem How can we measure the wavelengths of radiation emitted by elements and use them to identify the element? We will explore the colors produced by elements being excited by high voltages (DANGER :DO NOT HANDLE OR TOUCH THE SPECTRUM TUBE APPARATUS while you are touching any plumbing or metal grounds BECAUSE OF THE SHOCK HAZARD. The INSTRUCTOR will demonstrate the correct SAFE handling of the equipment. The dispersion of the colors is produced by a special transparent film called a diffraction grating which looks like a 35 mm glass slide but behaves like a prism or the raindrops that create the rainbow.. See the picture below. Apparatus: Construct the meter stick spectroscope as pictured below: Use the instructors model and this image as a guide. The spectroscope consists of the modified meter stick optical bench: includes meter stick, supports, a diffraction grating, holder with grating(screen holder), a graduated cross stick and holder. Note: Cross stick has an opening slit in the center! Needed Information and Skills It was discovered last century that every element and many compounds will, upon being excited to glow by flame or electricity partial vacuum, produce a unique pattern of colors. Thus, we have a "fingerprint" of an element which can be used to find out whether or not an element is present. How much of the element is present is indicated by the brightness of the unique colors. The brighter the color the greater the amount of the element present. This technique helps scientists determine the composition of many objects. The principles behind the technique you use here is used in medicine to learn about the composition of your blood and, hence,the state of your health. It is also used in criminology to examine various aspects of evidence in crimes and, hence, help solve the crime. The Astronomer analyzes the colors of stars and is able to determine the chemical composition of the Stars as well as motions, temperature etc. and ultimately determine the evolution and fate of stars like our sun. We will be using spectra of colors from excited gases that are called the Emission Spectra. The laboratory contains a SPECTRUM CHART that shows emission spectra from various gases and other types of spectra you encountered in the preparation assignment. The theory on how the grating spreads out light into a spectra depends on the fact that each grating has in our case 600 lines /mm engraved into them. Each of these lines acts as a source of the original light source resulting in 600 images being projected together. This results in waves constructively and destructively interfering with each other. The result is the separation of the colors making up the original source both to the left and right of the original source. You might think of the grating as a device like the prism that separates (disperses) the colors of light produced by glowing objects. We note that the colors within light are waves and are assigned wavelengths (distance between crests of wave). These

3 lengths are very small and are measured as one BILLIONTH of a METER or 10-9 METERS. We give this small unit a name called a NANOMETER ABREVIATED nm. hence, 1 nm = 10-9 meter. Refering to your charts various red colors are around NANOMETERS and Violets are around 400 nm in the size of their wavelengths. NOTE: The laboratory charts are in a meter unit known as an angstrom. Hence, 1nm = 0.1 angstrom or in other words the laboratory charts express visible light as 4000 to 7000 angstrom which in nanometers is 400 to 700. Hence, Just divide any 4 digit angstrom unit by 10 to get a three digit number. USING THE METER STICK SPECTROSCOPE: One look through the grating and through the hole in the cross-stick and centers the gas tube in the opening. The instructor will demonstrate the technique that is illustrated in the following schematic figure. Study this figure keeping in mind the following points: We note in this schematic your eye (see figure) lines up the Spectrum tube image with the OPENING IN THE center of cross stick. Hence, you will use the open slit for aiming. The spectrum of colors are spread out along the cross-stick on the left and right side of the emission tube you aim at. Further note that this exercise is set to work for a distance of 1 meter from the tube to the meter stick as shown in the figure. The colors are the same on either side of the tube image except that the colors closer to the tube are the violet end of the spectrum and the ones further away are the red end. WE WORK WITH THE SPECTRUM TO THE RIGHT (see figure) OF THE TUBE RUNNING FROM VIOLET TO RED IN THIS EXERCISE. In summary: the diffraction grating will split the source of light into two parts. When you look through the grating on the optical bench will see image of the original light source with sets of color images of the source on either side. It is important to center on the meter stick the image of the original spectrum tube when making measurements. The amount of separation seen along the cross-stick called B distance in the figure above of the individual color from the main slit image can by theory beyond this course give us a value for the wavelength. The accurate measuring of the wavelength values determines what element is present in our sample under observation. CALCULATION of WAVELENGTH: The formula for wavelength in NANOMETER units for our diffraction grating apparatus is given from the optical theory of interference in Physics as Wavelength = x B/C In units of nm with C = A 2 + B 2 by the Pythagorean theorem as you can see from the figure We always keep A = 20 centimeters and measure B with our observations. Then we can use this formula to get the wavelength which we do later for the case of helium below.

4 PROCEDURE TO MEASURE THE WAVELENGTHS OF HELIUM 10.Check the setup of the meter stick spectroscope. It is important to set the distance between the cross stick and the grating to 20.0 cm. Thus. the distance A in the figure is fixed at 20 cm or A=20.0 for what follows. BE CAREFUL NOT TO HURT YOUR NEIGHBOR WITH THE METER STICKS BY ACCIDENTALLY POKING THEM. I: B VALUES OF THE TABLE BELOW Reviewing the spectroscope: The grating is in the screen holder. The cross- stick is at right angles to the meter stick optical bench. A = 20 centimeters. USE THE CENTER SLIT OPENING ON THE CROSS-STICK TO AIM THE METER STICK DIRECTLY AT THE CENTRAL IMAGE OF THE TUBE.. The tube source should be about one meter from the cross-stick side of the optical bench. Center the image of the tube and look for first emission line to the right..make SURE OTHER LIGHT SOURCES ARE NOT IN YOUR LINE OF SIGHT OTHERWISE YOU WILL GET LINES FROM THEM!!!!! It helps if you have a partner jot down the values of B for all colors. Which you can place in the table below. NOTE: Take the B MEASUREMENTS FOR THE FOLLOWING COLORS VIOLET, BLUE, STRONG GREEN, YELLOW, STRONG RED, WEAK RED. IGNORE THE WEAK GREEN LINE FOR IT IS NOT ON YOUR CHARTS. For example. If you match A COLOR to the 9 cm. line the distance B is 9 cm. Record this B value in the data table below. You might also note all the other B values for each color at this point. These will range from 7 to 15 cm. II: C VALUES Compute the value of C(see figure) by the Pythagorean theorem C = A 2 + B 2 data table under C column. and record the value(s) in the III: COMPUTE THE WAVELENGTH OF EACH COLOR: the Wavelength IN NANOMETERS by Wavelength = x B/C Record your computed value in the WAVELENGTH column of the data table. This is your computed value. IV; GET THE KNOWN WAVELENGTH VALUES FROM THE CHART: To see how good it is we do the next two steps and get a percent error from the chart(true) value. Consult the large spectrum chart and carefully estimate the value of the wavelength for the yellow line and other colors of Helium and record the values in the CHART:WL column. Thus, CHART:WL is the variable containing the value you read off the chart! V COMPUTE THE % ERROR OF THE WAVELENGTHS: by the following formula WAVELENGTH - CHART:WL % ERROR = X 100 note: negative means Chart:WL> Wavelength CHART:WL HELIUM DATA TABLE A=20 CM computed chart 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' COLOR B C = A 2 + B 2 B / C Wavelength = x B/C WAVELENGTH from CHART % ERROR =(5' -6')/6' X 100 YUCH (EX) = % ("-" means your value < chart) NOTE THE 6 COLORS ARE: VIOLET, BLUE(DIM), GREEN, YELLOW, RED, RED(DIM)

5 Forensic Spectral Analysis: Draw the main lines of the spectrum of the unknowns below. USE THE CHART AND LINK BELOW TO IDENTIFY THE ELEMENT (Link also in class outline) Calculate two primary lines and use the charts to identify the unknown elements or molecules NOTE SPECTRUM WITH THE VIOLET SIDE TO THE LEFT AND RED SIDE TO THE RIGHT! Mark colors and colored lines in appropriate color areas in the rectangular boxes below. Unknown 1 Wavelengths of 2 primary lines = ID= Unknown 2 Wavelengths 2 primary lines = ID= Unknown 3 Wavelength of 2 primary lines= ID= ) Unknown 4 Wavelengths of 2 primary lines= ID= Unknown 5 Wavelengths of 2 primary lines = ID= Unknown 6 Wavelengths of 2 primary lines= ID= LINK to ATOMIC SPECTRA ON THE WEB. Click on a spectra for it's details!

6 Afterthought questions Do these questions after you do the lab. Use the index in "Kutner" and Google if needed to find answers Question 1: Considering Light as a wave the distance between one crest of the wave to the next is called the? Question 2: Approcimately what color would you be observing if you measured a wavelength of light at 600 nm (nano-meters). Question 3: If you measured a wavelength of 10 m (METERS) then you would be observing what type of radiation? Question 4: as in question 3 a wavelength of METERS would be what type of radiation? Question 5: Name two other type of radiations besides light and the types in questions 3 and 4 that are part of the spectrum (electromagnetic radiation)? Question 6 : The band of color from atoms emitting photons of all colors is called a? Question 7: True or False? Each element can emit only certain wavelengths Question 8. What part of the atom falls down to a lower energy level or ground state also emitting a photon of a specific wavelength (color).? We say it makes a transition from one orbit to another Question 9: Define an absorption spectrum Question 10: The wavelength of the Hydrogen alpha (RED) emission line is? nm?. Question 11: The wavelength of the Hydrogen line in the emission spectrum that is Blue in color is called Hydrogen Gamma and has a wavelength of? nm.

### ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block.

1 ATOMIC SPECTRA Objective: To measure the wavelengths of visible light emitted by atomic hydrogen and verify the measured wavelengths against those predicted by quantum theory. To identify an unknown

More information

### From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

### Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

More information

### Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

More information

### Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

More information

### Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

More information

### 5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

More information

### Spectra of Lights: An Interactive Demonstration with Diffraction Gratings

Grades: 4 th 12 th grade Purpose: Students will explore the properties of different types of light bulbs using diffraction grating glasses to reveal the light s unique spectra or fingerprint. The goal

More information

### Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet

Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet Compiled by: Morehead State University Star Theatre with help from Bethany DeMoss Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Corresponding Standards 2 Vocabulary 4 Sizing up the

More information

### Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Jon H. Hardesty, PhD and Bassam Attili, PhD Collin College Department of Chemistry Introduction: In the last lab

More information

### Building your own Spectroscope

Building your own Spectroscope 0-0.341-0.445-0.606-0.872-1.36 Lyman Balmer Paschen n=4 n=8 n=7 n=6 n=5 n=4 ENERGY/10-19 J -2.42-5.45 E 5 2 E 4 2 E 3 2 E E 5 3 4 3 n=3 n=2 (Many other transitions beyond

More information

### Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing 1 Atmosphere Anything missing in between? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is radiated by atomic particles at the source (the Sun), propagates through

More information

### WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

More information

### Blackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION

Blackbody Radiation References 1) R.A. Serway, R.J. Beichner: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5 th Edition, Vol. 2, Ch.40, Saunders College Publishing (A Division of Harcourt

More information

### 1 Laboratory #5: Grating Spectrometer

SIMG-215-20061: LABORATORY #5 1 Laboratory #5: Grating Spectrometer 1.1 Objective: To observe and measure the spectra of different light sources. 1.2 Materials: 1. OSA optics kit. 2. Nikon digital camera

More information

### Use the following image to answer the next question. 1. Which of the following rows identifies the electrical charge on A and B shown above?

Old Science 30 Physics Practice Test A on Fields and EMR Test Solutions on the Portal Site Use the following image to answer the next question 1. Which of the following rows identifies the electrical charge

More information

### Flame Tests & Electron Configuration

Flame Tests & Electron Configuration INTRODUCTION Many elements produce colors in the flame when heated. The origin of this phenomenon lies in the arrangement, or configuration of the electrons in the

More information

### AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

More information

### STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves TEK 8.8C: Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to

More information

### GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

More information

### How To Understand Light And Color

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

More information

### Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes, Holder, and Variac Flashlight

Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom Purpose: To observe the visible spectrum of hydrogen and helium and verify the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes,

More information

### Atoms Absorb & Emit Light

Atoms Absorb & Emit Light Spectra The wavelength of the light that an element emits or absorbs is its fingerprint. Atoms emit and absorb light First Test is Thurs, Feb 1 st About 30 multiple choice questions

More information

### The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:

The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of

More information

### Waves Sound and Light

Waves Sound and Light r2 c:\files\courses\1710\spr12\wavetrans.doc Ron Robertson The Nature of Waves Waves are a type of energy transmission that results from a periodic disturbance (vibration). They are

More information

### P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

More information

### INTRODUCTION FIGURE 1 1. Cosmic Rays. Gamma Rays. X-Rays. Ultraviolet Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Infrared. Ultraviolet.

INTRODUCTION Fibre optics behave quite different to metal cables. The concept of information transmission is the same though. We need to take a "carrier" signal, identify a signal parameter we can modulate,

More information

### Name Class Date. spectrum. White is not a color, but is a combination of all colors. Black is not a color; it is the absence of all light.

Exercises 28.1 The Spectrum (pages 555 556) 1. Isaac Newton was the first person to do a systematic study of color. 2. Circle the letter of each statement that is true about Newton s study of color. a.

More information

### THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL INTRODUCTION When light from a low-pressure gas is subject to an electric discharge, a discrete line spectrum is emitted. When light from such a low-pressure gas is examined with

More information

### Study Guide for Exam on Light

Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

More information

### Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light - Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, visible

More information

### Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

More information

### Review Vocabulary spectrum: a range of values or properties

Standards 7.3.19: Explain that human eyes respond to a narrow range of wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. 7.3.20: Describe that something can be seen when light waves emitted or reflected by

More information

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

### Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry Chem 1111. The Use of the Spectrophotometer and Beer's Law

Purpose To become familiar with using a spectrophotometer and gain an understanding of Beer s law and it s relationship to solution concentration. Introduction Scientists use many methods to determine

More information

### Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment 1. The speed of light found by a Michelson experiment was found to be 2.90 x 10 8 m/s. If the two hills were 20.0 km apart, what was the frequency of the

More information

### Chemistry 111 Lab: Intro to Spectrophotometry Page E-1

Chemistry 111 Lab: Intro to Spectrophotometry Page E-1 SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Absorption Measurements & their Application to Quantitative Analysis study of the interaction of light (or other electromagnetic

More information

### Using the Spectrophotometer

Using the Spectrophotometer Introduction In this exercise, you will learn the basic principals of spectrophotometry and and serial dilution and their practical application. You will need these skills to

More information

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

### SSO Transmission Grating Spectrograph (TGS) User s Guide

SSO Transmission Grating Spectrograph (TGS) User s Guide The Rigel TGS User s Guide available online explains how a transmission grating spectrograph (TGS) works and how efficient they are. Please refer

More information

### Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics

More information

### Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology theremino System - Theremino Spectrometer Technology - August 15, 2014 - Page 1 Operation principles By placing a digital camera with a diffraction grating

More information

### What s in the Mix? Liquid Color Spectroscopy Lab (Randy Landsberg & Bill Fisher)

What s in the Mix? Liquid Color Spectroscopy Lab (Randy Landsberg & Bill Fisher) Introduction: There is more to a color than a name. Color can tell us lots of information. In this lab you will use a spectrophotometer

More information

### Engineering Mini Holiday Lights

1 Engineering Mini Holiday Lights Jeffrey La Favre The small light bulbs we are using for our activities were cut from strings of mini holiday lights. The strings contained 100 light bulbs arranged in

More information

### Modeling the Expanding Universe

H9 Modeling the Expanding Universe Activity H9 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: This activity is produced by the Universe Forum at NASA s Office of Space Science, along with their Structure and Evolution of the

More information

### Preview of Period 3: Electromagnetic Waves Radiant Energy II

Preview of Period 3: Electromagnetic Waves Radiant Energy II 3.1 Radiant Energy from the Sun How is light reflected and transmitted? What is polarized light? 3.2 Energy Transfer with Radiant Energy How

More information

### Energy. Mechanical Energy

Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Electromagnetic Radiation Energy Definition of energy Ability to do work Physicist s definition of work Work = force x distance Force acting upon object over distance

More information

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

### Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand

More information

### ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION

Chem 306 Section (Circle) M Tu W Th Name Partners Date ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Materials: prepared acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), stockroom samples

More information

### Atomic Structure Ron Robertson

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is

More information

### Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

More information

### THE NATURE OF LIGHT AND COLOR

THE NATURE OF LIGHT AND COLOR THE PHYSICS OF LIGHT Electromagnetic radiation travels through space as electric energy and magnetic energy. At times the energy acts like a wave and at other times it acts

More information

### Tech Bulletin. Understanding Solar Performance

Tech Bulletin Understanding Solar Performance Bekaert solar control window films use advanced technology to benefit consumers with quality solutions that enhance comfort and decrease energy use. By understanding

More information

### O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer

2B30: PRACTICAL ASTROPHYSICS FORMAL REPORT: O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer Adam Hill Lab partner: G. Evans Tutor: Dr. Peter Storey 1 Abstract The calibration of a diffraction grating spectrometer

More information

### MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves

Adapted from State of Delaware TOE Unit MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves GOALS: In this Part of the unit you will Learn about electromagnetic waves, how they are grouped, and how each group

More information

### 8.2 Cells and Energy. What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts. CHAPTER 8. Solar cells and chloroplasts

CHAPTER 8 CELL PROCESSES 8.2 Cells and Energy To stay alive, you need a constant supply of energy. You need energy to move, think, grow, and even sleep. Where does that energy come from? It all starts

More information

### Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to:

1 Learning Outcomes EXPERIMENT B4: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1) Analyze the absorbance spectrum of a sample. 2) Calculate the equilibrium constant for

More information

### A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2

North arolina Testing Program EO hemistry Sample Items Goal 4 1. onsider the spectrum for the hydrogen atom. In which situation will light be produced? 3. Which color of light would a hydrogen atom emit

More information

### Semester 2. Final Exam Review

Semester 2 Final Exam Review Motion and Force Vocab Motion object changes position relative to a reference point. Speed distance traveled in a period of time. Velocity speed in a direction. Acceleration

More information

### Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form

More information

### How Landsat Images are Made

How Landsat Images are Made Presentation by: NASA s Landsat Education and Public Outreach team June 2006 1 More than just a pretty picture Landsat makes pretty weird looking maps, and it isn t always easy

More information

### What is Solar Control?

A better environment inside and out. Solar, Safety and Security Window Films: Tech Bulletin Understanding Solar Performance Solar Gard solar control window films use advanced technology to benefit consumers

More information

### CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource

CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource Introduction The following information should be used as a companion to the CPI Links. It provides clarifications concerning the content and skills contained

More information

### Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of:

ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which has more energy, a photon of: 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which

More information

### Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory

u Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory An important tool of the organic chemist is Infrared Spectroscopy, or IR. IR spectra are acquired on a special instrument, called an IR spectrometer. IR is used

More information

### Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science with emphasis on aquatic and vegetation canopy media Autumn 2008 Prof. Emmanuel Boss, Dr. Eyal Rotenberg Introduction Radiation in Environmental sciences Most

More information

### Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

More information

### Be Stars. By Carla Morton

Be Stars By Carla Morton Index 1. Stars 2. Spectral types 3. B Stars 4. Be stars 5. Bibliography How stars are formed Stars are composed of gas Hydrogen is the main component of stars. Stars are formed

More information

### Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total

Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total 1. Calculate the energy in joules of a photon of red light that has a frequency

More information

### - the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times.

Lecture Notes (Applications of Diffraction) Intro: - the iridescent colors seen in many beetles is due to diffraction of light rays hitting the small groovess of its exoskeleton - these ridges are only

More information

### 18.2 Comparing Atoms. Atomic number. Chapter 18

As you know, some substances are made up of only one kind of atom and these substances are called elements. You already know something about a number of elements you ve heard of hydrogen, helium, silver,

More information

### Which month has larger and smaller day time?

ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format

More information

### Q1. The diagram below shows the range of wavelengths and frequencies for all the types of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Q. The diagram below shows the range of wavelengths and frequencies for all the types of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum. X rays, which have frequencies in the range 0 8 0 2 Hz are already marked

More information

### Spectroscopy. Biogeochemical Methods OCN 633. Rebecca Briggs

Spectroscopy Biogeochemical Methods OCN 633 Rebecca Briggs Definitions of Spectrometry Defined by the method used to prepare the sample 1. Optical spectrometry Elements are converted to gaseous atoms or

More information

### The Expanding Universe

Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

### 6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

More information

### Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

More information

### Take away concepts. What is Energy? Solar Energy. EM Radiation. Properties of waves. Solar Radiation Emission and Absorption

Take away concepts Solar Radiation Emission and Absorption 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Conservation of energy. Black body radiation principle Emission wavelength and temperature (Wein s Law). Radiation vs. distance

More information

### 2 Spectrophotometry and the Analysis of Riboflavin

2 Spectrophotometry and the Analysis of Riboflavin Objectives: A) To become familiar with operating the Platereader; B) to learn how to use the Platereader in determining the absorption spectrum of a compound

More information

### Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

More information

### THE EFFECT OF COLOUR FILTERS ON SOLAR PANELS. Katie Fitzgerald Expo Project Grade 7

THE EFFECT OF COLOUR FILTERS ON SOLAR PANELS Katie Fitzgerald Expo Project Grade 7 OBSERVATION By using a solar light instead of electricity, one can assist in lightening the load on our environment. By

More information

### Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets?

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy Multiple Choice 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? A. They are also rocky and small. B. They

More information

### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

INTRODUCTION The Electromagnetic Spectrum I. What is electromagnetic radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum? What do light, X-rays, heat radiation, microwaves, radio waves, and gamma radiation have

More information

### Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

More information

### Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

More information

### Science Focus 9 Space Exploration Topic Test

SPACE EXPLORATION UNIT TEST ASSESSMENT Student Name Class 1. The axis for the frame of reference to identify locations on the earth are A. Equinox and Solstice B. Ecuador and Madagascar C. Equator and

More information

### Photosynthesis and Light in the Ocean Adapted from The Fluid Earth / Living Ocean Heather Spalding, UH GK-12 program

Photosynthesis and Light in the Ocean Adapted from The Fluid Earth / Living Ocean Heather Spalding, UH GK-12 program Algae, like your Halimeda, and plants live in very different environments, but they

More information

### Teacher s Resource. 2. The student will see the images reversed left to right.

Answer Booklet Reflection of Light With a Plane (Flat) Mirror Trace a Star Page 16 1. The individual students will complete the activity with varying degrees of difficulty. 2. The student will see the

More information

### Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy. Presentation Materials

Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy Presentation Materials The Electromagnetic Spectrum E = hν ν = c / λ 1 Electronic Transitions in Formaldehyde 2 Electronic Transitions and Spectra of Atoms

More information

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

### Lecture 14. Introduction to the Sun

Lecture 14 Introduction to the Sun ALMA discovers planets forming in a protoplanetary disc. Open Q: what physics do we learn about the Sun? 1. Energy - nuclear energy - magnetic energy 2. Radiation - continuum

More information

### Light. What is light?

Light What is light? 1. How does light behave? 2. What produces light? 3. What type of light is emitted? 4. What information do you get from that light? Methods in Astronomy Photometry Measure total amount

More information

### Background Information

1 Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS/MS) Background Information Instructions for the Operation of the Varian CP-3800 Gas Chromatograph/ Varian Saturn 2200 GC/MS/MS See the Cary Eclipse Software

More information

### A remote sensing instrument collects information about an object or phenomenon within the

Satellite Remote Sensing GE 4150- Natural Hazards Some slides taken from Ann Maclean: Introduction to Digital Image Processing Remote Sensing the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information

More information

### Copyright 1999 2010 by Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 12

Introduction to Absorbance Spectroscopy A single beam spectrophotometer is comprised of a light source, a monochromator, a sample holder, and a detector. An ideal instrument has a light source that emits

More information

### Experiment IV: Atomic Spectra and the Bohr model

P19: INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS III Experiment IV: Atomic Spectra and the Bohr model Department of Physics and Astronomy Dartmouth College 6127 Wilder Laboratory Hanover, NH 03755 USA Overview In this lab, we

More information

### Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Size

Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple concepts show why the answer is yes. Size Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Relative Absolute What does relative vs. absolute size mean? Why

More information

### Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Instructor: Joseph Maclennan TOPIC 3 - Resonance and the Generation of Light http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1230 How do we generate light? How do we detect light? Concept

More information