The Economic Footprint of Michigan s Fifteen Public Universities

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1 December 10, 2013 The Economic Footprint of Michign s Fifteen Public Universities Prepred by: Json Horwitz Smnth Superstine Commissioned by: Presidents Council, Stte Universities of Michign Anderson Economic Group, LLC 1555 Wtertower Plce, Suite 100 Est Lnsing, Michign Tel: (517) Fx: (517) Anderson Economic Group, LLC, 2013 Permission to reproduce in entirety grnted with proper cittion. All other rights reserved.

2 Tble of Contents I. Executive Summry...1 Report Purpose... 1 Economic Footprint vs. Net Economic Impct... 1 Overview of Approch... 2 Overview of Findings... 2 About Anderson Economic Group... 5 II. The Stte Universities of Michign: An Overview...6 University Expenditures... 8 Student Spending III. Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign...13 Definition of Economic Footprint University nd Student Spending in Michign Totl Economic Footprint in Michign IV. Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign...18 Student Enrollment Degrees V. Alumni of Public Universities in Michign...25 Stte University Alumni Alumni Ernings Appendix A. Methodology...A-1 Geogrphicl Anlysis... A-1 Acdemic Progrm Definitions... A-1 Estimting Economic Footprint... A-2 Alumni t Public Universities in Michign... A-7 Appendix B. About the Authors...B-1 Anderson Economic Group... B-1 Authors... B-1 Anderson Economic Group, LLC

3 Executive Summry I.Executive Summry Michign is home to some of the erliest institutions of public higher eduction in the country. Michign s public universities begn with the estblishment of the University of Michign in Detroit in 1817, while Michign ws still territory. The most recent ddition ws Sginw Vlley Stte University ner Sginw in Michign s network of public higher eduction institutions now includes 15 four-yer universities scttered cross the stte. They collectively enroll over 300,000 students. Michign s public universities enhnce the qulity of life for students, lumni, nd residents in mny wys. While the totl historicl, culturl, socil, nd economic benefits tht these universities provide to the stte re in some wys immesurble, we cn mesure the economic footprint of Michign s public universities. This footprint includes: spending by the schools, employees, nd students; ctivity by Michign compnies tht rely upon Michign universities for their business; jobs nd slries t the universities themselves; nd, to n extent, jobs nd slries in the cities nd towns tht the universities occupy. The economic footprint of Michign s public universities is mnifest in the everydy lives of hundreds of thousnds of Michign residents. The cities nd towns surrounding these universities re replete with stores, contrctors, nd households tht depend on the presence of the universities nd their students for income. Michign s public universities employ residents nd spend billions of dollrs tht support locl businesses in literlly every county in the stte. REPORT PURPOSE The Presidents Council, Stte Universities of Michign (PCSUM) commissioned Anderson Economic Group (AEG) to perform comprehensive nd rigorous nlysis of the economic footprint of the stte s 15 public universities. In this report, we quntify the totl economic footprint of the 15 universities, estimting the totl spending, ernings, nd employment tht they support in the Stte of Michign. We lso provide ggregte informtion bout the universities students nd lumni. ECONOMIC FOOTPRINT VS. NET ECONOMIC IMPACT This report presents our estimte of the economic footprint of Michign s public universities, which includes ll spending, employment, nd ernings t the universities, s well s the indirect effects of tht ctivity. For definition of indirect effects, see Definition of Economic Footprint on pge 13. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 1

4 Executive Summry The methodology in this report differs mrkedly from the net economic impct estimtes we report in other studies, such s the nnul University Reserch Corridor (URC) benchmrking nd economic impct reports. A university s economic footprint is defined s the employment, ernings, nd spending in region tht re relted to ll economic ctivity by tht university. A university s net economic impct is defined s the employment, ernings, nd spending in region cused by the university, nd excludes ll employment, ernings, nd spending tht would hve occurred in region even without the university s presence. For exmple, in the bsence of given university, opertions t other universities in the stte would expnd to receive more students; the lnd tht university occupies might insted contin houses, prk, or frmlnd; nd some employees tht work t tht university would hve job elsewhere in the stte. The net economic impct cptures the extent to which the economic ctivity supported by university exceeds the economic ctivity tht would hve occurred in its bsence. The footprint, on the other hnd, cptures ll spending regrdless of wht might occur in the universities bsence. See Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign on pge 13 for longer discussion of the difference between economic footprint nd net economic impct. OVERVIEW OF APPROACH In order to estimte the economic footprint of Michign s public universities, we consider ll of the spending by the universities nd students nd estimte wht proportion of it occurs in the stte. Dt on universities, students, nd lumni were provided by the 15 public universities in Michign. This dt ws corroborted by the Integrted Postsecondry Eduction Dt System (IPEDS), federl dt source on higher eduction institutions. We then estimte the totl direct nd indirect spending, employment, nd ernings supported by public universities in the stte using industry-specific nd regionl multipliers. See Appendix A. Methodology on pge A-1 for more detils on our methods nd importnt ssumptions. The economic footprint presented in this report is for the 2012 fiscl yer (FY 2012). For most schools, this covers spending from July 1, 2011 through June 30, OVERVIEW OF FINDINGS We found tht Michign s public universities mke significnt contribution to the stte s economy. Our min findings re s follows: 1. Some universities use different 12-month period for fiscl yer reporting purposes. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 2

5 Executive Summry 1. The 15 public universities in Michign supported $24 billion in spending in the stte in The 15 public universities in Michign spent $7 billion on pyroll for Michign residents nd $3 billion t Michign compnies for goods nd services in In ddition, students tht ttended these universities spent pproximtely $4 billion in the stte, for totl of $14 billion in direct spending in Michign. This ctivity hd n indirect effect of nerly $10 billion, s it supported spending by employees nd vendors of Michign universities, s well s vendors tht serve students. The result is combined $23.9 billion in spending in Michign supported by economic ctivity t the 15 public universities in the yer TABLE 1. Economic Footprint of Michign s 15 Public Universities, Spending in Michign, FY 2012 (billions) Direct Indirect Totl Pyroll Spending $7.0 $3.0 $10.0 Non-pyroll Spending $3.1 $3.5 $6.5 Student Spending $4.3 $3.1 $7.4 TOTAL $14.4 $9.5 $23.9 Source: Michign s public universities, BEA RIMS II Multipliers, AEG Estimtes Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Note: Numbers do not sum to totls due to rounding. See Spending on pge 16 for more informtion. 2. The 15 public universities in Michign collectively supported lmost 122,000 full-time equivlent jobs nd more thn $12 billion in ernings in the stte in Spending by the universities, their students, nd their vendors results in jobs nd ernings t the universities themselves nd t locl businesses. We estimte tht, in ddition to the 71,000 full-time equivlent (FTE) employees tht work for the universities, there re 51,000 FTE employees sttewide whose jobs re supported by university nd student spending. This represents totl of 122,000 FTE jobs in the stte tht re relted to public university ctivities. 2 Similrly, in ddition to the $7 billion in slries nd wges pid directly to Michign residents by the schools ech yer, we estimte tht n dditionl $5 billion in ernings in Michign is supported by university nd student spending. 2. Full-time equivlent (FTE) employment t universities is defined s ll full-time employees plus one-third of prt-time employees. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 3

6 Executive Summry This represents totl of $12 billion in ernings in the stte tht re relted to public university ctivities. TABLE 2. Economic Footprint of Michign s 15 Public Universities, Employment nd Ernings in Michign, FY 2012 Direct Indirect Totl Jobs (FTE) 70,720 51, ,749 Ernings (billions) $7.0 $5.2 $12.2 Source: Michign s public universities, BEA RIMS II Multipliers, AEG Estimtes Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC See Ernings nd Jobs on pge 17 for more informtion. 3. The 1.3 million lumni of Michign s public universities residing in Michign represent 62% of the college-educted popultion in the stte, nd erned totl of $47 billion in slries nd wges in the yer Of the 2.1 million lumni of Michign public universities worldwide, over hlf of them continue to live nd work in Michign. They collectively hd $47 billion in ernings in the stte in 2012, which is 25% of the stte s totl nnul ernings. In ddition, over three in five residents with bchelor s degree or higher in Michign ttined tht degree t one of the stte s 15 public universities. See Alumni of Public Universities in Michign on pge 25 for more informtion. 4. Public university enrollment grew by 5% from fll 2002 to fll 2012 despite shrinking stte popultion. Annul degree completions incresed even fster in this time period, by 13%. Michign s public universities enroll over 300,000 students. This is the sixthhighest enrollment totl of ny stte s public universities in the ntion. Enrollment hs grown over the pst ten yers, despite the stte s shrinking popultion. In ddition, degree nd certificte completions continue to grow quickly for Michign s public universities. The universities wrded 21,000 dvnced degrees nd 46,000 bchelor degrees in the yer 2012, up from 19,000 nd 38,000, respectively, in Figure 1 on pge 5 shows the increse in enrollment nd degrees t the 15 stte universities in Michign since See Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign on pge 18 for more informtion. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 4

7 Executive Summry FIGURE 1. Enrollment nd Degrees t Public Universities, , , ,000 Enrollment fll of corresponding yer 301,470 68,000 66,000 64,000 62,000 Degrees nd Certifictes 66, , , ,864 60,000 58,000 56,000 59, , , Source: IPEDS, Michign s public universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC ABOUT ANDERSON ECONOMIC GROUP Anderson Economic Group, LLC is reserch nd consulting firm specilizing in economics, public policy, finnce nd business vlution, nd mrket nd industry nlysis. The firm hs offices in Chicgo, Illinois, nd Est Lnsing, Michign. AEG hs conducted economic nd fiscl impct studies for privte, public, nd non-profit clients cross the United Sttes. For more informtion, plese visit Anderson Economic Group, LLC 5

8 The Stte Universities of Michign: An Overview II.The Stte Universities of Michign: An Overview The Presidents Council, Stte Universities of Michign (PCSUM) provides common orgniztion for the presidents nd chncellors of Michign s public universities to discuss higher eduction finnce nd policy issues. The 15 member schools re: 1. Centrl Michign University 2. Estern Michign University 3. Ferris Stte University 4. Grnd Vlley Stte University 5. Lke Superior Stte University 6. Michign Stte University 7. Michign Technologicl University 8. Northern Michign University 9. Oklnd University 10.Sginw Vlley Stte University 11.The University of Michign-Ann Arbor 12.The University of Michign-Derborn 13.The University of Michign-Flint 14.Wyne Stte University 15.Western Michign University Ech yer, these universities educte more thn 300,000 students nd wrd tens of thousnds of degrees to students from every county in the stte, every stte in the country, nd mny countries cross the world. Stte universities re locted cross the stte, nd mny of them hve stellite cmpuses which further extend their rech. Mp 1 on pge 7 shows the cmpus loctions of the public universities in Michign This mp includes ll min cmpuses nd stellite cmpuses. It excludes extension centers. We define stellite cmpus s n dditionl cmpus tht offers full degree progrms nd hs full time students on-site. We consider n dditionl cmpus to be n extension center if it is ffilited with community college, high school, community center or prtnership between multiple universities; or if it does not offer full degree progrms on-site. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 6

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10 The Stte Universities of Michign: An Overview UNIVERSITY EXPENDITURES In the process of providing eduction, performing reserch, nd engging in mny other ctivities, the 15 public universities in Michign bring significnt resources to ber in every county in the stte. In this section, we discuss spending by public universities on pyroll nd non-pyroll goods nd services, s well s student spending. Lter in the report, we discuss the economic footprint of these expenditures. University Opertions Yer-round, universities mke significnt expenditures. They spend money for the following purposes: Pyroll, which includes spending on slries, wges, nd benefits; Non-pyroll, which includes goods nd services provided by third-prty vendors. Non-pyroll expenditures include the following ctegories: 4 Instruction; Reserch; Acdemic Support, which includes operting expenses for ctivities nd services tht support the primry missions of instruction, reserch, nd public service, such s retention nd preservtion of eductionl mterils, dentl clinics tht support instruction of dentl students, cdemic dministrtion including offices of dens, nd course nd curriculum development; Public Service, which includes expenses for community services, coopertive extension services, nd public brodcsting services; Student Services, which includes operting expenses ssocited with dmissions, registrr ctivities, culturl events, student orgniztion, creer guidnce, nd other socil development outside of forml instruction; Institutionl Support, which includes generl dministrtive services, legl nd fiscl opertions, nd other operting expenses for opertionl support for institutions; Auxiliry Enterprises, which include self-supporting opertions such s residence hlls, student services, nd unions; Opertion nd Mintennce (O&M) of Plnt; Hospitl Services; Athletics; nd Construction. The mjority of expenditures in fiscl yer (FY) 2012 were for pyroll (61%). The lrgest non-pyroll expenditures were for construction nd hospitl services. Figure 2 on pge 9 shows the proportion of public university spending by function for FY See the Ntionl Center for Eduction Sttistics IPEDS glossry for further detils. nces.ed.gov/ipeds/glossry. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 8

11 The Stte Universities of Michign: An Overview For pyroll spending, the gretest mount of spending tends to occur in the counties in which cmpuses re locted. For non-pyroll spending, res in which universities re locted hve high concentrtions of spending, but there is lrger proportion of goods nd services sourced from Southest Michign (Wyne County, in prticulr) thn other res. See Appendix A. Methodology on pge A-1 for how we estimted spending in ech ctegory. University Employees nd Pyroll. In fll 2012, the stte universities collectively employed 71,691 full-time-equivlent (FTE) fculty nd stff members. 5 These employees erned nerly $5.4 billion dollrs in slries nd wges, nd received n dditionl $1.7 billion in employee benefits. This spending, s shown on Mp 2 on pge 11, reches every county in the stte. The employment nd ernings tht remin in Michign contribute to the stte universities economic footprint in the stte, which is discussed in Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign on pge 13. University Non-pyroll Spending. In totl, the stte public universities spent nerly $4.5 billion on non-pyroll goods nd services in FY The lrgest mount ws spent on construction, t 32% of totl non-pyroll spending. As shown on Mp 3 on pge 12, non-pyroll spending reched every county in Michign. The vendor pyments tht sty in Michign contribute to the universities economic footprint in the stte, which we discuss in Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign on pge 13. FIGURE 2. Spending by Public Universities in Michign, FY 2012 (millions) $147 $1,446 Slries, Wges, & Benefits Instruction & Acdemic Support $766 Reserch $546 $719 $407 $457 $7,095 Public Service, Student Services, Institutionl Support, Auxiliry Enterprises, & Other Expenses Opertion nd Mintennce of Plnt Hospitl Services Athletics Source: Michign's public universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Construction 5. Ech prt-time employee counts s 1/3 FTE. Ech full-time employee counts s 1 FTE. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 9

12 The Stte Universities of Michign: An Overview STUDENT SPENDING As we discuss in Student Enrollment on pge 18, the public universities in Michign educte students from cross the stte, the country, nd the world. While tuition is significnt portion of the cost of ttending the universities, these students spend money on- nd off-cmpus on other goods nd services in the following ctegories: Room nd bord on cmpus; Off-cmpus rent nd food; Books nd supplies; Apprel nd other bsic needs; nd Mels nd entertinment off cmpus. We estimte tht students spent over $4.4 billion in 2012 on non-tuition goods nd services while ttending stte universities in Michign. The mjority of student spending (52%) ws on off-cmpus rent nd food, followed by spending on off-cmpuses mels nd entertinment, nd room nd bord, which ccounted for 18.8% nd 12.4% of student spending, respectively. Figure 3 below shows student spending t the universities. See Appendix A. Methodology on pge A-1 for how we estimted spending in ech ctegory. FIGURE 3. Spending by Students t Public Universities in Michign, FY 2012 (millions) $832 $549 Room & Bord Off-cmpus Rent & Food $455 Books & Supplies $266 Apprel & Other Bsic Needs $2,314 Off-cmpus Mels & Entertinment Source: Michign's public universities, College InSight, 2012 Consumer Expenditure Survey, AEG Estimtes Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Most of this spending remins in Michign, contributing to economic ctivity in the stte. The economic footprint of student spending is discussed in Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign on pge 13. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 10

13 Mp 2. Pyroll Expenditures by Michign County, 2012 $86,076K $1,497K $172K $363K $812K $50,499K $1,399K $205K $14,875K $188K $601K $1,296K $320K $664K $356K $1,665K $1,208K $879K $442K $1,097K $465K $144K $791K $1,152K $670K $4,812K $348K $100K $136K $197K $638K $1,413K $624K $768K $690K $414K Miles Pyroll Expenditures by County $100,311 - $999,999 $1,000,000 - $9,999,999 $10,000,000 - $49,999,999 $50,000,000 - $99,999,999 $100,000,000 - $499,999,999 $628K $1,076K $474K $6,968K $5,071K $1,045K $913K $104,243K $13,718K $1,180K $53,790K $18,739K $5,399K $3,295K $1,068K $9,143K $69,165K $4,931K $36,187K $9,254K $7,560K $85,122K $6,085K $54,241K $4,730K $7,175K $63,539K $29,856K $134,654K $463,795K $71,694K $185,924K $11,541K $4,914K $59,131K $694,097K $16,192K $177,778K $595,110K $2,162,117K $500,000,000 - $2,162,116,690 Cmpus Loctions Min Cmpus $3,204K $976K $1,969K $1,217K $2,399K $55,877K $80,302K Source: Esri, Inc.; Michign's Public Universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Note: Totls by county my not dd to direct economic footprint due to differences in reporting methods. See Appendix A, "Methodology." Anderson Economic Group, LLC 11

14 Mp 3. Non-Pyroll Expenditures by Michign County, 2012 $18,307K $216K $176K $386K $556K $12,877K $182K $63K $4,879K $94K $561K $1,243K $43K $706K $257K $2,216K $1,669K $380K $207K $1,029K $265K $30K $629K $229K $199K $10,400K $177K $217K $734K $101K $114K $5,741K $122K $137K $256K $522K $2,135K $4K $587K $1,071K $689K $479K Non-Pyroll Miles Expenditures by County $4,220 - $999,999 $1,000,000 - $9,999,999 $10,000,000 - $49,999,999 $50,000,000 - $99,999,999 $100,000,000 - $499,999,999 $500,000,000 - $547,175,776 Cmpus Loctions Min Cmpus $94K $273K $2,897K $12,672K $13,408K $5,347K $6,034K $6,187K $7,382K $1,412K $29,651K $1,318K $172,627K $21,015K $2,136K $3,596K $4,544K $64,106K $106K $176K $178K $606K $1,590K $2,608K $1,254K $622K $1,516K $490K $618K $1,719K $38,411K $29,188K $23,888K $4,659K $868K $25,601K $513,373K $258,914K $1,044K $355,568K $547,176K Source: Esri, Inc.; Michign's Public Universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Note: Totls by county my not dd directly dd to direct economic footprint due to differences in reporting methods. See Appendix A, "Methodology." Anderson Economic Group, LLC 12

15 Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign III.Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign In the previous section, we discussed the totl opertions nd spending of the public universities nd their students. In this section, we will discuss how university opertions trnslte into lrge economic footprint in the Stte of Michign. While educting students, performing reserch, nd engging in countless other ctivities, Michign s public universities support significnt mount of spending, jobs, nd ernings in Michign. We ggregte the spending, jobs, nd ernings ssocited with the following sources of economic ctivity to estimte the universities economic footprint: Pyroll spending; Non-pyroll spending; nd Student spending. Michign s 15 public universities lso hve lrge number of lumni tht continue to live nd work in Michign. We discuss the size of the lumni bse nd their ernings in Michign in Alumni of Public Universities in Michign on pge 25. DEFINITION OF ECONOMIC FOOTPRINT The economic footprint described in this section includes ll spending, employment, nd ernings ssocited with public university opertions nd student spending. The stte universities nd their students contribute to the Michign economy in two wys: 1. The direct effect of the universities economic ctivity includes spending, employment, nd ernings tht re directly ttributble to the universities opertions in the stte, including hiring Michign residents nd pying Michign compnies for goods nd services. 2. The indirect effect of the universities economic ctivity occurs s dollrs recirculte throughout the Michign economy. Suppliers for the universities re prt of supply chin nd hve vendors of their own who benefit indirectly from university spending. In ddition, employees use their wges to buy groceries from the locl grocery store, nd contrctors my use their revenues from the universities to buy new equipment or expnd their office spce. Even then, dollrs continue to circulte s grocery store owners nd equipment providers now hve more money to purchse goods nd services in the stte. We estimte the totl spending, ernings, nd jobs supported by public universities in Michign by dding the direct nd indirect effects. See Appendix A. Methodology on pge A-1 for detils of our estimtion methods. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 13

16 Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign Difference Between Economic Footprint nd Net Economic Impct In this report, we present the economic footprint of Michign s public universities. In other studies, such s our nnul University Reserch Corridor (URC) benchmrking nd economic impct report, we estimte the net economic impct of institutions in defined region. 6 A university s economic footprint is defined s the employment, ernings, nd spending in region tht re relted to ll economic ctivity by tht university. A university s net economic impct is defined s the employment, ernings, nd spending in region cused by the university, nd excludes ll employment, ernings, nd spending tht would hve occurred in region even without the university s presence. For exmple, in the bsence of given university, opertions t other universities in the stte would expnd to receive more students; the lnd tht university occupies might insted contin houses, prk, or frmlnd; nd mny of the employees tht work t tht university would hve job elsewhere in the stte. Tht university s net economic impct cptures the extent to which the economic ctivity relted to university exceeds the economic ctivity tht would hve occurred in its bsence. For the nnul URC report, for exmple, we clculte net economic impct by first estimting totl locl spending by the universities tht mke up the URC, nd then subtrcting out ll spending tht would likely occur in the region in the bsence of those universities. In this report, we estimte the economic footprint of ll public universities in the stte. This includes ll spending, employment, nd ernings t those universities, s well s the indirect effects of tht ctivity. We present economic footprint insted of net economic impct becuse the chrcteristics of hypotheticl Michign economy in the bsence of ny four-yer public universities is too unpredictble to properly nlyze. We generlly do not pply net economic impct nlysis to n entire sttewide sector. Since we estimte economic footprint insted of net economic impct, we cnnot sy with confidence whether the spending we ttribute to the universities would hve hppened even in the universities bsence, s we cn with net economic impct estimte. We cn, however, sy tht the economic footprint describes the scope of economic ctivity by the universities nd their students in the stte, s well s the indirect effects of tht spending on locl vendors nd households. 6. Erin Grover, Colby Spencer, nd Alex Rosen, Empowering Michign: Sixth Annul Economic Impct Report of Michign s University Reserch Corridor, Anderson Economic Group, Jnury 4, Anderson Economic Group, LLC 14

17 Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign UNIVERSITY AND STUDENT SPENDING IN MICHIGAN To estimte the stte universities economic footprint in Michign, we include only spending nd employment tht occurs in the stte. Our estimtes for spending in the stte re presented below. Further detils on specific ctegories of expenditures cn be found in Appendix A. Methodology on pge A-1. University Pyroll Spending As discussed in University Expenditures on pge 8, in 2012, the stte public universities employed 71,691 FTE fculty nd stff, nd spent $7.1 billion on pyroll expenses. Close to 99% of these employees reside in Michign. Specificlly, we estimte tht 70,720 fculty nd stff re Michign residents, nd $7.0 billion in pyroll expenditures occur in the stte. University Non-Pyroll Spending Erlier in the report, we discussed the mgnitude of the university expenditures on non-pyroll goods nd services, estimting totl expenditures in FY 2012 to be $4.5 billion. We estimte tht 68%, or $3.1 billion, of tht spending goes to Michign vendors. The proportion of spending tht stys in Michign is lower for non-pyroll spending thn for pyroll spending becuse mny universities source goods nd services from outside of Michign. We do not include out-ofstte spending in our economic footprint estimtes. Spending by Students As described in Student Spending on pge 10, the students t Michign s public universities spend over $4.4 billion nnully. We estimte tht $4.3 billion of tht is spent in Michign. TOTAL ECONOMIC FOOTPRINT IN MICHIGAN Direct spending spending by universities nd students in the stte further spurs dditionl, indirect economic ctivity, s described in Definition of Economic Footprint on pge 13. The totl economic footprint of the public universities in Michign in terms of spending, ernings, nd jobs is summrized in Tble 3 below. The rest of this section provides further detils on spects of the economic footprint. TABLE 3. Totl Economic Footprint for Public Universities in Michign, FY 2012 Direct Indirect Totl Spending (billions) $14.4 $9.5 $23.9 Ernings (billions) $7.0 $5.2 $12.2 Jobs (FTE) 70,720 51, ,749 Source: Michign s public universities, College InSight, BEA RIMS II Multipliers Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 15

18 Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign Spending University pyroll nd non-pyroll spending, long with student spending, totl $14.4 billion in Michign. When we dd indirect spending in the Michign economy to direct spending, totl spending comes to $23.9 billion for FY Tble 4 below shows the totl footprint by source for public universities in Michign. TABLE 4. Totl Spending Supported by Public Universities in Michign, FY 2012 (billions) Direct Indirect Totl Pyroll Spending $7.0 $3.0 $10.0 Non-pyroll Spending $3.1 $3.5 $6.5 Student Spending $4.3 $3.1 $7.4 Totl $14.4 $9.5 $23.9 Source: Michign s public universities, College InSight, BEA RIMS II Multipliers Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Note: Numbers do not sum to totls due to rounding. As shown bove, ech spending source contributes significntly to the economic footprint of the public universities in Michign. Figure 4 below shows the proportion of the economic footprint ttributble to ech ctegory of spending, highlighting tht direct pyroll spending ccounts for the gretest proportion of the footprint, followed by direct student spending. FIGURE 4. Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign, FY 2012 (millions) $3,061 ; 13% $3,484 ; 15% $2,997 ; 12% $4,310 ; 18% $7,009 ; 29% $3,060 ; 13% Direct Pyroll Spending Direct Non-pyroll Spending Direct Student Spending Indirect Spending Supported by Pyroll Spending Indirect Spending Supported by Non-pyroll Spending Indirect Spending Supported by Student Spending Source: Michign's public universities, College InSight, BEA RIMS II Multipliers Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 16

19 Economic Footprint of Public Universities in Michign Ernings nd Jobs As the universities, their employees, nd their students spend money on goods nd services in the stte, they support jobs nd ernings for Michign residents. The combined footprint for public universities is 121,749 jobs for Michign residents, nd $12.2 billion in ernings. Tble 5 below shows the direct nd indirect effects public universities hve on jobs nd ernings in Michign. TABLE 5. Totl Ernings nd Employment Supported by Public Universities in Michign, FY 2012 Direct Indirect Totl Ernings (billions) $7.0 $5.2 $12.2 Employment 70,720 51, ,749 Source: Michign s public universities, BEA RIMS II Multipliers Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 17

20 Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign IV.Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign In 2012, the stte s public universities educted more thn 300,000 students, nd wrded nerly 67,000 degrees nd certifictes. In this section, we discuss the student body of Michign s 15 public universities. STUDENT ENROLLMENT The public universities in Michign enroll hundreds of thousnds of students every yer. Compred to the public universities in the fifty sttes cross the U.S., the group of public universities in Michign enrolled the 6th-highest number of totl students in fll As shown in Mp 4 on pge 22, Mp 5 on pge 23, nd Mp 6 on pge 24, the students t these universities represent every county in Michign, every stte in the U.S., nd nerly 160 countries cross the world. Of the students enrolled in fll 2012, 81% were from Michign, 11% were from other sttes in the U.S., nd 7% were interntionl. This out-of-stte enrollment shre is below verge, compred to tht for public universities in other sttes. Figure 5 below shows the brekdown of student residency. FIGURE 5. Student Origins t Public Universities in Michign, Fll 2012 Interntionl students; 21,064 Out-of-stte students; 34,065 In-stte students; 246,341 Source: Michign's public universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC In fll 2012, there were 301,470 students enrolled in stte universities in Michign. Of those students, 78% were undergrdute students. This proportion is slightly higher thn it ws decde go, since there re more thn 20,000 dditionl undergrdute students t public universities thn there were in Stu- 7. Ntionl Center for Eduction Sttistics, IPEDS, Fll Enrollment, Anderson Economic Group, LLC 18

21 Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign dent enrollment incresed by lmost 7% between 2001 nd 2012, s shown in Figure 6 below. FIGURE 6. Enrollment t Public Universities in Michign, Fll 2001-Fll , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,000 Grdute Enrollment Undergrdute Enrollment 50, Source: IPEDS, Michign's public universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC DEGREES In 2012, stte universities in Michign wrded nerly 67,000 degrees nd certifictes, 13% increse since The lrgest growth during this time period ws in the number of bchelor degrees wrded, which grew by more thn 16% between 2003 nd Figure 7 below shows the growth in completions by level. FIGURE 7. Completions by Level of Degree t Public Universities in Michign, ,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 59,414 61,280 61,618 61,573 62,717 63,367 63,845 64,429 65,392 66,957 2,595 2,663 2,803 3,058 2,905 2,787 2,756 2,887 2,642 2,722 37,607 38,615 38,901 39,190 40,478 41,260 41,171 42,037 42,617 43,645 Associte Degrees & Certifictes Bchelor Degrees 20,000 10,000-19,212 20,002 19,914 19,325 19,334 19,320 19,918 19,505 20,133 20, Source: IPEDS Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Advnced Degrees Anderson Economic Group, LLC 19

22 Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign Stte universities offer degrees nd certifictes in nerly every subject. We ctegorize degrees nd certifictes in the following ctegories: Physicl Science, Agriculture, nd Nturl Resources; Business, Mngement, nd Lw; Engineering, Mthemtics, nd Computer Science; Humnities; Medicine nd Biologicl Science; Socil Sciences; nd, Other. 8 Of the 67,000 degrees nd certifictes wrded to 2012 grdutes, 27% were in the humnities fields, which include degrees nd certifictes in english, eduction, theology, performing rts, nd history, mong others. The second lrgest degree ctegory ws business, mngement, nd lw. Figure 8 below shows the proportion of degrees nd certifictes for ech degree ctegory. FIGURE 8. Degrees nd Certifictes by Field of Study t Public Universities in Michign, ,773 ; 13% 11,745 ; 18% 5,134 ; 8% 13,059 ; 19% 2,049 ; 3% 7,911 ; 12% Physicl Science, Agriculture, nd Nturl Resources Business, Mngement, nd Lw Engineering, Mthemtics, nd Computer Science Humnities Medicine nd Biologicl Science Socil Sciences 18,286 ; 27% Other Source: IPEDS Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC As shown in Figure 9 nd Figure 10 on pge 21, the proportion of degrees by field of study differs between bchelor nd dvnced degrees. For ech level, humnities degrees mke up the lrgest portion. Business, lw, nd mngement degrees; medicine nd biologicl science degrees; nd engineering, mthemtics, nd computer science degrees represent higher shre of dvnced degrees 8. See Acdemic Progrm Definitions on pge A-1 for list of the degrees included in ech field of study. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 20

23 Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign thn bchelor degrees. Undergrdutes receive higher proportion of degrees in socil sciences. FIGURE 9. Bchelor Degrees by Field of Study t Public Universities in Michign, ,834 ; 16% 7,075 ; 16% 3,701 ; 8% 7,766 ; 18% 1,249 ; 3% 4,658 ; 11% Physicl Science, Agriculture, nd Nturl Resources Business, Mngement, nd Lw Engineering, Mthemtics, nd Computer Science Humnities Medicine nd Biologicl Science 12,362 ; 28% Socil Sciences Other Source: IPEDS Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC FIGURE 10. Advnced Degrees by Field of Study t Public Universities in Michign, ; 3% 1,887 ; 9% 689 ; 3% Physicl Science, Agriculture, nd Nturl Resources Business, Mngement, nd Lw 4,145 ; 20% 4,850 ; 24% Engineering, Mthemtics, nd Computer Science Humnities 5,227 ; 26% 3,137 ; 15% Medicine nd Biologicl Science Socil Sciences Other Source: IPEDS Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 21

24 Mp 4. Students by Michign County, Fll , , , , Students Miles 1,000-4,999 5,000-9,999 10,000-44,494 Cmpus Loctions Min Cmpus , ,850 1, ,935 15,177 9, , , ,997 2, ,778 2, , ,626 6,456 2, ,514 5,188 1,456 1,565 5,457 10,345 44,494 2,005 1,105 2,101 12,617 43, , ,123 Source: Esri, Inc.; Michign's Public Universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 22

25 Mp 5. Students by U.S. Stte, Fll 2012 WA 441 MT 59 ND 70 MN 1,116 ME 86 OR 205 CA 3,140 NV 103 ID 77 UT 189 AZ 270 WY 63 CO 430 NM 117 SD 36 NE 106 KS 184 TX 961 OK 95 IA 224 MO 326 AR 58 LA 119 WI 1,827 IL 5,775 MS 55 TN 282 AL 100 MI 245,644 IN 1,123 KY 190 OH 3,201 GA 721 WV 48 SC 144 NC 490 PA 1,144 VA 785 MD 901 NY 2,799 NJ 1,416 DE 35 VT 87 NH 100 MA CT RI 56 FL 1,037 AK 76 HI 111 Source: Esri, Inc.; Michign's Public Universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 23

26

27 Alumni of Public Universities in Michign V. Alumni of Public Universities in Michign In Students nd Degrees t Public Universities in Michign on pge 18, we discussed the student body of Michign s public universities. Mny of these students grdute nd continue to live nd work in Michign fter grdution, contributing to the locl nd stte economies. In this section, we discuss the size nd scope of the lumni bse for public universities in Michign. STATE UNIVERSITY ALUMNI Worldwide, there re more thn 2.1 million living lumni tht ttended Michign s public universities. These lumni live in ech county in Michign, ech stte in the U.S., nd more thn 170 countries. Of the 2.1 million living lumni, nerly 1.3 million live in Michign, representing roughly 18% of the Michign popultion ged 22 nd older. 9 In ddition, the 1.3 million lumni living in Michign ccount for 62% of ll residents in the stte with bchelor s degree or higher. 10 Most of the lumni living in Michign (67%) grduted with bchelor degree s the highest degree erned from stte university. An dditionl 29% of lumni grduted from stte universities with n dvnced degree s the highest erned, nd 5% of lumni grduted with n ssocite s degree or from nondegree progrm. Figure 11 on pge 26 shows the number of lumni living in Michign by highest degree erned t stte university. 11 See "Mp 7. Alumni by Michign County" on pge 27, "Mp 8. Alumni by U.S. Stte" on pge 28, nd "Mp 9. Alumni by Country" on pge 29 to find where Michign s public university lumni currently reside. 9. According to the U.S. Census Bureu, Michign hd 7,025,433 residents ged 22 nd up s of July 1, According to the Current Popultion Survey (CPS), there were 1.98 million residents living in Michign who hd bchelor s degree or higher in the yer Unclssified lumni re due to grdutes receiving ssocite s degrees nd certifictes. Additionlly, some universities consider those who took clsses but did not receive degree s lumni; these types of lumni re lso included in our nlysis. Our estimtes re conservtive, nd do not ccount for degrees tht my hve been erned t other universities. See Appendix A. Methodology on pge A-1. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 25

28 Alumni of Public Universities in Michign FIGURE 11. Stte University Alumni Living in Michign, by Highest Degree Achieved, ,474 Bchelor Degree 365,230 Advnced Degree 857,097 Other Source: Michign's public universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC ALUMNI EARNINGS Alumni of the Michign public universities re importnt to the stte in mny wys. One wy to mesure their importnce is through the vlue of their work in the stte. We estimte tht in 2012, the 1.3 million lumni in Michign erned lmost $47 billion, which represented more thn 25% of totl ernings in Michign. 12 For further informtion on how we rrived t this estimte, see Appendix A. Methodology on pge A The Bureu of Lbor Sttistics (BLS) Qurterly Census of Employment nd Wges (QCEW) estimted nnul verge wges in Michign in 2012 to be $183.9 billion. Anderson Economic Group, LLC 26

29 Mp 7. Alumni by Michign County 5, , , ,484 15,293 1,233 4, ,525 5,966 1,850 4,030 5,852 2,737 1,482 3,535 2,813 2, ,250 2,327 16,906 1,203 1, ,614 3,535 1,073 2,374 1,590 2,471 Miles Alumni by County ,000-4,999 5,000-19,999 20,000-39,999 40,000-74,999 75, ,239 Cmpus Loctions Min Cmpus 3, ,357 3,737 15,683 37,191 4,947 3,535 86,380 5,003 8,820 9,623 4,966 14,551 7,643 36,527 1,377 2,670 2,508 1,918 3,471 8,633 12,838 12,873 6,664 3,426 4,929 49,729 10,733 14,071 24,456 7,034 27,314 46,781 13,087 2,284 3,449 2,389 10,160 2,311 7,329 8,282 14, ,239 76, ,252 98,278 Source: Esri, Inc.; Michign's Public Universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 27

30 Mp 8. Alumni by U.S. Stte WA 20,865 OR 10,902 CA 88,249 NV 6,748 ID 2,497 UT 3,651 AZ 24,708 MT 2,466 WY 1,375 CO 25,896 NM 5,328 ND 904 SD 1,018 NE 2,428 KS 4,543 TX 40,957 OK 3,150 MN 18,548 IA 5,034 MO 9,615 AR 2,530 LA 3,350 WI 27,165 IL 71,891 MS 1,825 IN 23,732 TN 12,985 AL 5,248 MI 1,279,801 KY 6,678 OH 44,876 GA 27,028 WV 1,644 SC 9,832 PA 21,522 VA 30,726 NC 26,185 NY 41,757 MD DE 22,359 1,825 VT 2,114 NH 3,375 MA 18,350 CT 9,269 NJ 16,891 ME 2,953 MA 18,350 FL 62,594 AK 2,859 HI 3,969 Source: Esri, Inc.; Michign's Public Universities Anlysis: Anderson Economic Group, LLC Anderson Economic Group, LLC 28

31

32 Appendix A. Methodology This ppendix describes how dt sources were used to crete the mps included in this report nd the methodology used to complete our economic footprint nlysis. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS All of the mps in this report were creted using Geogrphic Informtion Softwre (GIS), using dt provided by the stte universities. Mp 2, Pyroll Expenditures by Michign County, 2012, on pge 11 is bsed on pyroll dt provided by the stte universities for FY If universities provided informtion by county, we used tht dt directly. If universities provided the informtion by zip code, we used only the pyroll dt for vlid zip codes, nd pportioned it to the mtching Michign county. We used the sme pproch for Mp 3, Non-pyroll Expenditures by Michign County, 2012, on pge Mp 4, Students by Michign County, Fll 2012, on pge 22; Mp 5, Students by U.S. Stte, Fll 2012, on pge 23; nd Mp 6, Students by Country, Fll 2012, on pge 24 were creted using dt provided by the stte universities. Universities provided the dt for the residence of students enrolled in Fll We did not include students whose ddresses were invlid (i.e. 4-digit zip code). There ws not significnt number of these students. Mp 7, Alumni by Michign County, on pge 27; Mp 8, Alumni by U.S. Stte, on pge 28; nd Mp 9, Alumni by Country, on pge 29 were mde following the sme methodology s the mps showing students by loction. ACADEMIC PROGRAM DEFINITIONS The cdemic progrm res used in Degrees on pge 19 re bsed on the Ntionl Center for Eduction Sttistics Clssifiction of Instructionl Progrms (CIP) codes tht they use in their Integrted Postsecondry Eduction Dt System (IPEDS). The composition of ech progrm re is s follows: The Physicl Science, Agriculture, nd Nturl Resources cdemic progrm re includes the following fields of study: griculture, griculture opertions, nd relted sciences; nturl resources nd conservtion; nd physicl sciences. The Business, Mngement, nd Lw cdemic progrm re includes the following fields of study: legl professions nd studies; business, mngement, mrketing, nd relted support services; nd public dministrtion. The Engineering, Mthemtics, nd Computer Science cdemic progrm re includes the following fields of study: rchitecture nd relted services; computer 13.The pyroll nd non-pyroll spending by county my not dd up to the spending footprint due to reporting differences between wht the universities provided, nd wht is reported in IPEDS. Anderson Economic Group, LLC A-1

33 nd informtion sciences nd support services; engineering; nd mthemtics nd sttistics. The Humnities cdemic progrm re includes the following fields of study: re, ethnic, culturl, nd gender studies; communiction, journlism, nd relted progrms; eduction; foreign lnguges, litertures, nd linguistics; fmily nd consumer sciences/humn sciences; English lnguge nd literture/letters; liberl rts nd sciences, generl studies nd humnities; librry science; multi/interdisciplinry studies; philosophy nd religious studies; theology nd religious voctions; humn services, generl; visul nd performing rts; nd history. The Medicine nd Biologicl Science cdemic progrm re includes the following fields of study: biologicl nd biomedicl sciences; nd helth professions nd relted clinicl sciences. The Socil Sciences cdemic progrm re includes the following fields of study: socil sciences; psychology; public policy nlysis; nd socil work. The Other cdemic progrm re includes the following fields of study: personl nd culinry services; prks, recretion, leisure, nd fitness studies; Homelnd security, lw enforcement, firefighting, nd relted protective services; construction trdes; mechnic nd repir technologies/technicins; precision production; trnsporttion nd mterils moving; communictions technologies/technicins nd support services; engineering technologies/technicins; militry technologies nd pplied sciences; community orgniztion nd dvoccy; public dministrtion nd socil service professions, other; nd science technologies/technicins. ESTIMATING ECONOMIC FOOTPRINT We define economic footprint s the ggregte spending, jobs, nd ernings in Michign tht re ssocited with the ctivity of the 15 public universities in Michign. Economic footprint includes both direct effects nd indirect effects, s described below: 1. The direct effect of the universities economic ctivity includes spending, employment, nd ernings tht re directly ttributble to the universities opertions in the stte, including hiring Michign residents nd pying Michign compnies for goods nd services. 2. The indirect effect of the universities economic ctivity occurs s dollrs recirculte throughout the Michign economy. Suppliers for the universities re prt of supply chin nd hve vendors of their own who benefit indirectly from university spending. In ddition, employees use their wges to buy groceries from the locl grocery store, nd contrctors my use their revenues from the universities to buy new equipment or expnd their office spce. Even then, dollrs continue to circulte s grocery store owners nd equipment providers now hve more money to purchse goods nd services in the stte. To estimte indirect spending, we multiplied direct spending by finl demnd output multipliers relesed by the U.S. Deprtment of Commerce s Regionl Input- Anderson Economic Group, LLC A-2

34 Output Modeling System (RIMS II). We estimted the indirect jobs nd ernings using RIMS II direct-effect multipliers. Spending We estimte the direct nd indirect spending for the following sources of economic ctivity: University pyroll spending; University non-pyroll spending; nd Student spending. Our economic footprint nlysis is shown in detil in Tble A-3 on pge A-6. Pyroll Spending. In order to estimte the mount of pyroll spending (wges, slries, nd employee fringe benefits) in the Stte of Michign, we relied on dt from the stte universities, who provided us with the dt they submit to IPEDS for FY We then used the dt they provided for wges by zip/county to estimte the proportion of pyroll going to Michign residents. We multiplied this proportion by totl pyroll reported to IPEDS to estimte the wges nd benefits going to Michign residents. Non-pyroll Spending. In order to estimte the non-pyroll spending in Michign, we used dt provided by the stte universities. Universities provided pyments by zip code. We pplied the proportion of pyments to vendors in the stte, ccording to university dt, to the mount of non-pyroll spending reported in IPEDS for FY We used school dt nd professionl judgment to determine ny differences in the percentge of spending remining in stte by function. 14 Student Spending. To clculte the student spending in Michign, we used dt provided by the stte universities on the number of students tht lived on- nd offcmpus t stte universities. We then estimted the student spending for severl ctegories of living expenses: Room nd bord; Off-cmpus rent nd food; Books nd supplies; Apprel, food & grocery, nd other bsic needs; nd Mels & entertinment off-cmpus. 14.For exmple, public service expenditures, which include community services, extension services, nd brodcsting, re more likely to occur in Michign. For thletics, mny of the recruiting expenses my ctully tke plce outside of Michign. Reserch my involve purchsing specilized equipment outside of the stte. These re the considertions we kept in mind while determining the proportion of in-stte spending by function. Anderson Economic Group, LLC A-3

35 For ech ctegory, we estimted totl spending for the totl number of students, with the exception of books nd supplies, which we clculted on n FTE-bsis. Dt for books nd supplies is from College InSight. 15 We obtined room nd bord costs for on-cmpus grdute nd undergrdute students from the stte universities. Spending on pprel, food nd grocery, bsic needs, nd mels nd entertinment off-cmpus re tken from the 2012 Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) on nnul expenditures by eductionl ttinment. We multiplied ech of these vlues by 75% to ccount for time tht the students spend on cmpus during the yer. To estimte the mount spent by undergrdutes living on cmpus, we used CES dt for pprel nd needs, s well s mels off-cmpus nd entertinment for ll consumers, to be conservtive. 16 For students living off-cmpus, we ssumed tht spending ws 10% higher for housing nd food, nd pprel nd needs, nd 20% higher for offcmpus mels nd entertinment. We ssumed tht grdute students pid, on verge, 10% more for books nd supplies thn undergrdute students. For pprel nd needs, s well s off-cmpus mels nd entrinment, we used the sme CES dt, but ssumed n eductionl ttinment level of bchelor s degree. We lso ssumed tht off-cmpus expenses were 10% higher for pprel nd needs, nd 20% higher for mels offcmpus nd entertinment. All vlues re in 2012 U.S. dollrs. We ssumed ll room nd bord spending ws in Michign. For the rest of the ctegories, we ssumed tht some spending took plce outside of Michign, llowing for vctions, trips, nd online purchses. We lso llowed for 35% of books nd supplies to be purchsed online, resulting in spending outside the stte. Employment To estimte the employment in Michign supported by the stte universities, we used the number of FTE employees tht work for the stte universities. We lso used dt from the universities to determine wht proportion of those employees live in Michign. We then pplied the BEA RIMS II direct-effect employment multipliers to estimte the dditionl indirect sttewide employment in industries supported by the stte universities. For school fculty nd stff, we used the multiplier for the 15.College InSight is n inititive of the Institute for College Access & Success, nd provides dt sourcing from IPEDS, Pell Grnt files, Fiscl Opertions Report nd Appliction to Prticipte files, nd Common Dt Set files. Dt cn be found t college-insight.org. 16.Spending for ll consumers is lower thn for those with bchelor s degree. We ssume undergrdute students do not yet hve bchelor s degree, nd therefore used the vlue for ll consumers. Anderson Economic Group, LLC A-4

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