# Small Commercial Business Energy Audits. Recognizing and addressing the special requirements of the small business market segment.

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1 Small Commercial Business Energy Audits Recognizing and addressing the special requirements of the small business market segment.

2 Class 4 Class 4: Lighting Fundamentals Basic Lighting Technology Advanced Lighting Technologies The Lighting Survey

3 Class 4 Reading Assignment Review

4 Class 4 Why Does Lighting Matter? Lighting represents about 22% of electricity consumption in typical retail store, not including effect on cooling loads Lighting retrofits can save 30-50% of lighting energy, as well as 10-20% of cooling energy 4 Lighting is a major determinant of workers satisfaction with their indoor environment, and has been shown to directly affect productivity

5 Class 4 Lighting Technologies 3 Generations Fluorescent & HID Incandescent Improving efficiencies (lumens per watt) LED

6 Class 4 Lighting Technology: Efficacy Efficacy = lumens per watt Source: Virginia Energy Savers Handbook (2005)

7 Class 4 Lighting Terminology: Basic Ballast Candela Efficacy Efficiency Fixture Footcandle Lamp Life Lens Lumen Reflector

8 Class 4 Lighting Fixture Types Lighting fixtures may send all or most of their light downward (A), upward (B), or a mixture of the two (C). Discussion: What do you think are the implications of the different ways these fixture distribute light?

9 Class 4 Lighting Power Density (LPD) Maximum lighting power permitted per unit area of a building classification or space function. Expressed as the ratio of lighting power consumption to floor area: Watts per Square Foot (W/ft 2 ) Used in standards and code to define allowable lighting installations Let s do a practice calculation.

10 Class 4 Basic Lighting Retrofit Calculation Savings = (Existing W New W) x Burn Hours/yr. Sample Problem If a fixture currently uses a 60-watt bulb, and is left on 4 hours per day, how much will you save by switching to a 13-watt CFL bulb for the same number of hours? DISCUSSION: What happens to the retrofit savings if the number of burn-hours is reduced by controls?

11 Class 4 Newer Technologies T5, T5HO and High-Performance T8 HID sources (metal halide, high-pressure sodium) LED Induction lighting (outdoors) Next generation technologies

12 Class 4 High-Performance Fluorescents and HID T5, T5HO and HPT8 High-output fixtures for high-bay applications HID improves characteristics of high-pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH) Low-wattage lamps Good color rendering properties Higher efficacy, longer average rated life and greater light output than incandescent lamps DIMMABLE with special ballast daylight harvesting ; can be used with occupancy controls

13 Class 4 T5 and T5HO Lamps 5/8 in diameter 40% smaller than T8 lamps; almost 60% smaller than T12 lamps Need special ballasts to operate Slightly shorter, so cannot replace T8 or T12 lamps without changing sockets and ballasts Standard output: 14, 21, 28 and 35 watts High-output (T5HO): 24, 39, 54 and 80 watts Efficacy equivalent to T8 lamps, but compact size reduces materials used in manufacture, potential for toxic substance contamination, and packaging materials so may have less environmental impact

14 Class 4 High Performance T8 Systems HPT8 can be considered against T5 Fixtures can be re-fitted Improved lamp and ballast performance Higher lumens Longer life Higher CRI rating No issues with dimming

15 Class 4 LED Lighting Systems Very high efficiency % of fluorescent wattage for similar light output Longer lamp life - up to 100,000 hours (5-10 times fluorescent lamp life) Very effective and efficient for colored light applications, as they require no filtering Dimmable Lots of activity in creating retrofit kits

16 Class 4 LED Lighting Systems Increase efficiency at low temperatures (where fluorescents lose efficiency) Makes them especially effective for refrigerated cabinet retrofits

17 Class 4 LED Lighting Systems Barriers and Disadvantages High first-cost, but declining Point sources fixture must mask or glare can result Pure color source must be blended and/or filtered to produce whites at various points on spectrum ( warm-to-cool ) Must provide for high heat dissipation at electronics New technology early failure risk Photo Credit: U.S. Dept. of Energy

18 Class 4 Next Generation Fiber Optic Fiber Optic cable excited by source, such as solar or LED High CRI provides bright, accurate illumination purest white light available No UV radiation, so no material fading Lights without transmitting heat through the cable, so reduces ambient temperature and heat risk to merchandise Many light points serviced by only one illuminator allowing for easy access for routine maintenance

19 Class 4 Next Generation Induction Lighting Contain no electrodes or filaments, so has an extremely long lamp life (up to 100,000 hrs.) Can produce a substantial amount of light in a relatively compact package High installed cost, but can be cost-effective in applications where maintenance is difficult, hazardous or costly (e.g., escalator wells, highceilinged spaces, parking garages, signage, exterior pedestrian lighting) Lower-wattage induction lamps (20 and 23 watts) also available as direct replacements for medium-base and CFL lamps Photo Credit: Philips

20 Class 4 The Lighting Survey Used to compile detailed information on lighting systems from an electrical and light distribution standpoint.

21 Class 4 The Lighting Survey: Key Steps Identify, define, designate AREAS that will be surveyed rooms and other areas, by building, floor, etc. Identify, designate and document the types of fixtures and lighting technologies, including controls Determine operating hours in various spaces Conduct the room-by-room survey Measure lighting levels for a sampling of all types of areas and fixtures

22 Class 4 The Lighting Survey: Other Considerations Method of hanging Height of tasks & fixture mounting height Ceiling type Lighting quality issues Room surface reflectances Colors of major objects and room surfaces Occupant feedback/complaints Strategy: Use a tablet computer to help make your lighting survey more comprehensive. Take photos of spaces and fixtures; sketch a floor plan and add details during your walkthrough; refer to spec sheets on the fly.

23 Small Commercial Business Energy Audits Recognizing and addressing the special requirements of the small business market segment.

24 Class 5 Class 5: Lighting Controls & Commissioning Lighting controls Schedule- and Occupancy-based Daylighting Lighting Quality (Intro) Commissioning

25 Class 5 Reading Assignment Review

26 Class 5 Controls Scheduling at lighting control panels Occupancy sensors Automatic dimming controls & daylighting

27 Class 5 Occupancy Sensors Good application for rooms or areas with periodic use patterns Provide cost-effective energy savings without compromising lighting service to occupants Sensor performance is based upon: Sensitivity degree to which sensor can detect motion Field of view angle of view, determining both coverage area and coverage pattern Coverage area physical limits of sensor s ability to detect motion

28 Class 5 Occupancy Sensor Types PIR (Passive Infrared) Changes in temperature across segmented field of view Ultrasonic Doppler Shift of frequency of bounced sound waves Sound waves not blocked by partitions, corners Hybrid Combines both technologies in a single device

29 Class 5 Performance & Application Proper Specification Matters Sensor location: Wall, ceiling Sensor location: Range of detection and obstructions Sensor selection: Wrong type for kind of motion in the area

30 Class 5 Sensor Issues & Strategies Operational Issues False triggering Failure to turn on False turn-off (failure to see occupant) Vacancy Sensor manual on, automatic off Ultrasonic waves reflecting from a moving object, changing in pitch and bouncing back toward sensor Design Strategies Automatic on-switching for public areas; manual for private/semi-private areas Reduce sensitivity of sensor or reposition to prevent false triggering Make sure people can see which luminaires are turning on and off when they push a manual switch Make sure controlled luminaire groups correspond to occupancy patterns

31 Class 5 Occupancy Sensors: Bi-Level Lighting Use when you don t want to turn off lighting completely Control alternate fixtures Pre-wired fixtures

32 Class 5 Daylighting Benefits Energy savings Reduced operational costs Reduced maintenance (shorter burn hours) Look for architectural features and opportunities. Simple Daylighting Techniques A mix of top- and side-lighting, light shelves, high-reflectance ceilings, and wall diffusion provides fairly uniform deep-plan daylighting without the glare of direct sun.

33 Class 5 Daylighting Dimmable ballasts required Sensor maintains setpoint lighting level dims electric lighting in relation to available day light Control perimeter fixtures

34 Class 5 Solatube Tubular daylighting uses passive technology to balance illumination intensity, consistency, and thermal performance Captures the sun s rays at the roof level, then transfers them indoors through highly reflective tubing

35 Class 5 Commissioning the Lighting System After Installation Make sure light levels meet design levels Make sure color (CCT) is as specified Aim accent lights Calibrate lighting controls to ensure all lighting systems perform as designed

36 Class 5 Lighting Quality Goals of an effective and efficient lighting system: Provide enough light for people to see and work comfortably throughout the day Provide bright and uniform lighting in a space (with some caveats) Do not create glare, distracting reflections, or discomfort for workers or visitors Make colors and skin tones appear natural

37 Class 5 Lighting Quality: Getting A Retrofit That Works Energy Savings Client Satisfaction

38 Class 5 Lighting Quality: Getting A Retrofit That Works

39 Class 5 More Lighting Terminology Color Rendering Index Correlated Color Temperature Glare Illuminance Light distribution Light level Luminance Luminous intensity Luminous efficiency

40 Class 5 Illuminance Levels The IESNA Lighting Handbook provides recommended illuminance levels for various applications.

41 Small Commercial Business Energy Audits Recognizing and addressing the special requirements of the small business market segment.

42 Class 6 Class 6: Lighting Quality Lighting Quality Color Glare and Other Retrofit Design Considerations

43 Class 6 Reading Assignment Review

44 Class 6 Light Meter Lab Considerations Different tasks require difference levels of illuminance The IESNA provides a reference for recommended light levels A light meter is used to measure illuminance, or the density of luminous power Equipment Light meter

45 Class 6 Light Meter Lab Exercise 1. Using the light meter, measure the illuminance levels in four different spaces (indoor/outdoor) 2. Compare your measured readings with those recommended by the IESNA; note whether your measurements fall within the recommended ranges 3. Discuss if those ranges feel appropriate to you. Additional Resources The Lighting Handbook, IESNA, 10 th Edition

46 Class 6 Color and Light Correlated color temperature (CCT) specification of the color appearance of the light emitted by a lamp, measured in degrees Kelvin (K) Gives a good indication of lamp s general appearance Warm = 2,700K, Cool = 10,000K Color Rendering Index (CRI) ability of a lamp to render colors, on a scale of CRI of 70 or higher assures that colors and skin tones appear natural CRI of 80 or higher recommended in high-end retail stores where rendering of skin tones and merchandise is key Changes in color characteristics may improve a store environment, but should be approached carefully, with preretrofit sample installations.

47 Class 6 Color Rendering Index (CRI) Color rendering can have a HUGE impact in the display of product!

48 Class 6 Correlated Color Temperature

49 Class 6 Glare Fixtures that are uncomfortably bright to look at or work under (direct glare) Fixtures that cause reflections in computer screens (indirect/reflected glare) Rule of Thumb: Select lighting fixtures that do not direct a lot of light toward people s eyes or onto their computers. Luminous intensity: Amount of light coming from a fixture in a particular direction, measured in candelas (cd) The number of candelas a fixture will produce at various angles will indicate whether comfortable to look at or too bright

50 Class 6 Spacing Criteria Fixtures should not be installed too far apart from each other or too far away from the walls Incorrect spacing causes uneven lighting and areas that will be too dark for people to see properly Always install within manufacturer s recommended spacing criteria Distance between walls and adjacent lighting fixtures should not exceed ½ of manufacturer s spacing criteria Special fixtures (wall-wash) can be used to direct light onto walls or to the ceiling (fixtures suspended from the ceiling)

51 Class 6 Lighting Design Considerations Appearance of space and light fixtures should fit the image of the business Color appearance Direct glare Reflected glare Horizontal and vertical illuminance Light distribution on surfaces Points of interest (accent lighting) Luminance of room surfaces System control and flexibility

52 Class 6 Understanding lighting needs What first impression do you want to have on visitors? (e.g., high-tech, modern, new, bright, spacious) What does the lighting system have to do? What tasks or activities? Will computers be used? What atmosphere should the lighting create? (intimate like a restaurant vs. bright, spacious like an office)

53 Class 6 Lighting Types Ambient: General lighting, usually provided with fixtures mounted on, into or near the ceiling; lighting people need to move around the space Accent: Lighting that makes the space more interesting or is used to direct people s attention to areas of interest (e.g., decorative, wall sconces, track lighting) Task: Provided in particular areas where people will be performing a certain task (e.g., desk lighting offices, lighting over a check-out counter in a retail store)

54 Class 6 How do these types of lighting work together? What is the relationship between ambient and accent lighting? How do you reduce the need for ambient lighting? Focal highlighting Quantity of light on displays Aiming flexibility of accent lighting

55 Class 6 Lighting Equipment Selection Basics Light distribution (diffuse, directional) Performance characteristics (lumen output, life, color, wattage) How light should enter the space (down, up, sideways)

56 Class 6 Special Effects Modeling of object/shadows Visual priority/organization

57 Class 6 Store Types and Typical Lighting Configurations Store type: Basic High-activity, self-service Mass merchandising/discount stores hardware, fast food, grocery, bulk sales Lighting purpose: Light all merchandise uniformly; good visibility for reading labels; bright, clean stimulating environment Lighting strategy: Ambient lighting with limited accent lighting Lighting Levels: fc ambient lighting

58 Class 6 Store Types and Typical Lighting Configurations Store type: Intermediate Average level of activity, most common type Clothing, stationery, beauty shop, gourmet shops, accessories, housewares, furniture, small objects Lighting purpose: Sufficient uniform illumination to see and examine product and read labels Lighting strategy: Ambient lighting with limited accent lighting Lighting Levels: fc ambient lighting, fc accent lighting

59 Class 6 Store Types and Typical Lighting Configurations Store type: Higher-end Lower level of customer activity, more personalized sales assistance, more expensive/exclusive merchandise Jewelry, gifts, antiques, fine clothing/accessories Lighting purpose: Sufficient uniform illumination to see and examine product and read labels Lighting strategy: Ambient + limited accent Lighting Levels: fc ambient, fc accent lighting

60 Class 6 Color Temperature Lab Considerations What is color temperature? Why is color temperature an important consideration in retail environments? How does color affect consumer behavior? Equipment Chroma meter Light box or similar setup with multiple bulb types/color temperatures Sample retail items (e.g., clothing, food, jewelry, makeup)

61 Class 6 Color Temperature Lab Exercise 1. Configure light box or similar setup with multiple light bulb types/temperatures 2. Use Chroma Meter to measure color temperatures produced by different bulbs 3. Place retail items in light box, observe changes in appearance; take notes on differences in appearance when viewed under various color temperatures Additional Resources Webinar: Fundamentals of Color, Konica Minolta

62 Class 6 Case Studies Energy-related(e.g., delamping may be possible if using lamps with higher color temperature [e.g., 4100 K vs K] that give off more blue light) Behavioral (i.e., light and shopping behavior)

Guide to new, energy-efficient lighting technologies for your business Commercial lighting systems are changing rapidly, with new or improved technologies continuously becoming available. Whether you re

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