Your organization has a Class B IP address of Before you implement subnetting, the Network ID and Host ID are divided as follows:

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1 Subettig Subettig is used to subdivide a sigle class of etwork i to multiple smaller etworks. Example: Your orgaizatio has a Class B IP address of Before you implemet subettig, the Network ID ad Host ID are divided as follows: octet 1 octet 2 octet 3 octet 4 Network ID Host ID To orgaize your etwork ad allow for growth, you decide to use the 3 rd octet to subdivide your etwork ito subets. Now the Network ID ad Host ID are divided as follows: octet 1 octet 2 octet 3 octet 4 Network ID Subet ID Host ID Exteded Network Prefix Kevi Lillis,

2 Subet Mask I order to distiguish betwee the exteded etwork prefix ad the Host ID you use a subet mask. A subet mask fills each bit of the exteded etwork prefix with a 1 ad each bit of the Host ID with a 0. I the above example the etwork mask would be: Which i dotted decimal otatio is: A router combies the destiatio IP address with the subet mask, usig a logical AND operatio, to determie the etwork address. Cotiuig with the same example, a destiatio address of is combied with the subet mask of as follows: ( ) AND ( ) ( ) After combiig the destiatio address with the subet mask, the result is the exteded etwork prefix. I effect, the host potio of the address has bee stripped off. Default Subet Masks There is a default subet mask for each of the three Classes of IP address: Class A: Class B: Class C: Kevi Lillis,

3 Aother Example Your compay has a Class C etwork of ad you wat to use subettig. You caot simply use the ext available octet followig the Network ID as i the previous example. If you did, there would be o portio of the IP address left for the Host ID. Therefore, you eed to use oe portio of the last octet as the Subet ID ad aother portio of the last octet as the Host ID. To do this you must follow these geeral steps: Step 1 Determie the umber of subets required by your istallatio Step 2 Determie the umber of bits,, eeded for the Subet ID field Step 3 Determie the umber of bits, m, eeded for the Host ID field Step 4 Determie the subet mask for your etwork Step 5 Determie the total umber of subets available Step 6 Determie the maximum umber of hosts per subet Step 7 For each subet determie: a) The etwork address b) The rage of host addresses c) The broadcast address Step 1 Determie the umber of subets required by your istallatio This will deped o your curret istallatio ad is used as the startig poit for this discussio. I this example we will assume that we require 17 subets Kevi Lillis,

4 Step 2 Determie the umber of bits,, eeded for the Subet ID field This ca be doe i two ways. The first way is ituitive ad ivolves simply lookig at the decimal values of various biary umbers ad decidig the miimum umber of bits required to represet the umber of subets. The secod way is more aalytic. The umber of bits required is defied by the followig equatio: umber of subets = 2 2 Oce you kow the umber of subets required, you ca solve the equatio for to determie the umber of bits to use for your Subet ID. I this example the umber of subets eeded is 17. Therefore, 17 = 2 2 Solvig for 17 = = 2 19 = 2 l(19) = l(2 l(19) = l(2) l(19) l(2) = ) Sice it makes o sese to talk about 4.2 bits, we will say that the umber of bits required to represet our 17 subets is 5. Step 3 Determie the umber of bits, m, eeded for the Host ID field This is defied as m = 32 umber of bits i the Network Address I this example we have a Class C address which uses the first three octets (24 bits) for the Network ID. I the previous step we determied that = 5. So m = m = Kevi Lillis,

5 Step 4 Determie the subet mask for your etwork. As stated above, a subet mask fills each bit of the exteded etwork prefix with a 1 ad each bit of the Host ID with a 0. So first the exteded etwork prefix eeds to be idetified. Oe way to do this is to write the etwork IP address i its biary form ad draw a vertical lie just to the right of the Network ID field. Network IP etwork address = i biary this is Next, cout bits from the vertical lie ad draw a secod vertical lie These two vertical lies divide the 32 bit IP address ito three sectios, correspodig to the Network ID, Subet ID, ad Host ID fields respectively. The exteded etwork prefix cosists of the Network ID ad Subet ID fields. Fillig each bit i these fields with a 1 ad fillig the bits of the Host ID field with 0 will give us the etwork mask I dotted decimal otatio this is subet mask = Step 5 Determie the total umber of subets available This ca be determied by umber of subets = 2 2 where = the umber of bits used for the Subet ID field. i this example = 5, so umber of subets = = Kevi Lillis,

6 Step 6 Determie the maximum umber of hosts per subet This is defied as umber of hosts per subet = 2 m 2 where m = the umber of bits used i the Host ID field I this example m = 3, so umber of hosts per subet = = 8 2 = 6 Step 7 For each subet determie: a) The etwork address b) The rage of host addresses c) The broadcast address I this example there are 30 possible subets. We will cosider oly oe. a) Determie the etwork address We will select the first subet, which is I dotted decimal otatio this is b) Determie the rage of the host addresses I ay IP address, the Host ID field ca cotai ay combiatio of 1s ad 0s, except the combiatio of all 1s ad the combiatio of all 0s. Therefore the first host address is I dotted decimal otatio this is Kevi Lillis,

7 The last host address would likewise be I dotted decimal otatio this is So the rage if host addresses is to c) Determie the broadcast address I broadcast address for a IP etwork simply fills the Host ID field with all 1s. So the broadcast address would be I dotted decimal otatio this would be Kevi Lillis,

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