Protecting Data Assets and Reducing Risk

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1 Protecting Data Assets and Reducing Risk Michelle Malcher Enterprise Database Security Oracle Open World Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. All rights reserved. For public use.

2 1 Introduction Michelle Malcher Enterprise Database Security Wells Fargo Oracle ACE Director 16+ years DBA experience Co-Author, Oracle Database 12c Install, Configure & Maintain Like a Professional, Securing Oracle Database 12c: A Technical Primer, Oracle Database Administration for the Microsoft SQL Server DBA IOUG Volunteer and presenter

3 2 Security Journey Database Security for the Practical DBA Database Access Protect Data Assets Maintain Secure Environments Simplify Access and Changes Validate and Report on Security

4 3 Security Journey Multiple Levels of Security Securing Access not enough Encryption Firewalls Privileged Users Auditing Detection

5 Security Planning 4

6 Security Journey Security Planning Security Features Secure Configuration Patching Auditing Compliance Responsibilities DBA Security Admin Education 5

7 6 Security Journey Security Planning Data Classification Sensitive Data Access limited Public information By database or scattered Matching security for classes

8 7 Security Journey Security Planning Security matching the business need Sensitive data protected Least Privilege Super users and highly privileged users

9 Practical Security 8

10 9 Practical Security Practical Policies Easy to maintain Transparent data protection Creating uniform ways to secure information Protects as a whole for any given class

11 Practical Security Practical Policies Use tools provided Application security can find sensitive information Credit Card SS# E-Business Suite Fusion Apps Schema Owners Create tables Read, write Execute 10

12 11 Practical Security Passwords Password Functions Verify_function_11g 8-30 characters and not usernames Ora12c_verify_funciton Ora12c_strong_verify_function Utlpwdmg.sql ALTER PROFILE default LIMIT PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION ora12c_strong_verify_function; NULL to remove

13 12 Practical Security Passwords External password store Store credentials for connecting to databases Stop embedding usernames and passwords connect Password:

14 13 Practical Security Passwords Client side wallet mkstore wrl /u01/hr/wallets -create Password: (for wallet) mkstore wrl /u01/hr/wallets create credential db01 hr Password: (for hr)

15 Practical Security Wallets sqlnet.ora SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE=TRUE WALLET_LOCATION =(source = method = file) (method_data = (directory =/private/orcl/network/admin))) mkstore wrl wallet_location -listcredential 14

16 15 Practical Security Encryption Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) Column Data Tablespace Level Wallet Master Encryption key Table Encryption key Password protected Transparent to application

17 16 Practical Security Encryption Wallet for encryption SQLPLUS> alter system set encryption key identified by password; SQLPLUS> alter system set encryption wallet open identified by password; Auto Login wallet Do not use alter system set encryption Use orapki utility or Oracle Wallet Manager orapki wallet create wallet encrypt pwd password

18 Practical Security Encryption Column Encryption CREATE TABLE CUSTOMER (CUST_ID NUMBER NOT NULL, FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(50) NOT NULL, LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(50) NOT NULL, ACCOUNT_ID NUMBER ENCRYPT using AES128, CUST_TYPE VARCHAR2(30), CREATED DATE, UPDATED DATE) 17

19 18 Practical Security Encryption Tablespace level encryption Wallet needs to be open to view data Remains encrypted in RMAN backup Transparent to application Not for system tablespaces SYSTEM, SYSAUX, UNDO, TEMP DBA_TABLESPACES ENCRYPTED column V$ENCRYPTED_TABLESPACES

20 19 Practical Security Encryption Encrypted Tablespace CREATE tablespace DATA_ENCRYPT01 datafile /u01/oracle/oradata/mmtest/data_encrypt01.dbf size 100M ENCRYPTION default storage(encrypt);

21 20 Practical Security Encryption/Wallets Useful Views v$encrypted_tablespaces v$encrypted_wallet v$wallet v$client_secrets v$encryption_keys DBA_ENCRYPTION_KEY_USAGE DBA_TABLESPACES (ENCRYPTED column)

22 21 Practical Security Redaction Mask Data FULL XXXXXX ******** Partial XXX XX 1234 Random > Online and independent of application code

23 22 Practical Security Redaction Policies Users Applications Label Security

24 Practical Security Redaction 23

25 Practical Security Redaction 24

26 Practical Security Restrict System 07_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY=FALSE Restricts changes to SYSTEM objects Default is now FALSE ANY privilege does not = SYSTEM objects SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE Role changes Connect Resource No longer unlimited tablespace 25

27 26 Practical Security Controlling Caller Privileges Procedure runs as invoker rights GRANT INHERIT PRIVILEGES on USER invoking_user to procedure_user (role) Public inherit privilege Definer Rights

28 Use Roles!!! 27

29 28 Practical Security Use Roles Manage Permissions and Privileges with roles Keep it simple and set standards New roles for administrators Separation of duties with roles

30 Least Privileged 29

31 30 Least Privileged New accounts without DBA and SYSTEM access Only logging in with privileges needed SELECT CATALOG? Different system roles Granting the roles that are needed

32 31 Least Privileged Privilege Analysis See the permissions used Be able to maintain least privilege Verify Permissions

33 Least Privileged Privilege Analysis Getting to the Least Privilege Model Captures and reports on permissions used Shows unused privileges DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE Enable Policies Generate Reports DBA_ tables DBA_USED (PRIVS, OBJPRIVS) DBA_UNUSED (PRIVS, OBJPRIVS) 32

34 33 Least Privileged Privilege Analysis BEGIN DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.CREATE_CAPTURE (NAME => dba_capture_all_privs, DESCRIPTION=> privilege_analysis_exp_for_all_user, TYPE=> DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.G_DATABASE); END; BEGIN DBMS_PRIVILEGE_CAPTURE.GENERATE_RESULT (NAME => dba_capture_all_privs ); END;

35 34 Least Privileged Privilege Analysis Capture different privileges for the database, roles and context G_DATABASE, G_ROLE, G_CONTEXT G_ROLE_AND_CONTEXT Creating scripts to create a role or revoke privileges DBA_USED_OBJPRIVS DBA_UNUSED_OBJPRIVS

36 Use Roles!!! 35

37 36 Least Privileged Container and Pluggable Oracle 12c CDB and PDB Separate administration Application DBAs permission by PDB Different permissions by tasks Users separated by PDB

38 Least Privileged Common and Local Oracle 12c CDB and PDB Common Container => existing and future Local Where permission was granted Container=current PUBLIC should not get common PDB own set of PUBLIC Ex: grant create any table to C##ADMIN CONTAINER=ALL 37

39 38 Least Privileged Virtual Private Database Based on policies to restrict access to data Examples: By Job Title By Department By program By group or roles

40 39 Least Privileged Virtual Private Database Triggers and Policies in the database Protects and Restricts the data Inside Applications Ad-Hoc Queries Restrict Columns or other values even with permissions on objects

41 Least Privileged Virtual Private Database Create Policy BEGIN DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY ( object_schema => HR,object_name => EMP_DETAILS,policy_name => EMP_IU,function_schema => HR,policy_function => MANAGER_ROLE_ONLY,statement_types => SELECT,policy_type => dbms_rls.dynamic,long_predicate => FALSE,update_check => TRUE,static_policy => FALSE,enable => TRUE); END; 40

42 41 Least Privileged Virtual Private Database Create Procedure CREATE or REPLACE PROCEDURE HR.set_role_mgr as var_role varchar2(30); begin select rolename into var_role from HR_ROLES where upper(username)= upper(sys_context( userenv, session_user )); dbms_session.set_context(namespace=> realm_role_ctx, attribute => rolename, value => var_role); end;

43 42 Least Privileged Virtual Private Database Create Trigger CREATE or REPLACE TRIGGER SYS.set_user_role after logon on database begin HR.set_role_mgr; exception when no_data_found then null; end;

44 43 Least Privileged Database Vault Restrict privileged users from sensitive data Access to perform DBA tasks Simple Configuration Mandatory Realms Performance

45 Least Privileged Database Vault Simple Configuration Installed with database (12c) Configure users Vault admin and vault manager Different roles Security team? Different than DBAs Enable Create Realms Create and use roles Management in OEM 44

46 45 Least Privileged Database Vault Mandatory Realms (12c) Highly sensitive data protected from all users Patching and maintenance available without object access

47 Least Privileged Database Vault Administration tools Create and Edit Realms Add and Manage Users Security Team can use to grant access Another team can manage Realms Validate Install Check that it is enabled in the database, run the following: SQLPLUS> select * from v$option where parameter = Oracle Database Vault ; Bring up Vault Administration in OEM 46

48 Reporting and Maintenance 47

49 Also known as Auditing 48

50 49 Reporting and Maintenance Auditing Login Logoff Failed Attempts Object creation New users Change in permissions and privileges Others?

51 50 Reporting and Maintenance Auditing Audit Reports OEM and security tools Security options implemented Reporting Add new Upgrade

52 51 Reporting and Maintenance Auditing Default reports Maintaining information that fits the security put into place Privileged users report Reporting on least privilege After changes, verify secure configuration Upgrades, patching Application changes

53 52 Reporting and Maintenance Unified Auditing (12c) Policies and Conditions AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles Single audit trail Includes Database Firewall Analytics on audit log and firewall data for reporting

54 53 Reporting and Maintenance Security policies and conditions Vault Audit Redaction Roles New roles and separation of duties Validating Privileges

55 54 Summary Layers of security Data Classification Least Privilege Especially admins Practical Security Matching the level of data Maintainable Reportable

56 Questions??? 55

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