The Technology and Business of Power Andrew Valencia, P.E. Lower Colorado River Authority

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1 The Technology and Business of Power Andrew Valencia, P.E. Lower Colorado River Authority 1

2 2

3 What is Efficiency? Efficiency: What you get divided by what you pay for Heatrate is a measure of plant efficiency BTU/KWh Lower is better British Thermal Unit: The energy necessary to raise one pound of water ( gallons) from 39 o F to 40 o F. 3

4 Heatrate Heatrate Load 4

5 Power Plant Technologies Conventional Thermal Plants Simple Cycle Gas Turbines Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Reciprocating Engines Renewables 5

6 Conventional Subcritical Thermal Power Plant Superheater 2400 psi Turbine/Generator Boiler Reheater HP IP LP LP MW 600 psi Heat Economizer 27 in Hg vac 125 o F ~ 33% Efficient Heatrate ~10,500 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $2.00/MMBTU gas $2.20/MMBTU PRB Coal $1.25/MMBTU Lignite $46/MWh $21/MWh $23/MWh $13/MWh Note: PRB Coal and Lignite fuel costs are average values and used for comparison only. Heatrates are nominal based on various available technologies. Boiler Feed Pump Condenser Pros: Relatively easy to start up and shut down Load following capabilities Good turndown Cons: Plants are aged and not many left Relatively inefficient 6 Need cooling source

7 Conventional Supercritical* Thermal Power Plant Superheater 3650 psi Turbine/Generator Start Up System Steam Generator HP IP LP LP MW Reheater Furnace Heat 600 psi Economizer 27 in Hg vac 125 o F ~ 38% Efficient Heatrate ~9,000 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $2.00/MMBTU gas $2.20/MMBTU PRB $1.25/MMBTU Lignite $36/MWh $18/MWh $20/MWh $11/MWh Note: PRB Coal and Lignite fuel costs are average values and used for comparison only. Heatrates are nominal based on various available technologies. *Critical Point of Water: 3,200 psi/705 o F Boiler Feed Pump Condenser Pros: Higher efficiency than subcritical plant Excellent load following capabilities Cons: Poor turndown capabilities Difficult to start up and shut down Complex control schemes 7 Need cooling source

8 Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant Ambient Air Fuel Exhaust Gas Aeroderivative vs. Frame Machines MW Compressor Turbine Generator ~ 26% to 34% Efficient SSGT Heatrate ~10,000 to 13,000 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $40/MWh to $52/MWh $2.00/MMBTU gas $20/MWH to $26/MWH Pros: Very Fast Start Up Relatively low installation cost No large cooling source required Cons: Low efficiency Limited load following capability Note: Heatrates are nominal based on various available technologies. 8

9 2 X 1 Combined Cycle Power Plant Heat Recovery Steam Generator Ambient Air Fuel Exhaust Gas Steam Turbine/Generator MW 2400 psi Combustion Turbine/Generator MW ~ 48% Efficient CCGT Heatrate ~7,000 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $28/MWh $2.00/MMBTU gas $14/MWh Note: Heatrates are nominal based on various available technologies. Ambient Air Fuel Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery Steam Generator Condenser Combustion Turbine/Generator MW Pros: Highest available efficiency Cons: Load following capability Older plants were designed as base load Need cooling source 9

10 Summary Combined Cycle Power Plant ~ 48% Efficient CCGT Heatrate ~7,000 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $28/MWh $2.00/MMBTU gas $14/MWh Efficiency Overall Flexibility Conventional Supercritical Thermal Power Plant ~ 38% Efficient Heatrate ~9,000 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $36/MWh $2.00/MMBTU gas $18/MWh $2.20/MMBTU PRB $20/MWh $1.25/MMBTU Lignite $11/MWh Convention Subcritical Thermal Power Plant ~ 33% Efficient Heatrate ~10,500 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $46/MWh $2.00/MMBTU gas $21/MWh $2.20/MMBTU PRB Coal $23/MWh $1.25/MMBTU Lignite $13/MWh Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant ~ 26% to 34% Efficient SSGT Heatrate ~10,000 to 13,000 BTU/KWh $4.00/MMBTU gas $40/MWh to $52/MWh $2.00/MMBTU gas $20/MWh to $26/MWh 10

11 Plant Observations/Conclusions Fuel is the driver Efficiency affects fuel Efficiency and flexibility set by design Efficiency limited by technology and cost There will always be trade offs 11

12 Market Observations/Conclusions Natural gas is the basis for power price Other forces also impact price Coal benefits from high gas price Coal subject to changing environmental regulations Conventional plants burning gas have limited value CCGT are always close to the margin SSGT fill a niche Nodal market makes generation location sensitive Diversification is still prudent 12

13 Questions 13

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