1 NETWORK ACCESS CONTROL AND CLOUD SECURITY Tran Song Dat Phuc SeoulTech 2015
2 Table of Contents Network Access Control (NAC) Network Access Enforcement Methods Extensible Authentication Protocol IEEE 802.1X Port-Based NAC Cloud Computing Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures Cloud Security as a Service (SecaaS)
3 Network Access Control (NAC) Network Access Control (NAC) is a computer networking solution that uses a set of protocols to define and implement a policy that describes how to secure access to network nodes by devices when they initially attempt to access the network. wikipedia. NAC is an approach to computer network security that attempts to unify endpoint security technology (such as antivirus, host intrusion prevention, and vulnerability assessment), user or system authentication and network security enforcement. wikipedia. NAC authenticates users logging into the network and determines what data they can access and action they can perform. NAC examines the health of the user s computer or mobile device (the endpoints).
4 Network Access Control (NAC) Access requestor (AR): referred to as supplicants, or clients. The AR is the node that is attempting to access the network and may be any device that is managed by the NAC system. Policy server: Based on the AR s posture and an enterprise s defined policy, the policy server determines what access should be granted. Network access server (NAS): Also called a media gateway, a remote access server (RAS), or a policy server. The NAS functions as an access control point for users in remote locations connecting to an enterprise s internal network.
5 Network Access Control (NAC) NAC Context
6 Network Access Enforcement Methods Enforcement methods are the actions that are applied to ARs to regulate access to the enterprise network. IEEE 802.1X: enforces authorization before a port is assigned an IP address. IEEE 802.1X makes use of the Extensible Authentication Protocol for the authentication process. Virtual local area networks (VLANs): the enterprise network, consisting of an interconnected set of LANs, is segmented logically into a number of virtual LANs. The NAC system decides to which of the network s VLANs it will direct an AR. Firewall: allow or deny network traffic between an enterprise host and an external user. DHCP management: DHCP enables dynamic allocation of IP addresses to hosts. A DHCP server intercepts DHCP requests and assigns IP addresses. Thus, NAC enforcement occurs at the IP layer based on subnet and IP assignment.
7 Extensible Authentication Protocol The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) acts as a framework for network access and authentication protocols. EAP provides a set of protocol messages, encapsulate various authentication methods to be used between a client and an authentication server. EAP can operate over a variety of network and link level facilities, including pointto-point links, LANs, and other networks, and can accommodate the authentication needs of the various links and networks. EAP Layered Context
8 EAP Authentication EAP-TLS (EAP Transport Layer Security): defines how the TLS protocol can be encapsulated in EAP messages. It uses the handshake protocol in TLS. EAP-TTLS (EAP Tunneled TLS): like EAP-TLS, except only the server has a certificate to authenticate itself to the client first. In EAP-TLS, a secure connection (the tunnel ) is established with secret keys. EAP-GPSK (EAP Generalized Pre-Shared Key): is an EAP method for mutual authentication and session key derivation using a pre-shared key (PSK). It specifies an EAP method based on PSKs and employs secret keybased cryptographic algorithms. EAP-IKEv2: based on the Internet Key Exchange protocol ver.2 (IKEv2). It supports mutual authentication and session key establishment using a variety of methods.
9 EAP Exchanges The authentication information and authentication protocol information are carried in EAP messages. EAP Protocol Exchange EAP Message Code Identifier Length Data
10 EAP Exchanges EAP Message Flow in Pass-Through Mode
11 IEEE 802.1X Port-Based NAC Provide access control functions for LANs IEEE 802.1X Terminology: Authenticator Authentication exchange Authentication process Authentication server (AS) Authentication transport Bridge port Edge port Network access port Port access entity (PAE) Supplicant EAPOL (EAP over LAN) protocol operates at the network layers and makes use of an IEEE 802 LAN (Wifi or Ethernet), at the link layer. EAPOL enables a supplicant to communicate with an authenticator and support the exchange of EAP packets for authentication.
12 EAPOL packet format fields: Protocol version, Packet type, Packet body length, Packet body
13 Cloud Computing A model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. NIST SP
14 Cloud Computing Characteristics Resources related to some aspects, such as storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machine. Broad network access - available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms, use by client platforms or other cloud-based services. Rapid elasticity - ability to expand and reduce resources according to specific requirements. Measured service - control and optimize resource suitable to the appropriate type of service. Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, reported, provide clearly utilized service. On-demand self-service - ability to provision resource capabilities automatically, no need human interaction. The resources is temporary in IT infrastructure. Resource pooling - ability to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources, dynamically assigned and reassigned base on consumer demand.
15 Cloud Computing Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS) - the capability allows consumer to use the provider s application running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices by just a thin client interface (Web browser). SaaS saves the complexity of software installation, maintenance, upgrades, patches. Platform as a Service (PaaS) - the capability allows consumer to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer or acquired applications - created. Also, PaaS provides middleware-style services, such as database and component services use by apps. PaaS is such like an operating system in the cloud. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) - the capability allows consumer to provision processing, storage, networks, and other computing resources, that is used to deploy and run various software. IaaS enables customers to combine basic computing services to build highly adaptable computer systems.
16 Cloud Computing Deployment Models Public cloud - available to the general public or a large industry group, is owned by an organization selling cloud services. The cloud provider (CP) is responsible for cloud infrastructure and for control data and operations within cloud. Private cloud - operated solely for an organization, managed by organization or a third party. The CP is responsible only for the infrastructure. Community cloud - shared by several organizations and supports a specific community shared specific concerns (mission, policy, security ), managed by the organization or a third party. Hybrid cloud - is a composition of two or more clouds, remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds).
19 Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Cloud consumer - a person or organization maintains a business relationship with, and uses service from, cloud providers. Cloud provider - a person, organization, or entity responsible for making a service available to interested parties. Cloud auditor - a party conducts independent assessment of cloud services, info. system operations, performance, and security of cloud implementation. Cloud broker - an entity manages the use, performance, and delivery of cloud services, and negotiates relationships between CP and consumers. Cloud carrier - an intermediary provides connectivity and transport of cloud services from CPs to consumers.
20 Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures Abuse and nefarious use of cloud computing - The easy of register and use cloud service leads to high risks from attackers inside the cloud, such as spamming, malicious code attacks, or DOS attack. Countermeasures: (1) stricter initial registration and validation processes, (2) enhance credit card fraud monitoring and coordination, (3) comprehensive introspection of customer network traffic, (4) monitoring public blacklists for one s network blocks. Insecure interfaces and APIs - CPs expose a set of software interfaces or APIs customers use to manage and interact with cloud services. From authentication and access control, these interfaces need to be resisted against accidental and malicious attempts. Countermeasure: (1) analyzing the security model of CP interfaces, (2) ensuring that strong authentication and access control are implemented with encrypted transmission, (3) understanding the dependency chain associated with the API. Malicious insiders risk of malicious insider activity. Cloud architectures necessitate roles that extremely high risk. Countermeasures: (1) enforce strict supply chain management and conduct a comprehensive supplier assessment, (2) specify human resource requirements as part of legal contract, (3) require transparency into overall infor. security and management practices, and compliance reporting, (4) determine security breach notification processes.
21 Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures Shared technology issues: IaaS vendors deliver services by sharing infrastructure which is not strong enough in isolation properties for a multi-tenant architecture. Countermeasures: implement security best practices for installation/ configuration, (2) monitor environment for unauthorized changes/ activity, (3) promote strong authentication and access control for administrative access and operation. Data loss and leakage - for clients. The most devastating from security breach is the loss or leakage of data. Countermeasures: (1) implement strong API access control, (2) encrypt, protect integrity of data in transit, (3) analyze data protection at design and run-time, (4) implement strong keys generation,, storage and management, destruction practices. Account or service hijacking - usually with stolen credentials, attackers can access critical areas of cloud services, allowing to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA). Countermeasures: (1) prohibit the sharing of account credentials between users and services, (2) leverage strong two-factor authentication techniques, (3) employ proactive monitoring to detect unauthorized activity, (4) understand CP security policies and SLAs.
22 Cloud Security Risks and Countermeasures Unknown risk profile - in using cloud infrastructure, client should cedes control to the CP on a number of issues that may affect security, and pay attention, clearly define the roles and responsibilities involved for managing risks. Countermeasures: (1) disclosure of applicable logs and data, (2) partial/full disclosure of infrastructure details (patch levels and firewalls), (3) monitoring and alerting on necessary infor.
23 Data Protection in the Cloud
24 Data Protection in the Cloud
26 Cloud Security as a Service (SecaaS) SecaaS is a segment of the SaaS, meant a package of security services offered by a service provider that offloads much of the security responsibility from an enterprise to the security service provider. The services: authentication, antivirus, antimalware-spyware, intrusion detection, security event management. SecaaS categories: Identity and access management Data loss prevention Web security security Security assessments Intrusion management Security info. and event management Encryption Business continuity and disaster recovery Network security
28 Cloud Security as a Service (SecaaS) Identify and access management - people, processes, and systems. Used to manage access to enterprise resources, assure the identity is verified, and grants correct level to access. It involves authentication and access control services. Data loss prevention - monitoring, protecting, and verifying the data, implemented by cloud client, make rules about what functions can be performed on data. Web security - real-time protection offered through software/appliance installation, or the cloud by proxying or redirecting web traffic to the CP. Antivirus, antimalware, usage policy enforcement, data backup, traffic control, web access control within it. security - provides control over inbound and outbound , protects from phishing, malicious attachments, offers corporate policies, spam prevention, digital signatures and encryption. Security assessments - third part audits of cloud services, provides tools and access points to facilitate assessment activities.
29 Cloud Security as a Service (SecaaS) Intrusion management - intrusion detection, prevention, and response, the core is intrusion detection systems (IDSs) and intrusion prevention systems (IPSs). IDS detects unauthorized accesses to host system, while IPS block traffic from intruders. Security info. and event management - aggregates log and event data from virtual and real networks, applications, and systems, provides real-time reporting and info./event alarming. Encryption - provides for data, as traffic, client-specific network management info, and identifies info. Involves key management, application encryption, and data content access. Business continuity and disaster recovery - measures and mechanisms to ensure operational resiliency in the events or service interruptions. Includes flexible infrastructure, redundancy of functions and hardware, monitored operations, geographically distributed data centers, and network survivability. Network security - security services that allocate access, distribute, monitor, and protect resource services. Includes perimeter, server firewalls, DOS protection, in the network security service.
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