THE FIRST ASPHALTIC CORE DAM IN TURKEY, CETIN MAIN DAM

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1 THE FIRST ASPHALTIC CORE DAM IN TURKEY, CETIN MAIN DAM Chr. Fredrik GRØNER Statkraft AS Oslo Norway Vahid AFSARI-RAD Veidekke Oslo Norway Introduction The Çetin Main Dam is a rock-fill dam with an asphalt-concrete core (ACRD), currently being constructed on the Botan River in Siirt Province, Turkey. The dam will be located directly downstream of the Botan and Büyük River confluence and have a height of 143 m from Talweg. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation. The power plant at foot of dam will house three 135 MW Francis turbine-generators and 1 Eco-flow unit. Construction works at Cetin Main began in 2012 and the power plant is planned completed in The owner is Cetin Enerji SA fully owned by Statkraft Enerji SA (Istanbul as per July 2016), a subsidiary of the Norwegian power-company Statkraft. Type: Crest elevation: Dam height: Embankment crest length: Embankment dam with central asphalt core masl m (ca.159m from foundation) m Asphalt Core width: 1,3m at bottom reduced to 0,65m in upper 1/3H Total asphalt core concrete volume: m³ Total embankment volume: approx m³ Type of impermeable curtain at foundation: grout curtain This article contains a general presentation of the project, dam type selection and the technical challenges for design and construction of one of the highest asphaltic core dams in a seismic region of Turkey. 1. General presentation The Cetin Hydro-Power-Project utilizes 175m total head within a 25 km section of Botan River being a major tributary to Tigris River. Due to challenging ground conditions it s divided in two steps comprising Cetin Main HPP (420MW and1100gwh/year) and Cetin Lower HPP (100MW and 300GWh/year). Cetin Main Dam and HPP consist of a 143m high Asphalt-concrete Core Rock-fill Dam (ACRD), gated Spillway with flip-buckets and plunge-pool, twin Diversion tunnels and Cofferdams, Intake with gates and Powertunnel/penstock towards the Powerhouse at toe of dam. The ACRD forms a reservoir of 610 mill m3 with 354 mill m3 as live storage equal to 10% of mean annual inflow. The Spillway has four radial gates with a discharge capacity of handling PMF of 5500 m3/s. There are two Diversion tunnels of 8m dia. with 800m length each, and one of the tunnels will be converted to Bottom Outlet with gates for sediment flushing and bypass for reservoir drawdown. The Powerhouse is equipped for peak power production with installed discharge capacity of 347 m3/s being 2,9 times the average flow. GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 1/8

2 The Project area is located nearby the East-Anatolian-Fault-Zone (EAFZ) and defined within First Degree of Earthquake Zone. Ground conditions in the Project area consist of the geological units Bitlis Metamorphites(PzMz), Maden Complex(Tma) and Guleman Ophiolites(Jkg). The geology at site is briefly Gneiss, Schist, Limestone and some Phyllite being partly covered by slope-wash and with partly highly weathered zones. Fig. 1; Map showing Botan river and Cetin project. 2. Dam type selection The elements of Cetin Main HPP are concentrated within an area of approx. 1x1km at the conflux of Botan and Buyuk Cay thus representing a rather compact layout. Different types of main dam structures have been considered, as the original plan focused on Concrete Face Rock-fill Dam (CFRD) or Roller Compacted Concrete Dam (RCCD). Summarized pros and cons indicated that a CFRD would have lower construction costs but longer construction time than a RCCD. Additionally many other factors would count into such comparison as ex. a RCCD type choice could simplify the overall layout arrangement. However to keep the faster construction time as main advantage of an RCCD it needs to be a simple design preferably without, or at least with a minimum of, integrated objects. With the significant seismicity in the region Statkraft was encouraged to consider an ACRD as possible alternative. The ACRD type would likely fall somewhere in between the two above mentioned dam types regarding both costs and construction time, however such type as large dam had not yet been constructed in Turkey. A complete three alternatives comparison through a tender competition could have been an approach, but was not recommendable due to needed extensive resources. So to reduce the number of alternatives it was made firstly a priority-evaluation between the three dam types focusing on estimated costs and time including availability of materials in a risk assessment. This evaluation ended up with RCCD and ACRD as the two alternatives for further development. In the conclusive evaluation process ACRD ended up as the final choice. GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 2/8

3 Figure 2; Cetin Main Dam and HPP layout with ACRD. 3. Technical design challenges An update of the Cetin project Seismic hazardous study gave increased load values and recommendation on control with specific historical scenarios. The seismic factors like PGAhor=0,56g (at 2475 years rec. for the SEE) implied significant challenges to the final dam design. Standard pseudo-static analysis was not sufficient to verify the dam stability, and dynamic deformation type of analysis had to be performed. To meet acceptable deformation results this implied need of decreasing planned dam-fill inclinations giving a larger dam-body volume and foot-print. Sensitivity analysis was done to secure acceptable wide ranges of rock-fill material properties expected to be found in available quarries. In order to adapt within maximum available footprint space, the dam-fill inclination design was fine-tuned with steepening the inclinations in the lower 2/3 of dam height. The four different inclinations of the dam-body surfaces are finally planned like: Up-Stream 1:1.65(v/h) on lower 2/3H, 1:1.75(v/h) on upper 1/3H Down-Stream 1:1.60(v/h) on lower 2/3H, 1:1.70/1(h/v) on upper 1/3H. Additionally there is planned a camber fill 1% of H mid dam on the crest for post-construction settlements and this will be incorporated as slightly increased inclinations in the upper 1/3H. The ACRD will need a plinth for the central asphalt-core and this will for Cetin be combined with a Grouting Gallery-system as periphery Galleries (concrete culverts). These will be used for efficient Grout-Curtain execution, possible additional grouting if needed and for leakage monitoring. Additionally some connected Galleries DS of the dam axis will serve for access, drainage and monitoring control purposes. The asphaltic core will at higher levels towards the steep abutments (max. 70 deg.) need to be flared out securing necessary watertight connections with the plinth. GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 3/8

4 4. Technical construction challenges for asphalt core dams The asphalt concrete shall be produced in an asphalt batching plant with a capacity to produce a volume sufficient to lay three layers per day at any level of the dam. Aggregates, fillers and bitumen shall be weighted separately and added automatically after hot screening of the various components. The plant shall have an automatic warning or stop switch, shall any faulty operation be detected and an automatic logging and print-out device showing the composition and actual mix temperature of each batch. The bitumen weighing system shall have accuracy not less than ± 0.3% from the set point on any single test. Mixing temperatures shall not exceed 170 ºC to prevent oxidation of the bitumen (170º C is related to bitumen B (160/220). A limestone quarry at Cetin dam job site has been identified for asphalt mix aggregate. An up-to-date asphalt plant shall have: minimum 4 cold feeding bins; minimum 4 hot storage silos below the sieves; two filler silos, one for filler retrieved from aggregate and one for added filler; a bag-filter system for collecting fines to be used as filler from aggregates; a hot storage silo of minimum 50 ton of asphalt concrete. 5. Asphalt core construction progress The key piece of equipment is the core paver (see Fig. 3, 4 and 5): a custom built machine capable of heating the exposed top of the core to create a hot joint, to lay a new lift of asphalt concrete to extend the core and to place the granular material of the transitions supporting the core and allowing its immediate compaction (see Figures 7 and 8). Figure 3: Asphalt core Paver. The asphalt and transition zones shall be placed in cm layers (after compaction). GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 4/8

5 Figure 4: Compaction of Asphalt Core and the Transition Zones. The transition zone is placed simultaneously with the asphalt giving this immediate lateral support. The asphalt is placed in horizontal layers, automatically controlled by laser. The asphalt layers melt together, the joint is not detectible. No tack coat is required between the layers. Figure 5: The transition zone is placed simultaneously with the asphalt giving this immediate lateral support (indicated zone-widths are an example, different from Cetin) GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 5/8

6 6. Quality Assurance and Control The properties of asphalt concrete mix have to be determined and evaluated on daily basis. Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) are required to comply with requirements in the technical specifications. Table 2 illustrate a typical testing program at a job-site. Description Type of test No of tests Requirements Frequency 1. Asphalt delivery on dam Temperature control Each delivery 150 ºC<temp. < 170 ºC Per delivery 2.Marshall test (two specimens per test) Void content 1 Daily average results shall be less than 2.5%. No single result 3% Per 150 ton production per day 3.Sample from asphalt production Extraction analyses 1 Measurement of aggregate gradation and bitumen content Per 150 ton production per day 4.Core drilling Void content 5 drilled cores Generally < 3%; The average of all pieces < 2,5% Monthly Table 2: Quality control during asphalt core construction. A well-equipped laboratory and skilled staff is a must for every asphalt core dam job-site. Figure 6: Illustration of laboratory equipment and normal test program at a Job-site. 7. Conclusion Interest in asphalt core technology has been bolstered in recent years. It is proven that asphalt core dam is a competitive solution in respect to the speed and cost of the construction. Simple and robust construction method much simpler than CFRD construction; Asphalt concrete is a flexible and ductile material with viscoelastic-plastic properties (a forgiving material); No core erosion; therefore no strict filter criteria; Core adjusts to dam and foundation deformations; GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 6/8

7 Earthquake resistant; no deterioration of properties; Self-healing (self-sealing) of any cracks; Asphalt mix may be tailored to satisfy special design requirements Can resist overtopping erosion during construction Dam will be quicker ready for impounding Which embankment type is best suited for the local conditions is also depending on safety, geotechnical condition reliability and impact on the environment. Asphalt Core for embankment Dams is still unknown technology for many clients, consultant and contractors worldwide. Involvement of consultants and contractors with sufficient previous experience in asphalt core design and construction is the key for a successful feasibility study. The most notable studies related with ACED 2-10 are indicated below. GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 7/8

8 References [1] Grøner, C.F., Høva, E. and Lilleland, Ø. (2015). Cetin HPP with ACRD in Turkey. 25 th ICOLD Congress Hydropower 15 in Stavanger, Norway. [2] Höeg, K. (1993). Asphalt Concrete Core for Embankment Dams. Stikka Press, Norway, ISBN [3] Höegh, K. (2005). Earthquake Resistance of Asphalt Core Embankment Dams. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Report No [4] Afsari-Rad, V. (2013). Experiência em Projeto e Construção de Núcleos de Asfalto no Brasil. XXIX Seminário Nacional de Grandes Barragens, Porto de Galinhas, abril 2013 [5] Alicescu, V. and Tournier, J.P. (2012). The Environment-friendly Development of La Romaine Complex, Situated in Northern Quebec, Canada. 24 th ICOLD Congress Q.92, Kyoto, Japan. [6] Alicescu, V., Tournier, J.P., Vannobel, P., Moore, V. (2011). Design and construction of Nemiscau-1 Dam, the first ACC dam in North-America. Proceedings of the American Association on Dams, 2010 Annual Conference, San Diego, CA. [7] Wang, W. (2008). Research on the Suitability of Asphalt Concrete as Water Barrier in Dams and Dikes. PhD Thesis, Department of Geoscience, University of Oslo, AiT e-dit AS, Norway. [8] Wang, W., Zhang,Y., Zhu,Y. and Höeg, K. (2012). The Asphalt Core Embankment Dam: An Attractive Alternative. ICOLD Congress, Symposium, June [9] Wang,W., Höeg, K. and Zhang, Y. (2010). Design and Performance of the Yele Asphalt Core Rockfill Dam. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 47:12,pp [10] Afsari-Rad, V. (2013). Compaction temperature and impermeability of asphalt core dams. HYDROPOWER & DAMS, ISSUE FOUR, The Authors C. F. GRØNER was graduated from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in He has worked for both Norwegian and International consulting companies during the period 1980 to 2002 mainly with development and design of hydropower projects, oil&gas storages in rock and infrastructure projects. His roles have been as discipline lead and as engineering manager. In 2003 he joined Statkraft AS for development and construction of small hydro projects within Norway, and from 2008 also larger hydropower projects in South East Europe. He is currently Senior Project Manager in the International Hydropower business unit of Statkraft. V. AFSARI-RAD was graduated from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in He began his career in 1995 as a Design Manager at Veidekke ASA, and in 2004 he joined Veidekke Industri AS as International Project Manager in respect to asphalt concrete core dam projects (ACRD) worldwide. Of the more than 130 asphalt core embankment dams that have been built worldwide since 1962, Veidekke has built 30 and Afsari-Rad has served extensively as project advisor at many of these projects around the globe. He has also participated in several research projects related to asphalt core design and construction. He is currently Director of Veidekke s International Activities. Afsari-Rad is board member of the Norwegian National Committee on large dams (NNCOLD). GRØNER_AFSARI-RAD Page 8/8

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