1 A PIC based PA Sequencer Dave Powis DL4MUP/G4HUP Abstract This paper presents a software derived sequencer for PA switching, based around the Microchip 16F84 Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC). The design is complementary to the 16F84 based PA Controller presented at last years event . In this implementation, provision is made for full independent control of both PA and preamp relays, and of the functions of tube PA s - grid, screen and ALC to allow correct changeover in both directions - receive to transmit and transmit to receive. The design allows both normal or latching relays to be used in either the preamp or PA relay positions. Within this paper some discussions will also be made on simplified implementations eg for triodes, or where only one set of relays is needed. Introduction There are many articles and presentations to be found regarding Tx/Rx Sequencers - some good references are to be found in every amateur construction manual, eg RSGB, ARRL, etc. These design s only allow use with normal relay types. Having initially intended to include the sequencing functions into the PA controller, they have now been built into this design. There are several reasons for this: The output drive requirements for an integrated controller sequencer in a single chip would necessitate using a chip with a much larger pin count Integrating the sequencer with the controller would slow down the loop sampling time of some of the controller functions under certain combinations of conditions, the ability to detect fault conditions quickly would be impaired There is a functional distinction between the operational requirements of a Tube Controller and a Sequencer there are, in fact, no duplicated routines or functions between the two designs. Unlike the PA Controller, which is specifically designed for use with tube PA s, there is no such restriction on the Sequencer design although the outputs are labelled for use with the functions of a tube PA, in a practical implementation they are just drive signals for switches, with defined timing delays between them so they can be used for solid state amplifiers as well. The added advantage of this sequencer design is its ability to drive both normal and latching type relays many relays found on the surplus market, especially SMA relays for microwave use, are of this type see the discussion below on Latching Relays. Key Features and Assumptions Key features of the Sequencer software are: Handles all PA/Antenna relays Designed for both Normal and Latching relays with dual coils Provides control of ALC, grid and screen switching Provides for a Bypass mode of operation Dual PTT inputs for driving PA and preamp changeover relays separately (necessary for Bypass mode operation). Some assumptions about the end system have been made: PTT active is Earth on Transmit, floating positive on Rx. Where pairs of relays are used, eg on input and output of PA, that both are of the same type ie normal or latching That when all relays are in their rest state there is a direct connection from the PA input to the output. That an external input is available to identify the state of the preamp ie off or on (if used). That the PTT inputs will always assume their state changes simultaneously. Fixed timing delays are built into the logic every change action is followed by a suitable delay to allow the relay to stabilize.
2 Latching Relays Before discussing the Sequencer itself, it is worth looking briefly at Latching Relays. There are different types of latching relays which may be found on the surplus market. Not only can you find changeover (SPDT, DPDT, etc) types, but you will also see transfer relays which are latching. Most of the RF relays to be found are of the dual coil type but some care must still be taken: Although there are two coils, it is quite common for one end of the two coils to be joined together internally. The action of a latching relay is dependent upon the use of permanent magnetic material to provide the latching, and the electromagnetic effect from the active coil provides the additional impetus for movement the sense of the applied voltage is critical for some latching relays. Some latching relays also have the back emf protection diodes built in another factor which determines the polarity of the voltages that must be applied for it to operate correctly. Fig 1 shows a representation of a latching relay coils 1 and 2 are independent, and the armature is stable in either state hence just a short pulse of current through the coil is enough to pull the armature into its other stable state, and change over the electrical contacts of the relay. It will remain in this state until there is a pulse through the other coil Coil 1 Coil 2 Armature Pivot Fig 1 Symbolic representation of a Latching Relay The combined effect of these factors is that you may be forced to adopt a common supply or common ground connection for the relay thus different interfacing circuits are provided, so that you can cope with either requirement. Some testing of the chosen relay(s) is recommended before you commit to a particular circuit implementation! Remember, that if you are driving multiple relays from a single set of outputs, they must all have the same driving requirements (ie common ground or supply, operating voltage etc). They do not need to be physically identical. Operation Modes The sequencer supports both the Bypass and Normal modes of changeover, as defined in the PA Controller article. These definitions are reproduced here for completeness: Bypass Mode When the PA is off, or while the heater delay is maturing, the presence of ground (0v) on the PTT line will cause the Preamp Relay output to go into Tx mode. It will not allow the PA itself to change into TX, and will not allow the drive signal to be fed into the amplifier - thus the driver stage will be connected directly to the antenna on Tx, but any preamps in use will be fully functional on receive Normal Mode Once the heater delay has matured, then the presence of ground (0v) on the PTT line will cause a full change over to Tx, with the drive being fed to the PA, and the PA connected directly to the antenna on Tx. On Rx the antenna will be connected directly to the driver, or via the preamp if it is switched in.
3 Additionally, in each of these operation modes, during Rx, the Rx Preamp may be either on or off. The Specification Thus, from the requirements list above, the complete controller must: have inputs for Bypass (preamp) and Normal (PA) PTT driving have an input for detecting whether the preamp (where used) is switched in have inputs to identify the relay types for the Preamp & PA relays have outputs for controlling the Preamp and PA relays both coils have outputs for controlling the ALC, Grid and Screen supplies have pre-determined delays between switching functions Software Description The Sequencer software uses simple test and branch logic, to minimize the loop cycle time when there is no change of state required typically, the loop takes approx 10 us to execute ie, the PTT input is tested every 10us. When a need for a state change is detected, the code branches into the steps necessary to determine which change is needed, and to execute that change. Apart from the PTT condition, all other information necessary for the change is already held in the controller. Inputs to the processor are the two PTT conditions, the type of the preamp & PA relays, and the Preamp state. Of these, the relay types are read only at processor start up (since these will not change on a regular basis). The preamp state and the PTT inputs are read in sequence around the main program loop. Internal variables are tracked to ensure that the processor is always aware of the last state of each of the PTT inputs this is necessary for comparison purposes in detecting a change of PTT state. All state changes are based on the system outline diagram shown in Fig 2, below - Preamp RL2 RL1 RL1 RL2 Drive PA Antenna Fig 2 System Outline Diagram Relays marked as RL1 are associated with the Preamp switching, and RL2 are the main PA switching relays. The diagram shows both sets of relays in the rest, or normal, state. There are three quiescent states covering all required conditions RL1 operated (Preamp on, receive) - RL1 & 2 normal (Bypass Tx; Rx, Preamp off) - RL2 operated (Normal Tx) There are no legal states requiring RL1 and 2 to be operated simultaneously. The software calls the appropriate changes of state by detecting the changed PTT condition, the state of the Preamp and the last known set of state conditions. From this information the required state changed is deduced and called, with the necessary change conditions correctly set up. Each state change correctly sequences the ALC, grid, screen and relay changeovers, with delays between each action to ensure that all relay contacts have stabilized etc. 10ms delays are used after the ALC, grid and screen switches, and 50ms is allowed for the PA and Preamp relay changes. Additionally, 100ms is used as the pulse duration for latching relays. These delays are not user configurable.
4 Sequencer Inputs & Outputs Tables 1 and 2 show the input and output conditions for each i/o pin of the PIC. Port Logical Pin Function State RA 0 Preamp relay Drive from Tx =1 PACTL 1 PA Relay drive from Tx =1 PACTL 2 Preamp Relay type 0=normal, 1=latching 3 PA Relay type 0=normal, 1=latching 4 Preamp on / off Preamp on=1 Table 1 Sequencer Inputs Port Logical Function State Pin RB 0 Not used 1 ALC Drive On =1(ie ALC inhibited) 2 Grid Bias drive Tx=0 3 Screen Grid drive Tx=0 4 Preamp relay drive Tx or Pulse =0 5 Preamp latching drive Pulse =0 6 PA relay drive Tx or Pulse =0 7 PA latching drive Pulse =0 Table 2 Sequencer Outputs PIC 16F84 Physical Connections The code is programmed into an 18 pin 16F84 PIC. In addition to the inputs and outputs listed in Tables 1 & 2 above, there are 2 oscillator connections, and three power and control connections. Table 3 lists the physical pin-out of the PIC, with the functions ascribed in this application Pin No Function Comment 1 RA2 Preamp Relay Type 1= Latching 2 RA3 PA Relay Type 1= Latching 3 RA4 Preamp On/Off 1= On 4 MCLR Tie to +5V via 10k 5 V SS Processor 0V connection 6 RB0 No connection not used 7 RB1 ALC drive 1= active 8 RB2 Grid drive 0=active 9 RB3 Screen grid drive 0=active 10 RB4 Preamp relay drive/latching pulse on 11 RB5 Preamp latching pulse off 12 RB6 PA relay drive/latching pulse on 13 RB7 PA latching pulse off 14 V DD Processor +5V supply 15 Osc2 Oscillator connection 16 Osc1 Oscillator connection 17 RA0 Preamp PTT input 1=Tx 18 RA1 PA PTT input-1=tx Table 3 Physical connections for DL4MUP Sequencer PIC
5 Power Supply Considerations The processor requires a regulated +5v DC supply, which should be isolated from all other supplies in the PA, including relay supplies if the DL4MUP PA Controller is being used, the two PICs may share a common supply. Ideally, the supply should be completely separate from all other supplies in the PA, with its own transformer, or transformer winding. Care must also be taken to ensure that the ground for the PIC is not connected to the input and output (RF) grounds, and that the connections into and out of the enclosure are decoupled. The MCLR input (pin 4) must be tied to Vdd via 10k to ensure correct start up and operation of the Sequencer when power is applied. IMPORTANT NOTE : To preserve the integrity of the isolation provided by the optocouplers, it is important to remember that the common side of the input and output circuits MUST NOT be connected to the common side of the PIC supply. Separate input and output commons are provided via the connectors on the DL4MUP Sequencer board, and the PIC +5V and Ground connections are kept separate from these. Similarly, where a +5v supply is required on the isolated side of an input or output (eg the ALC control line, for powering the ICL7660) this is not the same +5v as is used to power the PIC it must be a separate supply. Oscillator Requirements The oscillator of the PIC requires a 4MHz miniature crystal. All timing functions within the code are designed around this frequency. The recommended oscillator circuit is shown below, in Fig 3. Pin 16 15pF Pin 15 15pF Fig 3 Oscillator circuit for 16F84 4MHz crystal Use of a 4MHz ceramic resonator, as an alternative to the crystal, will also give acceptable timing accuracy further information on oscillator circuits can be found in the 16F84 data sheet . The use of free running RC timing generation is not suitable for this application. Screening The Sequencer must be built into its own screened enclosure (or a combined enclosure with the PA Controller PIC). The processor clock runs at 4 MHz, and has the potential to cause EM interference by radiation from exposed circuitry and wiring. The processor clock runs continuously, and therefore is likely to cause Rx interference as a well as Tx interference if unscreened. The Rx interference will be obvious to you, but the Tx interference could be radiated with your signal, and thus could be carried for very large distances! Preferably, filtered type 9 pin sub D connectors should be used for the input and output connections, so that the screening integrity is not violated by the connections themselves. Dealing with Unused Inputs and Outputs All inputs of the Sequencer must be connected none can be left floating, even if the function assigned is not required. The two relay type inputs must be either hardwired to ground or tied to Vdd via 10k according to the type of relay used. The Preamp On/Off input can be permanently wired to ground if there is no preamp, or to Vdd (via 10k) if there is an unswitched (ie permanently in circuit) preamp. Other wise, it should be switched in sympathy with the preamp. Where there is only a single PTT drive, the PA PTT input should be tied to Vdd through 10k, and the Preamp PTT used as the input. In this case, the Preamp On/Off input should be wired to ground. Unused outputs can be left floating thus if used with a triode PA, the screen grid output should be ignored, or if ALC inhibition of the rig is not required, the appropriate output pin can be ignored. All interfacing circuitry associated with such outputs can be omitted without any loss of functionality. Implementation Options The Sequencer PIC can be used in a number of ways:
6 As a companion to the PA Controller PIC In the DL4MUP Sequencer board, as described below In a user designed installation following the guidelines given here All options should give satisfactory results provided that the guidelines regarding Power Supplies, Screening and Interfacing are followed. PA Controller PIC The DL4MUP PA Controller PIC provides comprehensive controller functions for tube PA s, including: Heater warm up Normal and Bypass mode operation Grid, screen and air flow monitoring Blower control with temperature sensing Grid and Anode overcurrent monitoring PTT outputs for Preamp & PA switching The PIC can be used in a user designed implementation DL4MEA also has a PCB design which uses this PIC, and contains all the necessary interfacing circuitry for a fully functioning controller, including a hardware sequencer. The PIC is described in  DL4MUP Sequencer Board The DL4MUP Sequencer board provides interfacing and signal conditioning circuitry to interface the Sequencer PIC to the radio subsystem that is to be controlled. The implementation assumes that all relay drive signals will be a switched earth output, with the other side of the relay returned to a suitable rail voltage the devices used for switching are rated to handle relay supplies up to 50V DC. All necessary isolation is provided within the circuit. The PCB is designed to fit a standard tin-plate housing, so that the unit is fully screened. Input and output connections are via 9 pin sub D type connectors. Relay type selection is via jumpers. User Designed Installations By using suitable adaptations of the interfacing circuit options shown in the next section, the Sequencer PIC can be adapted into any system, regardless of the sense of the relay driving voltages required. All outputs assume a logic 1 (+5v DC) for the on or active state, and all inputs assume a logic 1 for the active input state. These conditions are detailed in Tables 1 & 2 Interfacing Circuits Input Circuits Where an input is not already isolated (eg when not being driven from the DL4MUP PA Controller PIC, or equivalent) then input isolation must be used for the Sequencer this will apply to three of the inputs Preamp PTT, PA PTT and Preamp on/off. PTT inputs should use a circuit similar to that in Fig 4 below Vdd Vcc 1N4148 1k5 10k PTT 0v 10n Vss Fig 4 Input circuit for PTT isolation The Preamp on/off Input should be similar to Fig 5
7 Vdd 10k Input 0v 1k5 10n Vss i/p Fig 5 Input circuit for Preamp on/off Output Circuits Output circuits can be arranged to provide drive for relay coils either commoned to ground or to supply. Commoning to supply is preferred, because the output circuit and components are independent of the relay voltage used in fact relays of different voltages can be mixed. The DL4MUP Sequencer board uses commoning to supply for all relay drivers. All outputs are active low, to give the simplest interfacing circuits when using common supply for the relays. The circuit of Fig 6 is recommended for interfacing to relays. The relay supply voltage may be any voltage as required by the relay coil. One circuit of this type is required for each coil connection thus for a PA using latching relays for both PA and Preamp functions, four such circuits would be needed. If the Grid and Screen functions are relay switched, then one circuit would be needed for each of them as well. Note that in all the following diagrams, the reverse emf protection diodes on the relays are not shown for clarity they must be used! k IRF530 Fig 6 Recommended output drive circuit The exception to this is the ALC drive output, which is active high for easiest control of a negative voltage generator. Fig 7 shows the circuit for generating the negative ALC voltage using an ICL 7660, and for controlling it via the PIC output. Vcc 10u BC k 10n 10u 1k 9V1 Fig 7 ALC Control Circuit Other Interface Circuits For other types of relay drive, or for using negative side communing for relays etc, two other output circuits are presented here. These can be used as direct replacement for the right hand side of Fig 6 for clarity the input circuitry into the opto coupler is not shown, since this is identical to that of Fig 6. Fig 8 shows a non-inverting relay driver, which could be used if you want to have your relays energized in the receive position.
8 10k 2k IRF530 Non Inverting Fig 8 Non inverting Relay Driver Fig 9 shows an equivalent circuit (non-inverting) using a P channel FET + 10k 10k IRF964 Non Inverting Fig 9 Non inverting Relay Driver P Channel Adjustment Whatever combination of input and output circuits you may choose for your application, there is minimal adjustment to be done. The only adjustment needed is to set the ALC output voltage so that it fully inhibits the transmit output of your radio. This should be done with the PIC out of the circuit, but with the rest of the sequencer fully constructed and powered. Set the ALC pot to minimum, and check that the output of the ICL7660 is approx -5V (measure between pin 3 (ground) and pin 5 (-ve output)). Next temporarily connect the cathode of the 9v1 zener diode to the positive supply this turns on the ALC output switch. Now connect the ALC output of the sequencer to the ALC input of your radio, with the ALC pot in the Sequencer set to minimum. The RF output of the radio must be connected through a power meter to a dummy load, and the mode set to FM. Set the radio to Tx, and increase the ALC preset, watching the output power on the meter. The correct setting is when there is no measurable power shown on the meter. Once set, remove the connection between the zener diode and the positive supply the PIC can now be put into the circuit and the system powered up. DL4MUP Sequencer PCB The circuit diagram and PCB layout for the Sequencer is shown at the end of this article-figs 11 & 12. It is designed to provide all functions of the sequencer, and to fit a 111 x 74 x 30 mm tinplate box. Inputs and outputs are taken through filtered, right-angled, 9 pin sub-d type sockets, and the board itself is double sided, with the top surface acting as a ground plane. Power connections also go via the sub-d type connectors. Any output functions that are not needed, for example the latching relay drives, or the screen control can just be overlooked ie don t build that part of the circuit. GS35 2m PA Implementation The following section is presented to act as a demonstration of a controller/sequencer implementation which uses only part of the total functionality provided. The photograph below, Fig 10, sows the final installation. It is built into my GS35 PA for 2m to provide all control and supervisory functions, and to manage the Tx/Rx changeover. Both the Controller and Sequencer PIC s are used, with the Controller PIC providing the EHT output drive directly, and the PTT drive into the Sequencer. The PA does not make use of the blower control input or output, or the EHT Standby output of the PA Controller chip. It also only uses the PA relay switching output. The Sequencer implementation has the relay types hard wired, and does not make use of the preamp on/off switch. Since the GS35 is a triode, the screen output is not used, but grid and ALC control are. All external inputs and outputs are optoisolated, and the two processors are powered from an independent 5v supply which is fully floating. All input and output signals are referenced to the +13.8v supply used in the low voltage stages of the PA. The Controller PIC uses
9 a 3.27MHz crystal osc, and the Sequencer uses a 4 MHz crystal. The entire unit is hand wired on a Eurocard sized perforated board. Fig 10 PA Controller and Sequencer PIC s in GS35 PA Implementation Conclusions This sequencer provides the complementary functions to my PA Controller, allowing full and comprehensive control of all aspects of triode and tetrode tube PA s. Both designs can be used in many variations, depending on the needs of the user the example of my own GS35 PA for 2m demonstrates this. The interfacing examples given above are not necessarily exhaustive, but are given for guidance for any further clarifications of the input and output conditions, contact the author at the address below. Chip Programming, Software and PCB information Ready programmed 16F84 chips for both the PA Controller and the Sequencer PICs are available from the author, or for those with programming facilities, the compiled object file can be provided. The author can be contacted at Source files will not be made available. PCB artwork, component overlays and circuit diagram for the DL4MUP Sequencer PCB are also available from the author. References  A Software based Controller for RF Tube PA s, Dave Powis, DL/G4HUP: presented: 46 Weinheimer UKW Tagung, 2001 published 47 Weinheimer UKW Tagung, 2002!  16F84 Data Sheet
10 Fig 11 DL4MUP PIC Sequencer Circuit Diagram
11 Fig 12 DL4MUP PIC Sequencer PCB artwork NOTE due to the processes involved in reproducing this artwork, accurate dimensions of the final copy cannot be guaranteed by the author. Accurate copies of the artwork, and also the PCB component overlay and circuit diagram are available from the author at
AN18.6 SMSC Ethernet Physical Layer Layout Guidelines 1 Introduction 1.1 Audience 1.2 Overview SMSC Ethernet products are highly-integrated devices designed for 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet systems. They are
HP 8970B Option 020 Service Manual Supplement Service Manual Supplement HP 8970B Option 020 HP Part no. 08970-90115 Edition 1 May 1998 UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T in the USA and other countries.
CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops In this chapter, you will be building the part of the circuit that controls the command sequencing. The required circuit must operate the counter and the memory chip. When the teach
Single Channel Loop Detector Model - LD100 Series The LD100 is a single channel inductive loop detector designed for parking and access control applications. The detector is connected to an inductive loop
Kit 106 50 Watt Audio Amplifier T his kit is based on an amazing IC amplifier module from ST Electronics, the TDA7294 It is intended for use as a high quality audio class AB amplifier in hi-fi applications
HORNET Remote Control Systems Up to 100metres Range 1 3 Button versions 12-30Vdc 0r 230Vac versions Reliable FM Technology Up to four 1000W Relay switches Waterproof Receiver (IP68) Momentary or Latching
Features MINIATURE MODULE QM MODULATION OPTIMAL RANGE 1000m 433.05 434.79 ISM BAND 34 CHANNELS AVAILABLE SINGLE SUPPLY VOLTAGE Applications IN VEHICLE TELEMETRY SYSTEMS WIRELESS NETWORKING DOMESTIC AND
FM Radio Transmitter & Receiver Modules T5 / R5 Features MINIATURE SIL PACKAGE FULLY SHIELDED DATA RATES UP TO 128KBITS/S RANGE UPTO 300 METRES SINGLE SUPPLY VOLTAGE INDUSTRY PIN COMPATIBLE QFMT5-434 TEMP
Abstract A PI6F628 controlled FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) VFO for HF It is described a device which joins in a single microprocessor a digital programmable frequency meter and a control logic capable to
Ameritron ATP-102 The Ameritron ATP-102 relieves temperature related stress on amplifiers, tuners, and dummy loads while allowing proper system adjustments. It allows amplifiers to be properly adjusted
Homebuilt HF Radios for Use Underground Paul R. Jorgenson KE7HR With the good success in using Amateur Band HF radio for underground communications, I started looking for cheaper alternatives to the $500+
Programming Logic controllers Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a microprocessor based system that uses programmable memory to store instructions and implement functions such as logic, sequencing,
Arduino Dual L6470 Stepper Motor Shield Data Sheet Adaptive Design ltd V1.0 20 th November 2012 Adaptive Design ltd. Page 1 General Description The Arduino stepper motor shield is based on L6470 microstepping
Introduction A simple and inexpensive way to remotely rotate a display or object is with a positioner that uses a stepper motor to rotate it. The motor is driven by a circuit mounted near the motor and
Features 3 digital I/O Serial Data output Connects directly to RF Modules Easy Enc / Dec Pairing Function Minimal External Components Required Performs all encoding/decoding of data for Reliable Operation.
Phone: (866) 701-1146 Fax: (425) 216-7558 www.remotecontroltech.com Short Range Wireless Switch System Handheld 8 Installation and Operations Guide Introduction... 2 Before Installation... 2 Receiver Installation...
RX-AM4SF Receiver The super-heterodyne receiver RX-AM4SF can provide a RSSI output indicating the amplitude of the received signal: this output can be used to create a field-strength meter capable to indicate
G4HUP Panoramic Adaptor Installation FT847 These instruction cover installation of the PAT board in the 1st IF of the FT847 45.705MHz this gives access to all receiver options on the main receiver. A a
GLOLAB Universal Telephone Hold 1 UNIVERSAL HOLD CIRCUIT If you have touch tone telephone service, you can now put a call on hold from any phone in the house, even from cordless phones and phones without
NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter Description: The NTE2053 is a CMOS 8 bit successive approximation Analog to Digital converter in a 20 Lead DIP type package which uses a differential
Digilent Pmod Interface Specification Revision: November 20, 2011 1300 NE Henley Court, Suite 3 Pullman, WA 99163 (509) 334 6306 Voice (509) 334 6300 Fax Introduction The Digilent Pmod interface is used
POINTS POSITION INDICATOR PPI4 Advanced PPI with Adjustable Brightness & Simplified Wiring Monitors the brief positive operating voltage across points motors when they are switched Lights a corresponding
Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Op-amps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common
DTMF Receiver Features Operating voltage: 2.5V~5.5V Minimal external components No external filter is required Low standby current (on power down mode) General Description The HT9170 series are Dual Tone
DATASHEET ICS514 Description The ICS514 LOCO TM is the most cost effective way to generate a high-quality, high-frequency clock output from a 14.31818 MHz crystal or clock input. The name LOCO stands for
SYSTEM 45 C R H Electronics Design SYSTEM 45 All in one modular 4 axis CNC drive board By C R Harding Specifications Main PCB & Input PCB Available with up to 4 Axis X, Y, Z, & A outputs. Independent 25
Panasonic Microwave Oven Inverter HV Power Supply David Smith VK3HZ (vk3hz (*at*) wia.org.au) This particular power supply comes from a circa-2000 Panasonic Microwave model NN-S550WF. Nearly all Panasonic
ELITE-L Series ELITE - Low Voltage / Dry contact Remote Control System Applications Garden Lighting Pond pumps Remote outdoor Switching Access control Industrial control Features 4 switched channels 1000W
PART ONE SINGLE ELECTRONIC RC SWITCH Fancy switching the lights using your radio, then here is a circuit you may consider building. It only uses one IC and seven other components for a single switch and
FEATURES 0MHz to 90MHz Tunability 240 Frequency Steps Constant Q, Two-pole Butterworth Bandpass 1W Power Handling 0µs Tuning Speed Serial/Parallel Modes -40C to +85C DESCRIPTION The TS5010 series of TeraTune
Application Note AN-1068 reva Considerations for Designs Using Radiation-Hardened Solid State Relays By Alan Tasker Table of Contents Introduction Page Overview...1 The Contact...1 Actuation...1 The IR
A CW QRP Transceiver for 20 m band The little QRP presented in this article may be built in a gradual manner, in fact it is divided in two main modules (plus VFO), you may also complete only a single part
A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices Device Patent No 29: Last updated: 7th October 2008 Author: Patrick J. Kelly This is a slightly reworded copy of this patent application which shows a method of
WIRELESS MAGNETIC CONTACT The magnetic contact wireless MAG HCS is a sensor able to detect opening or closing doors or windows and transmits via radio a alarm signal. It is composed of two distinct elements:
TOTALLY SOLID STATE NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIO S 190-535 khz This family of radio transmitters has been developed as extremely efficient, highly reliable Non Directional Beacons. ND2000A/4000A» MODULAR CONSTRUCTION»
Controlling a Dot Matrix LED Display with a Microcontroller By Matt Stabile and programming will be explained in general terms as well to allow for adaptation to any comparable microcontroller or LED matrix.
Features Functional Schematic High Voltage CMOS Technology Four Channel Positive Voltage Control CMOS device using TTL input levels Low Power Dissipation Low Cost 4x4 mm, 20-lead PQFN Package 100% Matte
FM Radio Transmitter & Receivers Available As or or 88MHz Transmit Range Up To 0m Miniature Packages Data Rate upto 9.Kbps No Adjustable Components Very Stable Operating Frequency Operates from 0 to +8
CMOS Switched-Capacitor Voltage Converter Features Simple conversion of V DD to V DD Cascade connection (two devices are connected, V OUT = 2 V DD ) Boost pin for higher switching frequency Easy to use
Designing VM2 Application Boards This document lists some things to consider when designing a custom application board for the VM2 embedded controller. It is intended to complement the VM2 Datasheet. A
1ED Compact A new high performance, cost efficient, high voltage gate driver IC family Heiko Rettinger, Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, 85579 Neubiberg, Germany, email@example.com
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET File under Integrated Circuits, IC01 May 1992 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The is a monolithic integrated circuit for mono FM portable radios, where a minimum on peripheral components
VISHAY VITRAMON Multilayer Chip Capacitors Application Note GENERAL is a multilayer ceramic chip antenna designed for receiving mobile digital TV transmissions in the UHF band. The target application for
PGA103+ Low noise, high dynamic range preamp for VHF and UHF By Sam Jewell, G4DDK and Kent Britain, WA5VJB Introduction This paper describes a low noise, high dynamic range VHF/UHF preamp that uses the
Matjaz Vidmar, S53MV A simple RF/Microwave frequency counter I decided to design a simple, easily reproducible counter around a PIC 16F876A. The basic counter range is extended to at least 180MHz using
Micro-Step Driving for Stepper Motors: A Case Study N. Sedaghati-Mokhtari Graduate Student, School of ECE, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran n.sedaghati @ece.ut.ac.ir Abstract: In this paper, a case study
This lighting system was designed by John V (Teeces) to be a simple, customizable, expandable and affordable solution for dome lighting. An Arduino micro-controller is used to tell LED driver chips which
N9WB D-104 Project Revision 2 Pre Amp Modifications for higher load impedance. By Walter A. Breining, N9WB D-104 Discussion The D-104 has been around since the 30 s and is still popular today for communications.
1008121 R01 April 2005 MicroMag3 3-Axis Magnetic Sensor Module General Description The MicroMag3 is an integrated 3-axis magnetic field sensing module designed to aid in evaluation and prototyping of PNI
MANUAL FOR RX700 LR and NR 2013, November 11 Revision/ updates Date, updates, and person Revision 1.2 03-12-2013, By Patrick M Affected pages, ETC ALL Content Revision/ updates... 1 Preface... 2 Technical
512-Kbit, serial flash memory, 50 MHz SPI bus interface Features 512 Kbits of flash memory Page program (up to 256 bytes) in 1.4 ms (typical) Sector erase (256 Kbits) in 0.65 s (typical) Bulk erase (512
Design And Implementation Of Bank Locker Security System Based On Sensing Circuit And RFID Reader Khaing Mar Htwe, Zaw Min Min Htun, Hla Myo Tun Abstract: The main goal of this system is to design a locker
Samba OPLC SM35-J-R20 Installation Guide The Unitronics SM35-J-R20 offers the following onboard I/Os: 12 Digital Inputs, configurable via wiring to include: 1 HSC/Shaft-encoder Input, 2 Analog inputs (only
: In-System Programming Features Program any AVR MCU In-System Reprogram both data Flash and parameter EEPROM memories Eliminate sockets Simple -wire SPI programming interface Introduction In-System programming
SINGLE-SUPPLY OPERATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS One of the most common applications questions on operational amplifiers concerns operation from a single supply voltage. Can the model OPAxyz be operated
Infrared Remote Control Transmitter DESCRIPTION PT2248 is an infrared remote control transmitter utilizing CMOS Technology. It is capable of 18 functions and a total of 75 commands. Single-shot and continuous
Phase II Design for a Multiband LMR Antenna System S. Ellingson and R. Tillman Aug 30, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 System Design 2 3 Antenna Tuner 3 Bradley Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering,
Amplifier for Small Magnetic and Electric Wideband Receiving Antennas (model AAA-1B) 1. Description and Specifications Contents 1.1 Description 1.2 1.2 Specifications 1.3 1.3 Tested parameters in production
Installation and User Guide TYXIA Wireless receiver TYXIA RF 642-1 channel DELTA DORE Bonnemain - 35270 COMBOURG - France E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org Unit compliant with the requirements of directives:
Model 201 Wiegand Touchpad Reader Installation Guide P/N 460353001C 15AUG11 2011 UTC Fire & Security. All rights reserved. This document may not be copied in whole or in part or otherwise reproduced without
www.eaton.com/moellerproducts The Interaction of Contactors with PLCs Technical Paper Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Nitschky Design and function of the DC operated contactors DILM7 to DILM170 The market for DC operated
. TO Hz, 1 TO Hz, to 1 Hz Thin Film YITUNED OSCILLATORS Highly Reliable StateoftheArt ThinFilm Technology s. to 1 Hz oscillators employ thinfilm technology, coupled with aas FET transistors, and were designed
Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;
Silvertel V1.1 November 2012 Datasheet Pb 1 Features IEEE802.3at and IEEE802.3af compliant Maximum 30W output power Dual In-Line (DIL) package size 50.6mm (L) x 30mm (W) Overload, short-circuit and thermal
Single Transistor FM Transmitter Design In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for
PowerAmp Design COMPACT HIGH VOLTAGE OP AMP Rev G KEY FEATURES LOW COST SMALL SIZE 40mm SQUARE HIGH VOLTAGE 200 VOLTS HIGH OUTPUT CURRENT 10A PEAK 40 WATT DISSIPATION CAPABILITY 200V/µS SLEW RATE APPLICATIONS
Digital to Analog Converter Raghu Tumati May 11, 2006 Contents 1) Introduction............................... 3 2) DAC types................................... 4 3) DAC Presented.............................
Manual Serial PCI Cards W&T Models 13011, 13410 13411, 13610 13611, 13812 Version 1.4 Subject to error and alteration 37 01/2005 by Wiesemann & Theis GmbH Subject to errors and changes: Since we can make
Digital I/O: OUTPUT: Basic, Count, Count+, Smart+ The digital I/O option port in the 4-Series provides us with 4 optically isolated inputs and 4 optically isolated outputs. All power is supplied externally.
Converters In most of the cases, the PIO 8255 is used for interfacing the analog to digital converters with microprocessor. We have already studied 8255 interfacing with 8086 as an I/O port, in previous
The Full-Wave Rectifier The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The transformer has a centre-tapped secondary winding. This secondary winding has a lead attached
PCB Design Guidelines for Dual Power Supply Voltage Translators Jim Lepkowski ON Semiconductor Introduction The design of the PCB is an important factor in maximizing the performance of a dual power supply
Optimised For Audio Analogue PCB design for the digital era. David G. Tyas IKON AVS Ltd, 238 Ikon Estate, Hartlebury, Worcs.. DY10 4EU www.ikonavs.com 1. Introduction With increasing emphasis on digital
AVX EMI SOLUTIONS Ron Demcko, Fellow of AVX Corporation Chris Mello, Principal Engineer, AVX Corporation Brian Ward, Business Manager, AVX Corporation Abstract EMC compatibility is becoming a key design
Programming PIC Microcontrollers in PicBasic Pro Lesson 1 Cornerstone Electronics Technology and Robotics II Administration: o Prayer PicBasic Pro Programs Used in This Lesson: o General PicBasic Pro Program
FIBRE-OPTICS POWER METER INSTRUCTION MANUAL FIBRE-OPTICS POWER METER ELLMAX ELECTRONICS LTD. Unit 29, Leyton Business Centre, Etloe Road, Leyton, London E10 7BT, England Tel: 020-8539 0136 Fax: 020-8539
Application Note AN601 Tire pressure monitoring 1 Purpose This document is intended to give hints on how to use the Intersema pressure sensors in a low cost tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). 2 Introduction