Russian Art. An Important Collection of Porcelain Figurines. Private Russian Manufactories. MacDougall's Russian Art. 25 March 2015 London

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1 COVER-PORCELAIN.qxp_Layout :01 Page 1 An Important Collection of Porcelain Figurines. Private Russian Manufactories MacDougall's Russian Art 25 March 2015 London 25 March 2015 London Russian Art 25 March 2015 London

2 An Important Collection of Porcelain Figurines. Private Russian Manufactories Wednesday, 25 March 2015, 10:30 Viewing Monday Friday, 25 February 24 March, 11:00 18:00 Saturday Sunday, March, 11:00 18:00 MacDougall Arts Ltd 30A Charles II St London, SW1Y 4AE, England London tel: Moscow tel: Moscow Kiev tel: Paris tel: Fax:

3 MacDougall Arts Ltd. Dr Vladimir Petrov Russian Art Expert Nina Sorensen Associate Director Natasha Antonova Client Liaison Officer Jacob Gildor Ecole de Paris Expert Sofia Gurevich, Assistant Russian Art Cataloguer Helen McIldowie-Jenkins, Icon Cataloguer Charles Ross, Auctioneer Nikita Lobanov-Rostovsky Russian Theatre Design Expert William MacDougall Director Alexander Kuznetsov Russian Art Expert Dr Olga Vaigatcheva Associate Director, Head of Works of Art, Faberge' and Icons Olga Glebova Russian Works on Paper Expert Anna Nuzhnaya Junior Russian Art Cataloguer Maria Garmaeva Shipping Manager Svetlana Djelalian, Accounts Manager Dr Catherine MacDougall Director and Russian Art Expert Catherine Marshall, Cataloguing Consultant Irina Minervino Associate Director Tatiana Sapegina Client Liaison Manager Lev Wolfson Icon Expert Daria Sitnina Junior Icons and Works of Art Cataloguer Robert Bowman Bronze Expert Introduction The present collection of Russian porcelain figurines is one of the largest, most representative, important and complete collections held in private hands. Assembled over the past 15 years, it boasts early works by Gardner, Popov, Kornilov Brothers, Kozlov, Terekhov and Kisselev, Ikonnikov manufactories, as well as a small number of rare Imperial porcelain pieces, catering for all tastes and purchasing powers. The carefully curated collection offers a valuable overview of the fashions and popular themes of the 19th century. This comprehensive group is remarkable not only for its variety, but also for the outstanding quality of represented models, their artistic and technical merits, range of colours and undertones, as well as skilful painting. Particularly valuable figures in the collection are the ones produced by Gardner manufactory. The foreign influence is mostly felt in the early models, which derive from Meissen prototypes in their forms and rococo style decorations and are apparent in the compositions depicting fêtes galantes and children gardeners (lots 14, 16). The Patriotic War of 1812 stirred up powerful feelings of national pride, which had a direct and immediate effect on the range and subject matters of porcelain production. Following the lead of the Imperial Porcelain Manufactory, Gardner began production of a series of porcelain figures representing the idealised depictions of common people: vendors, tradesmen and other lower-class craftsmen and manufacturers, all of which are widely present in the offered collection (lots 57, 60, 67). Notable for their truthful portrayal, psychologism and individualism, Gardner figures straight away became very popular and were quickly copied by other private factories. Another famous series titled The Peoples of Russia is represented by figures of A Huntsman, A Peasant Girl from Kaluga and A Don Cossack (lots 125, 126). Based on lithographs, these decorative figures were educational, destined to inform the viewers about the occupations, crafts, life-style and climates of different ethnic groups who lived in the Russian Empire. A special place in the collection belongs to the sculptural groups and individual figures in European style produced in the middle of the 19th century by Popov manufactory, which demonstrate the general artistic trend of the manufactory at the time. Among the most prominent ones are Colombina and Pantalone from Commedia dell arte, Shepherd, A Gallant Man and a Lady, to name just a few (lots 9, 22, 23). The present collection also features many different figures of Russian peasants and genre scenes. Porcelains of the Popov manufactory display a fascinating and remarkable variety of Russian characters villagers and townsfolk alike. Among the most dynamic and beautiful compositions are the ones depicting common people dancing (lots 19, 74, 82 etc), as well as an originally executed ink set in the form of an Izba, evoking in the mind of the viewer a vivid image of peasant household (lot 73). Throughout the 19th century Russian porcelain played an important part in decoration of the interiors, and these fragile creations occupied pride of places in the homes of the wealthy and common people. Originally derived from European models, and thanks to the creative freedom enjoyed by the private manufacturers, porcelain figurines soon became recognisable for their own intrinsically Russian style, representing all classes, many in brilliantly coloured native costumes and characteristic features. Their vitality and charm evoke the romantic image of old Russia, as we know it from literature and songs. Such figurines enjoyed a great success at national and international exhibitions and nowadays can be found in major private and public porcelain collections. The auction of this truly encyclopaedic collection of early, rare and important figurines brilliantly demonstrating the social and political trends prevailing in the 19th century Russia is a perfect opportunity for porcelain collectors and enthusiasts of Russian culture to get hold of a rare piece of Russian porcelain history. We are grateful to Dr Ekaterina Khmelnitskaya for providing additional cataloguing information and research MacDougall Arts Ltd ISSN , MacDougall Arts Ltd, 30A Charles II St, London Registered Company in England and Wales Catalogue design by chaykadesign studio, photography by Todd-White, printed by «ATG Printers»

4 [*] Please note that all lots in the present catalogue are sold subject to the import VAT charge. Please refer to Auction s Terms and Conditions for more information. 1. A Porcelain Figurine of a Young Huntsman POSSIBLY KOZLOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ZHIROVO, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, 1840s Height 17 cm. 5. A Porcelain Figurine of a Boy in an 18th Century Dress with a Lamb POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1830s Height 14 cm. apparently unmarked 1,000 1, A Porcelain Figurine of a Young Huntsman with His Dog Height 16 cm. 6. A Porcelain Figurine of an Elegant Maid IMPERIAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 14.5 cm. 2 3 with a blue underglaze manufactory mark with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I A Porcelain Figurine of a Boy with a Playful Puppy 7. A Porcelain Figurine of a Boy Shearer KOZLOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ZHIROVO, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, 1840s Height 14 cm. with impressed manufactory mark, further incised with crossed swords Height 11.5 cm. 1,800 2, A Porcelain Figurine of Sancho Panza KORNILOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height 17.5 cm. 8. A Part Glazed Biscuit Porcelain Composition of Young Lovers POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, SECOND HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 15.5 cm. 5 8 with red overglaze manufactory mark with impressed manufactory mark 6 7 ( 4) Russian Art Auction ( 5)

5 9. A Porcelain Composition of a Gallant Man and a Lady POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 23 cm. 6,000 8,000 Francomania and enthusiasm for everything French was characteristic of the 19th century Russian aristocratic society. Porcelain manufactories fully reflected this trend and often addressed themselves to the subject of fêtes galantes, creating elegant groups of lovers in the European manner. For inspiration, they used characters from fêtes galantes scenes from the paintings of Jean-Antoine Watteau, François Boucher and Jean-Honoré Fragonard. The porcelain composition known as A Gallant Man and a Lady is a popular example of a pastoral scene portraying a young man holding bagpipes and cosying up to a young woman. 10. A Porcelain Figurine of a Young Gardener with a Hat Full of Flowers Height 21 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory mark 11. A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Couple Height 6 cm. 6,000 8,000 The bagpipes the gallant man holds are not only a symbol of masculinity but also an attribute of the itinerant themes and scenes of village life characteristic of the 18th century culture. In this composition the symbolism is on a pastoral theme of lyrical love and it is no coincidence that the young man s female companion inclines towards a basket of apples the symbol of temptation and falling into sin. Symbols of this kind helped in conveying the meaning of these porcelain compositions. Guessing the coded message in such love scenes was an engaging pastime and it comes 12. A Porcelain Figurine of a Mother with a Sleeping Child as no surprise that such porcelain groups enjoyed great popularity. GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1850s Height 6 cm A Porcelain Composition Nit Picker GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 20.5 cm. 4,000 6, ( 6) Russian Art Auction ( 7)

6 14. Two Porcelain Figurines of Children Gardeners POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1830s Height of the girl 13 cm, of the boy 11.5 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks 2,500 3, Two Porcelain Figurines of a Flower Girl and Boy GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1780s Height of the girl 14.5 cm, of the boy 15.5 cm. s A Porcelain Composition of a Young Couple Running from the Storm Height 17 cm. 7,000 9, Three Porcelain Figurines of Children Gardeners Height of the boy in blue 13 cm, of the boy in red 12.5 cm, of the girl 11.5 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks 5,000 7,000 Hugely popular, from the second half of the 18th century, among the wares produced by European porcelain factories were the graceful statuettes of the Children Gardeners series. These figures were first made at the Meissen porcelain manufactory, however, it is not quite clear precisely which figures of this series were brought together into a unified group or when. Following the example of master craftsmen at the leading European factories, porcelain manufactories in Russia also began to develop this theme, particularly the Imperial Porcelain, Gardner and Popov manufactories. As a rule, private producers borrowed the figures that were in demand at the Imperial Porcelain Factory, and turned for the original models to Meissen sales catalogues, where the little figures might go together in elegant pairs, but also be sold individually. Various designs were used for colouring the brightly painted figurines. The proportions of the figure, the details of the costume (bodice with piping and bows at the shoulders, pinafore, long skirt, slippers with bows, and bonnets), and the ill-formed plinth with gilded rocaille patterns incline towards and are similar to German models, but at the same time preserve their special local colouring ( 8) Russian Art Auction ( 9)

7 18. A Pair of Porcelain Figurines of a Young Couple Height 19 cm each. s 19. A Pair of Porcelain Figurines of a Couple of Lovers GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height of the woman 25.5 cm, of the man 26.5 cm. with red overglaze manufactory marks 4,000 6, A Pair of Porcelain Figurines of a Young Couple Dancing Height of the man 25.5 cm, of the woman 25 cm. s A Pair of Porcelain Figurines of Two Couples First figurine height 30 cm, length 19 cm, depth 12.5 cm; second figurine height 31 cm, length 19 cm, depth 13 cm. s 4,000 6, A Pair of Porcelain Figurines of Two Couples Height 17 cm each ( 10 ) Russian Art Auction ( 11 )

8 23. A Porcelain Composition of Colombina and Pantalone 24. A Porcelain Spill Vase in the Form of a Figure of a Commedia dell Arte Character POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST QUARTER 19TH CENTURY Height 16.5 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks 7,000 9,000 MIKLASHEVSKY MANUFACTORY, VOLOKITINO, Height 21 cm. with red overglaze manufactory mark From the beginning of the 18th century it became especially popular among sculptors and artists to portray characters from the Commedia dell arte. Amongst them porcelain objects are particularly prominent. Master craftsmen turned images of jugglers and acrobats, dancers and actors, pierrots and harlequins into exquisite porcelain statuettes. Figurines of Skomorokh, Colombina and Pantalone, Pierrot and Harlequin were highly sought-after among aficionados and collectors of porcelain. 25. A Porcelain Figurine of an 18th Century Dandy POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1850s Height 19 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks The owners of these elegant knick-knacks took pleasure in showing off their figurines by giving them a place in their entrance halls and reception rooms, on their cabinets, fireplace mantels and in girandoles. The fairytale fantasy world of the theatre found its way into the most remote corners of castles and palaces. A sculpture group of Colombina and Pantalone made in 1741 at the Meissen porcelain factory by Johann Kändler became the archetype for compositions of this name produced by various European and Russian manufactories. In the present case, a departure from the Meissen model is introduced by a little dog appearing on Colombina s lap and her holding a fan instead of a mask. Compared with the Meissen, the Popov figure is more brightly coloured and as such successfully combines the Historicist style prevalent in Russia at the time with the lightness and ethereal quality of the Rococo style. 26. A Porcelain Scent Bottle in the form of a Godfather from a Grimm Brothers Fairy Tale PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height 14 cm Titled in German on the base Der Herr Gervatter. apparently unmarked A Porcelain Figurine of a Lute Player POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 17 cm. 1,800 2, ( 12 ) Russian Art Auction ( 13 )

9 28. A Porcelain Figurine of a Persian Gentleman POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 13.5 cm. with blue underglaze and incised manufactory marks 31. Two Miniature Porcelain Figurines of an Ottoman Couple Height of the woman 5 cm, of the man 5.5 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks 8,000 12,000 Originally intended as scent bottles, such figurines in oriental dress became particularly fashionable in the 19th century. The artisans strove to authentically convey all the nuances of Еastern costumes, with their ornamental designs, patterns and accessories. These vessels, with their intricate moulded and painted decorations, were highly valued and remained the preserve of the aristocracy. 29. A Porcelain Figurine of a Blackamoor POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1800s Height 15 cm. with impressed and blue underglaze manufactory marks 3,000 5,000 The offered pair is a direct miniature copy of larger figurines and is faithful to the academic principles of composition that were followed by professional sculptors and painters at Popov manufactory. The bright colours and decorative qualities of Popov miniatures ensured their popularity and high demand A Porcelain Group of a Couple Embracing POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 10.5 cm. 31 ( 14 ) Russian Art Auction ( 15 )

10 32. A Biscuit Porcelain Spill Vase in the form of a Shepherd Resting Beside a Goat Height 19.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 36. A Porcelain Figurine of a Corsair POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, EARLY 19TH CENTURY Height 16 cm. with blue underglaze and incised manufactory mark A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Child Height 16 cm. 37. A Porcelain Spill Vase in the form of a Young Traveller Resting Height 17.5 cm A Porcelain Composition of a Child Teasing a Sleeping Friend GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 14 cm. 38. A Porcelain Figurine of a Young Huntsman with a Hound POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, Height 15 cm. With a metal plaque inscribed in Latin and Cyrillic Kara Sea Expedition 1929 Karskaya Expedition. with incised and blue underglaze manufactory marks A Small Porcelain Composition of a Young Boy and His Dog POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 7 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks ( 16 ) Russian Art Auction ( 17 )

11 39. A Porcelain Figurine of a Dandy POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 17 cm. 4,000 6, A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of an 18th Century Huntsman with His Prey POSSIBLY GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 12.5 cm. with impressed manufactory number 107, further signed 15 in black 1,200 1, A Porcelain Figurine of a Flautist POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 15 cm. s 1,200 1, ( 18 ) Russian Art Auction ( 19 )

12 42. An Articulated Faience Figurine of a Jester S. POSKHOCHIN MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 19 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 8,000 12, An Articulated Faience Figurine of a Buddha S. POSKHOCHIN FACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 20.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 10,000 15,000 In the 18th century jesters were a favourite source of merriment for monarchs in their life at court. A true legend among these was Augustus II the Strong s court jester Joseph Fröhlich ( ) who served the King s court for more than 30 years and was often called court magician. There are quite a few depictions of this jester that have been preserved to the present day. Fröhlich was one of the few people to allow himself to parody courtiers and think up witty and highly caustic jokes at their expense, ridiculing their flaws and weaknesses. Augustus II the Strong was fascinated by his jester and commissioned the Meissen porcelain manufactory to make a figure of him. Unfortunately, only the later versions of the figure survived, which were then used as models for reproduction by Russian private manufactories. A sense of the refinement and harmony of Chinese culture was an integral part of the Rococo style in Europe. Richly coloured Chinese lanterns, painted screens, silks, lacquer miniatures and porcelain with stylised images of pagodas and dragons also came into fashion in Russia, and the artisans at privately owned porcelain manufactories duly mastered the art of chinoiserie. The range of produced items included amusing Chinese dolls such as the present lot simple and gaily dressed figures with nodding heads and even the ability to stick out their tongue. The original model for this work is the Pagoda figurine made at the Meissen factory in the early 1730s by Johann Kändler. The German artist was supposedly attempting to reproduce in porcelain an image of the blissfully smiling Buddha on the path to spiritual enlightenment. Pagoda was taken by Kändler as a general name, that was then used to describe all early Meissen Chinese figurines. Typically, the head and hands on this work are fixed with metal rods, bringing the statuette to life. These figures remained in high demand in the 19th century and were often treated as good-luck charms. Their popularity is evident from frequent representation in paintings and drawings. Such is Meditation, a painting by the German artist Conrad Kiesel, where the artist carefully reproduces all the subtle nuances of a porcelain Chinese doll Christian Friedrich Boetius, Joseph Fröhlich, Conrad Kiesel ( ), Meditation. ( 20 ) Russian Art Auction ( 21 )

13 44. A Porcelain Group of a Shepherd and His Dog KORNILOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 24 cm. with a red manufactory stamp 45. A Porcelain Scent Bottle in a Form of a Lady with a Teapot POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 28.5 cm. Shepherds making music and ladies with gallants, elegant court musicians and other prominent characters in porcelain are not simply allegories for the sense of hearing, symbols of love or exuberant festivity they are vivid images of the époque galante, an expression of its tastes and predilections that were so attractive in the mid-19th century. Inspired by European models, such subjects quickly became an integral element in the range of objects produced by Russian porcelain manufactories. Excellent manufacturing and decorative qualities of the Popov models are apparent in the figure of a young shepherd playing his pan pipes. The shepherd is portrayed sitting on a low mound. A little confidant sits at his feet attentively observing master s soulful mood. This best friend is depicted in the form of an ancient symbol of faithfulness a pet dog. The constant companions of shepherds were every possible kind of horn, pipe and pan flute, which were regarded as a phallic symbol. At the same time, a lone shepherd with pan pipes personified lyrical poetry. 46. A Rare Large Porcelain Figurine of a Draughts Player POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 22.5 cm. apparently unmarked 8,000 12,000 The piece, painted by an unknown craftsman, displays a high degree of artistic professionalism, with the apparent master miniaturist successfully combining meticulous stippling and the finest brushwork and gilding ( 22 ) Russian Art Auction ( 23 )

14 In the figurines made by Russian porcelain factories the typical 19th century idealisation of folk types was not an attempt to create an impression through stylisation of the models, nor was it artificially lending dignity to the figurines, but rather it was a sincere desire to reproduce reality as it appeared to the patriotic craftsmen. It is for this reason that Russian craftsmen were so often drawn, with such love, to portraying their fellow countrymen. In 1929 the art critic and writer Ivan Lukash remarked: All images of Empire and styles have left delicate traces of themselves on porcelain and if there was nothing left of Russia, but shards of porcelain, it would still be possible to represent her splendour and nobility, harmonious beauty and manliness, shining strength and appealing femininity < > Old Russia was not just powdered wigs: she was porcelain too. The little known and half-forgotten art of ceramics harbours the special dignity and charm of the Russian Empire, its unconsciously gentle breathing and very light footfall. < > Russia was always garlanded in delicate porcelain (Ivan Lukash, Porcelain Russia. On Exhibition at Sèvres, 1929, p. 3). In the 19th century the miniature porcelain scene introduces figures of peasants in Russian sleeveless dresses, long shirts and bast footwear. From the mid-19th century the number of «simple folk» characters expands to include various subjects from peasants everyday life; so, in this collection there are figures representing an old peasant woman spinning, peasants repairing and making bast shoes, playing the balalaika and pouring tea, peasant children playing outdoor games etc. Moreover, the same much-loved characters were produced both at the Popov factory and the Gardner factory. Thus, the figurines represented in the collection Old Man Making a Bast Shoe (or Peasant Making a Bast Shoe) and Peasant Woman Spinning (The Spinstress) (lot 85) were made at the Gardner and Popov manufactories at the same time and painted in identical manner.

15 47. A Porcelain Figurine of a Berry Gatherer 51. A Porcelain Figurine of a Balalaika Player GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, EARLY 19TH CENTURY Height 21 cm. GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 15 cm. with underglaze manufactory marks, further incised with a number A Porcelain Figurine of a Wanderer 52. A Porcelain Figurine of a Cherry Gatherer GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1820s Height 18.5 cm. GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1820s Height 16.5 cm. and further incised 3, further numbered No2 87 in gold A Porcelain Figurine of a Traveller 53. A Porcelain Figurine of a Fish Vendor GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, EARLY 19TH CENTURY Height 21 cm. GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1ST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 21.5 cm. and numbered 19 in gold 50. A Porcelain Figurine of a Mushroom Gatherer GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1820s Height 20.5 cm. 5,000 7, A Porcelain Figurine of a Young Girl Carding Wool GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, EARLY 19TH CENTURY Height 16.5 cm , ( 26 ) Russian Art Auction ( 27 )

16 55. A Porcelain Figurine of a Glasscutter GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1830s Height 19 cm. with blue underglaze and incised manufactory mark and further numbered N2/87 in gold 4,000 6, A Porcelain Figurine of a Woman Visiting a Bathhouse GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 18 cm. 2,500 3, A Porcelain Figurine of a Sweeper GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 16.5 cm., incised with a number 2, further numbered 3/88 in red 4, A Porcelain Figurine of a Jewish Man Checking His Watch GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, s Height 18.5 cm. 4,000 6, A Porcelain Figurine of a Lady s Shoe Vendor GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1820s Height 20 cm., further incised with a number 4 and numbered N2/59/ The strikingly distinctive porcelain figurines in the collection offered here are from the series called Russian Merchants and Craftsmen and represent scenes from the everyday life of common folk in Russia in the first half of the 19th century. This series won instant recognition because the design concept echoed the popular earthenware figures of the 18th century and at the same time continued the Russian potters tradition of making popular toys. The porcelain dolls : the coachman, postman, cobbler, pancake seller, sower, spinstress, woman carrying water, woman picking berries and many others, are dressed in simple folk costume and portrayed with the attributes of their occupation. These little sculptures, which were keenly collected, served as a cheerful decoration in the places where people lived ( 28 ) Russian Art Auction ( 29 )

17 60. A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Cherry Gatherer 65. A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Dancing Peasant GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19H CENTURY Height 12 cm. GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1820s Height 13 cm. 2,500 3, A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Tea Vendor 66. A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Vendor GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 11.5 cm. GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1820s Height 11.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark, further signed with a number 11 in black A Small Porcelain Figurine of a Boxer 67. A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Traveller GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 12 cm. GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 12 cm. 5,000 7,000 with impressed manufactory mark A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Berry Gatherer GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 12 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks, further numbered N2/59 and signed A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Shoe Vendor GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 11 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks, further numbered N2/59 and signed A Miniature Porcelain Figurine of a Traveller Height 11.5 cm ( 30 ) Russian Art Auction ( 31 )

18 69. A Porcelain Figurine of a Sugar Vendor IMPERIAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 13.5 cm. with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I 70. A Porcelain Figurine of a Flower Vendor IMPERIAL PORCLEAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 17 cm. with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I 4,000 6, A Porcelain Figurine of a Shoe Vendor IMPERIAL PORCLEAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 14 cm. with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I 4,000 6, A Porcelain Figurine of a Bread and Pretzels Vendor IMPERIAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 13 cm A Porcelain Figurine of a Kvass Vendor IMPERIAL PORCLEAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 14 cm. with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I ( 32 ) Russian Art Auction ( 33 )

19 74. An Amusing Porcelain Desk Stand in the Form of an Izba POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY 17 by 14.5 cm. Realistically modelled, with pitched roof, chimney and log walls, a peasant woman emerging from the front door, fitted with a removable bucket-form inkwell, barrel-form pounce pot and a wagon wheel fitted as a pen rest. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks. 20,000 30, ( 34 ) Russian Art Auction ( 35 )

20 75. A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Dancing Man POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 20 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 77. A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Boy Dancing PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height 18 cm. apparently unmarked 76. A Porcelain Figurine of a Dancing Peasant Height 21.5 cm. 78. A Porcelain Figurine of a Dancing Beauty MIKLASHEVSKY MANUFACTORY, VOLOKITINO, Height 20 cm. with red manufactory mark The small private factories that appeared in Russia, producing objects that the middle class could afford, and also the general interest in folk themes and Russian folklore in the mid-19th century, prompted the emergence in the musical world of porcelain of a large number of figurines that lent grace to the theme of fairs and open-air festivities. Figures of balalaika, accordion players and dancing revellers always seen at Russian festivities, notably enriched the range of items offered by the Gardner, Popov, Miklashevsky and other factories with subjects taken from the life of common folk. Always especially popular were the figures of dancing peasants and balalaika players based on popular engravings, massproduced coloured prints and illustrations from books. There was a significant stratum in Russian rural culture linked to folk musicians, like balalaika and accordion players, and this is skilfully reflected in moulded porcelain. Without these characters any popular merry-making, wedding or other significant events in the life of the countryside was unthinkable. People who loved to dance would gather around the folk musicians, which is why there were often porcelain figures of young women dancers next to the figure of a musician. The Gardner and Popov models were often borrowed by smaller private manufacturers (for example, the Kisselev factory), where the models were naively simplified or given new elements of detail ( 36 ) Russian Art Auction ( 37 )

21 79. A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Bread Vendor KORNILOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height 18 cm. 83. Two Biscuit Porcelain Figurines of a Peasant Woman Dancing and a Haymaker POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height of the woman 16 cm, of the haymaker 17 cm. with red manufactory mark 80. A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Nursing Mother PROBABLY GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1890s Height 20 cm. apparently unmarked 84. Two Porcelain Figurines of Children Playing with Pegs and a Balalaika Player Height of the balalaika player 13.5 cm, of the group 10 cm A porcelain Figurine of a Street Vendor 85. A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant at Work GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height 20 cm. IKONNIKOV MANUFACTORY, ELIZAVETINO, 19TH CENTURY Height 16.5 cm. with red manufactory mark 82. A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Seated Peasant Mother and Child POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1870s Height 16 cm. 1,200 1, ( 38 ) Russian Art Auction ( 39 )

22 86. Two Porcelain Figurines of a Peasant Woman Spinning and an Old Man Making a Bast Shoe POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, s Height of the woman 14 cm, of the man 15 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks 87. Two Small Figurines of a Dancing Peasant and a Traveller with a Basket of Berries TEREKHOV AND KISSELEV MANUFACTORY, RECHICY, Height of the man in white 10 cm, of the other 10.5 cm. the dancing peasant with a green manufactory stamp, the other one apparently unmarked 800 1, Two Porcelain Figurines of a Peasant Girl with a Lamb and a Shepherd Boy POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, s Height of the girl 15 cm, of the boy 16 cm. s 89. Two Porcelain Figurines of Peasants KORNILOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, s Height of the first one 17 cm, of the one with the box 17.5 cm. stamped with manufactory marks ( 40 ) Russian Art Auction ( 41 )

23 90. A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Girl Water Carrier PRIVATE PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height 24.5 cm. apparently unmarked 6,000 8, A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Boy Water Carrier POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1850s Height 25.5 cm. 5,000 7, A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Girl Water Carrier GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, Height 24.5 cm. 4,000 6,000 The Girl and Boy Water Carriers, also known as a Girl with Water Buckets and a Peasant Boy, are iconic figures of Russian porcelain art. The first such models were made around 1817 by Stepan Pimenov ( ) for the Imperial Porcelain Factory, and they were soon taken up with great success by the privately owned manufactories of Gardner, Popov, Kozlov Brothers and others. The recognisable figure of the girl water carrier is remarkable for its plasticity, which flawlessly conveys the movement and the folds of her clothing. The decorative and stylised interpretation of Russian peasant clothing (sarafan and kokoshnik) are an idealisation of the life of the people. The yoked buckets evoke all the connotations of that life in the popular imagination: the burden is so light that the girl does not even use her hand to steady the buckets. The 19th century historian Ivan Lukash was among many who praised the artistry of these figurines: Several folk figures from the porcelain workshops of the time of Alexander I have a wondrous beauty: we all know the athletic youth carrying buckets of water with a joyful, open expression on his face <...> the modest young female goddess with a yoke on her shoulders, who seems to glide in her passage and whose entire figure has an irresistible charm. Lukash has a particular enthusiasm for the female figures, calling them Russian Dianas with a remarkably harmonious turn of the body and head, peasant goddesses in golden kokoshniks and blue sarafans, differing one from another only in the colour of their shoes: red, pale yellow or green. The secret of their colouration the skilful combination of glaze with biscuit remains unfathomable to European artisans. In truth the specifically Russian features of the boy water carrier are limited to the cut of the shirt, physiognomy and hair, while the stance of the figurine and the folds of the clothing are classic in nature. But that is no obstacle to the patriotic lyricism of a writer such as Lukash as he praises his subject, striding towards the wide expanses of his native land, as if towards the promise of a distant star ( 42 ) Russian Art Auction ( 43 )

24 93. A Porcelain Figurine of a Woodcutter PROBABLY IMPERIAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, 1850s Height 13 cm. apparently unmarked 96. A Porcelain Figurine of a Woman Punishing Her Child GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 13.5 cm , A Porcelain Figurine of a Girl with a Basket of Grapes POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 18.5 cm. 97. A Porcelain Figurine of a Beggar Woman GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1830s Height 12 cm. with impressed manufactory mark A Porcelain Figurine of a Ribbons Vendor Height 16 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 98. A Small Porcelain Composition of a Blind Beggar and His Son GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 10.5 cm, width 7 cm. with impressed manufactory mark and further numbered 85 in red 1,800 2, A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Washerwoman GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height 12 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 1,200 1, ( 44 ) Russian Art Auction ( 45 )

25 100. An Inkwell in the Shape of a Lumberjack with His Wheelbarrow 104. A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Making a Bast Shoe KOZLOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ZHIROVO, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, 1840s Height 16 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 2,500 3,500 POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 14.5 cm A Porcelain Figurine of a Fish Vendor KORNILOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, s Height 18 cm. with red overglaze mark 105. A Porcelain Figurine of a Huntsman GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, s Height 15.5 cm., further numbered No2 2,500 3, A Porcelain Scent Bottle in the Form of a Peasant Carder Woman POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 16.5 cm. with blue and incised manufactory marks 1,000 1, Two Porcelain Figurines of a Peasant Balalaika Player and a Peasant with a Wood Cart PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Heights 16 cm each. apparently unmarked 103. A Porcelain Figurine of a Water Carrier KORNILOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height 18 cm. with red manufactory mark ( 46 ) Russian Art Auction 105 ( 47 )

26 107. A Porcelain Figurine of a Glasscutter POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1830s Height 20.5 cm A Porcelain Figurine of a Young Woman with a Basket KOZLOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ZHIROVO, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, 1830s Height 18.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 109. A Porcelain Figurine of a Flower Girl Height 15 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks A Porcelain Figurine of a Glasscutter GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1830s Height 19 cm., further numbered N2 and 57 in gold 4,000 6,000 ( 48 ) Russian Art Auction ( 49 )

27 111. A Porcelain Figurine of a Balalaika Player GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 15 cm A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Making a Bast Shoe MIKLASHEVSKY MANUFACTORY, VOLOKITINO, Height 17 cm. with overglaze manufactory mark 1,000 1, A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Farmer POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1860s Height 18 cm A Porcelain Desk Set in the Form of a Kneeling Woodcutter PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height 12 cm. apparently unmarked 1,200 1, A Part Glazed Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant with a Basket Height 17.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 117. A Biscuit Porcelain Ink Stand in the Form of a Peasant Resting Beside a Tree Stump GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 19TH CENTURY Height 15 cm. with an impressed manufactory marks 114. A Porcelain Ink Set in the Form of a Lumberjack KOZLOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ZHIROVO, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, s Height 14 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 2,500 3, ( 50 ) Russian Art Auction ( 51 )

28 118. A Desk Set in the Form of a Woman Nursing Her Child Height 16 cm. with incised manufactory marks 121. A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Beggar Height 23.5 cm. with incised manufactory marks A Porcelain Figurine of a Shepherd Boy Playing His Reed 122. A Porcelain Composition of a Peasant Family Around a Bonfire KORNILOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ST PETERSBURG, Height 25 cm. with red and incised manufactory marks 2,500 3,500 PROBABLY POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 21 cm. with impressed number A Porcelain Figurine of a Woman with a Child Riding a Goat 123. A Painted Biscuit Spill Vase in a Form of a Blind Beggar Height 20.5 cm GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 25 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 1,800 2, ( 52 ) Russian Art Auction ( 53 )

29 124. Two Porcelain Figurines of People from the East PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height of the man 17 cm, of the woman 17 cm. apparently unmarked 127. A Porcelain Figurine of a Don Cossack PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height 20.5 cm. with handprinted mark in Cyrillic B.Ch.K. 1,200 1, A Porcelain Figurine of a Man from the East POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, EARLY 19TH CENTURY Height 17 cm. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks 1,000 1, A Porcelain Figurine of a Ukrainian Peasant Man Height 23 cm A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Woman from Kaluga 129. A Pair of Porcelain Figurines of Ukrainian Peasants KUZNETSOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, LATE 19TH EARLY 20TH CENTURY Height 24 cm. POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height of the man 23.5 cm, of the woman 23 cm. titled in Cyrillic, with red manufactory mark and impressed number 331 s 4,000 6, ( 54 ) Russian Art Auction ( 55 )

30 130. A Porcelain Composition of Two Literary Personages TEREKHOV AND KISSELEV MANUFACTORY, RECHITSY, 1840s Height 16.5 cm each. Depicted as possibly Nikolai Gogol s personages. with green overglaze manufactory marks 6,000 8, A Faience Spill Vase in the Form of a Motel KUZNETSOV MANUFACTORY, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height 22 cm. Depicted as the Boot Black from Sholem Aleichem s tale. with impressed manufactory mark 1,000 1, Two Biscuit Porcelain Bottle Stoppers GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, SECOND HALF 19TH CENTURY Height of the dark haired one 9.5 cm, of the other 9 cm. one with impressed manufactory mark 800 1, A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of Two Peasants Talking IKONNIKOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, 19TH CENTURY Height 20 cm. with red manufactory mark From the mid-19th century the Gardner factory set up the production, together with other practical objects, of such original items as bottle stoppers with porcelain faces. At the time these figurine stoppers were in great demand for their functionality and at the same time for their comic appearance. The models for their design were based on some of the most popular figurines produced by the factory. For example, one of the stoppers offered is made in the form of the head of a Jewish dealer, among the Gardner factory s figurines made in the mid-19th century, is one of the rarest and most valued by collectors A Porcelain Figurine of a Caucasian Man PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height 18.5 cm. apparently unmarked 1,000 1, A Biscuit Porcelain Figurine of an Old Woman with a Basket IKONNIKOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, 1875 Height 17 cm. with red manufactory mark 1,000 1, ( 56 ) Russian Art Auction ( 57 )

31 136. A Miniature Porcelain Composition of Dancing Peasants GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 6.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark, further numbered 97 in red 137. A Small Porcelain Figurine of a Goat Shearer GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 9.5 cm, width 4 cm, length 8.5 cm An Amusing Biscuit Porcelain Composition of a Shoemaker GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1860 Height 6 cm, depth 5 cm, length 7 cm ( 58 ) Russian Art Auction ( 59 )

32 139. A Porcelain Figurine of Emir Abdelkader on a Horse POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1850s Height 10.5 cm, depth 6 cm, length 11 cm. Named on the base in Latin Abd_el_Kader. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks The offered figurine is an equestrian statue of the Arab Еmir Abdelkader, an Algerian military and religious leader, who led a popular struggle against the French colonial invasion in the mid-19th century, welding various social groups and Arab-Berber tribes into a unified state. The system of government, which Abdelkader built, has been compared with the Imamate, established in Dagestan, on the fringes of the Russian empire, by Imam Shamil in The two men were contemporaries and had much in common as Muslim leaders, military commanders, strategists and politicians. In particular, it was Abdelkader's regard for human rights, religious tolerance and antipathy to terrorist action, which inspired much interest in the Algerian hero in Russia during the mid-19th century, encouraging some of the country s privately owned porcelain factories to produce figurines in his image. 139 ( 60 ) Russian Art Auction ( 61 )

33 140. A Porcelain Figurine of Leonardo da Vinci POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 20.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 6,000 8, A Porcelain Figurine of Paolo Veronese POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 18.5 cm. Named in Latin PAUL VERONESE. 4,000 6,000 The rarely encountered porcelain figurines of Paolo Veronese, Leonardo da Vinci and Benvenuto Cellini, which are of great value to collectors, were created at the Popov factory in the mid-19th century. All porcelain factories at that time worked in fiercely competitive conditions and were therefore forced to follow the dictates of fashion. In the context of growing general interest in the legacy of past times and particularly in the art of the Renaissance, the Popov factory decided to create a series of illustrious people of that period. Two models from this series are offered here at auction: Paolo Veronese and Leonardo da Vinci. It is not known for certain which artistic sources were used by the master craftsmen at the Popov factory when they developed these models, but they were obviously the most popular and recognisable portraits ( 62 ) Russian Art Auction ( 63 )

34 142. A Porcelain Figurine of Chronos POSSIBLY TEREKHOV AND KISSELEV MANUFACTORY, RECHITSY, Height 31.5 cm. apparently unmarked 6,000 8,000 The first to make a figurine of the ancient Greek god Chronos, appearing as an allegory for Time, was Johann Kändler at the Meissen Manufactory in the 1740s. At the end of the 18th century a figure of Chronos featured among the wares made at the Imperial Porcelain Factory in St Petersburg. In the 19th century the figure of Chronos with various additions to it was being produced at a variety of porcelain factories in Europe and Russia. Thus, the collection of the State Hermitage Museum holds an identical figure of Chronos made by the private porcelain factory run by the Terekhov and Kisselev. 142 ( 64 ) Russian Art Auction ( 65 )

35 143. A Porcelain Composition Monkey Riding the Dog MIKLASHEVSKY MANUFACTORY, VOLOKITINO, Height 17, depth 12 cm, length 16 cm. with red manufactory mark and further numbered 30 8,000 12, A Porcelain Penholder in the Form of a Seated Pipe Smoker IMPERIAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 11.5 cm. with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I 4,000 6, A Porcelain Figurine of a Naiad with a Seashell IMPERIAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 15.5 cm. with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I 6,000 8,000 The prototype for this figurine was a Meissen figure of the same name, which belonged to one of the most renowned services of the 18th century the Swan Service, commissioned by Augustus II the Strong in 1737 for his Prime Minister, Graf von Brühl, one of the most influential political figures of his time. The dominant idea behind the shape of the pieces in this service is flowing water as a symbol of fluidity of time in the stream of life. The sculpted figures included the figurine of Naiad a type of nymph who presides over fresh water. She holds a stylised seashell, which served as an original receptacle for sweets in the dessert section of the Swan Service. Later when, as early as the 19th century, these pieces started to be produced at the Imperial Porcelain manufactory in St Petersburg, the shells were used to keep little trinkets and knickknacks in ( 66 ) Russian Art Auction ( 67 )

36 146. A Porcelain Figurine of Tsar Nicholas I SIPYAGIN MANUFACTORY, ELIZAVETINO, Height 25.5 cm. with dark brown overglaze manufactory mark Following the example of European manufacturers, Russian porcelain factories in the mid-19th century began to produce inexpensive porcelain and ceramic souvenir items depicting Russian tsars and prominent political figures. The simple lubok-like representation of Tsar Nicholas I is from this tradition. The larger than life nature of these works made them very popular, and utilitarian features often gave them extra attraction: the State Hermitage collection includes figurines of Alexander III, Nicholas II and President Carnot of France, executed in a similar manner and on their verso equipped with a special storage box for various small objects. Ceramic tobacco pipes with sculpted portraits of presidents and emperors are part of the same family of products. These unpretentious souvenirs, which were enthusiastically developed by Russian and European makers of porcelain, convey the nature of their subjects through minimal, simplified features of face and clothing, but at the same time display the inexhaustible ingenuity and rich talent of the porcelain makers, who used official portraits of the most important statesmen of their time to create curiosities that combine artistry with practical use Two Porcelain Figurines of Samson's Fight with a Lion and a Crowned Beauty with a Horse Head KOZLOV BROTHERS MANUFACTORY, ZHIROVO, MOSCOW GUBERNIA, AND PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, 19TH CENTURY Height of the man 18 cm, of the woman 20 cm. Samson with impressed manufactory mark, lady ( 68 ) Russian Art Auction ( 69 )

37 148. A Porcelain Ink Stand POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, MID 19TH CENTURY Height 10.5 cm, depth 15 cm, length 27.5 cm. Comprising two ink pots and a sander, each with cover, the body decorated with birds and flowers, raised on four supports shaped as swans. with blue underglaze and impressed manufactory marks. 8,000 12, A Porcelain Ink Stand POPOV MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, FIRST HALF 19TH CENTURY Height 10 cm A Porcelain Tea-Caddy in Chinoiserie Style Height 17 cm. with red overglaze Chinese eternal knot mark 151. A Porcelain Scent Bottle Height 11 cm. 1,000 1,500 This decoratively painted with characters in the Chinese style container with a lid, made at Popov manufactory, was designed to store tea. Tea first appeared in Russia in 1638, when the Russian ambassador Vasiliy Starikov brought four puds of tea leaves from the Mongol Khan Altyn as a gift to Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov. Tea was very expensive and for a long time it remained the preserve of the rich. In noble households the mistress would usually look after this valuable commodity as a cherished asset and would keep it not in the larder but in her own sleeping chamber, in special tea caddies. In the 19th century tea had already established a firm place for itself in Russian life and become a truly national drink. Nonetheless, the tradition of keeping tea in special caddies was maintained into the 19th century. Colourful caddies were made from various materials, including porcelain, both by the Imperial Porcelain Factory and by private manufacturers. An elegant woman without perfume is like a rose without fragrance, wrote a columnist of the Everylady s Journal in 1910 (No. 1, p. 29). By the middle of the 19th century Russia had its own perfume companies, producing a wide range of perfumes and eau de cologne to compete with French imports. Porcelain perfume bottles became an integral part of every fashionable interior to the same extent as porcelain figurines. The Imperial Porcelain Factory and privately owned porcelain manufactories produced all sorts of vessels, ranging from imitations of precious oriental bottles to florid creations with stucco flowers and painted motifs. This highly decorative bottle with its angular silhouette lines and fine gilt floral ornamentation is a superlative example of such porcelains produced by Popov manufactory at the time ( 70 ) Russian Art Auction ( 71 )

38 152. Two Porcelain Covered Mugs SIPYAGIN MANUFACTORY, ELIZAVETINO, 1820s Height of the woman 16 cm, of the man 15 cm. the female head, the male head apparently unmarked 153. A Porcelain Figural Pot IMPERIAL PORCELAIN MANUFACTORY, PERIOD OF NICHOLAS I ( ) Height 26.5 cm. with blue Imperial cypher for Nicholas I ( 72 ) Russian Art Auction ( 73 )

39 154. A Porcelain Figurine of an Odalisque MIKLASHEVSKY MANUFACTORY, VOLOKITINO, Length 23.5 cm. with black manufactory mark 7,000 9, An Amusing Erotic Porcelain Figurine of a Woman Adjusting Her Stocking GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, 1840s Height 19 cm. 1,000 1, An Amusing Erotic Porcelain Figurine of a Reclining Lady GARDNER MANUFACTORY, MOSCOW, LATE 19TH CENTURY Length 15 cm, depth 7 cm. with red and impressed manufactory marks An Amusing Miniature Erotic Porcelain Figurine of a Lady Inspecting Her Frontage SABANINE MANUFACTORY, VLADIMIR, 1850s Height 8.5 cm. with impressed manufactory mark 4,000 6, An Amusing Candle Snuffer and a Match Holder in the Form of a Friar PRIVATE MANUFACTORY, LATE 19TH CENTURY Height 9 cm. apparently unmarked ( 74 ) Russian Art Auction ( 75 )

40 MacDougall's Terms & Conditions of Sale March These Terms and Conditions govern the contractual relations of the vendors, the prospective buyers, and MacDougall Arts Ltd. All bids shall be treated as offers made upon these Terms and Conditions of Sale. 2. In these Terms and Conditions of Sale, MacDougall Arts Ltd. who act as auctioneer and usually as agents for the vendor are called MacDougall s or us ; and the representative of MacDougall Arts Ltd. conducting the auction is called The Auctioneer. Hammer price 3. The hammer price means the highest bid accepted by the Auctioneer. The highest bidder acceptable to the Auctioneer shall be the buyer. The purchase price payable by the buyer shall be the aggregate of the hammer price plus buyer s premium (together with any VAT chargeable on the hammer price and buyer s premium). The buyer s premium is at a rate of 25% on the first 50,000, 20% on the amount between 50,000 and 1,000,000, and at a rate of 12% on the amount above 1,000,000, of the hammer price. By the making of any bid the buyer acknowledges that on the sale of any lot MacDougall s may receive from the vendor a vendor s commission in addition to the said buyer s premium. All prices are quoted in UK Pounds Sterling. VAT 4. Lots are normally sold under the UK Auctioneers Margin Scheme. Input tax deduction has not been and will not be claimed in respect of such lots. The charge for the buyer s premium will include VAT on the charges described above, which will not be shown separately and may not be reclaimed as input tax. 5. Items marked with an asterisk (*) have been imported from outside the EU. 5% will be added to the hammer price and buyer s premium to cover Import VAT. 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(c) Buyers are reminded that they may require an export licence for some items in order to remove the lot from the United Kingdom, that they alone are responsible for obtaining any such licence, and that the sale is valid whether or not such licence is obtained. (d) In completing the bidder registration and providing your credit card details you authorise MacDougall s, if they so wish, to charge the credit card given in part or full payment, including all fees, for items successfully purchased in the sale; and confirm that you are authorised to provide these credit card details. 13. If a buyer fails either to pay for, or take away, a lot after a successful bid, MacDougall s shall be entitled at their absolute discretion to exercise one or more of the following rights. (a) To cancel the sale of that lot. (b) To store the lot or cause it to be stored at their own premises or warehouses elsewhere at the sole expense and risk of the buyer, and to release the lot only after payment in full of the purchase price, accrued storage and haulage charges and all other costs incurred by MacDougall s in connection with the lot. (c) To charge interest and storage charges. Interest is charged at 10% per annum, and storage charges at 50 pounds per lot per week. However these charges will be waived if payment is received by the 21 day contractual deadline and the purchases are collected within four months. (d) With seven day s notice to the buyer to resell the lot or cause it to be resold by public or private sale. Any deficiency in the purchase price attending such resale (after giving credit for any payment and after deducting full costs incurred in connection with the lot) to be made good by the defaulting buyer, any surplus (after retention by MacDougall s of the premium) to be paid to the vendor. (e) Commence legal proceedings on behalf of the vendor to recover the purchase price and other expenses for that lot. (f) Release the name and address of the buyer to the vendor to enable the vendor to commence the legal proceedings against the buyer. (g) MacDougall s shall in all circumstances be entitled to exercise a lien against any property belonging to the buyer or where the buyer has acted as an agent any property belonging to the buyer s principal which is in the possession of or in the control of MacDougall s in respect of any debt howsoever arising owed by the buyer (or the buyer s principal) to MacDougall s notwithstanding that the value of the property exceeds the amount owed to MacDougall s. (h) MacDougall s may set off any sums owed by a buyer or its principal against any money owed by MacDougall s to the buyer or its principal not withstanding that MacDougall s may have in their possession or under their control property belonging to the buyer or its principal. (i) MacDougall s are entitled at their absolute discretion to apportion any monies received by or on behalf of the buyer against any sums owed by the buyer or its principal by or on behalf of the buyer against any sums owed by the buyer or its principal to MacDougall s. (j) Where purchases are not collected within one month from the date of the sale, whether or not payment has been made, we shall be permitted to remove the property to a third party warehouse at the buyer's expense, and only release the items after payment in full has been made of removal, storage, handling, and any other costs reasonably incurred, together with payment of all other amounts due to us. 14. Legal title shall not pass to the buyer until the lot has been paid for in full, but each lot will immediately on the fall of the hammer be and remain in every respect at the risk of the buyer. ( 76 ) Russian Art Auction ( 77 )

41 Telephone and Commission Bidding Form: March 2015 Catalogue descriptions 15. MacDougall s reserve the right to withdraw, consolidate, divide or alter any lot or combine any two or more lots. 16. All statements in the catalogues, advertisements or brochures of forthcoming sales are statements of opinion only. Illustrations in the catalogues, advertisements or brochures of forthcoming sales may not necessarily reveal imperfections in any lot. The exact physical description of any lot and the extent of any defect, restoration or repair to any lot should be ascertained by intending buyers through inspection. Each buyer by making a bid for a lot acknowledges that he has satisfied himself fully before bidding by inspection or otherwise as to all the sale conditions the physical condition of and description of the lot including but not restricted to whether the lot is damaged or has been repaired or restored. 17. MacDougall s reserve the full and absolute right to illustrate and photograph any lot placed in its hands for sale, and to use these photographs and illustrations at any time at its absolute discretion (whether or not in connection with the auction). Guarantee 18. Notwithstanding any other terms of these conditions, if within one year after the sale the buyer of any lot gives notice in writing to the Auctioneer that in his view the lot is a counterfeit (i.e. an imitation created to deceive as to authorship, origin, date, or age); and within fourteen days after such notification the buyer returns the lot to the Auctioneer in the same condition as at the time of sale and free of third party claims; and by producing evidence, with the burden of proof to be upon the buyer, satisfies MacDougall Arts Ltd. that the lot is a counterfeit, not reflected by the description in the catalogue; then the sale of the lot will be rescinded and the purchase price of the same refunded. No lot shall be considered a counterfeit by reason only of any damage and/or restoration and/or modification work of any kind including repainting or over-painting. This limited right of refund lies with the original buyer only and is not transferable to third parties. Buyers are reminded that a premium at a rate of 25% on the first 50,000, 20% on the amount between 50,000 and 1,000,000 and of 12% on the amount above 1,000,000 is payable on the hammer price, plus applicable VAT. Some lots are also subject to import charges and/or Artist s Resale Right charges, as described in the Terms and Conditions. All telephone and commission bidding requests should be completed by twenty-four hours before the sale. Mac- Dougall Arts Ltd. does not accept any liability if for any reason you do not receive a phone call during the sale. In submitting this form you agree to comply with the Terms and Conditions of the Sale. Cleared funds must be received for all purchases within 21 days of the sale. Interest is charged at 10% per annum, and storage charges at 50 per week. However these charges will be waived if payment is received by the 21 day contractual deadline. I Would Like A) Leave A Commission Bid B) Telephone Bid (please select one) Preferred Language: English Russian French (please select one) Lot Number Brief Description Maximum Commission Bid (GBP Hammer Price) Data protection 19. By agreeing to these Terms and Conditions, vendors, bidders, and buyers agree to the storage and processing of their personal information by the Auctioneer. The data may be stored in countries which do not offer equivalent protection of personal information to that offered in the EU. The Auction may be subject to video and audio recording by the Auctioneer. The Data Controller is MacDougall Arts Ltd. English law and language 20(a). All sales and related matters included within these Conditions of Sale shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England (regardless of where the lot may have been received by the Auctioneer) and the buyer submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts. 20(b). Any dispute arising out of or in connection with this contract, including any question regarding its existence, validity or termination, shall be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration under the LCIA Rules, which Rules are deemed to be incorporated by reference into this clause. The number of arbitrators shall be one. The seat, or legal place, of arbitration shall be London. The language to be used in the arbitral proceedings shall be English. The governing law of the contract shall be the substantive law of England and Wales. 21. Where a translation of this agreement has been provided, it is agreed that the English language version shall be the governing one. Registration Details First Name: Business Name: Surname: Payment methods: For payments by wire transfer, please direct payment in UK pounds sterling (with all charges to be paid by sender, and include a reference to the lot number) to: MacDougall Arts Client Trust Account No , Sort Code , Swift code MIDLGB22, IBAN GB90MIDL HSBC Bank plc, 8 Victoria St., Westminster, London SW1H 0NJ. Other payment methods: Credit card payments are charged 2% extra. UK debit card payments are free of charge. Personal cheque payments will have to clear before delivery of purchases. Bankers drafts and cash within certain limits may be accepted by arrangement. Address: Telephone: Fax: Telephone (other): Citizenship: Passport/ID No.: ID Type: Credit Card No.: Expiry Date: Security Code: I have read the Terms and Conditions of Sale and agree to comply with them. Signature:... Date:... MacDougall Arts Ltd. 30A Charles II St., London SW1Y 4AE, England Tel , Fax MacDougall Arts Ltd. 30A Charles II St., London SW1Y 4AE, England Tel , Fax ( 78 ) Russian Art Auction ( 79 )

42 Where to Find Us pper Brook St. Brook Street Grosvenor St. Park Street H y d e P a r k James Street Duke Street N Audley St. South Audley Street Park Lane Wigmore Street Oxford Street Oxford Street Hyde Park Corner Grosvenor Square Bond Street Mount Street Farm St. Hertford St. South Molton Lane Brick St. Davies Street Hill St. Curzon Street Henrietta Pl Hay's Mews Grosvenor St. Berkeley Square Charles Street Clarges St. Piccadilly Holles St. New Bond Street Bruton St. Bolton St. St. George St. Sotheby's G r e e n P a r k Constitution Hill Berkeley Street Albemarle Street Dover Street Green Park Oxford Circus Conduit St. Savile Row Old Bond Street Oxford Street Oxford Street Great Marlborough Street Kingly Street Regent Street Eastcastle St. Sackville St. St. James's Street Warwick St. Royal Academy of Arts Bury St. Duke St. Beak St. Golden Square Piccadilly Christie's The Mall Lexington St. Brewer St. Jermyn Street James's Wardour Street Berwick Street Square Regent Street Saint Charles II St. Pall Mall Dean Street St James's Park Lake Soho St. Piccadilly Circus Old Compton Street Carlton House Terrace The Mall Frith St. Greek St. Shaftesbury Avenue Coventry St. Haymarket MacDougall s MacDougall s Tottenham Court Road Lisle Street Whitcomb St. Saint James's Park Charing Cross Road TrafalgarSquare Horse Guards Rd. Leicester Square The National Gallery Upper St Martin's Ln. St. Martin's Ln. Whitehall High Holborn Shorts Gardens Shelton St. Long Acre William IV Strand Covent Garden Charing Cross Northumberland A Whitehall Pl. MacDougall Arts Ltd 30A Charles II St. London, SW1Y 4AE, England London tel: Moscow tel: Moscow Kiev tel: Paris tel: Fax: Front cover: Various lots. Inside Front cover: Lot 23. A Porcelain Composition of Colombina and Pantalone Inside Back cover: Lot 91. Lot 92. A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Girl Water Carrier A Porcelain Figurine of a Peasant Boy Water Carrier ( 80 )

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