2 Preface When I, first started pulling together information on these stamps I compiled basic tables of the types for England, Scotland and Ireland. This is my standard way to reference material and as examples are seen, the details are noted and the information added in. These tables are then supplemented with text, both with the tables to explain certain entries and at the front in the form of general information regarding the subject matter. With this work I was made aware of the web site of Eunice Shanahan at and the section on Bishop marks became the original first section of this work. Since this time, section 1 has been completely re-written, and where pictures from this web site have been used they are noted. This has been supplemented with a mini-collection, (section 2) and my catalogue listing, (in section 3), which, as far as I am aware, is now the most complete listing of these marks. Introduction Following the restoration in 1660, Henry Bishop was made Postmaster General and granted the farm of the Post for 21,500 per year starting on the 25 th June. The first type of British postmark was introduced in 1661, at the London Chief Office, when Henry Bishop, (Postmaster General June 1660 to April 1663.), refuting charges of delays in the post, claimed: - "A stamp is invented, that is putt upon every letter shewing the day of the moneth that every letter comes to this office, so that no letter Carryer may dare to detayne a letter from post to post; which, before, was usual." Bishop published the announcement of the "Bishop Mark" in the Mercurius Publicus. The Bishop Marks varied in size and in lettering, and they remained in general use until 1787 with some use continuing into 1788, at which point the design was altered and they started to resemble the more standard circular date stamps of later years. The examples in section 1 are taken from actual letters, not from catalogue illustrations This document includes all the original pictures used by Eunice Shanahan with the addition of other items to illustrate the points. The entire text has been checked and revised to ensure that the information presented is as full and correct as possible. At the end of this work is a catalogue type listing of the various marks that are known to exist. Section 1 is some historical information on each of the three sections, (England, Scotland and Ireland), and contains a vast array of pictures to illustrate the points regarding the different marks. Although this information is duplicated in the catalogue section, we felt it useful to show actual marks from covers in this section, (rather than the illustrations used in the later section), as this helps in the identification of the types and shows some of the anomalies that occur.
3 Contents Preface 2 Introduction 2 Page Section 1 The Bishop Marks English types 4 Scottish types 17 Irish types 20 Section 2 9-page mini-collections of the marks 21 The basic types 21 Incoming foreign mail 22 By free bag 23 Postage rate reduced 24 Straight-line dispatch mark 25 Scottish type 26 Scottish type without dividing line 27 Used as a receiving mark 28 Experimental London date stamp based on the Bishop type 29 Section 3 Catalogue listing 30
4 The English Bishop Marks The first Bishop Mark was introduced in London and the earliest known example is dated the 19 th April This copy is in the public records office at Kew, West London. Letters dated a few days earlier bear no trace of any mark, and so it is assumed that this date is possibly the point at which these marks were introduced into use. At first the mark was only used in London, but soon spread to Dublin, (Ireland) in 1672 followed by Edinburgh, (Scotland), in The London mark, (with very few exceptions), was always applied in black The original London Bishop Mark consisted of a small circle, bisected horizontally, with the month (in serif lettering) abbreviated to two letters, in the upper half and the day of the month in the lower half. It is believed that these early stamps were cut fresh each day in boxwood and they may have been retained at the Post Office and reused in subsequent years. A very early cover dated the 24 th June 1661 with an enlargement of the mark showing the month indicated by the letter IV rather than JU. It was common practice in the early years to use the letter I in place of a J for January, June and July.
5 Example on a letter dated the 8 th January 1668 from Joshua Raikes to Alderman John Moore in London. The lettering used in the stamp was initially in a Serifed type, which became sans serif in From the Eunice Shanahan collection
6 Example on a letter dated the 18 th November The mark is the same basic type as shown earlier, but the letters are now san-serif. Letter dated the 8 th January 1703 showing the letter I in place of a J for January. Note also the flat topped 8 which is known as early as 1668 (See page 5)
7 Example dated the 17 th February Note the rather long down-stoke to the figure 7 Letter dated the 8 th October 1730 showing the day at the top and the month at the bottom, (The opposite format to that originally employed). This mark was advertised as a 17½mm diameter but in the listing the marks are given to the nearest full mm, and as can be seen in the example above, the additional ½mm is possibly due to slight over inking of the stamp.
8 1 st October 1735 See page 2 of the mini collection 31 st October 1738 See page 3 of the mini collection Letter dated the 1 st February The mark, (enlarged), is stamped on the reverse and shows the Serifed letters FE for the month.
9 Letter dated the 17 th October 1767 that was carried from the Westminster office of the London Penny Post to the general Post Office where it was stamped with the circular Bishop mark. The triangular mark of the London Penny Post shows three letters in the centre, the top W denoting the office and the bottom two, SA, the day of posting, Saturday the 17 th October.
10 Letter dated the 2 nd July The mark, (struck on the reverse), shows the letters IY for July. Example dated the 13 th July The Bishop Mark is 13 IY. The small stamp "PARTINGTON" to the left of the Bishop Mark is the name of the General Post Receiver, Richard Partington, a stationer of 58 Holborn Hill, who was the GP Receiver from 1760 to the early 1780's. From the Eunice Shanahan collection
11 Example dated the 3 rd March 1779 showing the postage of 8 d prepaid as indicated by the circular mark in red on the front and also in manuscript at the top right and bottom left. The Bishop mark is applied on the reverse and shows the M and R of the month joined.
12 Example from 1782 showing the FREE mark at the top right and three strikes of the Bishop mark for the 2 nd April. This cover proves that on occasions there were at least two different stamps in use. The mark on the left of the cover shows the sloping P in the month The other two marks show the letter P upright as normally found Note also the difference in the figure 2 which appear to be different heights. Letter dated the 26 th March 1785 showing the M and R of the month joined.
13 Letter from Scotland to London showing, (on the reverse), the Scottish mark applied in red on the 20 th March 1786 and the black mark applied in London as a receiving mark on the 24 th March. The Edinburgh mark has Serifed lettering, typical of these marks. The London mark, (with sans-serifed letters), shows the M and R of the month joined as noted on previous years.
14 28 th September 1790 See page 4 of the mini collection Letter dated the 24 th June 1787 with the London mark applied on the reverse.
15 Letter dated the 20 th November 1791 showing the serif on the top right of the letter N
16 The Foreign section of the General Post also used a Bishop Mark and this was in use from 1684 when it replaced the boxed types that were introduced in From this point the bishop type remained in use until 1797 and on these marks the month was always above the day. The Foreign Section used this type of Bishop Mark for longer than the Inland Section, (which generally stopped using this early design around 1787 / 1788). This example of foreign office mark on a letter dated the 9 th February 1792 was applied to a letter received from Paris. It was passed to the inland section the following day and stamped with their mark on the 10 th February. From the Eunice Shanahan collection 1. French straight-line mark 2. Foreign Office bishop 3. Inland office bishop 4. Original postage rate 5. Revised postage rate 27 th March 1797 See page 5 of the mini collection The Foreign Section Bishop Marks Most of these are used in conjunction with the inland letter marks and are illustrated in the previous section See also page 2 of the mini collection
17 The Scottish Bishop Marks The first Scottish Bishop Marks were small and oval, the circular ones coming into use from The stamps were different from the English ones, because originally they were made up of two halves, a situation which continued until at least January 1799, (see the collection section at the end of this work). The Post Office had 12 upper half stamps with the months of the year in two letters, and then 31 half-circles of the dates 1 to 31. These were then put together each day; and sometimes the halves did not match up perfectly giving an indented or lopsided impression to the stamp. The month was always above the day, and the stamps were originally applied in black ink, (from their introduction in 1693 through to circa 1712), and later, (from circa 1710), red ink was generally used. 24 th January 1710 See page 6 of the mini collection 20 th March 1786 See this date under the English types Example used on a letter dated the 3 rd March 1793.
18 This example is from a letter dated the 25 th February 1798 and as can be seen the lower half of the bisected circle is slightly misplaced to the right. (See also page 6 of the mini-collection) From the Eunice Shanahan collection From the Eunice Shanahan collection This example is on a letter dated the 19 August This is on a letter written by the Earl of Dudley & Warwick August from London to Edinburgh, where it was received 3 days later. This shows the incomplete dividing line that was part of the upper section of the stamp. By October examples are known where there is no trace of this central line. (See also page 7 of the mini-collection) 4 th October 1799 See page 7 of the mini collection
19 From the Eunice Shanahan collection This example of July 23 rd 1800 has a flat top to the circle. This could be because the stamp has not been inked or impressed completely. Equally, at this late date, it is also possible that parts of the stamp were showing signs of wear, (which may also account for the break at the bottom below the day), An interesting feature of the Scottish types is that the months January, June and July all use the letter J rather than the I as used on the English types. Eunice Shanahan recorded an interesting item that shows an indented top to the stamp. He states that he can find no reference to this type and neither can we. We would suggest that, possibly due to wear as stated earlier, the top section may have been re-cut or that a completely new section was made. From the Eunice Shanahan collection 7 th July 1801 see page 8 of the mini collection
20 The Irish Bishop Mark The Irish post office used the Bishop Mark type date stamp from as early as 1672, but the early ones are quite rare. Like that of Edinburgh, the Irish Bishop Mark always had the Month above the Day in the circle and these were always applied in black. Initially, ( ), the letters were of the sans serif type with the months January, June and July using an I rather than a J. Following this, in 1746, a larger type was introduced which had the, (larger), letters in Serifed type and this, with minor alterations, remained in use until circa One of the main distinctions of the larger Irish mark is the addition of a dot between the two letters which indicate the month. In these later types, the months, (January, June and July), used a letter J. The one exception to this order occurs in 1676, when it appears that the earlier type was again re-used. Example on a letter dated the 13 th June 1793 from Londonderry, but the mark on the front shows the 17 June This mark was applied in Dublin, with the post town of origin, Londonderry indicated by the straight line stamp.
30 Catalogue of the stamps In this section we will endeavour to list all the Bishop stamps and the known variations. The illustrations used in this section are drawings used to show the general types, for illustrations of actual items see sections 1 and 2. In general we have only taken this listing as far as 1840, although it should be noted that some of the later types were in use well beyond this time. England (London) All the following were probably cut new every day in boxwood. Wooden stamps were said to admit the most rapid work and so were used for evening duty when there was the greatest preasure No. Date Details Size Colour Serifed letters 13mm Black Sans-Serifed letters 13mm Black 2a mm Black Month at bottom - larger lettering 14mm Black 3a 15mm Black 3b 16mm Black 3c 17mm Black 3d 18mm Black 3di inverted for 21 September 18mm Black 3e 19mm Black 3f 20mm Black 3g 1763 Serifed letters to FE Black Type 3 was not used on mail from abroad and from 1684 type 2 was used at the Foreign Office as an arrival stamp. A single example of type 3di, (21 st September 1782), is known. This was formally in the Daniels collection. A single example of type 3 is known in red dated the 6 th March We have no record of the diameter of this mark.
31 4 5 6 No. Date Details Size Colour 17 th January to 28 th April st May 1787 to Month in full Code letter in the centre Month abbreviated to two letters Day in the centre Year in two figures at the base 17mm 16mm Black Black a 18mm Black As type 5 with a code letter on the left side 16mm Black 6a Red Types 4 to 6 were used on both morning and evening duty mail Various code letters are noted but we have only confirmed the following Type 4 Type 6 B A, B Note also Type 4 was experimental and used at the London Inland office only In type 4 the month February is always abbreviated as FEBY In type 4 three examples have been recorded with the month abbreviated to JANY for January. These are known used on the 27 th, 29 th and 30 th January 1787.
32 Evening duty From 1795 distinctive stamps were used for evening duty mail. Those already shown, (type 6), continued to be used but from this time were used on morning and midday duty mail only No. Date Details Size Colour As type 6 but with a double outer ring 17mm Black 7a Red As type 7 but with the year as 3 figures Black 8a 1800 Red As type 7 but with the year in 4 figures Black mm Black 10a As type 10 but with the position of the code letter and month transposed 18mm Black 10b As type 10a but with a larger diameter and finer lettering Black 10c As type 10b but with two letters at the top Black 10d 1857 As type 10c Blue An example of type 9 is known showing the year in four figures dated the 3 rd July 1801, (See page 8 of the mini-collection).
33 Morning duty As already detailed above, distinctive stamps were used for evening duty mail from Those already shown, (type 6), continued to be used but from this time were used on morning and midday duty mail only. This situation continued until 1798 when distinctive stamps were introduced for the morning and midday duty mails. Type 11, as with all the previous stamps, was probably cut fresh from boxwood. After this issue, (from 1799 commencing with type 12), the stamps appear to be a fixed type which allows the insertion of movable type a No. Date Details Size Colour As type 5 but with a code letter at the top 18mm Black As type 12a but with the year in two figures 19mm Red 12a Year in four figures 19mm Red 12b Day before and after month 19mm Red As type 12b but with a double outer rim this may have been used on evening duty mail 19mm Red Various code letters are noted but we have only confirmed the following Type 11 E Type 12 (Letters A to G are reported) Type 12a B (Letters A to G are reported) Type 12b (Letters A to G are reported and from 1836 letter H also) From 1840 all letters are reported Type 13 (Letters A to G are reported)
34 Note also Three examples; similar to type 11 have been recorded but with a cross instead of a code letter at the top. Those known are as follows November 30 th 1797 Chichester to London December 12 th 1797 Liverpool to London December 21 st 1797 Leeds to London As these predate the introduction of the standard code lettered type, they may well be experimental in nature. From the evidence of the three known covers, it would appear that they were all stamped in London, probably on mail that had not received a stamp during any other part of its journey. Late Fee duty From 1798 a special late fee stamp was introduced. This followed the same basic design as the general Bishop marks in use at the time but was square rather than circular. The following year, (1799), these stamps started to follow the more conventional design No. Date Details Size Colour As illustrated 18mm x 18mm Dull Purple 14a 1798 As illustrated 18mm x 18mm Black 14b 1798 As illustrated 19mm x 20mm Dull Purple 14c 1798 As illustrated 19mm x 20mm Black As illustrated 20mm Dull Purple Type 12a without code letter 19mm Dull Purple As illustrated Dull Purple Day before and after month Red
35 Sunday duty The following stamps were used on letters received on a Sunday as well as letters posted on a Sunday at the chief and branch offices. 20a 21 No. Date Details Size Colour As type 11 but with code letter S 18mm Black As type 12 but with code letter S 19mm Red 20a As type 12a but with code letter S 19mm Red 20b As type 20a but with sans serif letters 19mm Red As illustrated 19mm Red There is also known a variation of type 20b with a double outer rim known for the 1 st January Type 19 was probably cut fresh each week, as was the case with the general stamps in use at this time. From 1799, (type 20 and variations), the stamp appears to be a standard design allowing removable type. The sunflower type, (21), although from the later period, again appears to have been cut fresh each week. The petals around the outside vary to a greater or lesser degree in size and shape and the size give in the table above is for the inner circle, which appears to have remained fairly constant throughout its period of use.
36 Foreign Office (London) 22 No. Date Details Size Colour As illustrated. See note below. 13mm Red 22a mm Black 22b mm Black 22c mm - 15mm Black Type 22 is the same stamp as type 2, which was previously used by the inland section on general mail duties. Type 22c varies in size between the dimensions given but the minimum is always slightly larger than the 14mm limit.
37 Scotland (Edinburgh) The original stamps used in Scotland were oval and the circular type was not introduced until circa Initially the stamps were struck in black but from about 1710 red became the norm for all the Scottish marks. Scotland was very quick off the mark with re-usable hand-stamps, their marks being composed of two halves, which were clamped together to form the stamp. The top sections, (of which there were 12, one for each month), contained the diameter or dividing line. The bottom section, (of which there were 31), had no diameter as this came into place when the two sections were clamped together. All of the Scottish stamps have the month at the top and the day at the bottom.
38 No. Date Details Size Colour Upright oval Width 10mm Black 23a Upright oval Width 10mm Red Thick outer circle and lettering 15mm Red Style of lettering changed 15mm Red 25a mm Red Smaller letting 15mm Red 26a 21mm Red In the case of type 23a, it is highly likely that this stamp continued in use beyond 1722 and that type 24, (and possibly 25), came into use earlier than 1742 as indicated above. The only reference we can find for these dates are by Robson Lowe in The encyclopaedia of British Empire Postage stamps Volume 1 where the dates given are taken from. With types 25 and 26 it is implied that various sizes are known between the two limits given in the table, however we have only been able to confirm those listed. The following stamps were in use concurrently with some of the earlier types and appear to be of a single piece construction. It has been suggested that these additional stamps were cut by hand, (as were the early English types), as and when required. If this is the case then the stop after the month may have been an intentional feature performing the same function as the later code letters No. Date Details Size Colour Broken dividing line and stop after month 16mm Red No dividing line and stop after month 16mm Red Larger and no stop after the month 28a mm Red (See page 7 of the mini-collection)
39 From 1802, stamps were introduced which allowed removable type No. Date Details Size Colour Stop after month 18mm Red As type 29 but larger 25mm Red As illustrated 20mm Red We have been unable to confirm any of the combinations of code letters used on type 31. The illustration appeared in Robson Lowe s Encyclopaedia of British Empire postage stamps Volume 1 and as he was very particular about his illustrations, (often at times criticising other catalogues), we have assumed this to be an example that he had seen.
40 Ireland (Dublin) The Irish bishop marks are considered to be one of the hardest to distinguish; yet in reality, assignment is fairy simple. The stamps are all of the circular type with the month at the top, similar to those used in Scotland. However in the case of the Irish stamps, they are always applied in black whereas those of Scotland are in red. From 1746, when the larger stamps were introduced, the lettering is taller than on the Scottish marks; and even when thinner lettering was used from 1749, (which makes this distinction a little more difficult), there is a stop or dash between the letters of the month. With the very early type, which resembles the early English type, (later used in the foreign office), the letters n the top section to indicate the month are joined, whereas on the English type they are separated. As with the English type, the letter I is used instead of a J for January, June and July No. Date Details Size Colour Letters of the month joined Sans serif type 13mm Black 32a mm Black 32b mm Black Large Serifed letters 19mm Black 33a Large Serifed letters 23mm Black Stop between letters of the month 20mm Black 34a mm Black 34b As type 34 but with a dash in place of the stop 20mm Black It is generally accepted that the Irish stamps were introduced about The earliest recorded example is on a latter from Dublin dated the 18 th January With type 33 it is generally implied that various sizes exist between the extremes listed. We have only been able to confirm those listed in the table.
41 No. Date Details Size Colour See notes below 23mm x 5mm Black Wide spacing of the month letters 16mm Black Close spacing always in pairs mm/dd/yy 17mm Black Year curved at base 15mm Black The straight line type, (35), indicated the date and the duty on which it was used. The illustrated example showing November 28 th Morning.
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make a model Roman Villa Make a model Roman villa with under-floor heating! Supported by 4 hours This activity is great for an extended holiday project for children or the whole family. You can each take
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