EVALUATION OF SINGLE STAGE DRY SLOW SAND FILTER IN REMOVING SOME PHYSICAL POLLUTANTS FROM SURFACE WATER (CASE STUDY : CIKAPUNDUNG RIVER)

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1 EVALUATION OF SINGLE STAGE DRY SLOW SAND FILTER IN REMOVING SOME PHYSICAL POLLUTANTS FROM SURFACE WATER (CASE STUDY : CIKAPUNDUNG RIVER) EVALUASI SINGLE STAGE DRY SLOW SAND FILTER DALAM MENYISIHKAN BEBERAPA POLUTAN FISIS DARI AIR PERMUKAAN (STUDI KASUS: SUNGAI CIKAPUNDUNG) Marieanna Josephinne 1, Suprihanto Notodarmojo 2, and Mohammad Irsyad 3 Environmental Engineering Study Program Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering ITB, Jl Ganesha 1 Bandung Abstract: Slow sand filter is known to be effective in removing pollutants in surface water with low turbidity. This conventional filtration removes pollutants physically and biologically. A modification was made to increase its capability and its efficiency. In this observation, the filter was designed to have optimal aeration process and to have an easy cleaning mechanism. The filter was designed to have distributed water that fall to the unsaturated filter media and the filter was equipped with a backwashing system. Observation includes inlet and outlet filter water quality monitoring. Water flow rate was maintained to be around 1 Litre per minute. The filter was operated 4 to 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 3 months. Filter effectiveness and efficiency to process water physically was observed from turbidity, colour, and organics that had successfully been removed from the inlet water. Physical removal mechanism occurs because of filtration that includes transport and attachment process of pollutant particles with filter media. Sedimentation and adsorption process also influence removal effectiveness. The filter succeeded in removing turbidity to 76%, while colour and organics removal was only 46% and 32%, respectively. This green technology needs to be considered in a small scale water supply considering the centralized water supply that has many unexpected limitations. Key words: slow sand filter, filtration, transport, attachment, detachment Abstrak : Saringan pasir lambat diketahui efektif dalam menyisihkan pencemar dalam air baku yang tingkat kekeruhannya tidak terlalu tinggi. Saringan pasir konvensional ini menyisihkan pencemar terutama secara fisis dan biologis. Untuk meningkatkan kemampuan dan efisiensinya, dibuat modifikasi dari filter konvensional ini. Dalam penelitian yang dilakukan, filter dirancang sehingga proses aerasi terjadi secara optimal dan proses pembersihan filter menjadi mudah dilakukan dengan menjaga kondisi distribusi air yang hendak diolah agar tetap kering dan dilengkapi dengan sistem backwash. Penelitian mencakup pemantauan kualitas air baku dan air yang telah melalui filter. Debit air dipertahankan berada pada angka sekitar 1 Liter per menit. Filter dijalankan kurang lebih 4 sampai 6 jam perhari, 5 hari seminggu, selama 3 bulan. Efektifitas dan efisiensi filter ini dalam mengolah air secara fisis dilihat dari parameter kekeruhan, warna, dan zat organik yang berhasil disisihkan. Mekanisme penyisihan fisis terjadi karena proses filtrasi yang mencakup transport dan attachment partikel-partikel pencemar dengan media penyaringan. Proses sedimentasi dan adsorpsi juga mempengaruhi efektifitas penyisihan. Filter berhasil menurunkan kadar kekeruhan sampai 76%, sedangkan warna dan zat organik hanya 46% dan 32%. Teknologi yang ramah lingkungan ini perlu dipertimbangkan dalam penyediaan air secara komunal mengingat keterbatasan pengelolaan air secara terpusat. Kata kunci : saringan pasir lambat, filtrasi, transport, attachment, detachment WS8-1

2 INTRODUCTION Until now PDAM supply and service has only covered 18% population. The remaining obtains clean water independently from surface and underground water. Limited government budget has kept this country unable to support its people basic need of clean water and good sanitation. Nowadays the government starts applying individual and communal clean water supply to achieve one of crucial agreements in Millennium Development Goals. Communal management of clean water supply for vile area has been considered to be more effective and easy than centralized water supply. Water with no excessive turbidity can be treated using simple filtration process. Drinking water is defined to be water that has physical, chemical, and bacteriological quality that is acceptable for safe drinking and cooking. According to Chen et al. (25), The purpose of filtration is to remove the particulates suspended in water by passing the water through a layer of porous material. Larger particulates are retained by straining and sedimentation, while colloidal matter is retained by adsorption, or coagulation and sedimentation. Biological interactions occur only when the water passes very slowly through the porous mass. The removal of suspended matter achieved by the porous media is generally considered to be composed of two steps: transport and attachment. Detachment might also take place during filtration, but mostly during the backwashing cycle. Transport mechanisms move a particle into and through a filter pore so that it comes very close to the surface of the filter media or existing deposits where attachment mechanisms serve to retain the suspended particle in contact with the media surface or with previously deposited solids. Detachment mechanisms occur due to the action of hydrodynamic forces of the flow such that a certain part of the previously adhered particles, less strongly linked to the others, is detached from filter media or previous deposits and carried further into or through the filter. According to revised SNI , slow sand filter is a filter basin that uses very small sized sand as its filtration media with high quartz contain. Filtration process happens for gravity force, very slowly, and simultaneously on all media surface. Filtration process is a combination between physical process (filtration, sedimentation, adsorption), biochemical process and biological process. Slow sand filter is more suitable to treat raw water with low to moderate turbidity and moderate to high dissolved oxygen concentration. That dissolved oxygen is intended to obtain optimal biochemical and biological process. If the raw water has high turbidity and low dissolved oxygen, the system needs preliminary treatment. The objective of this research is to find out Single Stage Dry Slow Sand Filter removal efficiency of various kinds of main pollutants in surface water that is used as communal clean water resource. This research is a part of project from ITB Environmental Engineering in comparing Single Stage Dry Slow Sand Filtration with Double Stage Dry Slow Sand Filtration. WS8-2

3 METHODOLOGY The research work plot is sketched in Figure 1. Location. Actual Condition, and the observed filter study The search of Secondary Data Water Samples Examination in Laboratory Taking of Primary Data The Evaluation of Laboratory Examination and Filter Performance Data Processing and Analysis Conclusion and Recommendation Figure 1. The Research Work Plot Location Study This small scale water treatment plant is located inside Sabuga ITB area, next to ITB solid wastes management site. This small treatment plant is on the tip of the left Sabuga if we go into Sabuga through Jalan Taman Sari. The complete treatment plant consisted of sump well, sedimentation tank, untreated water reservoir, dry slow sand filters, treated water reservoir, pumps, and piping system. Figure 2 describes the system from water source to the end. Reservoir P-6 Filter Pump Reservoir P-4 Sedimentation Tank P-1 Pump River Sump Well Figure 2. Water Treatment Diagram in Sabuga WS8-3

4 Raw water was taken from Cikapundung River, stored in sump well, then was pumped to sedimentation tank. From sedimentation tank, water was pumped to reservoir that was high enough then channeled through the filter. Treated water was stored in the next reservoir. Water Sampling Sampling was done as long as 3 months from 2 April until 14 July 29. Every day filter was switched on around 8 am and switched off around 12 am. Water samples were directly examined in the same day. Primary data was taken in grab sampling method using used plastic bottle that was still in good condition. Those bottles were considered proper because instead of lack of equipment to sample, water examination were directly done. Therefore quality transformation, which was caused by chemical reaction when water sample contacted with the plastic bottle, was assumed to be minimum and not too affect examination result in laboratory. Water Sample Examination in Laboratory Water examination was done 5 days a week from Monday to Friday for 45 days. The sampling was not continous considering time limitation and field condition on particular days. Water that was entering treatment unit, came from sump well in Sabuga that was connected directly to Cikapundung River in Bandung. The study was focused on the physical mechanism of pollutant removal. Therefore, parameters that were chosen were physical parameters, i.e. turbidity, colour, and organics. Turbidity was chosen because this parameter was able to represent other suspended pollutants. Parameters turbidity, colour, and organics can be physically remove by straining process. Sampling Method The main parameters that were observed in laboratory to find out the effectiveness of physical mechanism were turbidity, colour, and organic. Water samples taken were inlet and outlet from the filter. Examination of turbidity was conducted by Nephelometri method, according to SK SNI M F. Colour examination also referred to the same SK SNI. Organic examination was done by Permanganometri Titration method according to Standard Methods. Laboratory Examination Evaluation The evaluation was done by comparing influent and effluent water quality. Evaluation was also done by comparing effluent quality with the standard quality that was applied in Indonesia. The evaluation of filter performance would be done by studying the physical processes that occur in a single stage dry slow sand filter. Study was conducted within conventional slow sand filters scope. WS8-4

5 RESULT AND ANALYSIS According to Choo dan Tien (1995), two distinct modes of filtration have been identified in granular porous media, (i) straining of transported particles that become entrapped in the pore space or pore throats; and (ii) infiltration, which refers to the collection and mounding of particles onto the grain surfaces of the host medium. Infiltration is a transient process, whereby the mounding of particles hinders the local pore-scale flow field and can ultimately lead to clogging of pores. The dynamics of filtration are controlled by these pore scale processes which are, in turn, affected by the topology of the pore space, properties of the transported particles (distribution of particle size, shape, surface roughness, concentration, etc.), filter grains, and the hydrodynamic flow regime. Transport mechanisms are responsible for providing forces to move particles out of their flow streamlines into the vicinity of the grain surface. Transport mechanisms are straining, interception, inertial forces, sedimentation, diffusion, and hydrodynamic forces. The study by Craft in 1969 shows that straining is important for particulates with diameters greater than about 2% that of the grains through which they are filtered. Mekanisme transport menyediakan gaya-gaya untuk menggerakkan partikel-partikel keluar dari jalur aliran menuju sekitar permukaan butiran media. Sedimentation is important for particulates with sizes >3 µm, and negligible for particulates with a diameter <3 µm (Herzig, 197 in Chen, 25). Interception has to be considered for any size, while inertial and hydrodynamic forces can be neglected. Diffusion is important only for colloidal particles (less than.1 µm size). The study by Yao et al. demonstrates that the removal is negligible when a size of suspended solids is less than a critical value of 1 µm. Attachment of particles to grain surfaces or existing deposits of particles has generally been attributed to four kinds of forces, which are axial pressure of the fluid, friction, surface forces (van der Waals and electrical), and chemical forces. Accumulated deposits have an unequally strong structure. Under the action of hydrodynamic forces due to the flow of water through the media, which increase with increasing head loss, this structure is partially destroyed. A certain portion of previously adhered particles less strongly linked to the others is detached from the grains. Consequently, as the deposits accumulate they become unstable and parts of them are torn away by the flow, to go back into suspension in the pores. The detachment is observed when flow rate is suddenly increased (Tuepker et al. and Cleasby et al., 1968 in Chen, 25). The detachment occurs even at constant flow rate (Mintz, 1951, 1966 in Chen, 25). From a macroscopic point of view, it is impossible to determine if deteriorating effluent quality is caused by either solids detachment or decreasing solids attachment efficiency as the filter becomes clogged. Adsorption is a process of substances accumulation in solution on a surface that match the characteristics of these substances. Adsorption is a mass transfer operation of the main elements in the liquid phase that is transferred to the solid phase. Adsorption process occurs in 4 steps, ie transport of bulk solution, film diffusion transport, pore transport, and the adsorption. The particles in the water move because of gravity. This movement is slowed by the force in the fluid which depends on particle velocity. Particles that previously slow down will be accelerated until the force in the liquid is balanced with the force of gravity. The particles then will move at a constant speed, called the terminal velocity. The gravitational force depends on particle volume and density differences between particle and fluid. In liquids with high concentration, the particle motion is influenced by hydrodynamic interactions with the particles in its surrounding. Some considerations that need to be discussed to find out physical mechanism effectiveness are the fluctuation pattern of Cikapundung River, turbidity removal, colour WS8-5

6 removal, and organics removal. Influent and effluent water characteristic for 3 months could describe the ability of the new run filter. Characteristic Cikapundung River water characteristic can be seen in Figure 3. Concentration of colour, iron, and manganese was following raw water turbidity fluctuation. When raw water turbidity came down, colour, iron, and manganese concentration was also going down. When turbidity was going up, pollutant concentration also increased. Measured turbidity, aside from unsettled sludge, was also coming from suspended pollutants in sampled water. Therefore, it was natural that the pollutants concentrations was following raw water turbidity fluctuation pattern. Phosphate concentration tended to decrease during the observation. Unlike phosphate, ammonium concentration tended to increase although the uplift was not significant. Nitrite level fluctuation couldn t be concluded for its concentrations that were too small and below the quality standard. Parameters that still complied with quality standard were only ph and nitrite. Apart from those, other parameters that were observed tended to run over the quality standard. Most of the pollutants that were examined were in concentration that is not permitted to drink. Rule that was referred to is Decree of the Minister of Health of the Indonesia Republic number 97/ Menkes/ SK/ VII/ 22 about the Requirement and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring. The quality standard for organic matter refers to previous decree. Pollutants, like iron, manganese, nitrite, phosphate, ammonium, and organics, comes together causing turbidity and colour in raw water. Moreover, the level of water acidity (ph) is also influenced by the existing pollutants. Iron and manganese in raw water can come from soil that is scraped along the river flow. Nitrite and ammonium comes from small scale varying industrial activities. Phosphate compounds come from domestic waste water along the river and agriculture waste water along the upper course of the river. Organics can come from natural process like the decaying of leaves or from domestic and industrial waste water. Raw water quality tended to increase, pollutants concentrations tended to decrease. It can be assumed to be caused by the changes of weather. In the beginning of sampling, the weather was dry so that the pollutants concentration were high. Along with the time, rain intensity was increasing to decrease pollutants concentration for the dilluting by rain water. WS8-6

7 Mg/ L KMnO4 Mg PO 4-3 -P/ L Mg/ L Fe Mg/ L Mn NTU Mg/ L NO 2 -N NTU TURBIDITY CHARACTERISTIC ph CHARACTERISTIC 2 4 Quality Standard 1 Quality Standard COLOUR CHARACTERISTIC 2 4 Quality Standard 4 2 NITRITE CHARACTERISTIC 2 4 Quality Standard IRON CHARACTERISTIC MANGANESE CHARACTERISTIC 2 4 Quality Standard ORGANIC CHARACTERISTIC PHOSPHATE CHARACTERISTIC Mg/ L NH AMMONIUM CHARACTERISTIC Figure 3. Cikapundung River Water Characteristic WS8-7

8 Percentage (%) NTU Turbidity Removal Turbidity is influenced by the amount and natural character of suspended organic and inorganic matter in water. Concentration of suspended material in water is proportional with its turbidity, the higher suspended material in water, the greater its turbidity. Turbidity can source from fine sand, sludge, clay, organic compounds, iron, manganese, or other oxidized metal. Turbidity data is very useful, especially for estimating drinking water quality. Suspended particles can be organic or inorganic compounds that can cause effects to health, aesthetics, and disinfection process. Turbidity fluctuation during observation is described in Figure DAY 1 TO 45 TURBIDITY Influent Single Stage Figure 4. Comparison between Turbidity Concentration of Inlet and Outlet Water and in Drinking Water The tendency turbidity removal by single stage dry slow sand filter was coming down. It was caused by more and more particles that were strained which reduced pore size of filtration media. The reduction of pore size caused clogging so that the top filter surface was often submerged in water. To overcome this, the filter needed to be cleaned. This filter was designed to enable a backwashing so it was not necessary to clean the filter manually (scrapping) like conventional slow sand filter. In accordance with filter backwashing pattern that was done in every fifth day of the week, filter performance became better in the first day after backwashing was done (day 6, 11, 16, 21, onwards). The decrease of filter efficiency is described in Figure TURBIDITY REMOVAL PERCENTAGE Removal Percentage Figure 5. Filter Turbidity Removal Percentage in the First 9 Weeks WS8-8

9 Percentage (%) mg/ L PtCo The average of turbidity removal by filter for 9 weeks is 76% with 49% effectiveness reduction. Filter performance couldn t achieve initial condition because backwashing did not manage to return the saturated filter to the initial state. Therefore, attachment process did not take place maximum and the possibility detachment occurrence became bigger. Colour Removal Colour that can be removed by conventional filter is pseudo colour, which is colour in water that appears because of suspended material. Aesthetically, colour in water can be annoying. Apart from that, there is possibility that the organics and turbidity was coming from toxic compounds. Colour removal fluctuation during operating period is described in Figure DAY 1 TO 45 COLOUR Influent Single Stage Figure 6. Comparison between Inlet Water, Outlet Water, and Colour can come from dissolved organic matter. Colour that appears especially is from tannin that is released from destroyed detritus. This organics absorb light with short wavelength from blue to violet. Therefore, low turbidity water looks blue. The colour will be green, green-yellow, and brown by the increase of this dissolved organics. Figure 7 shows colour removal percentage. COLOUR REMOVAL PERCENTAGE REMOVAL PERCENTAGE Figure 7. Colour Removal Percentage by Filter in the First 9 Weeks The average colour removal ability of this filter for 9 weeks only achieved 46%. The organic content was too high to be removed completely. WS8-9

10 Percentage (%) Mg/ L KMnO4 Organics Removal The kind and quantity of organic matter depends from its pollutant source, whether it comes from natural activity like decomposition of leaves, or industrial activity like the usage of textile dyes. High concentration of organics, especially synthetic organics, in drinking water can cause the damage of gene, cancer, and other diseases. Cikapundung River is the recipient water bodies of domestic and small scale industrial waste from the population that lives in the surrounding watershed. Therefore, it contains both organic domestic waste pollutants and synthetic organics that come from industry. Excess organic matter can cause eutrofication. The fluctuation of organic removal is shown in Figure DAY 1 TO 45 ORGANIC PERMANGANATE Inflluent Single Stage Figure 8. Comparison of Organics Content in Inlet and Outlet Water Efficiency of organic removal tended to decrease. This is due to the decreasing of attachment process and the increasing detachment process due to saturated filter media. As with the removal of turbidity, the removal of organics was also following backwashing time pattern. Maximum removal occurred on day 6, 11, 16, 21, onwards, of observation. Organics removal percentage is shown in Figure ORGANIC REMOVAL PERCENTAGE Removal Percentage Figure 9. Organics Removal Percentage by filter in the First 9 Weeks. The average removal of organic substances by filter during 9 weeks, regardless of data anomalies that came from laboratory measurement mistake, was 32%. After 3 days, filter capability to remove organics was improved. It can be assumed that biological active layer which eats organics had grown. This active layer needed pretty long time to live and grow on filter surface media. As the biological layer grew much bigger and bigger, the absorption and decomposition of organic matters by microorganisms increased. This assumption depended upon filter condition that had already saturated. This would cause the decreasing of efficiency before backwashing was done. WS8-1

11 One of the organic substances that need to be considered in drinking water content is biorefractory organics. This kind of organic matter is difficult to be biologically decomposed and makes the water tasty and smelly. These compounds cannot be completely eliminated by biological treatment. Contaminated water must be treated physically and chemically. Slow sand filter is more suitable to treat raw water that has low to moderate turbidity. If the content of raw water is high on turbidity, this system will require preliminary treatment. The efficiency of Single Stage Dry Slow Sand Filter in removing a variety of major pollutants in surface water could not be concluded. The dominant process that is expected on slow sand filtration is biological process by microorganisms on the top of filter surface. According to the literature, this active layer takes at least 2 to 3 months to grow on conventional slow sand filters. The growth of active layer on this filter was influenced by backwashing that was done on the fifth day of operation. CONCLUSION Filter removal of pollutants that were observed was pretty good. Turbidity removal attained 76%, while colour removal was 46% and organic removal was 32% Filtration system, which its straining mechanism was dominant, was not operating in optimal condition because clogging occurred rapidly so that backwashing was needed frequently Considering filter condition that needed backwashing frequently, it was needed preliminary treatment to reduce water turbidity that was going to be treated by the observed slow sand filter Filter backwashing influenced the operation, particularly in increasing physical removal processes REFERENCES Chen, J. Paul et al. (25). Gravity Filtration. Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 3: Physicochemical Treatment Processes, p El-Taweel, Gamila, E. and Gamila H. Ali. (1998). Evaluation of Roughing and Slow Sand Filters for Water Treatment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Volume 12, p Gadgil, A. J. (1998). Drinking Water in the Developing Countries. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Volume 23, p Hung, Yung-Tse, Ruth Yu-Li Yeh dan, Lawrence K. Wang. (27). Filtration Systems for Small Communities. Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 5: Advanced Physicochemical Treatment Technologies, p Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 97/ Menkes/ SK/ VII/ 22 Tentang Syarat-Syarat Dan Pengawasan Kualitas Air Minum Kim, Yun Sung dan Andrew J. Whittle. (26). Filtration in a Porous Granular Medium. Transport in Porous Media, Volume 65, p SNI 3981 tahun 28. Perencanaan instalasi saringan pasir lambat Wotton, R. S. (22). Water Purification Using Sand. Hydrobiologia, Volume 469, p WS8-11

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