# Evolutionary Computation

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1 Evolutionary Computation Cover evolutionary computation theory and paradigms Emphasize use of EC to solve practical problems Compare with other techniques - see how EC fits in with other approaches

2 Definition: Evolutionary Computation Machine learning optimization and classification paradigms roughly based on mechanisms of evolution such as natural selection and biological genetics. Includes genetic algorithms, evolutionary programming, evolution strategies, genetic programming and Particle swarm Optimization.

3 EC Paradigms are Unique EC paradigms differ from traditional search and optimization paradigms in that EC paradigms: 1) Use a population of points in their search, 2) Use direct fitness information, instead of function derivatives or other related knowledge, and, 3) Use probabilistic rather than deterministic transition rules.

4 Ties with genetics, a branch of biology that deals with the heredity and variation of organisms Chromosomes: structures in cell bodies that transmit genetic information; humans have 46, in 23 pairs Individual patterns in EC correspond to chromosomes in biological systems The genotype completely specifies an organism; in EC a structure specifies a system; in most EC tools, one string specifies a structure, so structure is interchangable with chromosome.

5 Population Each member is a point in the hyperspace problem domain, and thus is a potential solution A new population is generated each epoch Population typically remains the same size Operators such as crossover and mutation significantly enhance parallel search capabilities

6 Fitness Information Auxiliary information such as derivatives used to minimize sum-squared error in neural nets is not used The fitness value optimized is directly proportional to the function value being optimized It fitness is proportional to profit, for example, then the fitness rises as the profit rises

7 Probabilistic Transition Rules Search is not random Search is directed toward regions that are likely to have higher fitness values Different EC paradigms make different uses of stochasticity

8 Encoding of Parameters Typically encoded as binary strings Any finite alphabet can be used Typically, population member string is of fixed length

9 Generic EC Procedure 1. Initialize the population 2. Calculate the fitness for each individual 3. Reproduce selected individuals to form new population 4. Perform evolutionary operations (mutation, etc.) 5. Go to step 2 until some condition is met

10 Generic EC Procedure, Cont d. Initialization often done by randomizing initial population (can use promising values sometimes) Fitness value is proportional to value of function being optimized (often scaled 0 1) Selection for reproduction based on fitness values (some paradigms such as PSO retain all population members)

11 Applying EC Tools Optimization and classification Mostly optimization non-differentiable many local optima may not know optimum system may be dynamic, changing with time, or even chaotic Optimization versus meliorization (perhaps try other approaches first)

12 Overview Terminology GA example problem Review of GA operations Genetic Algorithms: Outline

13 Genetic Algorithms Reflect in a primitive way some of the natural processes of evolution GAs perform highly efficient search of the problem hyperspace GAs work with a population of individuals (chromosomes) Number of elements in each individual equals the number of parameters in optimization problem

14 General Procedure for Implementing a GA 1. Initialize the population (usually randomized binary strings) 2. Calculate the fitness for each individual in the population 3. Reproduce selected individuals to form new population 4. Perform crossover and mutation 5. Loop to step 2 until some condition is met

15 Fitness evaluation Copying strings Exchanging portions of strings Flipping bits in strings Implementing a Simple GA Involves:

16 GA Example Problem ( ) πx Optimize value of f( x) = sin over where x is restricted to integers. The maximum value of 1 occurs at x = x 255

17 GA Example Problem One variable Use binary alphabet Therefore, represent each individual as 8-bit binary string Set number of population members to (artificially low) 8 Randomize population Calculate fitness for each member of (initialized) population

18 GA Example Problem - Reproduction Reproduction is used to form new population of n individuals Select members of current population Use stochastic process based on fitnesses First, compute normalized fitness value for each individual by dividing individual fitness by sum of all fitnesses (f i / in the example case) Generate a random number between 0 and 1 n times to form new population (sort of like spinning roulette wheel)

19 GA Example Problem: Crossover Crossover: the exchange of portions of two individuals (the parents ) Probability of crossover usually ~ ,.75 used here Randomly pair off population, determine whether or not crossover will occur (in example, 3 of 4 crossover) Randomly select two crossover points for pairs undergoing crossover Exchange portions of strings between 1st and 2nd crossover points, treating individuals as ring structures

20 GA Example Problem: Mutation Mutation is final operation in GAs Consists of flipping bits with probability of flip ~ Example problem, assume no bit flips (64 bits total in population) Now have first generation, with total fitness of 6.313, and two individuals each with fitness >.99 Now ready for more generations until stopping condition met: Number of generations Population member(s) with > specified fitness

21 Representation of variables Population size Population initialization Fitness calculation Reproduction Crossover Inversion Mutation Selecting number of generations Review of GA Operations

22 Representation of Variables Consider example problem, where 127 is and 128 is Smallest fitness change requires change in every bit Gray coding has representation such that adjacent values vary by a single bit Some software converts dynamic range and resolution into appropriate bit strings Different alphabets possible

23 Population Size Start with moderate sized population is often a good starting place Population size tend to increase linearly with individual string length (not exponentially)

24 Population Initialization Usually selected stochastically Sometimes seeded with a few promising individuals Do not skew population significantly

25 Fitness Calculation Most GAs scale fitness values Example problem illustrates two common problems: Bunching of fitness values near top of scale, thereby lowering fitness differentials Fitness values often are nearly constant near optimum

26 Solve bunching problem by: Equally spacing fitness values (don t use 0, and keep track of f(x) for evaluation purposes) Use scaling window over last w (~5-10) generations that keeps track of minimum fitness value Solve flat fitness problem by defining a new f(x): f( x) new = f( x) old n Accomplish minimization with a GA by setting fitness equal to f max - f(x), where f max is set by scaling

27 Fitness Calculation, Cont d. Solve bunching problem by: Equally spacing fitness values (don t use 0, and keep track of f(x) for evaluation purposes) Use scaling window over last w (~5-10) generations that keeps track of minimum fitness value Solve flat fitness problem by defining a new f(x): f( x) new = f( x) old n Accomplish minimization with a GA by setting fitness equal to f max - f(x), where f max is set by scaling

28 Reproduction Reproduction often done by normalizing fitnesses and generating n random numbers between 0 and 1 Baker s method: Use roulette wheel with n pointers spaced 1/n apart; use normalized fitness; spin wheel once. Tournament selection - Select two individuals at random; the individual with the higher fitness is selected for the next population Generation gap approach: Replace x percent that have worst fitness values (x is defined as the generation gap) Elitist strategy ensures that individual with highest fitness is copied into next generation

29 Crossover * Two-point crossover, with p(c) of 60-80% is common * The most basic crossover is one-point: > > * Uniform crossover (Syswerda) * Randomly choose 2 parents & stochastically decide whether to do crossover * At each bit position, exchange bits between the 2 strings with p(c) <= 50% [constant for run]

30 Mutation * Stochastically flipping bits often with p(m) ~.001 * If real-valued parameters used, mutation can assign any value in parameters allowed range * Probability of mutation usually held constant or increased during run

31 Selecting the Number of Generations Often a trial and error process Optimum value (if known) a function of the problem Multiple runs often done; overall best solution selected

32 Evolutionary Programming Similar to genetic algorithms (GAs) Uses population of solutions Evolves a solution using survival of the fittest Uses mutation (slightly differently than GAs) Different from GAs Concentrates on top-down processes of adaptive behavior Simulates evolution (phenotypic behavior) rather than genetics (genotypic behavior) Does not use crossover

33 Evolutionary Programming Procedure 1. Initialize the population 2. Expose the population to the environment 3. Calculate the fitness for each member 4. Randomly mutate each parent population member 5. Evaluate parents and children 6. Select members of new population 7. Go to step 2 until some condition is met

34 Population Initialization Component variables are usually real-valued Dynamic range constraints usually exist and are observed Random initial values within dynamic ranges are used Population is often a few dozen to a few hundred

35 Function Optimization * Mutation is done with Gaussian random function * Example: optimize F(x,y) = x 2 + y 2, i.e., find the minimum at (0,0) * Procedure: * Set population size (=50 for this problem) * Initialize values of variables over [-5,5] * Calculate fitness values (1/Euclidean_dist_fm_origin) * Mutate each parent to produce one ch

36 Function Optimization - Mutation * Mutate by adding a Gaussian random variable with zero mean and variance equal to parent s error to each parent vector component * Next generation can be best 1/2, or can be selected probabilistically in tournament competitions with other individuals

37 Tournament Selection for EP Example: Perform 10 competitions for each individual using error scores 1. Randomly select opponent 2. Probability of scoring a point = error of opponent divided by sum of individual and opponent errors 3. Repeat 10 times Each individual gets a total score; highest 50 percent survive to next generation

38 Genetic Programming Genetic programming (GP) evolves hierarchical computer programs Programs are represented as tree structure populations (most work originally done in Lisp) Structures may vary in size and complexity The goal is to obtain the desired output for a given set of inputs, within the search domain

39 Representation and Preparation * Each program is represented as a parse tree * Functions are at internal tree points * Variables and constants are at external (leaf) points * Preliminary steps are to specify: Terminal set (variables and constants) Function set Fitness measure System control parameters Termination conditions

40 GP Process 1. Initialize population of computer programs 2. Determine fitness of each program 3. Reproduce according to fitness values and reproduction probability 4. Perform crossover of subexpressions 5. Go to step 2 unless termination conditions are met

41 GP Fitness * Fitness must be calculated over a number of cases for each program. Average value often taken to be fitness. (Use perhaps 100 cases). * Same cases ususally used throughout the run. * Four ways to calculate fitness defined by Koza: - Raw fitness - Standardized fitness - Adjusted fitness - Normalized fitness

42 Particle Swarm Optimizer A New Optimizer Using Particle Swarm Theory

43 Particle Swarm Optimization Overview A concept for optimizing nonlinear functions using particle Swarm methodology Has roots in artificial life and evolutionary computation Simple in concept Easy to implement Computationally efficient Effective on a variety of problems

44 Evolution of Concept and Paradigms Discovered through simplified social model simulation Related to bird flocking, fish schooling and swarming Theory Related to evolutionary computation: genetic algorithms and evolution strategies Kennedy developed the cornfield vector for birds seeking Food Bird flock become a swarm Expanded to multidimensional search Incorporated acceleration by distance Paradigm simplified

45 Particle Swarm Optimization Process 1. Initialize population in hyperspace 2. Evaluate fitness of individual particles 3. Modify velocities based on previous best and global (or neighborhood) bes 4. Terminate on some condition 5. Go to step 2

46 Velocity Update Equations global version: vx[ ][ ] = vx[ ][ ] + 2*rand( )*(pbest[ ][ ] presentx[ ][ ]) + 2*rand( )*(pbestx[ ][gbest] presentx[ ][ ]) local version: vx[ ][ ] = vx[ ][ ] + 2*rand( )*(pbest[ ][ ] presebtx[ ][ ]) + 2*rand( )*(pbestx[ ][lbest] presentx[ ][ ])

47 Basic Principles of Swarm Intelligence Proximity principle: the population should be able to carry out simple space and time computations Quality principle: the population should be able to respond to quality factors in the environment Diverse response principle: the population should not commit its activities along excessively narrow channels Stability principle: the population should not change its mode of behavior every time the environment changes Adaptability principle: the population must be able to change behavior mode when it s worth the computation price

48 Adherence to Swarm Intelligence Principles Proximity: n-dimensional space calculations carried out over series of time steps Quality: population responds to quality factors pbest and gbest (or lbest) Diverse response: responses allocated between pbest and gbest (or lbest) Stability: population changes state only when gbest (or lbest) changes Adaptability: population does change state when gbest (or lbest) changes

49 Particle Swarm Optimization Fundamental assumption seems to be upheld: Social sharing of information among conspeciates provides an evolutionary advantage PSO has a memory: it is thus related to the elitist version of GAs

50 VMAX An important parameter in PSO; typically the only one adjusted Calmps particles velocities on each dimenson Determines fineness with which regions are searched If too high, can fly past optimal solutions If too low, can get stuck in local minima

51 Conclusions Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a simple concept PSO is effective for optimizing a wide range of functions Unique to PSO concept is flying potential solutions through hyperspace Two paradigms have been developed: lbest and gbest Much remains to be done

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