Power Quality Measurement Capabilities in Smart Revenue Meters. Tom Cooke Project Manager, EPRI Power Quality Monitoring and Analytics

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1 Power Quality Measurement Capabilities in Smart Revenue Meters Tom Cooke Project Manager, EPRI Power Quality Monitoring and Analytics November 5, 2014

2 Overview Benefits of PQ in Smart Revenue Meters Barriers Assessment of Meters PQ Measurement Standards Standardizing PQ Measurements for Smart Revenue Meters Questions / Discussions 2

3 Continuous Disturbance Monitoring Gap Edge of the Grid Courtesy OpenDSS Electric Power Distribution System Simulator?????? 3

4 Opportunities with Smart Meters POTENTIAL USE Historical Real Time Use of Data Data Network Load Forecasting X On-Line Power Flow and State Estimation X X Fault Location, Isolation, and Service Restoration X X X Faulted Circuit Indicator Monitoring X X Predictive Fault Location X X Voltage Control X X X VAR Management X X Integrated Volt-VAR Control X X X Switch Order Management X X Emergency Load Shedding X Optimal Network Reconfiguration X X Integration of Distributed Generation X X Monitoring and Control of Microgrids on Distribution Circuits X Plug-in Electric Hybrid Vehicle Management and Control X X Topology Analysis X X Contingency Analysis X 4

5 Barriers Barriers to Implementation Current communications infrastructure cannot accommodate bandwidth Current data storage systems are not configured for long-term storage The cost of enabling PQ functions is too high Limited or no PQ capabilities in existing meter model. Potential Solutions Limit high-end Meters to strategic locations (Bellwether Meters) Parameter based meters use less communication bandwidth and storage PQ and Smart Meter Standards IEEE 1159 (Recommend Practice for PQ Monitoring) IEC (correct PQ measurement algorithms ) ANSI C12.19 (Utility Industry End Device [Smart Meter] Data Tables) ANSI (Specification for Interfacing to Data Communication Networks) 5

6 Smart Meter Test Laboratory GE (KV2c, i210+c) Itron (Sentinel, Centron) Elster (A3 Alpha, Rex2) Landis & Gyr (E330, E650) Echelon (ANSI 2S) 6

7 Power System Simulations Replicate Daily Feeder Trends Simulate System Faults Generate Various Load Profiles 7

8 What must it record and report to be a power quality monitor? Power Quality Phenomena defined in IEEE Std 1159 Fault Events Event Data (Waveforms) Transients Short Duration Variations Long Duration Variations Steady-State Data (Data derived from Waveforms) Voltage Imbalance Waveform Distortion Voltage Fluctuations Power Frequency Variations Steady-State 8

9 Standards for Monitoring and PQ Data Calculations IEC Standard , Testing and measurement techniques General guide on harmonics and interharmonics measurements and instrumentation, for power supply systems and equipment connected thereto IEC Standard , Testing and measurement techniques Flicker meter Functional and design specifications IEC Standard , Testing and measurement techniques Power quality measurement methods IEEE Standard 112, Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators IEEE Standard 519, Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems IEEE Standard 1159, IEEE Recommended Practices for Monitoring Electric Power Quality IEEE Standard , IEEE Recommended Practice for the Transfer of Power Quality Data NERC Standard PRC-002-1, Define Regional Disturbance Monitoring and Reporting Requirements 9

10 Event Capture Assessment (Voltage Sags) $800, $150, $300, $100, $400, $2200, $2000, $300, $450, $

11 Single Phase Example Results 11

12 Example of Three Phase Meter Results 12

13 Parameter Trending Concern 13

14 Sustained Interruption Test (Outage / Restoration) 14

15 Parameter Performance Summary 15

16 Descriptions of ANSI C12.19 PQ Tables The meter must have the capability to perform these functions and store them in this table. 16

17 Conclusions from Testing Present PQ capabilities are limited in smart meters Need to adopt parts of PQ Standards (keep cost low) Parameter trends below three seconds (simple change?) Ride-through capability during events. (mitigation?) ANSI PQ data tables are not being fully utilized. Beware of Claims and Terminology Measures Fundamental and Harmonic Frequencies Waveform Capture Benefits Single-phase did well with Outage / Restoration Three-phase meters exceed single-phase with PQ capabilities especially from traditional PQ manufacturers. Strategic location of each (deliver max benefit for the cost) 17

18 Requirements of PQ Capabilities in Smart Revenue Meters Draft for Review Intended to give minimal measurement requirements for each PQ phenomena Tier levels are designed to give meter manufactures some flexibility in choosing methods that may work with existing meter infrastructure or budget. To be reviewed by industry experts, electric service providers, and meter manufacturers. Feedback to 18

19 Sample Requirement Voltage Interruptions, Sags, Swells Tier 1 Voltage Waveform recording at the beginning and end of the event, with least 32 samples per cycle, and pre and post event recording of at least 3 cycles. Voltage RMS plot with 0.5 cycle resolution during the whole duration of the event, with pre and post event recording of at least 1 second. Tier 2 Voltage RMS plot with 0.5 cycle resolution during the whole duration of the event, with pre and post event recording of at least 1 second. RMS is calculated from a waveform sampling at least 16 points per cycle. Tier 3 Log report or tabular data with minimum, average, and maximum RMS voltage amplitude recordings during an event, as well as the duration of the event. Statistical RMS recordings are derived from a 1 cycle RMS of a waveform sampled at least 16 points per cycle. Tier 4 Log report or tabular data with minimum, average, and maximum RMS voltage amplitude recordings during an event, as well as the duration of the event Statistical RMS recordings are derived from a 12 cycle RMS of a waveform sampled at least 8 points per cycle 19

20 Bandwidth and Storage: Event Reporting Format 2,000-20,000 bytes 36 bytes 17 bytes 20

21 Sampling Resolution Calculation Envelope Waveform Sampling 21

22 Capabilities: Waveform Sample Rates 22

23 Requirements Document Summary of Tier Requirements 23

24 Requirements Document Manufacturers Cost versus Needs Guidance 1. Interruptions 2. Sags/Swells 3. Parameters Limits 9. THD 13. Transients 14. Ind. Harm. 15. Flicker 24

25 Requirements Document Download

26 Together Shaping the Future of Electricity 26

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