# EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems

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1 A.3 Cellular Concepts Topics: A.3.1 Frequency reuse A.3.2 Cluster and Capacity A.3.3 Reuse distance A.3.4 CCI and system capacity A.3.5 SIR Introduction: The design objective of early mobile radio systems was to achieve a large coverage area using a single, high powered transmitter with an antenna mounted on a tall tower The cellular concept is a system-level idea which calls for replacing a single, high power transmitter (large cell) with many low power transmitter (small cells) each providing a coverage to only a small portion of the service area While it might seem natural to choose a circle to represent the coverage of a BS, adjacent circles cannot be overlaid upon a map without leaving gaps or creating overlapping regions Thus when considering geometric shapes which cover an entire region without overlap and with equal area, there are three sensible choices a square, an equilateral triangle and a hexagon The actual radio coverage of a cell is known as footprint and is determined from field measurements or propagation prediction models (a) (b) (c) Fig. A.3. 1 (a) Theoretical Coverage (b) Ideal Coverage (c) Real Coverage

2 Why hexagon for theoretical coverage? For a given distance between the center of a polygon and its farthest perimeter points, the hexagon has the largest area of the three Thus by using hexagon geometry, the fewest number of cells can cover a geographic region, and hexagon closely approximates a circular radiation pattern which would occur for an omnidirectionl BS antenna and free space propagation When using hexagons to model a coverage areas, BS transmitters are depicted as either being in the center of the cell (center-excited cells) or on the three of the six cell vertices (edge-excited cells) Normally omnidirectional antennas are used in center-excited cells and directional antennas are used in corner-excited cells Fig. A.3.2 Center-excited cells with omnidirectional antennas Why cellular systems? Solves the problem of spectral congestion Reuse of radio channel in different cells Enable a fixed number of channels to serve an arbitrarily large number of users by reusing the channel throughout the coverage region A.3.1 Frequency reuse: Each cellular BS is allocated a group of radio channels to be used within a small geographic area called cell BS in adjacent cells are assigned channel groups which contain completely different channels than neighboring cells

3 By limiting the coverage area to within the boundaries of a cell, the same groups of channels may be used to cover different cells that are separated from one another by distances large enough to keep the interference levels within tolerable limits The design process of selecting and allocating channel groups for all of the cellular BSs is called frequency reuse or frequency planning Fig. A.3.3 Illustration of the cellular frequency reuse concept. Cells with the same letter use the same set of frequencies. A cell cluster is outlined in bold. In this example, the cluster size is N equal to 7 and frequency reuse factor is 1/N=1/7 A.3.2 Cluster and Capacity: Consider a cellular system which has a total of S duplex channels available for use If each cell is allocated a group of k channels (k<s), and if the S channels are divided among N cells and disjoint channel groups which each have same number of channels, the total number of available radio channels can be expressed as S=kN N cells which collectively use the complete set of available frequencies is called a cluster

4 Fig. A.3.4 Cluster size of 3, 4, 7 and 9 If a cluster is replicated M times within the system, the total number of duplex channels, C, can be used a measure of capacity and is given by C=MkN=MS So the capacity of a cellular system is directly proportional to the number of times a cluster is replicated in a fixed service area A larger cluster size causes the ratio between the cell radius and the distance between the co-channel cells to decrease, leading to weaker co-channel interference Conversely a small cluster size indicates the co-channel cells are located much closer together From a designer point of view, the smallest possible value of N is desirable in order to maximize capacity over a given coverage area In order to tessellate connect without gaps between adjacent cells -- the geometry of the hexagon is such that number of cells per cluster N can have values which satisfy N=i 2 +ij+j 2 where i and j are non-negative integers To find the nearest co-channel neighbors of a particular cell, one must do the following: (a) move i cells along any chain of hexagons and (b) turn 60 degrees counter-clockwise and move j -cells

5 Fig. A.3.5 Method of locating co channel cells (Example for N=19, i=3, j=2) Fig. A.3.6 Reuse distance Fig. A.3.7 Reuse distance calculation

6 Fig. A.3.8 Method of locating co-channel cells in a cellular system (in this case N=3, i.e., i=1 and j=1) and calculation of reuse distance 0 0 ( ) ( ) 2 2 D = 3 ir+ cos( 60 ) jr + sin( 60 ) jr = 3 ( ir ) 2 + {cos( 60 0 ) jr} 2 + 2iRcos(60 0 ) jr+ {sin( 60 0 ) jr} 2 = 3 ( ir ) 2 + ( jr ) 2 + ijr 2 = 3 NR A.3.4 CCI and system capacity: Frequency reuse implies that in a given coverage area there are several cells that use the same set of frequencies These cells are called co-channel cells and interference between signals from these cells is called co-channel interference Unlike thermal noise which can be overcome by increasing SNR, co-channel interference cannot be combated by simply increasing the carrier power of a transmitter To reduce co-channel interference, co-channel cells must be physically separated by a minimum distance to provide sufficient isolation due to propagation When the size of each cell is approximately the same and the BSs transmit the same power, the co-channel interference ratio is independent of the transmitted power and becomes a function of the radius of the cell (R) and the distance between the centers of the nearest co-channel cells (D)

7 The parameter Q is called the co-channel reuse ratio is related to the cluster size For a hexagonal geometry Q=D/R= (3N) A small value of Q provides larger capacity since the cluster size is small whereas a large value of Q improves the transmission quality, due to smaller level of co-channel interference Cluster size (N) Co-channel reuse ratio (Q=D/R) i=1,j=1 3 3 i=1,j= i=0,j= i=2,j= A.3.5 SIR Let i 0 be the number of interfering cells Then the SIR for a mobile receiver which monitors a forward channel (down link) can be expressed as S/I where S is the desired signal power from the desired BS and I i is the interference power caused by the i th interfering cochannel cell BS S I = S i0 I i i= 1

8 If D i is the distance of the i th interferer from MS, the received power at a given MS due to the i th interfering cell will be proportional to (D i ) -n n is in the range 2-4 for urban cellular systems When the transmit power of each BS is equal and path loss exponent is the same throughout the coverage area, SIR for a MS can be approximated as SIR n D S R n R = I = i 0 n i i ( D i ) i= 1 ( 3 N ) In the above equation we have considered only the first layer of interfering cells and all interfering BSs are equidistant at a distance of D Using exact cell geometry layout for a seven cluster cell, with MS at the cell boundary, the MS is at a distance D-R from the two nearest co-channel interfering cells, and is exactly D and D+R from the other two interfering cells in the first tier Assuming n=4, the SIR for the worst case scenario can be approximated as n Fig. A.3.9 Illustration of the first tier of co-channel cells for a cluster of N. An approximation of the actual geometry is shown here. When the mobile is at the cell boundary, it experiences the worst case co-channel interference on the forward channel

9 SIR S R 4 = I = 2 D R 4 2 D R 4 2 D 4 ( ) + ( + ) + ( ) Sectoring is a very common method that is employed in cellular systems to improve the SIR performance, whereby cells are divided into radial sectors with wide-beam directional antennas Cellular systems are quite often deployed with and sometimes 60 0 cell sectors As shown in Fig. A.3.10, cell sectoring reduces the number of first tier co-channel interferers from six to two The two first tier interferers are located at a distance of approximately D and D+0.7R Fig. A.3.10 Sectoring reduces co-channel interferers

10 Fig. A.3.11 Worst case CCI situation on the forward channel with cell sectoring References: A. F. Molisch, Wireless Communications, John Wiley & Sons, 2005 G. L. Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communication, Springer, 2009 T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, PHI, 2007

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