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2 Print financed within the system project: The Małoposka Regiona Innovation System. Piot project reaized by: Marsha Office of the Małoposka Region Department of Economy and Information Society RSI Monitoring and Management Office Dariusz Kowaczyk The Marsha s Penipotentiary for the Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region phone: , fax e-mai: Agnieszka Bachórz Head of the RSI Monitoring and Management Office phone: , fax e-mai: ISBN: EUROPEAN UNION EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND A project part-financed by the European Union within the European Socia Fund

3 Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka for Appendix to the Resoution of the Executive Board of the Małoposka Region No. 831/08 of 18 September 2008 Kraków, August 2008

4 Regiona Innovation Strategy of The Małoposka Region for This document is an update of the Regiona Innovation Strategy which was originay drafted by: Editors: Józef Gawik (coordinator) Contributors: Krzysztof Krzysztofiak Tomasz Maczuga Łukasz Mamica Eżbieta Nachik Andrzej Ryś Jerzy Sładek Consutants: the version The Steering Committee for the Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region chaired by: Janusz Sepioł, the Marsha of the Małoposka Region Expert Teams appointed for the purposes of the Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region Witod Śmiałek, the Vice-Marsha of the Małoposka Region, on behaf of the Executive Board of the Małoposka Region Katarzyna Kucharska, the Marsha s Penipotentiary for the Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region Prepared as part of the project 6 RSI 2003 C/06004 Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region financed by the Ministry of Science and Information Technoogy and the Małoposka Region The RIS update was prepared by the editoria team consisting of: The RIS update was prepared by the editoria team consisting of: Józef Gawik (coordinator) Łukasz Mamica Consutants: The Małoposka Innovation Counci chaired by the Marsha of the Małoposka Region Marek Nawara Contributors: Member of the Executive Board of the Małoposka Region Irena Cebua, Joanna Domańska Department of Transport, Economy and Infrastructure, Marsha s Office of the Małoposka Region Jacek Woźniak, Jakub Szymański Regiona Poicy Department, Marsha s Office of the Małoposka Region

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction purpose and scope 5 2. The Regiona Innovation Strategy in the context of the state s regiona poicy 6 3. Overview of the Małoposka Region. Diagnosis of innovation Genera characteristics Economic structure Enterprises in Małoposka The capacity of innovation support institutions Małoposka s innovation capacity compared to the rest of the country The Małoposka Regiona Innovation System The importance of innovation for the deveopment of the Małoposka Region the Małoposka Deveopment Strategy as a basis for the Regiona Innovation Strategy The SWOT anaysis of innovation in the Małoposka Region The Indicative Investment Pan of the Małoposka Regiona Operationa Programme as a too for financing activities aimed at increasing innovation in Małoposka The Regiona Innovation Strategy Of the Małoposka Region The orientation and structure of the Regiona Innovation System RIS horizonta objectives RIS strategic and tactica objectives, The system for evauating the effectiveness of Regiona Innovation Strategy impementation Regiona Innovation Strategy Management System Impementation principes and potentia sources for RIS project financing Gossary of Basic Project-Reated Terms 80 Appendices: Tabes Strategy Objectives and Measures 84

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7 1. Introduction purpose and scope Małoposka wi deveop in a baanced and sustainabe way ony if its businesses, business support services, higher education institutions, research and deveopment estabishments and oca government organisations work hand-in-hand to support innovation processes in a areas of economic activity. In addition to providing an updated overview of the state of innovation of the economy, the Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region (RIS) puts forward actions that are intended to stimuate businesses and business support services into utiising the Region s innovation capacity more effectivey. At the core of the Regiona Innovation Strategy ies the desire to strengthen coaboration among businesses (particuary in the sma and medium-sized enterprise sector which today is a key driver of economic innovation in the Region), higher education institutions, research and deveopment estabishments, administrative bodies and business support institutions in panning and setting strategic objectives for the Region s deveopment. This goa shoud be served by the creation of forma networks (based on contractua arrangements among networking partners). Coaboration is expected to ead to the emergence of business-to-business operations, incuding custers 1, in which businesses both cooperate and compete. Exampes to date incude the Pastics Vaey Tarnów Industria Custer and, to some extent, the Kraków Technoogy Park with its prevaence of IT firms. The panning of interna activities and the undertaking of joint efforts to obtain financing from nationa and European Union sources wi contribute to the innovation-based growth of Małoposka s economy and a more effective technoogy transfer understood as a targeted transfer of knowedge and skis to business (production process) for successfu pacement of products on the market. A successfu business requires innovation in organisation, technoogica deveopment, production and customer service (marketing, saes and post-sae support). The Regiona Innovation Strategy focuses on the areas of business activity that are of key importance to the Region. This document is consistent with horizonta objectives and puts forward the main strategic and tactica objectives as we as specific proposas for impementation. Particuar stress is aid on the creation, deveopment and operation of coaborative networks and incubators for advanced technoogies. It is hoped that the identification of potentia sources of financing wi encourage future beneficiaries of the RIS to take interest in innovation as a driver of technoogy transfer contributing to the deveopment of Małoposka s economic and competitive potentia. Businesses are expected to deveop and impement specific projects conforming to the strategic and tactica objectives of the Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region. Partners from science, industry and business environment institutions must coaborate more cosey for the Regiona Innovation Strategy to become a permanent feature of the deveopment process in the Małoposka Region. Technoogy parks, which are hotbeds of innovation, are expected to pay a major roe together with industria parks in which innovative (mosty sma and medium-sized) production enterprises are ocated. 1 Kastry. Innowacyjne wyzwanie da Poski. Edited by S. Szutki, Gdańsk, February

8 2. The Regiona Innovation Strategy in the context of the state s regiona poicy The Regiona Innovation Strategy of the Małoposka Region is pursued within the framework of nationa and European innovation poicies. The aim of European poicies is to make the European Union the most competitive knowedge-based economy in the word (this refers in particuar to the Lisbon Strategy and the reated sustainabe deveopment agenda). Specific actions to adapt Poand s innovation space to the EU s expectations are set out in The strategy of increasing R&D expenditure to meet Lisbon Strategy goas, a document prepared by the Ministry of Economy, Labour and Socia Poicy in March The priorities aid down in that document, particuary as regards systemic and organisationa arrangements concerning venture capita and inks between the R&D sector and the economy, are addressed in Małoposka s RIS. However, a document of key importance in shaping a strategic framework for Poand s near-term deveopment is the Nationa Deveopment Strategy adopted in November This document sets out a preiminary proposa to increase research and deveopment expenditure to 2% of GDP by This is particuary important considering the currenty unfavourabe conditions of science funding in Poand. Whie the ratio of research and deveopment expenditure to Małoposka s GDP was reativey high in 2005 compared to the rest of the country (at 1.02, it was outranked ony by the Mazowieckie Region with a ratio of 1.1 versus the nationa average of ony 0.57%), it nevertheess remained behind the EU average. The Nationa Deveopment Strategy seeks to deveop aternative sources of funding for enterprises, such as venture and seed capita funds. The impementation of economic and financia instruments aimed at encouraging enterprises to invest in research and deveopment is expected to contribute to the deveopment of Małoposka s R&D capacity as determined by survey resuts. The Act on Science Funding can be used to provide a ega framework for these measures, whie the Nationa Foresight Programme (which sets out directions for the deveopment of science and technoogy that are of priority importance for the economy and society) wi ensure the rationaisation of R&D expenditure. Małoposka s RIS incudes aso pans to prepare technoogy forecasts at regiona eve. In the next ten years or so, Poand s socia and economic deveopment must be driven by economic growth of around 5% of GDP a year. The achievement of the intended deveopment objectives wi depend on the harmonisation of measures taken simutaneousy within the foowing three dimensions: structura infuencing the structura features of the economy, spatia infuencing the country s spatia deveopment, regiona infuencing the deveopment and competitiveness of the regions. 6

9 3. Overview of the Małoposka Region. Diagnosis of innovation 3.1 Genera characteristics Małoposka covers an area of 15,190 square kiometres (4.9% of the country s area) and is the twefth biggest Poish region. It is divided into 22 districts (powiat) incuding three municipa districts (Kraków, Tarnów and Nowy Sącz) and 182 municipaities (gmina). Małoposka ranks among the most varied Poish regions in terms of its differing natura and economic environments. Popuation Małoposka had a popuation of 3,277,700 in 2007 (over 8% of Poand s tota popuation), ranking fourth in the country (in 2006, the popuation totaed 3,253,200). At 215 persons per square kiometre, it is aso the second most densey popuated region after the Siesian Region. The density is the highest in centra and western parts of the Region and the owest in northern and south-eastern parts. Urban popuation accounts for just over 50% of the tota, which makes Małoposka much ess urbanised then other regions. The Region s birth rate is reativey high. At 1.1 per 1,000 peope, it is higher than the nationa rate, which remained negative in and increased to 0.1 ony in 2006 (by comparison, the EU s rate remained positive throughout that period, amounting to 0.6 in 2005). Małoposka s popuation is sighty younger than the nationa average: the median age is 34.1 for men and 37.4 for women (compared to the nationa medians of 35.0 and 39.1, respectivey). The Region benefits from a positive baance of migration (1.0 in 2006). Unempoyment Unempoyment, which unti recenty ranked among Poand s biggest socia probems, has been steadiy decreasing. Małoposka eads the country in this respect. With an unempoyment eve of 8.9% at the end of February 2008 (compared to the nationa average of 11.5%), it had the second owest rate after the Wiekoposka Region (which had a 7.9% rate). This figure aso marked a 2.4 percentage point drop from the unempoyment rate of 11.3% at the end of The distribution of unempoyment by district (powiat) has foowed the same pattern for severa years. At the end of January 2008, unempoyment was owest in the city of Kraków (3.94%) and highest in the Nowosądecki and Dąbrowski districts (18.5% and 18.2%, respectivey). Unempoyment rates vary among districts depending on how active they are economicay. Education Kraków, the Region s hub for earning, is the second most important academic centre in Poand after Warsaw. Kraków s scientific potentia has fueed the deveopment of higher education institutions in the Region s biggest cities: Tarnów, Nowy Sącz, Chrzanów and Nowy Targ. Małoposka s higher education institutions have for years ranked among the best in Poand. With over 203,000 students in 2006, or 10% of the nationa tota, Małoposka ranked second after the Mazowieckie Region in the number of students. 7

10 Higher education institutions have in recent years started offering attractive new programmes of study in an effort to meet the demands of the abour market. Information technoogy and reated fieds of study, information society, tourism management and marketing, cuture, heath care and European studies have been among the most popuar. The Region ranks second nationay in research and deveopment expenditure. Heath care In 2006, Małoposka had 61 hospitas, incuding 40 pubic hospitas. They had a capacity of 13,700 beds of which ony 566 were in pubic hospitas. Over 546,000 patients received care from genera hospitas, an increase of 31,000 compared to The number of peope receiving hospita treatment per 10,000 peope has been growing steadiy from The Medica Coege of the Jagieonian University is one of the best centres of medica education in Poand. Together with the University s teaching hospita it is aso an important research centre. The Medica Coege s Scientific Research Office coaborates with the Ministry of Science and Information Technoogy, the Ministry of Heath, the Ministry of Nationa Education and the Foundation for Poish Science. Its responsibiities incude seeking contracts with businesses to carry out research on drugs and cosmetics and prepare expert opinions. Tourism potentia Exceptiona natura attractions, cutura heritage and active cutura ife are the factors underying the deveopment of the tourism industry in Małoposka. Around 11.3 miion tourists, 3 miion of them foreigners, visited Małoposka in 2007, making it one of the most visited regions in Poand (in 2006, tourists totaed 10.9 miion). Kraków remains the Region s historica and artistic centre. Eight of Małoposka s attractions are isted UNESCO Word Heritage sites: Kraków s Historic Centre, Wieiczka Sat Mine, the monastery compex of Kawaria Zebrzydowska, the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp and wooden churches of Dębno, Binarowa, Lipnica Murowana and Sękowa. Natura attractions incude nationa parks (Tatrzański, Pieniński, Babiogórski, Gorczański, Ojcowski, Magurski), andscape parks, nature reserves and natura monuments. 3.2 Economic structure Małoposka is among the strongest Poish regions in terms of economic deveopment, yet aso one of the most diversified. At 7.3%, it ranked fifth in 2005 (after Mazowieckie, Śąskie, Wiekoposkie and Donośąskie Regions) in terms of its contribution to the country s GDP. In recent years, this share has remained reativey stabe at 7.1% 7.4%. Whie many traditiona sectors of the economy sti suffer from ow competition, there has been a trend towards change. Traditiona industries (mining, stee industry, heavy chemicas) are increasingy being repaced by those that offer scope for deveopment, such as IT, teecommunications and pharmaceuticas. The Kraków Technoogy Park, which is a specia economic zone estabished to faciitate the restructuring of Małoposka s industry, is a major centre of high technoogies. As a resut, Kraków is seen today as a city with a rapidy growing high-tech industry. The Kraków Technoogy Park currenty hosts companies such as Motoroa, Comarch, RR Donneey, Ericpo, ACS, M.A.N and ABB. Kraków aso boasts the Region s ony motor technoogy centre operated by Dephi. At 67.9%, the services sector is the argest contributor to the Region s gross vaue added, with industry contributing around 22.5%, construction 6.6% and agricuture, forestry and fisheries 2.9%. The increasing share of services in the Region s GDP is a particuary important deveopment. Empoyment in this particuar sector has aso been on the rise, with 55.8% of the Region s working popuation empoyed in services in Recent years have seen a sight increase in empoyment in the construction industry (up to 6.1% in 2006) and a decrease in industry and agricuture. The atter deveopment is consistent with the trend across the country. 8

11 Industry At the end of 2006, empoyment in industry (measured by actua empoyment) was 214,776, accounting for 7.2% of the nationa tota for industry and 20.5% of the Region s overa empoyment. This figure points to a downward trend (from 21.3% two years ago) in favour of the services sector. In 2007, Małoposka s industria output (saes) totaed PLN 53,889.6 miion, a 5.4% increase over the previous year. The Region contributes 6.5% to the country s industria output. Industria processing contributes 90.1% of industria output, whie eectricity, gas and water production and suppy account for 8% and mining for the remaining 1.9%. In 2007, industria saes were mainy driven by production of foodstuffs and beverages (14%), manufacture of motor vehices, traiers and semi-traiers (8.8%), chemicas (7.8%), meta products (8.9%) and metas (7.6%). Pubishing and printing (4.5%), manufacture of machinery and equipment (4.2%) and manufacture of rubber and pastic products (4.3%) were other major contributors. High technoogy products, such as medica, precision and optica instruments, radio, teevision and teecommunications equipment and devices, office machinery and computers, have an increasing share in the Region s industria output. Some of the Region s medium-high technoogy sectors (manufacture of motor vehices, traiers and semi-traiers, manufacture of eectrica machinery and apparatus and manufacture of machinery and equipment) and medium-ow technoogy sectors (manufacture of meta products and metas, rubber and pastic products) have aso been growing rapidy. Agricuture Małoposka s arabe and has been decreasing year by year. Currenty, 45.8% of the Region s and is used for farming. The Region s agricutura hodings are among the smaest in the country, with an average area of 2.16 hectares compared to the nationa average of 6.14 hectares. Over 96% of farmands are individuay owned. Empoyment in agricuture was 184,000, ess than 18% of the Region s working popuation (9.7% of the country s tota empoyment in agricuture). The number of peope who rey on farming for their iveihood has been decreasing steadiy in keeping with the nationa trend. Horticuture is an important contributor to the Region s agricutura output. Małoposka s outdated, overpopuated and fragmented agricuture is characterised by ow competitiveness. Services The services sector contributes as much as 68% of Małoposka s gross vaue added. Empoyment in this sector has seen continuous growth: in 2006, it totaed 585,224, or 8.3% of the nationa tota for the services sector. The Region offers favourabe conditions for the deveopment of market services. Empoyment has been growing steadiy in areas such as commerce and repairs, financia mediation, transport and warehousing, rea estate services and business activities. The ast mentioned sector is rapidy deveoping, particuary in Kraków, where Business Process Offshoring is becoming an increasingy important industry. Małoposka s IT sector has aso seen rapid growth. Kraków is home to COMARCH S.A., one of Poand s biggest IT companies. Foreign investment The findings of research carried out by the Gdańsk Institute for Market Economics demonstrate that Małoposka is highy attractive to investors. In the 2004 investment attractiveness rating of Poish regions, it ranked fourth after the Śąskie, Mazowieckie and Donośąskie Regions. Małoposka attracts around 7.5% of foreign direct investment in Poand. Investments totaing neary USD 7,840 miion had been made in the Region by the end of Foreign capita fows remained fairy stabe in , ranging from USD 570 miion to USD 660 miion a year, whie in 1999 and 2006 they rose to a record high of USD 933 miion and around USD 1 biion, respectivey. 3,207 foreign capita ventures were registered in Małoposka at the end of 2006; of these, 285 were estabished in 2006 aone. 9

12 The Region offers particuary favourabe conditions for the deveopment of the Business Process Offshoring sector. Małoposka eads the country in the number of offshore centres of mutinationa corporations. In 2006, there were 12 such centres, incuding Bayer, CapGemini, Ernst & Young, IBM and KPMG. Foreign companies investing in Małoposka are mosty from the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom and France. Dutch, Swedish, Austrian and Israei investors are aso present. Foreign capita is mainy invested in the Region s capita, Kraków. Large investments are aso made in Tarnów, Nowy Sącz and Brzeski and Wieicki districts. In Kraków and the Brzeski district, investment per inhabitant is over USD 3,000 Goas of the Region s economic poicy The Małoposka 2015 Regiona Deveopment Strategy for was adopted on 30 January 2006 by the Counci of the Małoposka Region. The Strategy identifies missions and priorities for the Region s deveopment and sets out three strategic goas within three different areas of activity. One of these goas is Strengthening the Region s economic competitiveness in the fied of Economic competitiveness. This incudes deveopment poicy areas that are of key importance for improving innovation in the Region. Tabe 3.1. Fied: Economic competitiveness Strategic objective: Strengthening the Region s economic competitiveness Deveopment poicy areas I Active and knowedgebased society II Regiona opportunity economy III Infrastructure for regiona deveopment IV Kraków Metropoitan Area Indirect objectives Better educated, creative and entrepreneuria popuation Competitive, open and innovative economy Modern and efficient infrastructure for socia and economic deveopment Deveopment of the Kraków Metropoitan Area as a Europois Strengthening Małoposka s economic competitiveness is a condition for sustainabe economic deveopment. Innovation that is the abiity and motivation to take advantage of research, new concepts, inventions and ideas pays a key roe in this regard. The Strategy indicates that for the Region s innovation to be strengthened it is necessary not ony to attract and maintain cutting-edge investments and technoogica progress but aso to attract and keep creative and taented peope who wi contribute to Małoposka s innovation cuture. Coaborative networks aso have an increasingy important roe to pay. Of the measures proposed by the Strategy, the foowing in particuar wi contribute to innovation in the Region: a) supporting individua enterprise (I.3.) by, inter aia: deveoping support instruments for SMEs (financia, investment, training, counseing and information support), deveoping infrastructure for enterprises (incubators, centres of economic activity, education centres), b) supporting the internationa competitiveness of Małoposka s businesses and institutions (II.1.) through, inter aia, the estabishment of a modern technoogy fund and an investment grant fund, c) deveoping innovation and modern technoogies (II.2): 10

13 expanding financia assistance instruments to incude innovation projects and modern technoogies, introducing a system of aowances and incentives to increase access to innovative and modern technoogies for these enterprises, providing access to cutting-edge infrastructure for the deveopment of new and modern technoogies and services, creating a system of support for the estabishment and deveopment of innovation technoogy parks and information and communication technoogy parks, tightening coaboration between academia and business and introducing mechanisms to create inks between businesses and innovation and new technoogy centres, estabishing new technoogy information centres d) deveoping the eisure industry (II.5.) and deveoping inteectua property industries (II.6.), e) strengthening the European position of the Kraków Metropoitan Area and deveoping its metropoitan functions (IV.1.) by, inter aia, providing organisationa and financia support for the estabishment and deveopment of R&D centres and manufacturing estabishments in the new technoogy and innovation sector. 3.3 Enterprises in Małoposka The number of new enterprises in Małoposka has been on the rise for many years. At the end of 2007, there were 293,845 registered enterprises (35.5% in Kraków aone), a 1.55% increase compared to the previous year. A tota of 3,685,608 enterprises were entered in the nationa REGON register at the end of At 8%, Małoposka has the fifth highest number of enterprises in the country, after the Mazowieckie, Śąskie, Wiekoposkie and Donośąskie Regions. Małoposka s sma and medium-sized enterprise sector empoyed 600,766 peope in 2006, a figure that ranks fourth after the Mazowieckie, Śąskie and Wiekoposkie Regions. The Region s average enterprise ratio (measured as the number of enterprises per 1,000 inhabitants) was 89 at the end of Worryingy, this ratio has remained constant for severa years. This puts Małoposka at a disadvantage in reation to other regions, most of which have seen the number of enterprises growing per 1,000 inhabitants. Małoposka currenty ranks a distant eeventh, which makes it one of Poand s east active regions. In 2006, the enterprise ratio was highest in the Kraków (138), Tatrzański (127) and Okuski (101) districts and the owest in the Dąbrowski (41), Tarnowski (43), Nowosądecki (52), Brzeski (54), Limanowski (54) and Goricki (55) districts. Innovation expenditures in industria enterprises totaed PLN 1,247.5 miion in 2006, an impressive 43.5% increase compared to the previous year. Recent years have seen a significant change in the structure of these expenditures: research and deveopment expenditures have quadruped whie capita expenditures on pant, machinery, equipment and means of transport have decreased since

14 Tabe 3.2. Innovation expenditures in industry in Małoposka (2006, enterprises empoying over 49 staff) Tota expenditures (PLN 000, current prices) 1, of which: pant, machinery, equipment and means of transport 54.6% research and deveopment 21.9% software 3.1% purchase of third-party technoogies (documents and rights) 1.4% other 19.0% The innovation research conducted by the Centra Statistica Office (GUS) in 2006 among sma and medium-sized enterprises in the industry and services sectors found that Małoposka s enterprises did not have a high eve of innovation. According to the Oso 2 methodoogy, 42.6% of industria enterprises and 35.6% of service enterprises quaified as innovative in Małoposka in These figures rank the Region as eight nationay (compared to the nationa ratios of 42.5% and 37.7%, respectivey). Saes of technoogicay new and improved industria products accounted for around 12% of the Region s tota production sod in Innovation expenditures were incurred in 2006 by 37.3% of industria enterprises and 32.7% of service enterprises; the Region ranked seventh nationay in this area. It ranked higher (fourth) in the amount of innovation expenditures, which totaed PLN 1,247.5 miion in industry (7.5% of the nationa tota) and PLN miion in services (2.9% of the nationa tota) in Average innovation expenditures incurred per innovative enterprise were PLN 4,990,100 in industry and PLN 2,304,800 in services (both these figures ranked fourth). The Region scores reativey poory in the number of active foreign icences in industria enterprises. In 2006, as few as 33 such icences were in pace, a figure that ranks the Region seventh nationay. An innovation demand survey was conducted in Małoposka in 2006 as part of the project Enhancing the Regiona Innovation Strategy RIS Małoposka (project acronym: InnoRegioMaoposka) financed under the 6th Framework Programme. 102 enterprises seected from a random sampe of 800 SMEs participated in the survey. These incuded 84 microenterprises, 16 sma enterprises and 3 medium enterprises (this breakdown roughy refects the structure of Małoposka s SME sector). Neary 90% of the enterprises surveyed had annua revenues of up to PLN 500,000 and ony 10% of PLN 1 miion or more. Low revenues imit the abiity of enterprises to invest in innovation. A arge number of the enterprises surveyed use computers and software for administrative management and have internet access, with as many as 73.1% having their own web site. Many of them (80%) use aso eectronic banking services. As few as 31 enterprises (ca. 30%) empoy graduates of higher education and/or research degree hoders and ony 6 of them empoy more than 10 such persons. As few as 23% of the enterprises surveyed empoy staff with research and deveopment experience gained at higher education institutions, training centres or technoogy centres. An empoyment structure such as this may discourage innovation initiatives. As few as 7% of the enterprises surveyed (4 of the 84 microenterprises surveyed and 3 of the 15 sma enterprises surveyed) coaborate with oca innovation suppiers such as higher education institutions, 2 According to the Oso methodoogy, an enterprise is considered innovative if, in the three-year period surveyed, it has introduced at east one new or improved product or process which is an innovation at east from the point of view of that enterprise. 12

15 research centres, training institutions, innovation centres or centres for advanced technoogies. The remaining 93% have not sought to estabish such coaboration. Ony 4% of the enterprises surveyed carry out research and deveopment work on their own. Enterprises tend to purchase rather than deveop new technoogies (mosty from nationa suppiers 75%), as this invoves ess risk. Investment activities are predominanty financed from their own funds, with 47% of the enterprises surveyed appying for research and deveopment grants. The survey has found that enterprises are aware of the importance of innovation at both product eve and production and service eves. 73% of enterprises consider innovation to be important or very important at product eve, 79% at production and service eves, 70% at marketing eve and 80% at work organisation eve. More than 10% of enterprises think innovation is not necessary. The SME sector is, therefore, increasingy aware of the importance of innovation for growth and competitiveness. However, financia constraints prevent them from investing in costy projects. Cients, competitors and other businesses are the most frequenty indicated by the survey participants as the sources of information on the need to innovate. The enterprises surveyed rate reativey highy their eve of technoogica advancement. 27% of the survey participants consider themseves eaders of technoogica advancement at nationa eve and 12% at European or word eve, whie 47% beieve their technoogica advancement to be average. The enterprises surveyed were asked which services they beieved were needed to increase their innovation. More than haf of the respondents indicated the need to finance innovation projects. Yet as few as 15% knew which institution to turn to for hep in this regard. Neary 35% of the enterprises surveyed were interested in obtaining advice on deveopment opportunities and market information. Other desired areas of assistance incuded: technoogy services and consuting, suppy of equipment, training, marketing and saes, quaity management, ega counseing. Assistance in setting up a new business, knowedge management or networking was appreciated by few of the enterprises surveyed. Regrettaby, a arge majority of the respondents did not know where to ook for hep with these issues. 3.4 The capacity of innovation support institutions Types of innovation support institutions Innovation in the economy and society invoves a arge number of actors from different backgrounds. Institutions that support innovation incude: institutions that create innovation (research and deveopment institutions, higher education institutions, innovative businesses), institutions and businesses commerciay invoved in the transfer of technoogy, innovation and knowedge as we as intermediary businesses (engineering, consuting and training firms, patent attorneys, ega firms etc.), non-profit institutions statutoriy mandated to support innovation. The ast category incudes pubicy subsidised estabishments such as technoogy transfer centres affiiated with higher education institutions and research centres, technoogy park management companies and pubic agencies at different eves. Different criteria for incusion in the category of institutions statutoriy mandated to support innovation appy in different studies. It is estimated that there are over 140 such institutions and estabishments. Whie many of them are not expicity estabished to support innovation, it must nevertheess be concuded that the mission of supporting deveopment or supporting businesses inevitaby invoves promoting innovation. A majority of the above-mentioned institutions support innovation processes to varying degrees, at different eves and in different phases of their operations. In addition to deveoping innovations in the fied of organisation, technoogies, processes and products, this incudes measures designed to pubicise and promote innovation. 13

16 The adoption of a narrower or broader definition of an innovation support institution is important for designing a Regiona Innovation Strategy. The understanding of correations is important for examining and stimuating the existing potentia. This, in turn, wi have an impact on the effectiveness of support and thus on the operation of innovation processes in the Region. The capacity of institutions that create innovation in Małoposka The research and deveopment sector is one of Małoposka s strengths. In addition to higher education institutions, there are very active research and deveopment institutions as we as estabishments affiiated with the Poish Academy of Sciences. In tota, there are 96 research and deveopment estabishments in the region, 53 of which are privatey owned. It is commony accepted that institutions which create or can create innovation have a high potentia and this is the feature which puts Małoposka ahead of other regions. This is refected in the strengths section of the SWOT anaysis. What is in dispute is whether this potentia actuay transates into a suppy of innovation and why the economy makes so itte use of scientific research. An innovation suppy survey was conducted in Małoposka in 2006 under the 6th Framework Programme Enhancing the Regiona Innovation Strategy RIS Małoposka (project acronym: InnoRegioMaoposka). The survey covered 63 of the region s biggest academic and research institutions: 48 facuties of the Jagieonian University, the Kraków University of Technoogy, the AGH University of Mining and Metaurgy and the University of Agricuture in Kraków, as we as 15 research and deveopment estabishments (mosty those affiiated with the Poish Academy of Sciences). The institutions surveyed conduct research in the foowing industries: environmenta protection (49%), optics, biotechnoogy, pharmacy and biophysics (22%), meta research (22%), information technoogy (20.5%), business deveopment (17.5%), mechanics and automatics (17.5%), foodstuffs (16%) and chemicas (11%). A majority of the respondents (80%) participate in European innovation support programmes, a fact that bodes we for the future of innovation in Małoposka. 42% of them take part in more than two and 4.7% in more than ten such programmes. The number of pubications is an indicator of the extent of academic and research activity. The institutions surveyed performed reasonaby we on this count: most of them (32%) had nationa pubications and quite a arge group (16%) had over 400 pubications. At the same time, 10% of the respondents had ony 1 49 pubications. Resuts were aso satisfactory with regard to foreign pubications, with 36.5% of the institutions surveyed having such pubications. The number of patents is a commony used measure of innovation. The institutions surveyed sod a tota of 35 patents in This figure is rather ow, especiay considering that three quarters of them did not se any patents at a. The survey found that 63 of the region s biggest scientific and research institutions submitted as few as 107 patent appications in 2005, sighty more than haf of Małoposka s tota patent submissions in that year. Two-thirds of the institutions surveyed spent ess than 50% of their research budgets on appied research and every fifth institution spent ess than 5%. The expenditure structure does not, therefore, favour innovation. As few as 5 institutions (8%) spent more than 75% of their tota budgets on appied research. Coaboration between researchers and business is of key importance for the deveopment of innovation. The survey found that a majority of research institutions were activey seeking to reach out to business. 85.7% of the respondents said they were coaborating in 2005 with sma and medium-sized enterprises and 73% with arge enterprises. 22 institutions (one-third of those surveyed) said they were carrying out business contracts in In tweve cases (19%) the vaue of those contracts was reativey ow and did not exceed PLN 500,000, in six cases (9.5%) it ranged from PLN 0.5 miion to PLN 1 miion and in four cases (6%) it exceeded PLN 1 miion (PLN 5 miion in two cases). A reativey arge number of institutions (ca. 40%) did not earn any income from business contracts in Neary 20% of the respondents coud 14

17 not, or did not wish to, answer questions concerning those matters. As few as 12 of the respondents used the services of organisations responsibe for faciitating contacts between researchers and business (technoogy transfer centres, the Poish Agency for Enterprise Deveopment, the Kraków Technoogy Park). Training and technoogy consuting are the two most important services provided by research centres to businesses (they are offered by neary 80% of the respondents). Other popuar services incude technoogy services (product testing, prototype deveopment, designing), dissemination of information, networking, quaity management and knowedge management. These services are an important source of income for the institutions surveyed. Other major sources of income incude pubic funds and the aforementioned research contracts. Athough the respondents enthusiasticay endorse the idea of academic enterprises, there are few such ventures at the institutions surveyed. Academic enterprises have been estabished at four institutions (BioCentrum and Biospekt at the Jagieonian University, Kataizator at the Institute of Physicochemistry and Surface Cataysis, six firms were formed foowing the transformation of experimenta stations of the Zootechnics Institute). Surprisingy, no such firms have been estabished at higher education institutions speciaising in technica subjects. The wear and tear of research equipment is a factor that negativey impacts the prospects for participation in innovation projects. According to the Centra Statistica Office, research equipment in Małoposka shows a higher eve of wear and tear than the nationa average (75.8% versus 71.7%). The innovation suppy survey of the seected research centres demonstrates that: it is necessary to support researchers in estabishing reationships with business, it is necessary to improve coaboration with institutions acting as intermediaries in technoogy transfer, it is advisabe to support the estabishment of academic enterprises at higher education institutions. One way to improve the situation woud be to strengthen the existing transfer technoogy centres, faciitate their coaboration with the nationa economy and deveop structures that wi support academic enterprise. The capacity of institutions and businesses invoved, or acting as intermediaries, in the commercia transfer of technoogy, innovation and knowedge. It is difficut to assess the capacity of this particuar group of innovation actors. It is estimated that there are ten or so such entities in Małoposka. Some of them have persona inks with higher education institutions and some of them use the words innovation or innovative in their names. The services they offer do not aways meet cient expectations. Many of those services, for exampe assistance with appying for EU funding, are often difficut to verify without further research. Foreign engineering consutancies, which are primariy focused on obtaining funding for innovation from EU and nationa sources, have been increasing their presence in the Region. They either set up their branches in Kraków or estabish new firms or joint ventures with oca partners. Some of them have substantia experience and we-prepared personne. It is expected that their share in the market of innovative services wi grow. 15

18 The capacity of non-profit institutions statutoriy mandated to support innovation As mentioned above, Małoposka has a arge number of institutions dedicated to supporting the deveopment of enterprise. The services they offer to cients are varied and compementary, athough some of them overap. A majority of these institutions take part in promoting and transferring innovation. The Małoposka Agency for Regiona Deveopment (MARR) pays a centra roe in supporting the Region s deveopment and undertakes a wide range of measures targeted at SMEs. Other major innovation support institutions in Małoposka incude: the Technoogy Transfer Centre at the Kraków University of Technoogy (a member of the Enterprise Europe Network and the Regiona Contact Point for EU Framework Programmes responsibe for supporting Małoposka s institutions and individuas in participating in EU Framework Programmes), the Centre for Innovation, Technoogy Transfer and University Deveopment at the Jagieonian University (responsibe for supporting academic enterprise and technoogy transfer from academia to industry), the Kraków Technoogy Park (the company managing the Specia Economic Zone), Euro Info Centre at the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (responsibe for supporting SMEs in the area of EU integration), the Poish Environmenta Partnership Foundation (speciaising in environmenta protection), the Progress & Business Foundation (the institution speciaising in technoogy and innovation transfer, estabished by, inter aia, the Jagieonian University and the AGH University of Mining and Metaurgy), the Technoogy Transfer Centre at the AGH University of Mining and Metaurgy and the Małoposki Institute of Loca Government and Administration (speciaising in, inter aia, training for oca government authorities). Other institutions that pay an important roe in deveoping technoogy transfer are the Pastics Vaey Tarnów Industria Custer and the Małoposka Regiona Agency for Energy and Environmenta Management. Whie each of these institutions pursues its own specific agenda, what they a have in common is the mission of supporting innovation and enterprise. Each of them has the experience of participating in nationa and internationa projects, resources, trained personne and ready-to-use databases. The proposed measures to assess the capacity of innovation support institutions The attempts to date to determine the capacity of innovation support institutions have focused on describing the services they offer and the projects for which they have obtained funding. The experience gained in recent years has opened new opportunities to assess the degree of invovement in the innovation agenda. Participation in internationa research and deveopment projects (EU Framework Programmes, COST, EUREKA, etc.) shoud be regarded as one of the major measures of dedication to innovation. The funding avaiabe under these programmes is granted to projects that demonstrate that they are innovative and contribute to the deveopment of the economy and society. Other measures coud incude participation in consortia with Advanced Technoogy Centres and nationa and foreign innovation networks, accreditations from networks and programmes set up by bodies such as the Enterprise Deveopment Agency, the number of cients trained, the number of businesses estabished, the number of projects secured for the Region. The deveopment of a method of measuring capacity is important for determining the priorities and assessing the prospects of the Regiona Innovation System. Summary: An assessment shoud be conducted as part of the work on the Regiona Innovation System to determine which of the existing institutions invoved in supporting deveopment and enterprise can be incuded in the Regiona Innovation System from the start and which of them shoud be incuded graduay. Existing innovation support institutions must be taken into account when estabishing new ones in order to benefit from synergies and avoid dupication of tasks. The private sector must be taken into account when panning measures aimed at supporting innovation from pubic funds. There is aso a new group of innovation actors: foreign businesses. New deveopment opportunities have emerged and, at the same time, it has become necessary to assess the capacity and quaity of innovation support institutions using uniform criteria. 16

19 3.5 Małoposka s innovation capacity compared to the rest of the country To demonstrate Małoposka s innovation capacity, a number of areas of economic activity have been seected using statistica data and findings of the innovation suppy and demand surveys conducted under the Enhancing the Regiona Innovation Strategy RIS Małoposka project. Education of the popuation Tabe 3.3 Education of the popuation aged 15 and over (2006) Type of education Małoposka Share of popuation (%) Poand Primary and ower secondary 24.9 % 26.7% Primary vocationa 27.3 % 25.8% Genera secondary 10.9 % 10.1% Post-secondary and secondary ocationa 22.8 % 23.5% Higher 14.3 % 13.9% The education structure of Małoposka s popuation is favourabe compared to the rest of the country. Peope with higher education outnumber those with the owest eve of education.. Tabe 3.4. Peope with higher education ( 000) Year Number of peope Share of popuation (%) % % % % The number of peope with higher education and their share of the overa popuation has been growing in Małoposka year by year Tabe 3.5 Higher education in Małoposka compared to the rest of the country (academic year 2006/07) Item Małoposka Poand Małoposka s share (%) Number of higher education institutions % Tota students 203,060 1,927, % Tota graduates 343,02 391, % Academic teachers 12,096 98, % 17

20 Sma and medium-sized enterprises Małoposka ranks fifth after the Mazowieckie, Śąskie, Wiekoposkie and Donośąskie Regions in its number of SMEs (8%). The average enterprise ratio is reativey ow at 89 enterprises per 1,000 inhabitants (ranking the Region eeventh nationay). Environment Małoposka has the most varied natura environment of a Poish regions, with a arge share of andscape parks, protected andscape areas and nationa parks. Landscape and environmenta conditions are favourabe for attracting greenfied investments and deveoping the eisure industry. Tabe 3.6. Areas of innovation of Małoposka s firms The firm owns a web site 73.1% The firm uses eectronic banking 80% The firm empoys staff with higher education and/or research degree 35% The firm invests in research and deveopment 4% The firm coaborates with innovation suppiers 7% The firms seeks EU support for research 47% Coaboration between academia, research and business As many as 85.7% of academic and research institutions coaborate with sma and medium-sized enterprises and 73% with arge enterprises. As few as 7% of sma and medium-sized enterprises coaborate with higher education institutions, research centres, training centres or innovation and advanced technoogy centres. Research and deveopment institutions There are 96 research and deveopment institutions in Małoposka: 31 research and deveopment estabishments, incuding 12 research estabishments of the Poish Academy of Sciences (PAN), 6 research support estabishments, 43 deveopment estabishments, 16 higher education institutions. Research and deveopment expenditure Małoposka accounts for 12.3% of the country s tota research and deveopment expenditure, ranking second after the Mazowieckie Region. The ratio of Małoposka s research and deveopment expenditure to GDP is reativey high at 1.02 (compared to the nationa average of 0.57%). Tabe 3.7. Breakdown of Małoposka s research and deveopment expenditure by research type Research type Share in expenditure (%) - Basic research 43.9% - Deveopment research 18.8% - Deveopment work 37.6% 18

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