4 Looking for facts to back up your choice is an excellent idea, but find out who is presenting those facts. Clipart-Microsoft Office XP 2002
5 Are they facts at all, or is the advertiser using propaganda techniques to persuade you?
6 What is Propaganda? Any persuasive technique whether in print or electronic media whose purpose is to influence your opinions, emotions, and attitudes
7 What is Propaganda? Print media: newspapers, magazines, books, billboards Electronic media: radio. Television, CDs, DVDs, movies, video tapes, documentary films, the internet
8 What is Propaganda? It tells only the side the author wants the audience to know It appeals to emotions rather than the intellect It benefits the person or organization using it
9 Goal of Propaganda To mold opinion or behavior to support a cause without concern for the interest or benefit of the audience
10 Propaganda The information reflects the viewpoints, beliefs, and biases of the author
11 Who uses Propaganda? Military Media Advertisers Politicians You and I
12 Logical Fallacies: errors in reasoning False cause- inaccurately drawing a causeand-effect relationship between two events that follow one after another Overgeneralization making a sweeping statement that does not provide any reasonable supporting evidence as proof bandwagon urging the audience to do something because everyone else is doing it
13 Logical Fallacies: errors in reasoning ad hominem - personally attacking someone in order to shift attention away from his or her views Either-or-fallacy presenting only two possible sides or solutions to an issue when there are more possibilities Red herring changing the subject in order to avoid the issue
14 What are some of the techniques used to persuade us? Name-calling Glittering Generality Bandwagon Testimonial Plain-folks appeal Transfer Faulty Reasoning Fear
15 Name-Calling links a person, product, or idea, to a negative symbol the implication is that we shouldn t be interested in it seeks to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence slamming the competition
16 Name-Calling At Burger King, you can have your Flame-broiled Whopper made your way, We re proud to say we serve individuals, not billions.
17 Name Calling Example Do we want a mayor who will leave us in debt? Clipart-Microsoft Office XP 2002 Spending grew 100% under Mayor Moneybags!
18 Glittering Generality Name-Calling in reverse Seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence A commonly admired virtue is used to inspire positive feelings for a person, idea, or product
19 Glittering Generality We believe in, fight for, live by virtue words about which we have deep-set ideas including: civilization, freedom, Christianity, good, proper, right, democracy, beauty, patriotism, low fat, honor, prosperity, new, health, happiness, motherhood, fatherhood, science, truth, medicine, and love.
20 Glittering Generalities Examples Words such as luxury, beautiful, paradise, and economical are used to evoke positive feelings in the viewer.
21 Bandwagon If you want to fit in, you need to jump on the bandwagon and do it too Implication is that you must JOIN in to FIT in Directs appeal to groups held together already by common ties, ties of nationality, religion, race, sex, vocation
22 Bandwagon Example
23 Testimonial A famous person endorses an idea, a product, a candidate If someone famous uses this product, believes this idea, or supports this candidate, so should we Most common misuse involves using individuals who are not qualified to make judgments about a particular issue or product
24 Testimonial example: If we drink milk we will all be as famous or fit as Beyoncè!
25 Testimonial Example An important person or famous figure endorses a product.
26 Plain Folks Identifies product/idea with a locality or country Practical product for ordinary people. Like a good neighbor
27 Plain-Folks This idea, product, or person is associated with normal, everyday people and activities Speakers attempt to convince their audience that they, and their ideas, are "of the people"
28 Plain Folks Example: We want Jim Smith, a mayor who supports the regular American worker. Clipart-Microsoft Office XP 2002 Vote for Smith
29 Transfer Carries over the authority, sanction, and prestige of something we respect to something he would have us accept Transfers positive feelings we have of something we know to something we don t
30 Transfer Example Good feelings, looks, or ideas transferred to the person for whom the product is intended.
31 Faulty Reasoning Only using facts that support an argument Attempting to lead the audience into accepting the facts as a conclusion Selective omission Most difficult to detect because it does not provide all of the information necessary for the audience to make an informed decision
32 Faulty Reasoning Factual supporting details are used though they do not support the conclusion. It works like this: Christians believe in God. Muslims believe in God. Christians are Muslims.
33 Faulty Cause & Effect Example Use of a product is credited for creating a positive result.
34 Fear Our fears are displayed. Ideas, candidates, or products are shown to put our fears to rest.
35 Fear Example
36 How do we make sure that we are making informed choices, Clipart-Microsoft Office XP 2002 instead of allowing others to sway us in our decision-making?
37 Strategies: Source Who created the message? How do the creators viewpoints or biases affect the message?
38 Strategies: Purpose Why was the message created? To persuade? To inform? To entertain?
39 Strategies: Word Choice What kind of language is used to express the message? Is figurative language used to make the message seem more meaningful? Is technical language used to make it seem more technical?
40 Strategies: Cultural Elements Does the message transmit or communicate, culturevalues that reflect a particular group or nation?
41 Strategies: Symbols Does the message represent ideas, principles, or people through symbols? How might symbols have an impact on the audience?
42 Strategies: Target Audience Is the message tailored to a specific intended audience? Do the creators of the message use stereotypes of people for example children or teenagers to connect with the audience?
43 Strategies: Design Elements and/or Film Techniques How is the message virtually composed? Do design elements such as color, line, and texture enhance the message? Are film techniques or special effects used to manipulate the audience s reaction?
44 We make our own choices when We read and listen to reliable sources, We watch for combinations of truths and lies, We check for hidden messages, We watch for use of propaganda techniques,
45 and, most importantly, educationservice WHEN WE LISTEN TO OUR OWN VOICES!
46 Sources /files/propaganda.ppt Glencoe Literature Texas Treasures %20Guides%20Your%20Choice.ppt da-basic.ppt
Propaganda and Persuasive Techniques What is it? What does it do? What is propaganda? The process of spreading ideas, information, or rumor to help or hurt a known cause, political system, or view Ideas,
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