Hydrological Modeling of Watershed using HEC-HMS Software and arc GIS.

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1 Hydrological Modeling of Watershed using HEC-HMS Software and arc GIS. Anita Nag 1, Kinley Penjor 2, Sonam Tobgay 3, Choda Jamtsho 3. 1,2,3,4 K.L.Uiversity, AP, India. Abstract: Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is new generation software for precipitation runoff simulation. A computer program, "Hydrologic Modeling Systems" (HEC-HMS), developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is used to carry out the project on Hydrological modelling of watershed of Wochhu river basin in Paro Dzongkhag, Bhutan. This program is used in engineering practice to determine the drainage characteristics of both rural and urban watersheds. The Resource Sat data have provided useful analysis for the land use and land cover for the image. The classified land use land cover data for the year 2012 from National Land Comission, Bhutan were used for our study purpose. The contour map generation from SRTM image [DEM] reveals and gives idea about the topography about our study area for different water resources related planning purposes. Stream network generation was done and we got the idea where should be the proper planning purposes done in order to trap and harness maximum water which is coming up from the upstream and going to downstream. Thiessen polygons were created using 35 rain gauge stations. It was assigned to different rain gauges stations and areal precipitation of the catchments was calculated. The time series data including rainfall and discharge were processed in MS-excel. Automatic delineation of watershed was done using SWAT Tool in ARC-GIS. In addition other initial setup files i.e basin model, land-use, were created in Arc GIS and ERDAS and imported to HEC HMS. Model was run for a calibration period of January 2000 to January 2010(10 years). The calibrated parameters were validated for next 10 years. The estimated runoff values were matching with the observed runoff. Keywords: Hydrological model, Runoff estimation, calibration, validation, Geomorphlogical parameters. Introduction Watershed is a basin-like landform defined by highpoints and ridgelines that descend into lower elevations and stream valleys. A watershed carries water "shed" from the land after rain falls and snow melts. Drop by drop, water is channelled into soils, groundwater, creeks, and streams, making its way to larger rivers and eventually the sea. Water is a universal solvent, affected by all that it comes in contact with: the land it traverses, and the soils through which it travels[1][4]. The important thing about watersheds is: what we do on the land affects water quality for all communities living downstream. Land cover refers to the surface cover on the ground, whether vegetation, urban infrastructure, water, bare soil or other. Identifying, delineating and mapping land cover is important for global monitoring studies, resource management, and planning activities. Identification of land cover establishes the baseline from which monitoring activities (change detection) can be performed, and provides the ground cover information for baseline thematic maps. A computer program, "Hydrologic Modeling Systems" (HEC-HMS), developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is used for the study purpose [3]. This program is used in engineering practice to determine the drainage characteristics of both rural and urban Page 313

2 watersheds. The use of this program is given in this module with instruction on how to prepare the input and how the output is interpreted. Objectives a. To study stream networks, flow direction etc of a catchment area b. To study the geomorphological parameters of the study area c. To monitor Land use changes in the study area d. To calibrate and validate watershed using HEC-HMS Fig 1: Typical Representation HEC-HMS for Watershed Runoff. Methodology The two types of data products are spatial data and non-spatial/attribute data. The spatial data comprised of land use/land cover, drainage, base details, slope maps. The non-spatial or attribute data is composed of rainfall, geology, topography, climate, soil data. the steps involved in deriving all these data products, the sources of the data acquisition and the ways transforming these data products which are suitable to GIS software are discussed. First of all, the topographic map 78-E-7 was scanned and georeferenced in ArcGIS software. The images used in this study were geometrically corrected using a toposheet from national land of commission, Bhutan. The resource sat images were downloaded from google earth website. The classification of landform elements was required to understand the relationship between landform and slope. Based on the above consideration and the geo-referenced information generated during the spatial analysis using ArcGIS and ERDAS, auto-delination and land use land classification is done. The overall methodology adopted is represented in the flowchart. Page 314

3 Toposheet Scanning DEM Automatic Watershed Deleneation using SWAT tool Use of HEC-HMS Registration in ARC-GIS Stream network of Watershed Database in ARC GIS Stream network Comparison Runoff Prediction Analysis Flood Forcasting Fig 2: Flow chart showing Methodology in Arc GIS. Initial setup files i.e basin model, land-use, were created in Arc GIS and ERDAS and imported to HEC HMS. Model was run for a calibration period of 10 years[5]. The calibrated parameters were validated for next 10 year. The calibrated models were tested for unseen data. The overall methodology is represented in Fig 3. Fig 3: Runoff estimation using HEC-HMS. Description of Study Area Woochu watershed is located in Luni Geog under Paro Dzongkhag. It is one of the four main watersheds currently supervised by Wang Watershed Management Project (WWMP), supported by European Commission (EC) with an objective to improve the management of these watersheds[8]. WWMP was established in 2002, and is working towards better management of the Wang Watershed areas. Page 315

4 Fig 4: Location Map of the Study Area. Topographic data Topographical maps of 1:500,000 scale were procured from National Land Commission., civil Department, Bhutan. The other required maps of the watershed like watershed boundary map, etc of the watershed were collected from survey of Bhutan. Land use The required satellite image of Resourcesat for land use and land cover classification were downloaded from Google Earth website respectively. The ground resolution of each pixel on the map is 56m*56m for Resourcesat I. The dates of Resourcesat I satellite image was 02/11/2010. Detailed land use information in Google Earth website was taken for reference data. Data & softwares used Toposheets of National Land Commission, Survey of Bhutan a. Resource Sat AWIFS (56m resolution), Google Earth website b. Resourcesat Google Earth website c. SRTM (DEM) image for Topography d. Softwares Used- Arc GIS 9.3, ERDAS 8.5 e. HEC-HMS 3.4 f. Arc SWAT Tool g. Meteorological data (Rainfall ), Irrigation Department, Bhutan. Page 316

5 Output Fig 5: Streamline networking of the study area (woochu). Fig 6: Temporal Variation of Rainfall of different Rain Gauge Stations. Page 317

6 Fig 7: Summary details of Streams of the Study area. Automatic Watershed delineation Watershed delineation and calculation of mini-watershed parameters were done using SWAT tool in Arc GIS. Fig. 5 represents stream network of the study area. Summary details of all mini watershed lying in the study area are given in Table 1. From Table it is clear shown all the elevation, latitude & longitude areas of micro watersheds for automatic delimited watershed. By looking in to the tables it is clearly understood that there are 27 subbasins in the study area. Table no. 2 shows the details of the longest path of the catchment in the study area. The total shape area of watershed square meters. a. Landuse and landcover in study area were classified b. Areal precipitation of the study area calculated using theissen polygon map in Arc GIS. c. Temporal variation of rainfall in different raingauge stations are represented in the graph. d. Calibration of model done and validation for another 1 year. Results 1. All surface analysis parameters were analysed using contour, slope map 2. Geomorphological parameters analysed 3. Landuse and landcover in study area were classified 4. Areal precipitation of the study area calculated using theissen polygon map in Arc GIS 5. Calibration and Validation of model. 6. Runoff coefficient 75%. Page 318

7 Conclusion In the present study rainfall runoff modelling was carried out using HEC-HMS and remote sensing and GIS techniques in the lower basin of woochu river under Paro Dzongkhag, Bhutan. The required precipitation were collected for 10 years ( i.e January 2010 till date), topographic maps, DEM and Land sat images of the study area. Satellite Remote Sensing has proved to be a vital tool for tenuous observation and quantification of environmental phenomena across varied spatial and temporal scales which are otherwise not possible to attempt through conventional mapping techniques. 7. REFERENCES: [1] Flood forecasting in Arid and Semi Arid Region using continuous Hydrological Modeling- M. Rahimi, B.Saghafian, M. Azadi & H.Sedgi [2] Flood Estimation Studies using Hydrologic Modeling System for Johor River, Malaysia Flood Estimation Studies using Hydrologic Modeling System for Johor River, Malaysia [3] Flood Estimation Studies using Hydrologic Modeling System for Johor River, Malaysia [4] A space-time hybrid hourly rainfall model for derived flood frequency analysis - U. Haberlandt1, A.-D. Ebner von Eschenbach2, and I. Buchwald1 [5] Hydrological Modeling of Watershed, HEC-HMS, S.Diglio. [6] Hydrologic Modeling System, HEC-HMS US Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic GIS-based Hydrological Modeling: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assesment Tool - By S.N. Miller, Senior Research Specialist, D.J. Semmens, Research Specialist, R.C. Miller, Research Specialist, M. Hernandez, Hydrologist, D.C. Goodrich, Research Hydraulic Engineer, W.P. Miller, Research Assistant, USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center, 2000 E. Allen Rd., Tucson, AZ; and W.G. Kepner, Research Ecologist, D. Ebert, Ecologist, U.S. EPA Landscape Ecology Branch, PO Box 93478, Las Vegas, NV, Page 319

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