A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages trend analyses in Sweden

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages trend analyses in Sweden"

Transcription

1 Health Promotion International, Vol. 22 No. 3 doi: /heapro/dam020 # The Author (2007). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages trend analyses in Sweden PETER BERG * and RAGNAR WESTERLING Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences and Social Medicine, Uppsala Science Park, SE Uppsala, Sweden *Corresponding author. SUMMARY Several international studies point at the efficacy of bicycle helmets in reducing head injuries. In Sweden, observational studies show that from 1988 to 1996 helmet use increased in all categories of cyclists. The objectives of this study were to analyse the trends of bicycle-related head injuries based on their main diagnosis and external cause of injury by different age groups. Our study area was the whole population of Sweden from 1987 to Outcome evaluation was based on data from the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register concerning all bicycle-related injuries from 1987 to 1996, which presented reported in-patient care. The trends in incidence rates (IRs) were studied with regression analyses. The results show that children under 15 years had the highest IRs. For these children, the IR decreased by 46%. The head injuries in children decreased both in collisions with motor vehicles and in other accidents. Similarly, the IR of concussion and skull fracture decreased. For nonhead injuries, there were no significant changes for children. On the other hand, the incidence of both head and other injuries for adults aged years increased. Ages above that showed no significant changes. Our conclusions are that the decrease in IR for bicycle-related head injuries refers to children in ages for whom bicycle helmet use during the period increased. This could not be explained by any general decrease in bicycle-related accidents or by any changes in the distribution of injuries after collision with motor vehicles. The increasing helmet use among younger schoolchildren probably contributed to the decrease in head injuries. Key words: bicycle helmet; head injuries; head protection; bicycle-related accidents INTRODUCTION A meta-analysis of 16 observational studies dated by Attewell et al. (2001) concludes that bicycle helmets prevent serious injury and that there is mounting scientific evidence for this. Several international studies point at the efficacy of bicycle helmets in reducing head injuries. Cook and Sheikh (2000) state in their analysis of routinely collected data that the number of head injuries among cyclists in England fell markedly during a period of increasing helmet use. In Washington State, USA, at a level I trauma centre, head injuries decreased when the percentage of helmeted riders increased (Mock et al., 1995). In Canada, data from the British Columbia Children s Hospital were analysed and showed that 70% of injured cyclists reported no helmet use and that head injuries occurred more often among cyclists that did not use helmets (Linn et al., 1998). In Australia, an evaluation at Melbourne and Geelong hospitals showed that approved helmets reduced head injuries by 45% (McDermott et al., 1993). Moreover, a casecontrol study at two children s hospitals in 191

2 192 P. Berg and R. Westerling Brisbane, Australia showed that wearing a helmet reduces the risk of head injury (Thomas et al., 1994). Other studies show that helmets mitigate the risk of severe head injuries. Rivara et al. (2000) found that helmets reduced the risk by 63 88% of head, brain and severe brain injuries among cyclists of all ages. A retrospective study at the regional paediatric trauma centre in Buffalo, NY, USA, compared helmeted children with non-helmeted children and found that helmeted children were more likely to sustain concussion alone, but less likely to have other head injuries (Shafi et al., 1998). Another similar comparative study in Victoria, Australia showed that 80% of the head injuries of helmeted cyclists were mild (Grimard et al., 1995). However, in the examination of the meta-analysis performed by Attewell et al. (2001), Curnow (2003) disagrees and concludes instead that the meta-analysis does not provide scientific evidence that bicycle helmets, not being tested for capacity to mitigate the main factors that cause serious injury to the brain, do reduce it. As reported earlier in Health Promotion International (Nolén et al., 2005), since 1988, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute have annually carried out observational studies of bicycle helmet usage in Sweden. These studies show that from 1988 to 1996 helmet use increased in all categories of cyclists. Helmet wearing increased from 20 to 35% among children (%10 years) riding bikes in their leisure time, 5 33% among school children and 2 14% in adults. In a previous study, we discovered that most pre-school children (80%) used a bicycle helmet, but a clear majority of the children stopped wearing them during their school years. Only 3% of the children aged years used helmets and as few as 2% of the adults (Berg and Westerling, 2001). In Sweden, both Ekman et al. (2001) and Welander et al. (2001) studied the trend in bicycle-related injuries and made comparisons between geographic areas. They found that the incidence rates (IRs) for children aged 0 14 years decreased from 1987 to 1996, but they did not distinguish between different diagnoses of head injuries and the external cause of injury. On the other hand, Boström and Nilsson (2001) list the distribution of bicycle-related injuries from 1987 to 1994 based on whether a motor vehicle was involved and do not specifically study the trends of head injuries and external causes of injury in different age groups. During the last 20 years, several initiatives have been taken in Sweden to reduce bicyclerelated accidents. National bicycle helmet interventions were initiated by the Swedish National Road Administration in 1987 and by the Swedish Helmet Initiative Group in In 2000, the Swedish National Road Administration presented a national cycle strategy aimed to increase cycling by making cycling easier and safer. In this study, we analysed the trends of bicycle-related head injuries based on their main diagnosis and external cause of injury in different age groups. METHOD Study area and population Our study area was Sweden with a population of almost 9 million inhabitants, of which 19.6% are under 15 years of age, 48.3% are between 16 and 50 years of age and 32.1% are older. Sources of data Outcome evaluation was based on data from The Centre for Epidemiology at the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. We studied The Hospital Discharge Register (HDR) for a 10-year period, , concerning all bicycle-related injuries (n ¼ ). Since 1987, the HDR has covered all public in-patient care in Sweden and reporting to HDR is compulsory. The register is nationwide and covers the whole Swedish population. Case definition A Swedish version of ICD-9 (WHO s International Classification of Diseases) was used to study the variables diagnosis and external cause of injury. We identified the diagnosis for head injuries as skull fracture (ICD ), concussion (ICD-9 850) or head injury except concussion and skull fracture (ICD ). The external cause of injury was identified as collision between bicycle and a motor vehicle (ICD-9 E819G) or other type of bicycle accidents (ICD-9 E 826X).

3 A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages 193 Statistics Analyses were made using SAS version The IR was defined as the number of hospital discharges in any 1 year divided by the mean population of that year multiplied by To analyse the trends in IRs, linear regression was used with year as independent and type of injury as dependent variables. Both linear ( presented in the paper) and logarithmic models were used showing the same trends. Differences were considered significant with p-values,0.05. RESULTS Individuals under aged 15 had the highest IRs. The mean annual IR ranged between 65.2 for boys aged 0 15 years and 11.4 for elderly women over aged 66 years (Table 1). Head injuries were responsible for 50% of the studied injuries, and of these 75% were concussions. For children aged 0 15 years, the IR decreased by 46% ( p ¼ ) (Figure 1 and Table 1), which is equivalent to 550 fewer bicycle-related accidents resulting in head injuries each year. The IR decreased approximately twice as much for boys as for girls (Table 1). The IR decreased significantly for both concussion and skull fracture for children aged 0 15 years (Table 2). On the other hand, the IR of both head (p ¼ ) and non-head injuries (p ¼ ) for teenagers and adults aged years increased (Figure 2 and Tables 1 and 2). For non-head injuries, there were no significant changes for children (Figure 2 and Table 2). For children aged 0 15 years, we also found a decrease in head injuries both in collision with motor-vehicles (p ¼ ) and in other accidents (p ¼ ) (Table 3). Ages.50 years showed no significant changes. DISCUSSION In our study, we found a decrease in bicycle-related head injuries for children aged 0 15 years from 1987 to 1996, but no significant changes in non-head injuries. In this age group, the head injuries also decreased significantly both in collisions with motor vehicles and in other accidents. For children, there was also a decrease in both concussion and in skull fracture. On the other hand, teenagers and adults aged showed increased IRs for both head and non-head injuries, but no change in IR concerning head injuries when a motor vehicle was involved. The IR as a measure of changes in bicycle-related head injuries might be argued as it does not account for and is not independent of exposure (i.e. the amount of bicycling performed by each age group in terms of time or distance bicycled). The lack of exposure data is an endemic problem shared by all researchers in this subject matter when analysing injury data for an entire population. According to the Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Table 1: The number and incidence of bicycle-related head injuries (ICD , 850-4) from 1987 to 1996 per inhabitants by age and gender Gender Age group (year) Number of cases Mean annual incidence rate Yearly change in incidence rate 95% CI Level of significance Male (25.05 to 23.16) *** ( ) *** (20.10 to 1.08) (21.09 to 0.74) Female (23.52 to 22.13) *** ( ) ** (20.50 to 0.59) (20.57 to 0.27) Total (24.23 to 22.73) *** ( ) *** (20.26 to 0.80) (20.68 to 0.34) Level of significance: *p, 0.05, **p, 0.01, ***p,

4 194 P. Berg and R. Westerling Fig. 1: The incident of bicycle-related head injuries (ICD , 850-4) and non-head injuries from 1987 to 1996 per inhabitants for children aged 0 15 years. Analysis [data from annual national Travel Habit Statistical Survey (RVU) for the years of 1978, , ] and The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (data from RVU 92), children,15 years were not a part of the survey until Therefore, we can only see that their bicycle usage did not change from 1994 to Because we found no significant changes in non-head injuries for children aged 0 15 years from 1987 to 1996, we assume that there were no changes from 1987 to 1993 in their bicycle usage that might have influenced the result. On the other hand, adult bicycle usage decreased by one-third from 1992 to Another way to avoid the potential problem of not having exposure data could be to use the proportion of each injury type to the total number of injuries per period as the measure. This measure was used by Lee et al. (2005) in their analysis of bicycle-related injuries in Table 2: The number and incidence of bicycle-related head injuries (ICD , 850-4) and non-head injuries from 1987 to 1996 per inhabitants by age and diagnosis Diagnosis Age group (year) Number of cases Mean annual incidence rate Yearly change in incidence rate 95% CI Level of significance Concussion (ICD-9, 850) (24.03 to 22.51) *** ( ) *** (20.12 to 0.59) (20.35 to 0.10) Skull fracture (ICD-9, 800-4) Head injury except concussion and fracture (ICD-9, 851-4) (20.28 to 20.10) ** (20.15 to 0.01) (20.18 to 0.04) (20.27 to 0.04) (20.12 to 0.08) ( ) * (20.06 to 0.27) (20.19 to 0.34) Non-head injuries (20.58 to 0.07) ( ) ** (20.77 to 0.33) (20.49 to 1.00) Level of significance: *p, 0.05, **p, 0.01, ***p,

5 A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages 195 Fig. 2: The incident of bicycle-related head injuries (ICD , 850-4) and non-head injuries from 1987 to 1996 per inhabitants aged years. California. They found the bicycle safety helmet legislation in California to be associated with a reduction of 18.2% in the proportion of traumatic brain injuries among injured youth cyclists aged 17 years, who were subjected to the law. In this age group, the reduction was the same for accidents both involving and not involving a motor vehicle. On the other hand, for adult cyclists, not subjected to a helmet law, the proportion did not significantly change. In our study, we found a reduction of 11.5% in the proportion of head injuries among children aged 0 15 years, but no change in the proportion among teenagers and adults aged years. Another interesting question is whether bicycle helmets have the capacity to protect against severe injury or not. In the examination of the meta-analysis performed by Attewell et al. (2001), Curnow (2003) especially points to the importance of diffuse axonal injury and the angular acceleration of the head. The importance of well-fitting helmets was shown in a study in Washington State, USA. Individuals whose helmets were reported to fit poorly had a 1.96-fold increased risk of head injury when compared with those whose helmets fitted well (Rivara et al., 1999). In our study, we have no knowledge of the capacity of the helmets used, but we can presume that the helmet-wearers used helmets approved by the authorities according to the standards given during the study period. We found that for children aged 0 15 years, the head injuries decreased significantly both in collisions with motor vehicles and in other Table 3: The number and incidence of bicycle-related head injuries (ICD , 850-4) from 1987 to 1996 per inhabitants by age and type of accident Type of accident Age group (year) Number of cases Mean annual incidence Yearly change in incidence rate 95% CI Level of significance Without motor vehicle involved With motor vehicle involved (23.68 to 21.96) *** ( ) *** (20.02 to 0.70) (20.22 to 0.27) (21.05 to 20.27) ** (20.10 to 0.22) (20.37 to 0.23) (20.55 to 0.17) Level of significance: *p, 0.05, **p, 0.01, ***p,

6 196 P. Berg and R. Westerling accidents, but that for teenagers and adults aged years no change occurred when a motor vehicle was involved. During the study period, a general improvement in road safety might have affected the result by reducing the rate of injuries to cyclists involved in accidents with motor vehicles. For instance, from 1998 to 2002 Sweden had a safer traffic environment for bicyclists because both the number of roads with a speed limit of 30 km/h and bike paths increased (Nilsson and Thulin, 2003). Because reporting to HDR is compulsory, the drop-out rates are low, usually,4 5%. In 1996, the main diagnosis was missing in 1.46% of the hospital stays reported (Homepage of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, CONCLUSION The decreased IR for bicycle-related head injuries from 1987 to 1996 in Sweden refers to children in ages for whom bicycle helmet use during the same period increased (Nolén et al., 2005). This could not be explained by any general decrease in bicycle-related accidents or by any changes in the distribution of injuries after collision with motor vehicles and there was no evident change in bicycle use for children, but a decrease among adults during the study period. Most bicycle-related accidents with head injuries (70%) happen without the involvement of motor vehicles (single accidents), but this study shows a decrease in head injuries also in collisions with motor vehicles. It also shows a decrease in both concussion and skull fracture. It seems likely that the increasing helmet use among younger schoolchildren contributed to the decrease in head injuries and the use of bicycle helmets may even reduce severe head injuries. It is therefore necessary to reduce the consequences from these accidents by promoting an increased use of bicycle helmets. Implications for prevention In pursuing the aims of Agenda-21 (The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development: June 1992), Sweden has, together with many other countries, realized that increased emphasis on walking, cycling and public transport is essential for the requirements of the future concerning a transport system designed to minimize environmental impacts. A mandatory law may obstruct this aim due to the fear that the compulsory use of bicycle helmets may reduce bicycle use and therefore negatively affect public health. Nevertheless, a mandatory law for children up to 15 years of age was initiated in Sweden from the first of January This is in line with that we, in our previous study (Berg and Westerling, 2001), found that bicycle helmet use decreased as the children grew older. However, international studies in countries where mandatory laws earlier have been introduced show that bicycle helmet use not becomes 100% (www. liikenneturva.fi; Robinson, 1996; Leblanc et al., 2002). Other international studies reveal a better effect if laws are combined with information and campaigns (Dannenberg et al., 1993; Macknin and Medendrop, 1994). Parental involvement seems also to be of great importance for the use of bicycle helmets among schoolchildren that our previous study also relieved with the help from a LisRel analysis. Our findings may be used in the debate about whether it is important to increase the use of bicycle helmets. Further interventions and studies are needed to follow-up the effect of the recently initiated mandatory law in Sweden concerning bicycle helmet use for children and to see if bicycle head-injury rates are affected. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Peter Berg was, in this study, funded by Stiftelsen Länsförsäkringsbolagens Forskningsfond (a Swedish insurance company research foundation), Ragnar Westerling was supported by the Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden. REFERENCES Attewell, R., Glase, K. and McFadden, M. (2001) Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33, Berg, P. and Westerling, R. (2001) Bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren the influence of parental involvement and children s attitudes. Injury Prevention, 7, Boström, L. and Nilsson, B. (2001) A review of serious injuries and deaths from bicycle accidents in Sweden from 1987 to Journal of Trauma, 50,

7 A decrease in both mild and severe bicycle-related head injuries in helmet wearing ages 197 Cook, A. and Sheikh, A. (2000) Trends in serious head injuries among cyclists in England: analysis of routinely collected data. British Medical Journal, 321, Curnow, W. J. (2003) The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, Dannenberg, A. L., Gielen, A. C., Beilenson, P. L., Wilson, M. H. and Joffe, A. (1993) Bicycle helmet laws and educational campaigns: an evaluation of strategies to increase children s helmet use. American Journal of Public Health, 83, Ekman, R., Welander, G., Svanstrom, L., Schelp, L. and Santesson, P. (2001) Bicycle-related injuries among the elderly a new epidemic? Public Health, 115, Grimard, G., Nolan, T. and Carlin, J. B. (1995) Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists. Injury Prevention, 1, Leblanc, J. C., Beattie, T. L. and Culligan, C. (2002) Effect of legislation on the use of bicycle helmets. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 166, Lee, B. H.-Y., Schofer, J. L. and Koppelman, F. S. (2005) Bicycle safety helmet legislation and bicycle-related non-fatal injuries in California. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, Liikenneturva The Central Organization for Traffic Saftey in Finland. Linn, S., Smith, D. and Sheps, S. (1998) Epidemiology of bicycle injury, head injury, and helmet use among children in British Columbia: a five-year descriptive study. Canadian Hospitals Injury, Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). Injury Prevention, 4, Macknin, M. L. and Medendrop, S. V. (1994) Association between bicycle helmet legislation, bicycle safety education and use of bicycle helmets in children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 148, McDermott, F. T., Lane, J. C., Brazenor, G. A. and Debney, E. A. (1993) The effectiveness of bicyclist helmets: a study of 1710 casualties. Journal of Trauma, 34, Mock, C. N., Maier, R. V., Boyle, E., Pilcher, S. and Rivara, F. P. (1995) Injury prevention strategies to promote helmet use decrease severe head injuries at a level I trauma center. Journal of Trauma, 39, (discussion, 34 35). Nilsson, G. and Thulin, H. (2003) An evaluation of the governments 11-points programme 1999 (in Swedish) Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping. Nolén, S., Ekman, R. and Lindqvist, K. (2005) Bicycle helmet use in Sweden during the 1990s and in the future. Health Promotion International, 20, Rivara, F. P., Astley, S. J., Clarren, S. K., Thompson, D. C. and Thompson, R. S. (1999) Fit of bicycle helmets and risk of head injuries in children. Injury Prevention, 5, Rivara, F. P., Thompson, D. C. and Thompson, R. S. (2000) Bicycle helmets: it s time to use them. British Medical Journal, 321, Robinson, D. L. (1996) Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 28, Shafi, S., Gilbert, J. C., Loghmanee, F., Caty, M. G., Glick, P. L., Carden, S. et al. (1998) Impact of bicycle helmet safety legislation on children admitted to a regional pediatric trauma center. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 33, Thomas, S., Acton, C., Nixon, J., Battistutta, D., Pitt, W. R. and Clark, R. (1994) Effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury in children: a case-control study. British Medical Journal, 308, Welander, G., Ekman, R., Svanstrom, L., de Leon, A. P. and Santesson, P. (2001) Are there intra-country geographic differences in child bicycle-related injuries in Sweden? Journal of Traffic Medicine, 29,

Cycle safety. Monograph 17. Cycle safety: a national perspective. Cycle helmets

Cycle safety. Monograph 17. Cycle safety: a national perspective. Cycle helmets Monograph 17 Cycle safety ISSN: 1444-3503 ISBN: 1 877071 85 4 Cycle safety: a national perspective Cycling is an important form of transport and recreation for many Australians. It is accessible to a wide

More information

THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS RoSPA THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLE HELMETS

THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS RoSPA THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLE HELMETS THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS RoSPA THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CYCLE HELMETS A synopsis of selected research papers and medical articles LAST UPDATED: JUNE 2003 1. "Should pedal cyclists

More information

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Injury Prevention Plan of Alabama 3 BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES THE PROBLEM: An estimated 140,000 children are treated each year in emergency departments for head injuries sustained

More information

Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation

Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation Safe Kids Canada supports bicycle helmet legislation as a proven strategy, in conjunction with sustained education and enforcement programs,

More information

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System HEALTH AND COST OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY NOT WEARING A HELMET, FOR MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN WISCONSIN, 2011 Wayne Bigelow Center for Health

More information

What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury. National Statistics

What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury. National Statistics What You Should Know About: Bicycle Injury National Statistics Soon after a blacksmith by the name of Kirkpatrick MacMillan invented the bicycle, it became apparent that a bicyclist needed something to

More information

Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists (Review)

Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists (Review) Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists (Review) Thompson DC, Rivara F, Thompson R This is a reprint of a Cochrane review, prepared and maintained by The Cochrane Collaboration and

More information

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs This issue brief provides strategies and resources for community organizations to use in developing and implementing bike

More information

! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42

! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42 ! # % & (( ) +,!., / 0 1 # 2 ( 0 3 (42 5 317 ORIGINAL ARTICLE New Zealand bicycle helmet law do the costs outweigh the? M Taylor, P Scuffham... Injury Prevention 2002;8:317 320 See end of article for authors

More information

Bicycling is a popular pastime and mode of

Bicycling is a popular pastime and mode of Impact of Mandatory Helmet Legislation on Bicycle-Related Head Injuries in Children: A Population-Based Study Alison K. Macpherson, MSc* #; Teresa M. To, PhD* #; Colin Macarthur, MBChB, PhD*#; Mary L.

More information

Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists (Review)

Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists (Review) Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists (Review) Thompson DC, Rivara F, Thompson R This is a reprint of a Cochrane review, prepared and maintained by The Cochrane Collaboration and

More information

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 The Chinese University of Hong Kong Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery Accident & Emergency Medicine Academic Unit Jockey Club School of Public

More information

Development of a Swedish bicycle helmet promotion programme one decade of experiences

Development of a Swedish bicycle helmet promotion programme one decade of experiences HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL Vol. 17, No. 2 Oxford University Press 2002. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain Development of a Swedish bicycle helmet promotion programme one decade of experiences

More information

Bicycle Safety Helmet Legislation and BIcycle-Related Non-Fatal Injuries in California (Working Paper Please Do Not Quote)

Bicycle Safety Helmet Legislation and BIcycle-Related Non-Fatal Injuries in California (Working Paper Please Do Not Quote) Bicycle Safety Helmet Legislation and BIcycle-Related Non-Fatal Injuries in California (Working Paper Please Do Not Quote) Brian Ho-Yin Lee Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Robert R. McCormick

More information

New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law

New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law A public health and safety disaster New Zealand is one of only three countries in the world with national all-age mandatory bicycle helmet laws, the others

More information

Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use. Email: toh.pang@unsw.edu.au

Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use. Email: toh.pang@unsw.edu.au Risk of Head, Facial and Neck Injury in Bicycle and Motorcycle Crashes in relation to Helmet Use T.Y. Pang 1, K.T. Thai 1, T. Rankin 2, K. Curtis 2,3, E. Schilter 1, A.S. McIntosh 1 1 School of Risk and

More information

Harsh winters and a level of affluence that

Harsh winters and a level of affluence that Factors associated with bicycle helmet use Wayne J. Millar and Ivan B. Pless Abstract Objectives This article examines characteristics associated with the use of bicycles and bicycle helmets by children

More information

A child helmet law would; 7 REASONS TO OPPOSE A CHILD HELMET LAW FOR MORE INFORMATION. See inside for further details

A child helmet law would; 7 REASONS TO OPPOSE A CHILD HELMET LAW FOR MORE INFORMATION. See inside for further details A child helmet law would; be disproportionate to the risk of head injury when cycling. reduce cycling much more than it would increase helmet use. threaten the lives and well-being of thousands of children

More information

SAFETY PROCESS. Martin Small

SAFETY PROCESS. Martin Small SAFETY PROCESS Martin Small With a broad transport policy background including extensive work in the maritime sector, Martin Small has been working in road safety for five years, in a variety of roles

More information

A profile of bicycle-related injuries in Tai Po

A profile of bicycle-related injuries in Tai Po Hong Kong Journal of Emergency Medicine A profile of bicycle-related injuries in Tai Po LLY Lee, KL Yeung, JTS Chan, RCI Chen Background: Implementation of prevention programs for bicycle safety should

More information

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR ORIGINAL ARTICLE JUMMEC 2008:11(1) ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR Moe H Department of Social

More information

Submission to the Parliament of Victoria March 2013 Road Safety Committee - Inquiry into serious injury in motor vehicle accidents

Submission to the Parliament of Victoria March 2013 Road Safety Committee - Inquiry into serious injury in motor vehicle accidents Submission to the Parliament of Victoria March 2013 Road Safety Committee - Inquiry into serious injury in motor vehicle accidents Prepared by Colin Clarke, Cycling safety researcher and author. Bicyclists

More information

What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space?

What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space? What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space? Narelle Haworth and Amy Schramm Walk21, Sydney, 21-23 October 2014 CRICOS No. 00213J Outline Safe Systems principles Review literature Crash and

More information

1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi e Ricerche sulla Sicurezza Stradale 2. University of Hannover, Accident Research Unit

1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi e Ricerche sulla Sicurezza Stradale 2. University of Hannover, Accident Research Unit Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on German In-Depth-Accident Study Chiara Orsi 1, Dietmar Otte 2, Cristina Montomoli 1, Anna Morandi 1 1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale

More information

Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury

Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury 110 Injury Prevention 1997; 3: 110-114 Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury Frederick P Rivara, Diane C Thompson, Robert S Thompson Prevention and Research Center, Department

More information

Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs

Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs Presented by: Dahianna Lopez, RN, MSN, MPH San Francisco Injury Center Co-Authored by: Dharma Sunjaya, BS Shirley

More information

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA FACT SHEET CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA August 2014 The following data represents police reported incidents of fatal, and minor casualties. Police data does not show the location

More information

Paediatric Off-Road Vehicle Trauma - a Growing Problem in NSW

Paediatric Off-Road Vehicle Trauma - a Growing Problem in NSW Paediatric Off-Road Vehicle Trauma - a Growing Problem in NSW Dr Gideon Sandler Department of Academic Surgery Westmead Children s Hospital The University of Sydney Background ORVs are popular among Australian

More information

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models

BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models Archives of Emergency Medicine, 1985, 2, 209-213 BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models J. WORRELL Senior Registrar, Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth,

More information

Do cyclists have an exaggerated view of the risks of cycling and the efficacy of cycle helmets?

Do cyclists have an exaggerated view of the risks of cycling and the efficacy of cycle helmets? Do cyclists have an exaggerated view of the risks of cycling and the efficacy of cycle helmets? Richard Burton Transport Planner UWE Abstract This dissertation examines whether cyclists have a realistic

More information

Child Cycling Injury Prevention

Child Cycling Injury Prevention Child Cycling Injury Prevention Simone Randle Injury Prevention Advisor SimoneR@adhb.govt.nz Cycling fatalities, 2003-07 All child cyclist deaths: 12 deaths: 11 boys, 1 girl 7 deaths amongst boys 10-14

More information

SURVEILLANCE OF INTENTIONAL INJURIES USING HOSPITAL DISCHARGE DATA. Jay S. Buechner, Ph.D. Rhode Island Department of Health

SURVEILLANCE OF INTENTIONAL INJURIES USING HOSPITAL DISCHARGE DATA. Jay S. Buechner, Ph.D. Rhode Island Department of Health SURVEILLANCE OF INTENTIONAL INJURIES USING HOSPITAL DISCHARGE DATA Jay S. Buechner, Ph.D. Rhode Island Department of Health Background. Hospital discharge data systems have great potential for injury surveillance

More information

Helmet Laws: creating consensus from controversy and contradictions

Helmet Laws: creating consensus from controversy and contradictions Bicycle helmet workshop Helmet Laws: creating consensus from controversy and contradictions Dorothy L Robinson, Bicycle Helmet Research Foundation, http://www.cyclehelmets.org/ drd.robinson@gmail.com Countries

More information

The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes

The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes This presentation is designed to: Define external cause of injury codes Inform and Educate health care providers, policymakers, and the public

More information

Review of evaluation of education as a countermeasure for cyclist injury. Julie Hatfield

Review of evaluation of education as a countermeasure for cyclist injury. Julie Hatfield Review of evaluation of education as a countermeasure for cyclist injury Julie Hatfield Search strategy Searches conducted in Google scholar Psychinfo Medline Bicycle Cycle Cyclist Injury Injuries Safety

More information

The effectiveness of cycle helmets

The effectiveness of cycle helmets Introduction The effectiveness of cycle helmets An investigative paper by John Franklin Helmets for cyclists began to be produced towards the end of the 1970s. Few were seen in Britain, however, until

More information

VIPP Violence & Injury Prevention Program In Utah 1- Observational Survey 1994-23 Project Coordinator Gary Mower Developed and Prepared by Gary Mower Cyndi Bemis Released by Violence and Injury Prevention

More information

Part I. An Overview of the Bicycle Study

Part I. An Overview of the Bicycle Study Part I. An Overview of the Bicycle Study Gregory B. Rodgers, Ph.D. Bicycle Project Manager, Directorate for Economic Analysis Background Bicycle riding is one of the most popular recreational activities

More information

Characteristics of bicycle-related head injuries among school-aged children in Taipei area

Characteristics of bicycle-related head injuries among school-aged children in Taipei area Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Surgical Neurology 72 (2009) S2:36 S2:40 Trauma Characteristics of bicycle-related head injuries among school-aged children in Taipei area Jimmy Tse-Jen Wang,

More information

STUDENT VERSION. Bicycle Helmet Effectiveness In Preventing Injury and Death. Cases in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP)-based teaching

STUDENT VERSION. Bicycle Helmet Effectiveness In Preventing Injury and Death. Cases in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP)-based teaching STUDENT VERSION This project has the objective to develop preventive medicine teaching cases that will motivate medical students, residents and faculty to improve clinical preventive competencies complemented

More information

Bike Helmet Use in Children Issue 6, September 2003

Bike Helmet Use in Children Issue 6, September 2003 Bike Helmet Use in Children Issue 6, September 2003 Key Points: Overall, 64% of households indicate that their children wear bike helmets all of the time. Rates of use remained steady over the past three

More information

Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1

Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1 Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1 1 RCSI Department, Children s University Hospital, Temple St, Dublin

More information

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology

Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology Measuring road crash injury severity in Western Australia using ICISS methodology A Chapman Data Analyst, Data Linkage Branch, Public Health Intelligence, Public Health Division, Department of Health,

More information

Proposal 1. I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212. October 13, 2004

Proposal 1. I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212. October 13, 2004 Proposal 1 Cover letter I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212 October 13, 2004 Mr. David Decider Director, Policy Branch Department of Highways 759 Main Rd. E. Suite

More information

Comparative Costs and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking

Comparative Costs and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking Comparative Costs and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury from Biking Accidents With or Without Helmet Use Jehane Dagher MD, BScPT, ABPMR, FRCPC Physical Medicine& Rehabilitation Montreal General Hospital

More information

A ccording to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission s

A ccording to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission s 42 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Effects of state helmet laws on bicycle helmet use by children and adolescents G B Rodgers... Injury Prevention 2002;8:42 46 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Dr Gregory B Rodgers,

More information

Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove *

Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2012 7-8 November 2012, Helmond, The Netherlands Cycling Promotion and Cycling Safety: Is there a conflict? C.Woolsgrove * * European Cyclists Federation

More information

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI)

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) A husband and wife, in their late forties, attend a support meeting of professionals in the TBI field. He is a survivor of a traumatic brain injury. The man rides in a special

More information

Legislative Council Panel on Transport. Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists

Legislative Council Panel on Transport. Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists LC Paper No. CB(1)1130/10-11(05) For Discussion 28 January 2011 Legislative Council Panel on Transport Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists Purpose This paper briefs members on Government

More information

A retrospective and prospective study. PhD student: J. Vanparijs Promotors: prof. B. de Geus & prof. R. Meeusen Co-promoter: prof. L.

A retrospective and prospective study. PhD student: J. Vanparijs Promotors: prof. B. de Geus & prof. R. Meeusen Co-promoter: prof. L. A retrospective and prospective study PhD student: J. Vanparijs Promotors: prof. B. de Geus & prof. R. Meeusen Co-promoter: prof. L. Int Panis 1 Despite well-established health benefits associated with

More information

MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS

MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS HSRC MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 113 8 MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION Motorbike and bicycle riders constitute only a small portion of road accident victims. In the RAF system only 1%

More information

Head Injuries and Helmet Laws in Australia and New Zealand

Head Injuries and Helmet Laws in Australia and New Zealand Head Injuries and Helmet Laws in Australia and New Zealand Victoria was the first Australian State to introduce bicycle helmet laws, on 1 July 1990. Over the next few years, all other States passed similar

More information

Accident Analysis and Prevention

Accident Analysis and Prevention Accident Analysis and Prevention 43 (2011) 2064 2071 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Accident Analysis and Prevention jo ur n al hom ep a ge: www.elsevier.com/locate/aap The impact of compulsory

More information

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin

Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee. Motorcycle Helmet Laws. Michael Fagin Statement before the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee Motorcycle Helmet Laws Michael Fagin The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a nonprofit research and communications organization

More information

THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL

THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association Evaluation of New Zealand s bicycle helmet law Colin F Clarke Abstract The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect

More information

There were 160 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for

There were 160 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for Australia s children 2002 There were 216 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for burns and scalds. Indigenous children had a hospitalisation rate for injuries from burns

More information

ROAD SAFETY BICYCLE HELMETS AGUSTÍN GALDÓN MEDINA. agaldon@fundacionmapfre.org. www.fundacionmapfre.com

ROAD SAFETY BICYCLE HELMETS AGUSTÍN GALDÓN MEDINA. agaldon@fundacionmapfre.org. www.fundacionmapfre.com ROAD SAFETY BICYCLE HELMETS AGUSTÍN GALDÓN MEDINA agaldon@fundacionmapfre.org www.fundacionmapfre.com International legislation Mandatory all cyclist Australia Spain (Urban areas) Slovakia (Urban areas)

More information

Department of Transport and Main Roads Decision Brief MBN14611

Department of Transport and Main Roads Decision Brief MBN14611 Department of Transport and Main Roads Decision Brief MBN14611 To: Minister for Transport and Multicultural Affairs Date: 30 March 2011 SUBJECT: To seek approval for the release of the Centre for Accident

More information

Pedal Cycle Injuries to Children Aged 0-17 Years Miami-Dade County 2008-2012

Pedal Cycle Injuries to Children Aged 0-17 Years Miami-Dade County 2008-2012 Pedal Cycle Injuries to Children Aged 0-17 Years Miami-Dade County 2008-2012 Injuries from riding pedal cycles were the eighth leading cause of medically-treated injury to Miami-Dade County children aged

More information

Why bicycle helmets are not effective in the reduction of injuries of cyclists.

Why bicycle helmets are not effective in the reduction of injuries of cyclists. (Paper number 39) Why bicycle helmets are not effective in the reduction of injuries of cyclists. Theo Zeegers, Fietsersbond (Dutch Cyclists Union) Translated from Dutch Summary New studies show that the

More information

New York Study of Booster Seat Effects on Injury Reduction Compared to Safety Belts in Children Aged 4-8 in Motor Vehicle Crashes

New York Study of Booster Seat Effects on Injury Reduction Compared to Safety Belts in Children Aged 4-8 in Motor Vehicle Crashes New York Study of Booster Seat Effects on Injury Reduction Compared to Safety Belts in Children Aged 4-8 in Motor Vehicle Crashes Kainan Sun, Ph.D., Michael Bauer, M.S. Sarah M. Sperry, M.S., Susan Hardman

More information

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

More information

Cycling Safety Action Plan 2014 2016

Cycling Safety Action Plan 2014 2016 Cycling Safety Action Plan 2014 2016 May 2014 CONTENTS 1. OVERVIEW OF CYCLING ROAD TRAUMA IN NSW LOCATION SERIOUS INJURIES WHEN TYPES OF CRASHES WHO HELMET USAGE SUMMARY OF NSW CYCLING ROAD TRAUMA 3 3

More information

Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital

Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital Large increases in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following the repeal of Pennsylvania s mandatory motorcycle helmet law Word count abstract: 80 Word count

More information

SECTION 3.2: MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES

SECTION 3.2: MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES SECTION 3.2: MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASHES 1,155 Deaths* 4,755 Hospitalizations 103,860 ED Visits *SOURCE: OHIO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, VITAL STATISTICS SOURCE: OHIO HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS:

More information

Head Injury in Children

Head Injury in Children Head Injury in Children The worst fear of every parent is to receive news that your child has been injured in an accident. Unfortunately, in our society, accidental injuries have become the leading threat

More information

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1 Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Of all types of injury, traumatic brain injuries () are among the most likely to cause death or permanent

More information

Bicycle helmets does the dental profession have a role in promoting their use?

Bicycle helmets does the dental profession have a role in promoting their use? IN BRIEF The wearing of cycle helmets not only reduces the incidence and severity of head and brain injuries and their long-term consequences, but also facial and some dental trauma. Previous assessments

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

Influential Factors of Bicycle Helmet Use. A Case Study of the University of Florida in Alachua County

Influential Factors of Bicycle Helmet Use. A Case Study of the University of Florida in Alachua County Influential Factors of Bicycle Helmet Use A Case Study of the University of Florida in Alachua County Asha John¹, Dr. Fazil Z. Najafi² Abstract - Although no federal law requiring the use of bicycle helmets

More information

CAR OCCUPANTS ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A STATE IN MALAYSIA

CAR OCCUPANTS ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A STATE IN MALAYSIA CAR OCCUPANTS ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN A STATE IN MALAYSIA Hejar ABDUL RAHMAN, Nor Afiah MOHD ZULKIFLI Senior Lecturer Lecturer Department of Community Health Department of Community

More information

Comparison of the serious injury pattern of adult bicyclists, between South-West

Comparison of the serious injury pattern of adult bicyclists, between South-West Comparison of the serious injury pattern of adult bicyclists, between South-West Netherlands and the State of Victoria, Australia 2001-2009 Pınar Yılmaz a,b, MSc, Medical student E-mail: pnrylmz@live.nl

More information

The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Bicyclists

The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Bicyclists The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Bicyclists Florida Department of Health Health Information and Policy Analysis Program Release Date: September 9, 2015 Date Range:

More information

EVALUATION OF THE BICYCLE HELMET WEARING LAW IN VICTORIA DURING ITS FIRST 12 MONTHS

EVALUATION OF THE BICYCLE HELMET WEARING LAW IN VICTORIA DURING ITS FIRST 12 MONTHS EVALUATION OF THE BICYCLE HELMET WEARING LAW IN VICTORIA DURING ITS FIRST 12 MONTHS by MaxCameron Loma Helman Dlna Nelger July 1992 Report No. 32 Printed by the Australian Road Research Board as part of

More information

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE Head injuries among motorcyclists are a growing concern Rapid growth in the use of motorized twowheeled vehicles in many countries has been accompanied by increases in

More information

Road Safety Authority Provisional Review of Road Crashes 2013

Road Safety Authority Provisional Review of Road Crashes 2013 A review of 2013 fatal collision statistics December 31 st 2013 The following report summarises the main trends that have emerged in 2013. This has been prepared by the Road Safety Authority following

More information

Evaluation of the protective effect of bicycle helmets (A GIDAS-analysis 2000-2007)

Evaluation of the protective effect of bicycle helmets (A GIDAS-analysis 2000-2007) Evaluation of the protective effect of bicycle helmets (A GIDAS-analysis 2000-2007) J Tschernitschek, L Hannawald, R Koch and H Zwipp Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital

More information

of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist.

of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist. , BICYCLE ACCIDENTS INVOLVING MOTOR VEHICLES J A 10 year study of child mortality and morbidity with an analysis of the role of alcohol in driver and cyclist. John Pearn Ross Clacher James Nixon Alison

More information

Bicycle Helmet Use in British Columbia:

Bicycle Helmet Use in British Columbia: Bicycle Helmet Use in British Columbia: Effects of the Helmet Use Law Robert D. Foss 1 Douglas J. Beirness 2 1 University of North Carolina 2 Traffic Injury Research Highway Safety Research Center 171

More information

Rise in injury rates for older male motorcyclists: An emerging medical and public health concern

Rise in injury rates for older male motorcyclists: An emerging medical and public health concern Mariana Brussoni, PhD, Kendra Wong, BA, Genevieve Creighton, PhD, Lise Olsen, RN, PhD Rise in injury rates for older male motorcyclists: An emerging medical and public health concern A study of injury

More information

ITARDA INFORMATION. No.106. Special feature

ITARDA INFORMATION. No.106. Special feature ITARDA INFORMATION Special Special Motor vehicle accidents with child passengers ~ Is your child well-protected from danger? ~ Introduction Child casualties in traffic accidents by means of transport for

More information

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

More information

Population-based Study of Unintentional Injuries in the Home

Population-based Study of Unintentional Injuries in the Home American Journal of Epidemiology Copyright 1966 by The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health All rights reserved Vol. 144, Printed In U.SA Population-based Study of Unintentional

More information

Bicycle crashes in South Australia. email: paul@casr.adelaide.edu.au

Bicycle crashes in South Australia. email: paul@casr.adelaide.edu.au Bicycle crashes in South Australia Hutchinson, T. P. 1, Kloeden, C. N. 1, Long, A. D. 1 1 Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 email: paul@casr.adelaide.edu.au

More information

Cyclist Injuries Leading to Permanent Medical Impairment in Sweden and the Effect of Bicycle Helmets

Cyclist Injuries Leading to Permanent Medical Impairment in Sweden and the Effect of Bicycle Helmets Cyclist Injuries Leading to Permanent Medical Impairment in Sweden and the Effect of Bicycle Helmets Matteo Rizzi, Helena Stigson, Maria Krafft Abstract Cyclist injuries leading to long term consequences

More information

Is There Any Reliable Evidence That Australian Helmet Legislation Works?

Is There Any Reliable Evidence That Australian Helmet Legislation Works? Is There Any Reliable Evidence That Australian Helmet Legislation Works? Bruce Robinson Bicycle Federation of Australia Proceedings of Velo Australis, Fremantle, Australia 30th October 1996 It is far from

More information

Serious Injury Reporting An Irish Perspective. Maggie Martin

Serious Injury Reporting An Irish Perspective. Maggie Martin Serious Injury Reporting An Irish Perspective Maggie Martin Background Investigate the feasibility of adopting the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) in Ireland assessed at level 3 or more. Having

More information

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012)

Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012) Motorcyclists CRASH FACTSHEET November 2013 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2012 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2012, 50 motorcyclists 1 died and a further 1,138 were injured

More information

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study Chiara Orsi Centre of Study and Research on Road Safety University of Pavia State of the art Vulnerable road

More information

The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury

The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury Accident Analysis and Prevention 35 (2003) 287 292 The efficacy of bicycle helmets against brain injury W.J. Curnow 27 Araba Street, Aranda, ACT 2614, Australia Received 14 May 2001; received in revised

More information

Section 4: Methodology for case studies

Section 4: Methodology for case studies Appendix I: Section 4: Methodology for case studies 38 The case study examples that are included in this document are considered a first round. We set out to provides case studies to illustrate implementation

More information

Bicycle Helmets Areview of their effectiveness: A critical review of the Literature

Bicycle Helmets Areview of their effectiveness: A critical review of the Literature Bicycle Helmets Areview of their effectiveness: A critical review of the Literature Road Safety Research Report No. 30 2002 Road Safety Research Report No. 30 Bicycle Helmets A review of their effectiveness:

More information

Childhood injuries from motor vehicle pedestrian collisions in Wuhan, The People s Republic of China

Childhood injuries from motor vehicle pedestrian collisions in Wuhan, The People s Republic of China Injury, Int. J. Care Injured (2006) 37, 416 422 www.elsevier.com/locate/injury Childhood injuries from motor vehicle pedestrian collisions in Wuhan, The People s Republic of China Yi Sun a, Xin Zhou b,

More information

136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics

136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics Cycle facts to arm and protect DEATHS AND INJURIES Time: 136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics

More information

The Injury Alberta Report, 2011

The Injury Alberta Report, 2011 The Injury Alberta Report, 2011 By 2015 480 Lives Saved 30% Fewer Injury Hospital Admissions $700 Million in Healthcare Costs Saved Injury Alberta is an initiative led by graduate students with the School

More information

BULLETIN. Road Traffic Injuries. WA Childhood Injury Surveillance. No. 13 January 2008. Introduction Road Traffic Injuries

BULLETIN. Road Traffic Injuries. WA Childhood Injury Surveillance. No. 13 January 2008. Introduction Road Traffic Injuries WA Childhood Injury Surveillance BULLETIN Road Traffic Injuries No. 13 January 2008 Childhood Injury Presentations: October to December 2007 There were 13,607 presentations to Princess Margaret Hospital

More information

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends The The mission of the (TIRF) is to reduce traffic related deaths and injuries TIRF is a national, independent, charitable road safety institute.

More information

An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. Ashley Roberts. University of Cincinnati

An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. Ashley Roberts. University of Cincinnati Epidemiology Article Critique 1 Running head: Epidemiology Article Critique An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims Ashley Roberts University of Cincinnati

More information

National Motorcycle Conference. Jim Hand Head of Crash Mitigation Department for Transport

National Motorcycle Conference. Jim Hand Head of Crash Mitigation Department for Transport National Motorcycle Conference Jim Hand Head of Crash Mitigation Department for Transport NATIONAL MOTORCYCLE CONFERENCE Jim Hand 27 August 2014 The Issue The safety of motorcyclists is very important.

More information

ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006. Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes

ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006. Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes Published by: Australian Transport Safety Bureau Postal

More information