1 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Presenter Name
2 Disclosures <INSERT Any Relationships with Industry over the preceding 12 months here. If in doubt, report it.> Note that some treatments (eg, therapeutic hypothermia, amiodarone for pediatric cardiac arrest) in AHA Guidelines are not approved by US FDA.
3 Impact of AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC Accessible to all users on the world-wide web (2005 Guidelines accessed more than 2.4 million times) Provides science-based recommendations for resuscitation Adopted by other resuscitation councils and/or health ministries. Incorporated into protocols and practice Basis for AHA training materials.
4 Guidelines Development Process 2010 AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC
5 Achieving Consensus on Resuscitation Science The American Heart Association and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. Australian Resuscitation Council
6 ILCOR: Mission Statement Review the international science and knowledge relevant to CPR and ECC Publish consensus statements on resuscitation science When possible, also publish treatment recommendations applicable to all member organizations around the world. Encourage coordination of guideline development and publication by its member organizations around the world.
7 Process from Question to Guideline 1. ILCOR Task Forces formulate questions 2. Worksheet authors perform structured evidence evaluation (with help from experts), present to Task Force 3. Task Forces debate, discuss, reach consensus, draft manuscripts 4. International Editorial Board, Councils review consensus, provide input to writing groups 5. Circulation obtains peer reviews 6. Consensus on Science published 7. Councils develop Guidelines
8 Council Guidelines Must consider: Local factors and resources available Educational challenges Cost
9 2010 Consensus Timeline Worksheets Posted International Consensus Feb 2010 Evidence Evaluation Reviews ILCOR March Sun City ILCOR May Ghent ILCOR March Osaka ILCOR Nov Orlando ILCOR Nov Orlando ILCOR Nov New Orleans CoSTR & Guidelines Published Oct 2010
10 2010 Guidelines Timeline 2010 International Consensus on CPR & ECC Science Conference Peer Reviews, Revision 2010 AHA Guidelines Published Feb 1-4 Feb 5 May 10 May 11 July 29 Oct 18 Writing Groups Wrote Document Production
11 Strength of Evidence and Recommendation ILCOR used numerical Level of Evidence (LOE) to rate individual studies in Consensus on Science (i.e., LOE 5) AHA uses Class of Recommendation and alphabetical LOE for each guideline recommendation (i.e., Class IIb, LOE B) Provides internal consistency with other AHA evidence-based guidelines.
12 AHA Evidence Classification
13 Evidence Evaluation Process 411 scientific evidence reviews on 277 topics 313 participants at 2010 Consensus Conference, (46% from outside US) COI questionnaires completed by all participants (802 collected and reviewed) Writing group members voted on each recommendation
14 Management of Potential Conflicts COI information posted with worksheets on website Industry employees excluded No industry support accepted for C2005 or C2010 COI for each speaker projected during meetings COI printed in C2010 program and final Guidelines publication COI questionnaires completed by all participants
15 The Publications 2010 International Consensus on CPR and ECC Science with Treatment Recommendations 2010 AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC
16 The ILCOR 2010 International Consensus on CPR and ECC Science With Treatment Recommendations Simultaneously published in Circulation and Resuscitation Documented review of tens of thousands of peer-reviewed resuscitation studies.
17 The ILCOR 2010 International Consensus on CPR and ECC Science With Treatment Recommendations Part 1: Executive Summary Part 2: International Collaboration in Resuscitation Science Part 3: Evidence Evaluation Process Part 4: Conflict of Interest Management Before, During and After the 2010 International Consensus Conference Part 5: Adult Basic Life Support Part 6: Defibrillation Part 7: CPR Techniques and Devices Part 8: Advanced Life Support Part 9: Acute Coronary Syndromes Part 10: Pediatric Basic and Advanced Life Support Part 11: Neonatal Resuscitation Part 12: Education, Implementation, and Teams (EIT) Part 13: First Aid
18 The 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care 17 chapters published in Circulation Foundation for ECC training materials
19 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science Part 1: Executive Summary Part 2: Evidence Evaluation and Management of Potential or Perceived Conflicts of Interest Part 3: Ethics Part 4: CPR Overview Part 5: Adult Basic Life Support Part 6: Electrical Therapies Part 7: CPR Techniques and Devices Part 8: Adult Advanced Life Support Part 9: Post-Cardiac Arrest Care Part 10: Acute Coronary Syndromes Part 11: Adult Stroke Part 12: Cardiac Arrest in Special Situations Part 13: Pediatric Basic Life Support Part 14: Pediatric Advanced Life Support Part 15: Neonatal Resuscitation Part 16: Education, Implementation, and Teams (EIT) Part 17: First Aid
20 CPR & ECC Guidelines Guidelines available online October 18, 2010 at 12:30 a.m. EDT. Printed Guidelines supplement published November 2, 2010 in Circulation. Can be downloaded free of charge at
21 Key Changes 2010 AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC
22 New AHA Adult Chain of Survival New 5th link post-cardiac arrest care Links in the new adult Chain of Survival: Immediate recognition and activation of emergency response system Early CPR, w/emphasis on chest compressions Rapid defibrillation Effective advanced life support Integrated post-cardiac arrest care
23 CPR Sequence Change: From A-B-C to C-A-B Initiate chest compressions before ventilations Why? Goal: To reduce delay to CPR, sequence begins with skill that everyone can perform Emphasize primary importance of chest compressions for professional rescuers
24 CPR Starts with Compressions Many adults with witnessed arrest have ventricular fibrillation (VF)/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT), and require chest compressions early defibrillation Chest compressions can be started immediately (no equipment needed) Opening airway, providing ventilation may significantly delay other actions Ventilation delayed by 18 seconds or less
25 Primary Emphasis on Chest Compressions All rescuers should, at a minimum, provide chest compressions. If bystander not trained (adult arrest): Hands- Only CPR If bystander trained and able: perform compressions and ventilations at rate of 30:2 Healthcare provider: perform compressions and ventilations at rate of 30:2 For all pediatric arrest, compressions and ventilations still recommended
26 Emphasis on Chest Compressions Why? Hands-Only CPR is easy to perform for adult victims and can be readily guided by EMS dispatchers over phone. When all adult cardiac arrests reported, survival rates similar whether bystander provides Hands-Only CPR or traditional CPR.
27 Universal Algorithm for Adult CPR Traditional algorithm updated Alternative graphic provided All graphics emphasize importance of uninterrupted periods of CPR
28 Adult Chest Compression Depth Change: Compress at least 2 inches Why? 2005 recommendation was 1½ to 2 inches. Compressions of at least 2 inches are more effective than those of 1½ inches. Rescuers often do not push hard enough. Confusion may result when range of depth is recommended.
29 Chest Compressions Critical Without effective chest compressions Oxygen flow to brain stops. Oxygen flow to heart stops. Drugs go nowhere.
30 Chest Compression Rate Change: Compression rate at least 100 per minute recommendation: Compression rate about 100/min Why? Absolute number of compressions delivered/minute has been linked with survival. Actual compression rate is often well below 100/min.
31 Elimination of Look, Listen, and Feel for Breathing Change: This action removed from the CPR sequence After delivery of 30 compressions, lone rescuer opens airway and delivers 2 breaths. Why? Rescuer checks for response and no breathing or no normal breathing in adult before beginning CPR Starting CPR with compressions minimizes delay to action
33 Healthcare Provider ADULT BLS Sequence Recognize unresponsive adult with no breathing or no normal breathing (ie, only agonal gasps) Activate emergency response, retrieve AED (or send someone to do this) Check for pulse (no more than 10 seconds) If no pulse, begin sets of 30 chest compressions and 2 breaths Use AED as soon as available
34 Healthcare Provider CHILD BLS Sequence Recognize unresponsive child with no breathing or only agonal gasps Send someone to activate emergency response & retrieve AED. Check for pulse (no more than 10 seconds) If no pulse, begin sets of 30 chest compressions and 2 breaths. Lone rescuer activates emergency response after 2 minutes of CPR. Use AED as soon as available.
35 Cricoid Pressure Change: Routine use of cricoid pressure during CPR is generally NOT recommended. Why: Cricoid pressure can interfere with ventilation and advanced airway placement. Not proven to prevent aspiration or gastric insufflation during cardiac arrest.
36 Team Resuscitation Change: Increased focus on using a team approach during resuscitations Why: Many CPR interventions performed simultaneously Collaborative work minimizes interruption in compressions Clear communication minimizes errors
37 Resuscitation Systems Must Institute CQI Processes Outcomes vary widely Each system must evaluate and improve outcomes
38 Devices for CPR Impedance threshold device (ITD): may be considered by trained personnel as a CPR adjunct in adult cardiac arrest (Class IIb, LOE B). Mechanical piston devices: may be considered for adult cardiac arrest by properly trained personnel when manual resuscitation difficult (Class IIb, LOE C). Insufficient evidence to support or refute routine use for cardiac arrest. Load Distributing Band (LDB) (e.g., AutoPulse): may be considered for adult cardiac arrest by properly trained personnel (Class IIb, LOE B). Insufficient evidence to support routine use for cardiac arrest.
39 Precordial Thump The precordial thump should not be used for unwitnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The precordial thump may be considered for patients with witnessed, monitored, unstable VT (including pulseless VT) if a defibrillator is not immediately ready for use, but it should not delay CPR and shock delivery.
40 Electrical Therapies Practice needed to minimize interruption in chest compressions to deliver shock. In-hospital use of AEDs may facilitate early defibrillation (goal: 3 minutes, monitor results). AEDs can now be used in infants if a manual defibrillator is not available. Defibrillation doses unchanged, adult cardioversion doses provided
41 Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) Foundation of successful ACLS is good BLS. Traditional cardiac arrest algorithm simplified and alternative conceptual design (both emphasize importance of high-quality CPR.) Increased emphasis on continuous waveform capnography to verify endotracheal tube placement optimize CPR quality and detect ROSC.
43 ACLS: Waveform Capnography Change: Quantitative waveform capnography is most reliable method to confirm and monitor correct ET tube placement (Class I, LOE A). Why: Unacceptably high incidence of unrecognized ET tube misplacement or displacement. Capnography has high sensitivity and specificity to identify correct endotracheal tube placement in cardiac arrest.
44 ACLS: Waveform Capnography After intubation, exhaled carbon dioxide is detected, confirming tracheal tube placement. Highest value at end-expiration.
45 ACLS: De-emphasis of Devices, Drugs and other Distracters Focus on high-quality CPR and defibrillation Atropine no longer recommended for routine use in management of PEA/asystole. Chronotropic drug infusions now recommended as alternative to pacing in symptomatic and unstable bradycardia. Adenosine recommended as safe and potentially effective for treatment and diagnosis in initial management of undifferentiated regular monomorphic wide-complex tachycardia.
46 ACLS: Medications for Pulseless Arrest Atropine: deleted from pulseless arrest algorithm Epinephrine: dose, interval unchanged Vasopressin: dose, use unchanged Amiodarone: dose, indications unchanged Lidocaine: dose, indications unchanged Sodium Bicarbonate: Routine use not recommended (Class III, LOE B). Calcium: Routine administration for treatment of cardiac arrest not recommended (Class III, LOE B).
47 ACLS: Physiologic Monitoring During CPR
48 Post-Cardiac Arrest Care Change: New 5th link in the chain of survival Why: Emphasize importance of comprehensive multidisciplinary care through hospital discharge and beyond Includes: Optimizing vital organ perfusion Titration of FiO2 to maintain O2 sat 94% and < 100% Transport to comprehensive post-arrest system of care Emergent coronary reperfusion for STEMI or high suspicion of AMI Temperature control Anticipation, treatment, and prevention of multiple organ dysfunction
49 Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Support for STEMI systems of care Continue to implement prehospital 12- lead ECG program Triage to hospitals capable of performing PCI Supplementary oxygen is not needed for patients without evidence of respiratory distress if the oxyhemoglobin saturation is 94%. Use morphine with caution
50 Stroke Goal: minimize acute brain injury and maximize patient recovery Treatment is time sensitive: guidelines again emphasize the D s of Stroke Care (important steps and times of potential delays) Stroke systems of care significantly improve stroke outcome
51 Pediatric Resuscitation Revised pediatric chain of survival New post-arrest care link
52 Pediatric Basic Life Support Similarities in pediatric BLS and adult BLS C-A-B rather than A-B-C sequence Continued emphasis on high-quality CPR Removal of look, listen and feel De-emphasis of pulse check for HCPs Use AEDs as soon as available AEDs may be used in infants, although manual defibrillation preferred
53 Pediatric Basic Life Support Some differences between pediatric BLS and adult BLS Chest compression depth at least 1/3 of the anteriorposterior diameter of chest Infants: about 1½ inches Children: about 2 inches Lone rescuer provides 2 minutes of CPR before activating emergency response Two rescuers use 15:2 compression to ventilation ratio Traditional CPR (compressions and ventilations) by bystanders associated with higher survival than chest compressions alone
54 Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) Optimal energy dose for defibrillation of children unknown. Initial dose 2-4 J/kg. Subsequent dose 4 J/kg Post-ROSC: titrate oxygen to limit hyperoxemia. Therapeutic hypothermia (to 32 C to 34 C) may be beneficial (studies in progress) Young victims of sudden, unexpected cardiac arrest should have a complete autopsy with genetic analysis of tissue to look for inherited channelopathy.
55 Neonatal Resuscitation For babies born at term, begin resuscitation with room air rather than 100% oxygen. Any oxygen administered should be blended with room air, titrated based on oxygen saturation measured from right upper extremity. Suctioning after birth reserved for infants with obvious airway obstruction, those requiring ventilation or non-vigorous babies with meconium Therapeutic hypothermia recommended for babies near term with evolving moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
56 Ethics Prehospital BLS and ALS termination of resuscitation rules provided. Indicators of poor outcome after cardiac arrest used in the past may not be valid when therapeutic hypothermia used. Assessment of clinical neurologic signs, electrophysiologic studies, biomarkers and imaging recommended where available 3 days after cardiac arrest.
57 Education, Implementation, and Teams (EIT) New section focusing on methods to improve bystander willingness to act, education techniques, teamwork and leadership Key Issues: Current 2-year certification period for BLS, ACLS and PALS should include periodic refresher courses Hands-Only CPR should be taught Practice-while-watching is effective for BLS Training should not be required for lay rescuers but it does improve performance Debriefing is effective
58 First Aid First Aid Guidelines again co-sponsored with American Red Cross Routine oxygen administration is not recommended as a first aid measure (except for diving injuries). Aspirin for chest discomfort is recommended. Epinephrine for anaphylaxis (allergic reaction) If symptoms persist despite epinephrine administration, first aid providers should seek medical assistance before administering second dose Recommendations added for jellyfish stings
59 First Aid Hemostatic agents Routine use of hemostatic agents to control bleeding as a first aid measure not recommended at this time. Control of bleeding Use of pressure points and elevation are not recommended to control bleeding. Tourniquets to control bleeding of the extremities indicated only if direct pressure not effective or possible and only with proper training.
60 Systems of Care Change: Communities and hospital-based resuscitation programs should monitor quality of care and outcomes. Why: Provides information necessary to optimize care Narrow gaps between ideal and actual resuscitation performance
61 Summary of 2010 Guidelines Many resuscitation systems and communities have documented improved survival from cardiac arrest. Too few victims of cardiac arrest receive bystander CPR. CPR quality must be high. Victims require excellent post cardiac arrest care by organized, integrated teams. Education and frequent refresher training key to improving resuscitation performance. We must rededicate ourselves to improving the frequency of bystander CPR, the quality of all CPR and the quality of post cardiac arrest care.
62 The Products 2010 AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC
63 2010 AHA Guidelines Reprint Printed Guidelines published November 3, Can be purchased through
64 Guidelines Highlights Summarizes key changes in the 2010 AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC Available electronically in English and 12 other languages at: heart.org/cpr
65 2010 Handbook of Emergency Cardiovascular Care for Healthcare Providers Valuable quick reference tool that incorporates the latest science and includes updated algorithms as well as information on therapeutic agents, stroke, and acute coronary syndromes. Was available right after guidelines release.
66 Educational and Training Materials Materials are being updated to reflect the new science. Currently in pilot testing with release planned in 2011: CPR Anytime Heartsaver First Aid, CPR & AED Basic Life Support for Healthcare Professionals Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support Pediatric Advanced Life Support
67 Questions To view a copy of this presentation please go to To learn more about upcoming products and information related to CPR and ECC visit
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