# 7.4 Linear Programming: The Simplex Method

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1 7.4 Linear Programming: The Simplex Method For linear programming problems with more than two variables, the graphical method is usually impossible, so the simplex method is used. Because the simplex method is used for problems with many variables, it usually is no practical to use letters such as x, y, z, or w as variables, instead the symbols,,, are used. In the simplex method, all constraints must be expressed in the form The first step is to convert each constraint (a linear inequality) into a linear equation. This is done by adding a nonnegative variable, called a slack variable to each constraint. 1. For the linear programming problem, use slack variables to convert each constraint into a linear equation. : 8 3 : ,, Solution: The Slack Variables are,, A linear programming problem can be written in matrix form called the simplex tableau. The last row of the simplex tableau corresponds to the objective function with all variables on the left-hand side.. Introduce slack variables as necessary and then write the initial simplex tableau for the linear programming problem. : : ,, Solution: The Slack Variables are The objective function needs to be rewritten so that all the variables are on the left-hand side:

2 x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z The initial simplex tableau is Except for the entries 1 and on the right end-the numbers in the bottom row of a simplex tableau are called indicators. The indicators in this tableau are and. The column containing the most negative indicator is called the pivot column. In this example, the third column is the pivot column, since -7 is the most negative indicator. Now for each positive entry in the pivot column, divide the number in the far right column of the same row by the positive number in the pivot column. The row with the smallest quotient is called the pivot row. The entry in the pivot row and pivot column is the pivot. The pivot is the number in the matrix chosen to change to a 1 and all other entries in that column changed to zeros. Quotients : 3 4. The smallest quotient is 4, so the pivot is 4. Pivoting is complete once all the indicators are nonnegative. Examples: Use the simplex method to solve Subject to: , The Slack Variables are,, The objective function 3 needs to be rewritten so that all the variables are on the lefthand side: 3. The initial simplex tableau is x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z The second column is the pivot column, since -3 is the most negative indicator.

3 Quotients; 1 1 1, 1, Since there are two equally small quotients, we can choose either entry in column to be the pivot. Lets choose the number 1 in column to be the pivot. x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z Since there are no negatives in the last row, we are done pivoting. The corresponding equation is The basic variables are,,, the nonbasic variables are. The solution is found by setting the nonbasic variables equal to zero. So, then fom the last Tableau we have the following equations: Substituing gives us 1,, 16 and the maximum value for the variable z is 3. Simplex Method: 1. Convert each constraint to an equation by adding slack variables. Set up the initial tableau 3. Locate the most negative indicator. This indicator determines the pivot column 4. Use the positive entries in the pivot column to form the necessary quotients for determining the pivot. If there are no positive entries, no maximum solution exists. If two quotients are equally the smallest, let either determine the pivot. 5. Divide the pivot row by the pivot to change the pivot to 1. Then use row operations to change all other entries in the pivot column to. 6. If the indicators are all positive or, you have found the final tableau 7. Set each nonbasic variable equal to and solve the system for the basic variables. The maximum value is the number in the lower right hand corner of the tableau.

4 4. Maximize 3 1 Subject to 3 15,, Introduce slack variables and rewriting the objective function as 3 gives us the initial tableau x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z The pivot column is column 1. Quotients The smallest quotient is 5, so the in row 1 column1 is the pivot. Divide row 1 by to get x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z x 1 x x 3 x 4 x 5 z The nonbasic variables are,,, set these equal to. The corresponding system is This gives 5, 1 and the maximum value of z is 15.

5 5. Maximize: Subject to: the pivot column is column Quotients 4, , 4 1. The smallest quotient is 1, the pivot is the in column 1 row 3. Divide row 3 by, the pivot The new pilot column is column and the first row is the only possible pivot row

6 Setting the nonbasic valuables equal to zero and solving the corresponding system yields ,, Gives 16, 8, 8. The maximum value of z is 64

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