Atomic Structure DEMOCRITUS JOHN DALTON

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Atomic Structure DEMOCRITUS JOHN DALTON"

Transcription

1 Atomic Structure ATOM: the smallest particle that has the properties of an element. From the early Greek concept of the atom to the modern atomic theory, scientists have built on and modified existing models of the atom. DEMORITUS Atoms are composed of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud. Nucleus (99% of atom s mass): uncharged neutrons and positively charged protons. Electron cloud: negatively charged electrons in constant motion creating a cloud like a fan. In 400 B.., this Greek philosopher suggested that the universe was made of indivisible units. Atom Greek word meaning unable to be divided JOHN DALTON In 1808, this English schoolteacher proposed his own atomic theory that became widely accepted. Dalton s Atomic Theory: All elements are made of tiny atoms. Atoms cannot be subdivided. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. Atoms of different elements can join to form molecules. As it turns out, the atom can be divided into subatomic particles. Thompson and Millikan are given credit for the first discoveries relating to electrons. Rutherford discovered the positively charged nucleus 1

2 NIELS BOHR In 1913, this Danish scientist suggested that electrons orbit the nucleus. In Bohr s model, electrons are placed in different energy levels based on their distance from the nucleus. Electrons are like books in a book case. They can only exist on certain levels. Only certain orbits are allowed Only certain orbits are allowed An electron jumping down gives off light Only certain orbits are allowed The Bohr Atom was a Solar System model. An electron jumping up absorbs light

3 MODERN ATOMI MODEL By 195, Bohr s model of the atom no longer explained all observations. Bohr was correct about energy levels, but wrong about electron movement. Electrons occupy the lowest energy levels available. Energy increases as distance from the nucleus increases. Electrons move in patterns of wave functions around the nucleus. It is impossible to know an electrons velocity and location at any moment in time. Schrödinger h m Ψ x This is very difficult stuff! In 196 Schrodinger proposes an equation that gives the probability of finding an electron at any place in the atom. + VΨ Don t worry, this won t be on the test. Ψ = ih t ORBITALS ORBITAL: the regions in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons. s is the lowest energy orbital, and p is slightly higher VALENE ELETRONS d and f are the next two orbitals. They occupy even higher energy levels and take on more complex shapes than s & p Electrons in the outermost energy level are called VALENE ELETRONS. Valence electrons determine how an atom will act in a chemical reaction. Atoms with equal numbers of valence electrons have similar properties. We will learn how to determine the # of valence electrons in an atom later in this unit. What part of the atom is much smaller than the atom, yet contains most of the mass? a) the nucleus b) the electron cloud Not drawn to scale While its diameter is very small compared to that of the entire atom, 99% of the mass of an atom comes from the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Which statement is true according to Dalton s atomic theory? a) Atoms of different elements join to form larger atoms. b) Atoms can be subdivided into smaller particles. c) Atoms of the same element differ in electric charge. d) Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. This statement was part of Dalton s atomic theory. While this statement was holds true if we remove the word exactly, we have since found that atoms of an element often differ in number of neutrons (isotopes). 3

4 According to Bohr s model of the atom, electrons behave like a) planets rotating on their axes. b) planets orbiting the sun. c) light energy in a vacuum. d) waves vibrating on a string. While Bohr s model of energy levels of Schrödinger electrons around an atom remains supported, his model of electron movement has been revised. Schrödinger and other scientists have since found that electrons travel in wave-like patterns around the nucleus. 1869: created first periodic table of elements. Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass. Organization of the Periodic Table One of Rutherford s students. 1914: Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number (responsible for TODAY S periodic table). PERIODIITY: regular variations (or patterns) of properties with increasing atomic number. Both chemical and physical properties vary in a periodic (repeating) pattern. PERIOD: horizontal row of elements on P.T. GROUP (FAMILY): vertical column of elements on P.T. Periodic Key 6 arbon # of protons = Z # of electrons = # of protons (in a neutral atom) # of neutrons = A-Z Atomic number (Z) Element s symbol Element s name Atomic mass (A) ISOTOPES Isotopes are atoms that have the same # of protons, but a different # of neutrons. Example: arbon-1 vs. arbon-14 1 Mass # = 1; Atomic # = 6 (6P, 6E, 6N) 14 Mass # = 14; Atomic # = 6 (6P, 6E, 8N) 4

5 IONS Ionization: the process of adding or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms. An ion has a net electric charge. ation: ion with a positive charge. Ex: Na + Anion: ion with a negative charge. Ex: O - Valence electrons & electron dot diagrams Review: The valence electrons are the outermost electrons in an atom. These are the electrons that are involved when there is a chemical reaction. Looking at a periodic table, you can quickly determine how many valence electrons an atom has by what column it is in. # of Valence electrons ELETRON DOT DIAGRAMS: visual representations of elements and their valence electrons Standard form: Order of electron/dot placement R 5 8 element symbol Example: Oxygen O 6 valence electrons Determining # P+, N, and E- from chemical symbols: Example 1: atom Mass # # protons = 6 #electrons= 6 #neutrons= 14-6 = No net charge The periodic law states that when elements are arranged in order of increasing, similarities in their properties occur in a regular pattern. a) Atomic mass b) Atomic number c) Atomic radius Example : ion # protons = 7 #electrons= 10 #neutrons= 15-7 = 8 Atomic # 15 N 3-7 Net charge of -3 Moseley created the modern periodic table when he determined that elements should be placed in order of increasing atomic number (# of protons). It s a shame that WWI took the life of this brilliant scientist when he was so young. 5

6 arbon-1 and carbon-14 are a) isomers b) isotopes c) radioactive elements d) different elements Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons, and therefore different atomic masses. While carbon-14 is used in radioactive dating, carbon-1 has a more stable nucleus and therefore is not used in this capacity. How many protons, electrons and neutrons are in one atom of oxygen-17? a) 17 p, 17 e, 17 n b) 17 p, 17 e, 1 n c) 8 p, 8 e, 8 n d) 8 p, 8 e, 9 n While most oxygen atoms have a mass of 16 g/mol, oxygen-17 is an isotope with a mass of 17 g/mol. The number of protons in an element is the same for every atom of that element. # electrons = # protons if element has no charge. How many protons, electrons and neutrons are in O -? a) 10 p, 8 e, 8 n b) 8 p, 8 e, 8 n c) 8 p, 10 e, 8 n d) 8 p, 6 e, 8 n Every atom or ion of oxygen has 8 protons. The net charge of - indicates that the ion has two more negative charges (electrons) than positive charges (protons) All atoms and ions of standard oxygen-16 have 8 neutrons. How many dots are in an electron dot diagram of chlorine? a) 1 b) 7 c) 17 l d) 35 hlorine and all of the other halogens (column 17) have seven valence electrons. 6

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE

ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL SCIENCE Chapter 3 Vocabulary Words (27 words) Nucleus Atomic number Proton Mass number Neutron Isotopes Electron Atomic mass unit (amu) Energy level Average

More information

4.1 Studying Atom. Early evidence used to develop models of atoms.

4.1 Studying Atom. Early evidence used to develop models of atoms. 4.1 Studying Atom Early evidence used to develop models of atoms. Democritus said that all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could NOT be divided called these particles atoms from the

More information

Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes

Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes Standards Connections Connections to NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation C.3.a.1 Fundamental structures of atoms and molecules. C.3.b.27 Applications

More information

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model.

9/13/2013. However, Dalton thought that an atom was just a tiny sphere with no internal parts. This is sometimes referred to as the cannonball model. John Dalton was an English scientist who lived in the early 1800s. Dalton s atomic theory served as a model for how matter worked. The principles of Dalton s atomic theory are: 1. Elements are made of

More information

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39)

ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) ATOMS A T O M S, I S O T O P E S, A N D I O N S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 120, Page 1 of 39) THE ATOM All elements listed on the periodic table are made up of atoms.

More information

Objectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory

Objectives. PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics. Constituents of Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Atoms. Basic Atomic Theory PAM1014 Introduction to Radiation Physics Basic Atomic Theory Objectives Introduce and Molecules The periodic Table Electronic Energy Levels Atomic excitation & de-excitation Ionisation Molecules Constituents

More information

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner Grade Level/Subject Chemistry Stage 1: Desired Results Enduring Understanding Topic 1: Elements and the Periodic Table: The placement of elements on the periodic table

More information

( + and - ) ( - and - ) ( + and + ) Atoms are mostly empty space. = the # of protons in the nucleus. = the # of protons in the nucleus

( + and - ) ( - and - ) ( + and + ) Atoms are mostly empty space. = the # of protons in the nucleus. = the # of protons in the nucleus Atoms are mostly empty space Atomic Structure Two regions of every atom: Nucleus - is made of protons and neutrons - is small and dense Electron cloud -is a region where you might find an electron -is

More information

Level 3 Achievement Scale

Level 3 Achievement Scale Unit 1: Atoms Level 3 Achievement Scale Can state the key results of the experiments associated with Dalton, Rutherford, Thomson, Chadwick, and Bohr and what this lead each to conclude. Can explain that

More information

******* KEY ******* Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide

******* KEY ******* Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide Atomic Structure & Periodic Table Test Study Guide VOCABULARY: Write a brief definition of each term in the space provided. 1. Atoms: smallest unit of an element that has all of the properties of that

More information

6.7: Explaining the Periodic Table pg. 234

6.7: Explaining the Periodic Table pg. 234 Unit C: Atoms, elements, and Compounds 6.7: Explaining the Periodic Table pg. 234 Key Concepts: 3. Elements are organized according to their atomic number and electron arrangement on the periodic table.

More information

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory

History of the Atom & Atomic Theory Chapter 5 History of the Atom & Atomic Theory You re invited to a Thinking Inside the Box Conference Each group should nominate a: o Leader o Writer o Presenter You have 5 minutes to come up with observations

More information

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels

Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels As you already know, all atoms are made of subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. Positive protons and neutral neutrons are found

More information

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number 2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 4 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 4. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Chapter Five: Atomic Theory and Structure

Chapter Five: Atomic Theory and Structure Chapter Five: Atomic Theory and Structure Evolution of Atomic Theory The ancient Greek scientist Democritus is often credited with developing the idea of the atom Democritus proposed that matter was, on

More information

Bohr s Model of the Atom

Bohr s Model of the Atom Bohr Models Bohr s Model of the Atom Focuses on electrons and their arrangement. Bohr stated that electrons move with constant speed in fixed orbits around the nucleus, like planets around a sun. Bohr

More information

Electrons In Atoms Mr. O Brien (SFHS) Chapter 5 Standard 1D

Electrons In Atoms Mr. O Brien (SFHS) Chapter 5 Standard 1D Electrons In Atoms Mr. O Brien (SFHS) Chapter 5 Standard 1D Electrons in Atoms (std.1d) What are Bohr Models? planetary model in which the negatively-charged electrons orbit a small, positively-charged

More information

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table Lesson Topics Covered SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 Note: History of Atomic Theory progression of understanding of composition of matter; ancient Greeks and

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus?

Untitled Document. 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? 4. Which statement best describes the density of an atom s nucleus? Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core

More information

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num

Elements in the periodic table are indicated by SYMBOLS. To the left of the symbol we find the atomic mass (A) at the upper corner, and the atomic num . ATOMIC STRUCTURE FUNDAMENTALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES To review the basics concepts of atomic structure that have direct relevance to the fundamental concepts of organic chemistry. This material is essential

More information

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set

Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Chapter 13 & 14 Assignment & Problem Set Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Electrons in Atoms & Periodic Table 2 Study Guide: Things You

More information

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the

More information

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties. Those properties can be explained by examining the atoms that compose the matter. An atom is the smallest particle

More information

Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table. Ron Robertson

Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table. Ron Robertson Chemistry - Elements Electron Configurations The Periodic Table Ron Robertson History of Chemistry Before 16 th Century Alchemy Attempts (scientific or otherwise) to change cheap metals into gold no real

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

PROTONS AND ELECTRONS

PROTONS AND ELECTRONS reflect Imagine that you have a bowl of oranges, bananas, pineapples, berries, pears, and watermelon. How do you identify each piece of fruit? Most likely, you are familiar with the characteristics of

More information

5.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model

5.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model 5.1 Evolution of the Atomic Model Studying the atom has been a fascination of scientists for hundreds of years. Even Greek philosophers, over 2500 years ago, discussed the idea of there being a smallest

More information

2 The Structure of Atoms

2 The Structure of Atoms CHAPTER 4 2 The Structure of Atoms SECTION Atoms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What do atoms of the same element have in common? What are isotopes? How is an element

More information

Elements, Atoms & Ions

Elements, Atoms & Ions Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FOURTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of Illinois Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4 1 2 Elements Aims: To learn about the relative abundances of the elements,

More information

Atomic Theory Part 1

Atomic Theory Part 1 Atomic Theory Part 1 Reading: Ch 2 sections 1 6, 8 Homework: Chapter 2: 39, 47, 43, 49, 51*, 53, 55, 57, 71, 73, 77, 99, 103 (optional) * = important homework question The Atomic Theory (John Dalton, 1803)

More information

Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES SCHEDULE PREPARATION VOCABULARY MATERIALS. For each team of four. The students. For the class.

Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES SCHEDULE PREPARATION VOCABULARY MATERIALS. For each team of four. The students. For the class. activity 4 Atomic Structure OBJECTIVES Students are introduced to the structure of the atom and the nature of subatomic particles. The students are introduced to the properties of protons, neutrons, and

More information

Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table

Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table Properties of Atoms and the Periodic Table Section 3 The Periodic Table Skim Section 3 and write three questions based on your brief preview. 1. Accept all reasonable answers. How are the elements organized

More information

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name

Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based

More information

Atomic Structure Chapter 5 Assignment & Problem Set

Atomic Structure Chapter 5 Assignment & Problem Set Atomic Structure Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Atomic Structure 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

ANSWER KEY : BUILD AN ATOM PART I: ATOM SCREEN Build an Atom simulation ( http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build an atom )

ANSWER KEY : BUILD AN ATOM PART I: ATOM SCREEN Build an Atom simulation ( http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build an atom ) ANSWER KEY : PART I: ATOM SCREEN Build an Atom simulation ( http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build an atom ) 1. Explore the Build an Atom simulation with your group. As you explore, talk about what

More information

CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers

CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1. Which statement regarding the gold foil experiment is false? (a) It was performed by Rutherford and his research group early in the 20 th century. (b) Most of

More information

Development of the Atomic Theory

Development of the Atomic Theory Development of the Atomic Theory Atom The smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance. Element A pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances

More information

Atoms and Elements. Outline Atoms Orbitals and Energy Levels Periodic Properties Homework

Atoms and Elements. Outline Atoms Orbitals and Energy Levels Periodic Properties Homework Atoms and the Periodic Table The very hot early universe was a plasma with cationic nuclei separated from negatively charged electrons. Plasmas exist today where the energy of the particles is very high,

More information

Section 11.3 Atomic Orbitals Objectives

Section 11.3 Atomic Orbitals Objectives Objectives 1. To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals 2. To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical model of the atom 3. To learn about electron spin A. Electron Location

More information

An Atom Apart by Leslie Cargile

An Atom Apart by Leslie Cargile Have you ever walked through a cloud of gnats on a hot summer, only to have them follow you? No matter how you swat at them, or even if you run, they won t leave you alone. If so, then you have something

More information

The Atom and the Periodic Table. Electron Cloud Structure Energy Levels Rows on the Periodic Table Bohr Models Electron Dot Diagrams

The Atom and the Periodic Table. Electron Cloud Structure Energy Levels Rows on the Periodic Table Bohr Models Electron Dot Diagrams The Atom and the Periodic Table Electron Cloud Structure Energy Levels Rows on the Periodic Table Bohr Models Electron Dot Diagrams Review The vertical columns in the periodic table are called groups.

More information

Multi-electron atoms

Multi-electron atoms Multi-electron atoms Today: Using hydrogen as a model. The Periodic Table HWK 13 available online. Please fill out the online participation survey. Worth 10points on HWK 13. Final Exam is Monday, Dec.

More information

Chapter 3, Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 3, Elements, Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 1. Which two scientists in 1869 arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic masses to form a precursor of the modern periodic table of elements? Ans. Mendeleev and Meyer 2. Who stated that the

More information

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Multiple-Choice Questions 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living

More information

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes

Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes Unit 3.2: The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Notes The Organization of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev was the first to organize the elements by their periodic properties. In 1871 he arranged the

More information

18.2 Comparing Atoms. Atomic number. Chapter 18

18.2 Comparing Atoms. Atomic number. Chapter 18 As you know, some substances are made up of only one kind of atom and these substances are called elements. You already know something about a number of elements you ve heard of hydrogen, helium, silver,

More information

Electron Arrangements

Electron Arrangements Section 3.4 Electron Arrangements Objectives Express the arrangement of electrons in atoms using electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures New Vocabulary Heisenberg uncertainty

More information

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table

Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table Name: Teacher s Name: Class: Block: Date: Unit 3 Study Guide: Electron Configuration & The Periodic Table 1. For each of the following elements, state whether the element is radioactive, synthetic or both.

More information

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular

More information

Atoms and Molecules. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4

Atoms and Molecules. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4 Atoms and Molecules Preparation Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4 Objectives This lesson will enable students to: Describe how atoms are the building blocks of matter

More information

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

More information

Structure and Properties of Atoms

Structure and Properties of Atoms PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,

More information

Department of Physics and Geology The Elements and the Periodic Table

Department of Physics and Geology The Elements and the Periodic Table Department of Physics and Geology The Elements and the Periodic Table Physical Science 1422 Equipment Needed Qty Periodic Table 1 Part 1: Background In 1869 a Russian chemistry professor named Dmitri Mendeleev

More information

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England

2. John Dalton did his research work in which of the following countries? a. France b. Greece c. Russia d. England CHAPTER 3 1. Which combination of individual and contribution is not correct? a. Antoine Lavoisier - clarified confusion over cause of burning b. John Dalton - proposed atomic theory c. Marie Curie - discovered

More information

Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck. atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element

Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck. atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element are the building blocks of matter consists of protons and

More information

Introduction to Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Nuclear Physics Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus

More information

Chapter NP-1. Nuclear Physics. Atomic Nature of Matter TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES

Chapter NP-1. Nuclear Physics. Atomic Nature of Matter TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES Chapter NP-1 Nuclear Physics Atomic Nature of Matter TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES 1.1 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 2.0 COMPOSITION OF ATOMS 2.1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE

More information

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties

6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties 324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends

More information

The Models of the Atom

The Models of the Atom The Models of the Atom All life, whether in the form of trees, whales, mushrooms, bacteria or amoebas, consists of cells. Similarly, all matter, whether in the form of aspirin, gold, vitamins, air or minerals,

More information

For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons.

For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons. Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.

More information

Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter

Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter Atoms, Ions and Molecules The Building Blocks of Matter Chapter 2 1 Chapter Outline 2.1 The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure 2.2 Nuclides and Their Symbols 2.3 Navigating the Periodic Table 2.4 The

More information

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

More information

3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS

3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS 3 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS: ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND IONS All matter is built up from chemical combinations of elements. As of 2003, there are 114 known elements, of which 88 are naturally occurring; the remaining

More information

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

More information

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary

Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the

More information

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching Unit 1 Practice Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. proton d. electron b. nucleus e. neutron c. atom 1. the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Name Period This chapter covers the basics that you may have learned in your chemistry class. Whether your teacher goes over this chapter, or assigns it for you

More information

Atomic structure. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):

Atomic structure. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research): Atomic structure This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

More information

Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures

Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures Objectives: 1. Draw Lewis structures for atoms, ions and simple molecules. 2. Use Lewis structures as a guide to construct three-dimensional models of small molecules.

More information

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai,

2014 Spring CHEM101 Ch1-2 Review Worksheet Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai, Ch1 1) Which of the following underlined items is not an intensive property? A) A chemical reaction requires 3.00 g of oxygen. B) The density of helium at 25 C is 1.64 10-4 g/cm3. C) The melting point

More information

2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE

2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 2 ATOMIC SYSTEMATICS AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE In this chapter the principles and systematics of atomic and nuclear physics are summarised briefly, in order to introduce the existence and characteristics of

More information

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity

Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Chemistry: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Name: per: Date:. 1. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements? 2. By what property did Moseley suggest that the periodic table be arranged? 3. What

More information

Chapter Test. Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a.

Chapter Test. Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a. Assessment Chapter Test A Teacher Notes and Answers 5 The Periodic Law TEST A 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. b 5. d 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. b 10. a 11. c 12. a 13. c 14. d 15. c 16. b 17. d 18. a 19. d 20. c 21. d 22. a

More information

3 Atomic Structure 15

3 Atomic Structure 15 3 Atomic Structure 15 3.1 Atoms You need to be familiar with the terms in italics The diameter of the nucleus is approximately 10-15 m and an atom 10-10 m. All matter consists of atoms. An atom can be

More information

19.1 Bonding and Molecules

19.1 Bonding and Molecules Most of the matter around you and inside of you is in the form of compounds. For example, your body is about 80 percent water. You learned in the last unit that water, H 2 O, is made up of hydrogen and

More information

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand

More information

The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of

The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of The Periodic Table; Chapter 5: Section 1 - History of the Periodic Table Objectives: Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of the periodic table. Describe the modern periodic table.

More information

Models of the Atom and periodic Trends Exam Study Guide

Models of the Atom and periodic Trends Exam Study Guide Name 1. What is the term for the weighted average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element? ans: atomic mass 2. Which is exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon -12 atom? ans: atomic

More information

Abstract. 1. Introduction

Abstract. 1. Introduction An Alternate Graphical Representation of Periodic table of Chemical Elements Mohd Abubakr 1, Microsoft India (R&D) Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad, India. mohdabubakr@hotmail.com Abstract Periodic table of chemical

More information

Atoms and Elements [6th grade]

Atoms and Elements [6th grade] Trinity University Digital Commons @ Trinity Understanding by Design: Complete Collection Understanding by Design Summer 6-11-2015 Atoms and Elements [6th grade] Jennifer J. Wray Trinity University, jwray@alum.trinity.edu

More information

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is

More information

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy

More information

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni

SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the

More information

Semester Exam Practice Questions

Semester Exam Practice Questions Name: Class: _ Date: _ Semester Exam Practice Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is not a material? a. air

More information

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics 13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

More information

Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table

Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table Name: Class: Date: Chemical Building Blocks: Chapter 3: Elements and Periodic Table Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

More information

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment.

Chemistry. The student will be able to identify and apply basic safety procedures and identify basic equipment. Chemistry UNIT I: Introduction to Chemistry The student will be able to describe what chemistry is and its scope. a. Define chemistry. b. Explain that chemistry overlaps many other areas of science. The

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

Ernest Rutherford Atomic Model 1911. Plum Pudding Model J.J. Thomson 1897

Ernest Rutherford Atomic Model 1911. Plum Pudding Model J.J. Thomson 1897 1 The arrangement of electrons in an atom determine most of the chemical properties of that atom. Electrons are what actually do the reacting. Plum Pudding Model J.J. Thomson 1897 Ernest Rutherford Atomic

More information

ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION ONE: MODELS OF THE ATOM (2011;1) At different times scientists have proposed various descriptions or models of the atom to match experimental evidence

More information

Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table.

Chapter 5 Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. Chapter 5 Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev: Russian Chemist credited with the discovery of the periodic table. How did he organize the elements? According to similarities in their chemical and physical

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and the Periodic Table 2.1 (a) neutron; (b) law of conservation of mass; (c) proton; (d) main-group element; (e) relative atomic mass; (f) mass number; (g) isotope; (h) cation; (i)

More information

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding

Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements

More information

THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27)

THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S. The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27) THE PERIODIC TABLE O F T H E E L E M E N T S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 117, Page 1 of 27) THE PERIODIC TABLE In 1872, Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table arranged

More information

CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13. Electrons in Atoms

CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13. Electrons in Atoms CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13 Electrons in Atoms Goals : To gain an understanding of : 1. Atoms and their structure. 2. The development of the atomic theory. 3. The quantum mechanical model of the atom. 4.

More information