# Mechanisms of Heat Transfer. Amin Sabzevari

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Amin Sabzevari

2 Outline Definition of Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Demonstrations and Examples

3 What is Heat? Heat is the spontaneous flow of energy from one object to another, caused by a difference in temperature between the two objects. What is Temperature? Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in a system.

4 (Towards) Formal Definitions of Heat and Temperature System: A part of the universe that is under consideration. Surroundings: The rest of the universe

5 Types of Systems Open systems can exchange both matter and energy with the suroundings Closed systems can exchange energy but not matter with the surroundings Isolated systems are unable to exchange energy or matter with the surroundings.

6 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics A B C When two objects are separately in thermodynamic equilibrium with a third object, they are in equilibrium with each other. The common thermodynamic property they all share is temperature

7 Closed System First Law of Thermodynamics: U = Q + W The change in internal energy ( U) of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat (Q) added to the system plus the Work (W) done by the system on the surroundings. There are variations in sign conventions for work Heat entering the system is positive, heat leaving the system is negative

8 U = Q + W 1 st Law Mechanical equivalence of heat: Work and Heat are related, and can be converted into one another Heat is energy transfer in the realm of microscopic thermal motion of particles James Joule Work is energy transfer by other means, such as dealing with macroscopic quantities. An example of work is raising a weight against gravity.

9 Heat VS Work If water is the system If the system is the water and the battery combined. Heat from the battery enters the system System undergoes electrical work

10 Heating materials Q=mc T. The heat required to raise the temperature of an object by T is dependant on the mass(m), and the specific heat capacity (c) of the material. For example, to raise one gram of water by one degree Celcius: Q = (1g)(4.186 J/gram C)(1 C) = 4.168J = 1 calorie

11 Work to Heat Demonstration 1kg of lead shot in a 1 metre tube. Turning the tube upside down once does an amount of work equal to W = Ep = mgh = 1kg(9.8m/s 2 )(1m)=9.8 J Turn it over 50 times to have a significantly detectable amount of work Q = 50(9.8J) = 490 J = mc T = (1kg)(130J/kg C) T T = 490 J / (1kg)(130J/kg C) = 3.8 C

12 Summary up to this point U = Q + W 1 st Law of Thermodynamics Heat: energy transfer as a result of by temperature difference between system and surroundings Open system: mass and energy exchange Closed: energy exchange only Isolated : No mass and no energy exchange A measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in a system Zeroth Law Conclusion: Objects A, B, and C are In thermal equilibrium; they have a common temperature

13 Mechanisms of heat transfer Basic Conduction Conduction is a method of heat transfer that requires physical contact between the heat source and target. Atoms in the region of higher temperature have a higher average kinetic energy then their cooler neighbours. These atoms collide with their neighbors, transferring some of their kinetic energy. The neighbors in turn, collide into atoms further away from the region of higher temperature, and energy is transferred along the material. Most metals are good thermal conductors.

14 Conduction in Metals In metals, there are free electrons that wander around and carry energy from hotter to cooler regions of the metal.

15 The rate of heat flow is called a heat current, and is in units of Energy (Joules) per time, equivalent to power (Watts). The formula for conductive heat flow is H = dq/dt = ka(t h -T c )/L The rate of heat flow is proportional to the area of the material (A), the temperature difference (T h -T c ) and the length of the material. There is also a constant of proportionality called the thermal conductivity of the material (k)

16 House cooling example

17 Temperature is 20 C inside and -5 C outside Kw = 0.080W/m C Ks = W/m C What is the temperature between the wood and Styrofoam? H = (Ks)(A)(20 C-T)/0.02m = (Kw)(A)(T- - 5 C)/0.03m (Ks)(20 C)/0.02m - (Ks)T/0.02 = (Kw)(T)/0.03m + (Kw)(5 C)/0.03m

18 (Ks)(20 C)/0.02m - (Ks)T/0.02m = (Kw)(T)/0.03m + (Kw)(5 C)/0.03m (Ks)T/0.02m + (Kw)T/0.03m = (Ks)(20 C)/0.02m - (Kw)(5 C)/0.03m T {(Ks)/0.02m + (Kw)/0.03m)} = (Ks)(20 C)/0.02m - (Kw)(5 C)/0.03m T = (Ks)(20 C)/0.02m - (Kw)(5 C)/0.03m / (Ks)/0.02m + (Kw)/0.03m) Kw = 0.080W/m C Ks = W/m C T = C

19 Initial Heat Flow through the Wall (per m 2 )? H / area = (0.010 W/m C)(20 C 1.05 C)/0.02m H / area = (0.080W/m C)(-1.05 C C)/0.03m H = 10.5 W / m W lightbulb

20 More clever method For electric circuits : V = I R or R = V/ I (Ohm's Law) For heat conduction: T = (H/A) R or R = T / (H/A) Rtotal = R1 + R2

21 R is the Thermal Resistance R = T / (H/A) = L / k Rtotal = R1+ R2 Rtotal = (0.02m/ W/m C) + (0.03m/ 0.080W/m C) Rtotal = m 2 C/W Rtotal = T / (H/A) H/A = T/ Rotal = (20 C 5 C)/ m 2 C/W = 10.5 W/m 2

22 Hand Boiler How does it work? It s a closed system. Heat flows via conduction from your hand through the glass bulb and into the liquid.

23 The temperature of the vapour increases, as does the pressure in the bottom bulb The high pressure of the vapour pushes liquid up the little glass rod and into the top bulb. The liquid is not vaporizing and condensing at the top. The increased pressure of the vapour pushes liquid upwards. That is why if you hold it upside down, the hand boiler does work. The vapour escapes upward, and isn t harnessed properly as it is in the lower bulb.

24 Drinking Bird After wetting the head, the water evaporates, taking heat Q = ml v = m (2260 kj /kg) resulting in the cooling of the head The (red liquid) vapor in the head lowers in temperature, and the greater vapor pressure at the bottom pushes the liquid up the body tube, similar to the hand boiler.

25 As the liquid goes up the tube, the head falls downwards into the water While the head is down, liquid drains from the head back into the bottom. As the fluid accumulates at the bottom, the bird stands up again, and repeats the cycle with the renewed wet head.

26 α Convection Convection is a complicated form of heat that occurs in liquids and gases. As a liquid or gas is heated, the molecules spread out, causing the heated region to be less dense than the surrounding regions The heated liquid or gas components rise, while the relatively cooler components sink. A convection current forms.

27 Lava Lamp Filled with oil and pieces of wax Wax more dense than oil at room temperature Both oil and wax expand when heated at bottom, but wax expands more, and becomes less dense than oil Wax rises, reaches the top, cools down, becomes more dense than oil, and falls down Cycle continues Macroscopic Convection

28 Heated air rises, cools, then falls. A cycle occurs. The heated water rises, cools and falls

29 A fan circulates warm air continuously (forced convection). Works at a lower temperature and consumes less electricity than a conventional oven

30 Rheoscopic Fluid Heating the rheoscopic fluid will allow us to observe convection currents in action.

31 Radiation Radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. This form of heat transfer occurs even in vacuum, and does not require intermediate particles. It is calculated via: H = AeσT 4 σ is the Stefan Boltzmann constant and is equal to x 10-8 W/m 2 K 4 The heat flow is proportional to the area of the emitting material, the emissivity (e), which is between 0 and 1, and the temperature of the emitting object, Since the surroundings near an object also emit radiation that is absorbed by the source, it is often useful to look at the net radiation coming away from an object, which is given by H net = Aeσ (T object4 -T surroundings4 ).

32 Differential Thermometer Demonstration A true (ideal) black body has emmisivity of 1 Aluminum foil is ~0.04 Black paint is ~

33 Black seats in summer? Ouch!

34 Thermos No conduction or convection in a true vacuum; nearly a vacuum between the glass layers Reflective silvered surfaces with low emissivity minimize heat transfer by radiation

35 Finis

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

### TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

### Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form

Convection, Conduction & Radiation There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred: convection, conduction and radiation. In gases and liquids, heat is usually transferred by convection, in which

### Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

### Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

### Lecture 30 - Chapter 6 Thermal & Energy Systems (Examples) 1

Potential Energy ME 101: Thermal and Energy Systems Chapter 7 - Examples Gravitational Potential Energy U = mgδh Relative to a reference height Increase in elevation increases U Decrease in elevation decreases

### Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Radiation Radiation: Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves Q t = εσat 4 emissivity

### Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator

SHPE Jr. Chapter May 2015 STEM Activity Instructor Resource Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator Students learn about the three ways heat can be transferred from one object to another. They also learn what

### ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Introduction Heat transfer is the movement of heat energy from one place to another. Heat energy can be transferred by three different mechanisms: convection,

### 2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First aw of Thermodynamics Q and W are process (path)-dependent. (Q W) = E int is independent of the process. E int = E int,f E int,i = Q W (first law) Q: + heat into the system; heat lost from the

### Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### Topic Page Contents Page

Heat energy (11-16) Contents Topic Page Contents Page Heat energy and temperature 3 Latent heat energy 15 Interesting temperatures 4 Conduction of heat energy 16 A cooling curve 5 Convection 17 Expansion

### The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering

Section 5: Reflow Oven Heat Transfer The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering There are three different heating modes involved with most SMT reflow processes: conduction, convection, and infrared

### Temperature. Temperature

Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

### The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability

### What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work?

What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? Compare kinetic and potential energy What are the different types of energy? What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Great, but

### Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.

### Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms

Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

### Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

### Energy Transfer in a Flash-Light. (Teacher Copy)

Energy Transfer in a Flash-Light (Teacher Copy) Florida Sunshine State Standards Benchmark: SC.B. 1.3.1 AA The student identifies forms of energy and explains that they can be measured and compared. (Also

### Kinetic Theory. Energy. Transfers and Efficiency. The National Grid

AQA P1 Revision Infrared Radiation Heating and Insulating Buildings Kinetic Theory Energy Transfers and Efficiency Energy Transfer by Heating Transferring Electrical Energy Generating Electricity The National

### Energy Transport. Focus on heat transfer. Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids)

Energy Transport Focus on heat transfer Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids) Conduction Conduction heat transfer occurs only when there is physical contact

### OBJECTIVES THE STUDENTS WILL: Participate in cooperative problem solving in a group setting.

ICE CAPADES THE POWER OF INSULATION GRADE LEVEL: Upper Elementary/Middle School (High School with extensions) SUBJECT AREA: Sciences, Mathematics DURATION: Preparation time 30 minutes Activity time: One

UNIVERSITY OF SURREY DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS Level 2 Classical Laboratory Experiment THERMAL RADIATION (THERM) Objectives In this experiment you will explore the basic characteristics of thermal radiation,

### Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat 1. The temperature of a substance is A. proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. B. equal to the kinetic energy of the fastest moving

### Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

### Energy Transformation Lab

Energy Transformation Lab Lab Response Page You will fill in the blanks with the energy form that matches that object. Use thermal instead of heat and radiant instead of light. You may double check your

### Chapter 17: Change of Phase

Chapter 17: Change of Phase Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) 3) Evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is A) a warming process. B) a cooling process also. C) neither a warming nor cooling process.

### KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

### Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation

Temperature: 6.D.3 Temperature and Heat Transfer Grade Level 6 Sessions Seasonality Instructional Mode(s) Team Size WPS Benchmarks MA Frameworks Key Words 1 Approximately 1.5 hours (10 minutes for cleanup)

### Carbon Cable. Sergio Rubio Carles Paul Albert Monte

Carbon Cable Sergio Rubio Carles Paul Albert Monte Carbon, Copper and Manganine PhYsical PropERTieS CARBON PROPERTIES Carbon physical Properties Temperature Coefficient α -0,0005 ºC-1 Density D 2260 kg/m3

### Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

### CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

### Topic 3b: Kinetic Theory

Topic 3b: Kinetic Theory What is temperature? We have developed some statistical language to simplify describing measurements on physical systems. When we measure the temperature of a system, what underlying

### 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below.

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station

### (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

### Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

### Lecture 9, Thermal Notes, 3.054

Lecture 9, Thermal Notes, 3.054 Thermal Properties of Foams Closed cell foams widely used for thermal insulation Only materials with lower conductivity are aerogels (tend to be brittle and weak) and vacuum

### Mechanical Energy. Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion.

Mechanical Energy Mechanical Energy is energy due to position or motion. Position: This means that matter can have energy even though it is not moving. If you knock something off of your kitchen counter,

### CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

### Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

### States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389)

13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature

### HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

MEL242 HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER Prabal Talukdar Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering g IIT Delhi prabal@mech.iitd.ac.in MECH/IITD Course Coordinator: Dr. Prabal Talukdar Room No: III,

### Energy comes in many flavors!

Forms of Energy Energy is Fun! Energy comes in many flavors! Kinetic Energy Potential Energy Thermal/heat Energy Chemical Energy Electrical Energy Electrochemical Energy Electromagnetic Radiation Energy

### AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred.

Forms of Energy AZ State Standards Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. PO 1. Describe the following ways in which

### Surface Tension. the surface tension of a liquid is the energy required to increase the surface area a given amount

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 1 Surface Tension surface tension is a property of liquids that results from the tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area in order to minimize their surface

### Chapter 2: Forms of Energy

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To describe the forms of energy Section 2.2: To illustrate conversions from one form of energy to another Section 2.3 To describe energy storage

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Sample Mid-Term 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) If you double the frequency of a vibrating object, its period A) is quartered.

### Practice final for Basic Physics spring 2005 answers on the last page Name: Date:

Practice final for Basic Physics spring 2005 answers on the last page Name: Date: 1. A 12 ohm resistor and a 24 ohm resistor are connected in series in a circuit with a 6.0 volt battery. Assuming negligible

### Data Bulletin. Mounting Variable Frequency Drives in Electrical Enclosures Thermal Concerns OVERVIEW WHY VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES THERMAL MANAGEMENT?

Data Bulletin April 2001 Raleigh, NC, USA Mounting Variable Frequency Drives in Electrical Enclosures Thermal Concerns OVERVIEW Variable frequency drives are available from manufacturers as enclosed engineered

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### Heat Transfer and Energy

What is Heat? Heat Transfer and Energy Heat is Energy in Transit. Recall the First law from Thermodynamics. U = Q - W What did we mean by all the terms? What is U? What is Q? What is W? What is Heat Transfer?

### Vapor Chambers. Figure 1: Example of vapor chamber. Benefits of Using Vapor Chambers

Vapor Chambers A vapor chamber is a high-end thermal management device that can evenly dissipate heat from a small source to a large platform of area (see Figure 1). It has a similar construction and mechanism

### Work and Energy. Work = Force Distance. Work increases the energy of an object. Energy can be converted back to work.

Work and Energy Ch. 6 Work = Force Distance Work increases the energy of an object. Energy can be converted back to work. Therefore, energy and work have the same unit: Newton meter = Nm Energy per gram,

### Experiment #4, Ohmic Heat

Experiment #4, Ohmic Heat 1 Purpose Physics 18 - Fall 013 - Experiment #4 1 1. To demonstrate the conversion of the electric energy into heat.. To demonstrate that the rate of heat generation in an electrical

### KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS

KINETIC THEORY AND THERMODYNAMICS 1. Basic ideas Kinetic theory based on experiments, which proved that a) matter contains particles and quite a lot of space between them b) these particles always move

### Density. Density is how concentrated or compact matter is.

Density Density is how concentrated or compact matter is. Packing snow into snowballs increases its density. You are squeezing large amounts of matter into small volumes of space. Equation for Density

### 13.1 The Nature of Gases. What is Kinetic Theory? Kinetic Theory and a Model for Gases. Chapter 13: States of Matter. Principles of Kinetic Theory

Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,

### 9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE

9460218_CH06_p069-080.qxd 1/20/10 9:44 PM Page 69 6 GAS PROPERTIES PURPOSE The purpose of this lab is to investigate how properties of gases pressure, temperature, and volume are related. Also, you will

Chapter 5 Student Reading THE POLARITY OF THE WATER MOLECULE Wonderful water Water is an amazing substance. We drink it, cook and wash with it, swim and play in it, and use it for lots of other purposes.

### Energy transfers (Particle theory, conduction, convection, IR, evaporation)

Energy transfers (Particle theory, conduction, convection, IR, evaporation) 88 minutes 88 marks Page of 72 Q. (a) The diagrams, X, Y and Z, show how the particles are arranged in the three states of matter.

### The soot and scale problems

Dr. Albrecht Kaupp Page 1 The soot and scale problems Issue Soot and scale do not only increase energy consumption but are as well a major cause of tube failure. Learning Objectives Understanding the implications

### Vacuum Evaporation Recap

Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.

### Introduction to Chapter 27

9 Heating and Cooling Introduction to Chapter 27 What process does a hot cup of coffee undergo as it cools? How does your bedroom become warm during the winter? How does the cooling system of a car work?

### 5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Energy and States of Matter 5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 5.1 At the top of the hill, all of the energy of the car is in the form of potential energy. As it descends down the hill, potential

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

### How does a microwave oven work?

last lecture Electromagnetic waves oscillating electric and magnetic fields c = c = 3x10 8 m/s or 186,282 miles/sec Radios using the tank circuit to emit and receive electromagnetic waves of a specific

### GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY

GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY Higher Tier Paper 5: Physics 1H H Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 15 minutes Materials For this paper you must have: a ruler a calculator the Physics Equation Sheet (enclosed).

### Grade 7 - Heat and Temperature Unit Test

Grade 7 - Heat and Temperature Unit Test Student Class 1. This type of Thermal Energy source can be used to cook food, but they are hard to control, dangerous and messy. A. open fires B. fireplaces C.

### 6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

### Review Chapter 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) Chapter 10

Review Chapter 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) Chapter 10 23) What prevents satellites such as a space shuttle from falling? A) gravity B) the absence of air drag C) Nothing; they're

### There is no such thing as heat energy

There is no such thing as heat energy We have used heat only for the energy transferred between the objects at different temperatures, and thermal energy to describe the energy content of the objects.

### UNIT 1 GCSE PHYSICS 1.1.1 Infrared Radiation 2011 FXA

1 All objects emit and absorb thermal radiation. The hotter an object is the infrared radiation it radiates in a given time. It is continually being transferred to and from all objects. The hotter the

### What Is Heat? What Is Heat?

What Is Heat? Paul shivered inside the wood cabin. It was cold outside, and inside the cabin it wasn t much warmer. Paul could hear the rain beating down on the roof. Every few minutes there would be a

### Temperature. PJ Brucat

PJ Brucat Temperature - the measure of average kinetic energy (KE) of a gas, liquid, or solid. KE is energy of motion. KE = ½ mv 2 where m=mass and v=velocity (speed) 1 All molecules have KE whether solid,

### Density Lab. If you get stuck or are uncertain, please ask questions and/or refer to the hints at the end of the lab. Name: Section: Due Date:

Name: Section: Due Date: Lab 01B-1 If you get stuck or are uncertain, please ask questions and/or refer to the hints at the end of the lab. Density Lab Density is an important concept in oceanography,

### Specific Volume of Liquid (Column 7). The volume per unit of mass in cubic feet per pound.

Steam Tables What They Are How to Use Them The heat quantities and temperature/ pressure relationships referred to in this Handbook are taken from the Properties of Saturated Steam table. Definitions of

### REASONING AND SOLUTION

39. REASONING AND SOLUTION The heat released by the blood is given by Q cm T, in which the specific heat capacity c of the blood (water) is given in Table 12.2. Then Therefore, T Q cm 2000 J 0.8 C [4186

### 05 Heat Transfer & its Applications

05 Heat Transfer & its Applications Heat Transfer & its Applications Objectives When you have completed study of this chapter you should be able to: Get familiar with the various types of heat transfer

### Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* PHYSICS 0625/04 Paper 4 Theory (Extended) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1

### Physics PH1FP. (Jun15PH1FP01) General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier June 2015. Unit Physics P1. Unit Physics P1 TOTAL

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials Question Mark Science A Unit Physics P1 Physics Unit Physics P1 Friday 12 June 2015 General

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

### Energy. Mechanical Energy

Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Electromagnetic Radiation Energy Definition of energy Ability to do work Physicist s definition of work Work = force x distance Force acting upon object over distance

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### Chapter 2: Forms of Energy

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To describe the forms of energy Section 2.2: To illustrate conversions from one form of energy to another Section 2.3: To define the efficiency

### Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

### A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2

North arolina Testing Program EO hemistry Sample Items Goal 4 1. onsider the spectrum for the hydrogen atom. In which situation will light be produced? 3. Which color of light would a hydrogen atom emit

### Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

### MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated