PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION AT HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE

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1 SR 215 Special Report 215 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION AT HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE David Schaefer December 1974 PREPARED FOR DIRECTORATE OF MILITARY CONSTRUCTION OFFICE, CHIEF OF ENGINEERS DA PROJECT 4A062103A894 BY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERI-NG LABOR A TORY HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE APPROVED FOR Pl JBLIC RELEASE ; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED.

2 The findings in this report are not to be construed as an oft'icial Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents.

3 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTAllATION AT HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE David Schaefer December 1974 P REE' ARED FOR DIRECTORATE OF MILITARY CONSTRUCTION OFFICE, CHIEF OF ENGINEERS DA PROJECT 4A062103A894 BY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. ARMY COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE APPRO V ED F O R P tj BL I C RELEASE ; DISTRIBUT I ON UNLI MI T EC.

4 ii PREFACE This report was prepared by David Schaefer, Research Civil Engineer, Alaskan Division, u.s. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. The investigations and construction of the roof system reported in this paper were conducted iwhile the author was a member of the Construction Engineering Research Branch, Experimental Engineering Division, USA C RREL. This work was funded by t he Directorate of Military Construction, Office of the Chief of Engineers, under DA Project 4A062103A894, Engineering in Cold Environments, Task 21. Cold Regions Building Systems for Military Installations, Work Unit 004, Evaluation of Inverted Membrane Roofs in Cold Regions. Technical review of the report was performed by Dr. Haldor W.C. Aamot and E.F. Clark of CRREL. The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products. Manuscript received 22 April 1974

5 Hi CONTENTS Page Preface ii Introduction 1 Existing conditions 1 Cootr~twmk 2 Bhld~ g 2 Cost analysis 3 Construction procedure 5 Instrumentation and preliminary results 5 Conclusions 5 Selected bibliography 6 Appendix A: Photographs of roof construction 7 Appendix B: Second floor plan, u.s. Army Cold Reg ions Research and Engineering Laboratory Abstract TABLES Table I. Bid breakdown supplied by contractor II. Materials cost III. Payroll and man-hours IV. Labor requirements based on tasks

6 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION AT HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE by David Schaefer Introduction For many years conventional multi-ply bituminous built-up roofing has served as the primary method of providing waterproof flat roofs for buildings. But the failure rate has been too high and has appeared to increase with increased use of insulation. Research to reduce this failure rate was generally concentrated on improving materials and workmanship. However, with the new generation of building materials - plastics - the basic procedures of roof construction could be drastically altered. The "protected membrane roof" has become practical because efficient, moistureresistant insulating materials are now available. Schaefer (1973) has shown that at least six types of elastomeric membrane materials are currently suitable, as are several foam plastic insulation materials. The protected membrane roof differs from conventional roofing in that the protective waterproof membrane is placed next to the structural deck, then thermal insulation is placed above the membrane and covered for protection. The cover also serves as ballast to prevent flotation and wind uplift in loose-laid designs. Water is allowed to flow past the cover and insulation to the membrane. The membrane resides in a protected position and is not s ubj ected to environmental and thermal stresses. In the loose-laid design it is attached to the building only at flashings and penetrations; hence, differential movements which can cause failure are greatly reduced. Several protected membrane roofs have been installed in the past two years. CRREL ha ~ been active in the instrumentation and performance monitoring of three such roofs. These include Building 1053 at Ft. Wainwright, Alaska; Air Rescue Alert Facility, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska; and the CRREL Laboratory at Hanover, N.H. Schaefer (1971) reported on the construction and costs of the Ft. Wainwright roof, but to date, little information has been available to guide the designer, contractor, or estimator on costs or construction procedures. This report covers the cost analysis and construction procedures for the installation of a protected membrane roof on the CRREL Laboratory at Hanover, N.H. Existing conditions The main CRREL building was constructed and occupied in The existing roof, which was replaced by the new protected membrane roof, covered the coldroom complex and soils laboratory. Appendix B shows the floor plan of the second story of this building and the area which required re-roofing, about 12,000 ft 2 The structural deck of this roof is a 5-in. reinforced concrete plate on supporting columns. The roof was originally intended as a possible area for a vertical laboratory extension; hence, the allowable dead load was 100 lb/ ft 2 The original insulation was lightweight foamed concrete sloped from 5 1 h to 3 in. for drainage. A conventional five-ply bituminous built-up roof with gravel was the original waterproof membrane.

7 2 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION The roof had a long history of leaks, especially around the penetrations and flashings. The underside of the roof is a high humidity area and hence large vapor pressure gradients exist. Coring of the original roof sandwich established that the lightweight concrete was saturated with moisture and had thus lost much of its insulation qualities. Contract work The contract work called for the removal and replacement of the existing roof membrane. The lightweight concrete was to be removed on the northern half of the roof and left in place on the southern half. An EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membrane was to be placed over the prepared surface and 3 to 4 in. of extruded polystyrene insulation boards placed on top of the membrane. This insulation was to be ballasted with 20-lb/ ft 2 concrete pavers. The membrane was to be loose-laid except at flashings, penetrations, and designated water stops. The contractor was to supply all materials for flashing, penetrations, and special problem areas. During construction the contractor was required to provide temporary protection to the coldrooms underneath the structural deck. The contract documents contained a special section describing conditions and limitations considered sufficient to fulfill requirements of temporary protection. Bidding Following normal government procedures, this project was advertised and the prospective bids were opened, only to find that they were twice the government estimate. All bids were rejected and a new bidding procedure was established that included the added feature of a pre-bid conference. Since the installation of a protected membrane roof was an innovation, it was felt that prospective bidders would be in a better position to provide resppnsive bids if they were familiar with the roof components. The revised bidding procedure featured the following steps: 1. Invitations to bid were sent directly to roofing and general contractors who might be interested in the roof, as well as advertised using normal procedures. 2. A pre-bid conference was held at CRREL where prospective bidders were given a briefing on the protected membrane concept, which included experiences gained at both Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska. Attending the conference were: a) prospective bidders, b) CRREL's facilities engineer, c) contract specialists from Natick Laboratories, d) repr~sentatives of materials manufacturers, e) research engineers working on the development of the protected membrane roof, f) the contracting officer's representatives, and g) CRRE L' s safety officer. During discussion with the contractors it was learned that the contract clause pertaining to protection of the building interior during inclement weather had been a factor in causing previous "high" bids. One participating contractor indicated that he would construct a temporary roof over the old one prior to exposing the deck. This discussion resulted in a change to the contract specifications. The change was to clearly state what kinds of protection would be acceptable, and thus the owner (CRREL) accepted some responsibility for possible damage to the building interior. Since the roof already leaked and water had in fact penetrated to the interior space on several occasions, it was felt that if this should happen during the placement of a new roof it would not materially increase existing damage. This change in specifications probably resulted in decreases of final bids by 20 to 30%.

8 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION 3 The final bid accepted by the government was for $52,140 or approximately $4.30/ft 2 While this was considerably over the estimate and more than previous experience in Alaska had indicated (Schaefer 1971), the bid was accepted, partly on the basis that the process was new to the area and that contractors traditionally tend to bid high on work involving unknown processes. Cost analysis The successful contractor began mobilization of equipment and materials the last week in May During construction he employed a maximum of eight men. His normal crew consisted of four men: two roofers and two laborers. Only during the laying of the insulation and pavers did he hire extra local labor, and these only on a part-time basis. Tables I-III show various breakdowns for labor and materials furnished under this contract. Some of the data presented in these tables were not available from the contractor but were solicited from suppliers in preparing the government estimate, and an estimated contractor markup was applied. Using these figures, the following data can be estimated: 1. Materials cost 2. Direct labor cost 3. Overhead, profit, and fringe benefits 4. Preparation of deck by removal of old roof 5. Labor per square 58% of contract price 12% of contract price 30% of contract price 15% of contract price man-hours Table 1. Bid breakdown supplied by contractor Includes labor, profit, overhead and material cost. Percent of Item Cost total contract Mobilization $ 2, Prepare north bay 6, Prepare south bay 1,830 3'..5 Furnish and install membrane 15, Furnish and install flashing 2, Furnish and install insulation 10, Furnish and install concrete pavers 12, Clean up $52, % Table n. Materials cost. Taken from figures quoted by various materials suppliers to CRREL researchers. Figures shown include estimated contractor markup. Materials Membrane Insulation Concrete pavers ( 1 5 /,. in.) Miscellaneous: drains, flashing, splicing, materials, etc. Equipment rental Total Unit cost $1.oo;re 0.20/ bd ft 0.60 ft 2 Project cost (est) $11,200 8,570 6,720 2,000 2,000 (est) $30,490

9 4 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION Table III. Payroll and man-hours. Hours Maximum Period Reg OT no. of men Payroll* 3 1 May to 6 June $ June to 13 June June to GO June June to 27 June June to 4 July July to 11 July , July to 18 July July to 25 July ~3 26 July to 1 Aug * Does not include fringe bene fits $6, Table IV. Labor requirements based on tasks. Time t o Percent of complete total job Task (man-hours) (man-hours) Prepue ncrth bay Prepue south bay Ins tall membrane, roorri>rane flashings, and field splices Install insulation arxl. pavers Install rootal flas hings and penetration boots 80 6 Miscellaneous 80 6 Totals % Previous estimates (Schaefer 1971) indicated that labor, materials and profit-overhead each contributed approximately 1 ;j of the total contract price. The figures for this contract indicate that this type of roofing is material-sensitive and not labor-sensitive. From payroll sheets furnished by the contractor, the following labor rates were obtained~ Roofer (foreman) Roofer Laborer $6.25/ hr 5.25/ hr 4.45/ hr These wages are generally in line with prevailing wages in the Hanover, N.H., area. Previous experience with this type of construction was in Alaska where wages were considerably higher. Previous reports (Schaefer Aamot 1972) indicate that about 8 man-hours per square was required to remove an existing built-up membrane and replace it with a protected membrane system. This previous experience, however, did not include removal and special preparation of lightweight concrete. In all likelihood, the contractor erred in his estimates of removal of the existing roof and lightweight concrete insulation. This is compensated for by a likely overestimation in labor requirements to install the membrane, which actually took only 48 man-hours for each half of the roof. To complete necessary penetrations and flashings took another 48 hours. Hence, total labor required to install the entire roof membrane in a completely watertight condition was less than 150 man-hours.

10 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION 5 From observations and records kwt by the contractor and the contracting officer's representatives, data on the man-hours expended on various tasks or operations were estimated (Table IV). If this had been a new structure, the time requirements would have been approximately 5.1 man-hours per square. This compares with estimates of 4.6 man-hours per square for installati_on of this type of roof on Building 1053 (Schaefer 1971). To apply a five-ply bituminous built-up roof with 4-in. insulation and vapor barrier requires 4 to 5 man-hours per square.* Construction procedure Since the structural deck was designed with 100 lb/ft 2 allowable dead load and 240 lblfe live load plus dead load, the contractor was able to use mechanical equipment on the roof. In removing the existing roofing material and the required lightweight concrete, the contractor used a Melrose Bobcat front-end loader. The freight elevator facilitated moving both materials and equipment to the roof. The contractor started with the preparation of the north half of the roof. It. required about three weeks' effort before the roof was ready for membrane placement. Once the membrane was in place, preparation of the south half was begun, while simultaneously insulation and pavers were placed on the north half. Preparation of the sloped lightweight concrete on the south half was accomplished by filling pits and voids caused by the removal of the built-up membrane with a sand-cement slurry. This was necessary since the membrane had to be placed on a smooth surface to facilitate drainage. Prior to actual placement of insulation and pavers, the membrane was flooded with 4 in. of water to check for leaks. Those found were not due to improper sealing, but due to carelessness in keeping the membrane clean during and after laying; several small rocks from dirty shoes, etc. had been punched through the membrane. This occurred on the north half of the membrane only, since more care was taken later on the south half of the membrane. Inclement weather during the construction period shut down operations for several days at a stretch. Only during the first two weeks did the crew work a full 40 hours. The increase in manpower during the last three weeks was necessary to finish within the allotted time. The extra help was used to lay insulation and pavers. Instrumentation and preliminary results This roof was instrumented, and a program to monitor temperatures, heat flow, dew points and water runoff was initiated. Data from this program are now being collected and reduced but preliminary findings indicate that performance is as expected. Aamot (1971) defines roof performance efficiency TJ as the ratio of theoretical to actual energy loss. Efficiencies above 100% are possible by this definition and can occur, for example, during periods of thermal input due to radiation from the sun. Theoretical energy loss is based on the difference between the inside and outside air temperatures. Data from October 1972 indicate that TJ was above 100% for most of the month. Conclusions 1. This is a new type of roofing system and contractors are naturally cautious with new developments. Tactics such as pre-bid conferences are valuable in two ways : a) the contractor becomes familiar with the process-, and b) the owner may be able to spot areas in the specifications that contribute to high bids. These areas can then be changed if conditions are such that lower performance criteria can be tolerated. *An actual cost estimate using the 32nd Annual Edition of Building Construction Cost Data 1974, Robert snow Means co., Inc., indicates that actual time to place would be 4.69 man-hours per square.

11 6 PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION 2. Indications are that for the contiguous 48 states, at least, the protected membrane system is material-sensitive. Direct labor costs amounted to only 12% of the total contract price, while material costs were 58%. 3. Even with the pre-bid conference there is reason to believe the contractor overestimated the man-hour requirements necessary for membrane placement. This indicates that a greater effort should be undertaken to familiarize contractors with membrane materials and ease of handling. 4. Preliminary results indicate that the completed roof performs as designed and as the literature predicts. For one month shortly after installation, efficiencies greater than 100% were noted. Selected bibliography Aamot, H.W.C. (1971) Flat roof performance evaluation. U.S.Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (USA CRREL) Technical Note (internal). Aamot, H.W.C. (1972) Mid-winter installations of protected membrane roofs. USA CRREL Internal Report. Aamot, H.W.C. (1973) Thermal efficiency measurements on a protected membrane roof. USA CRREL Technical Note (internal). Aamot, H.W.C. and o. Schaefer (1972) Roofs for cold regions. The Military Engineer, May-June. Baker, M.C. and c.p. Hedlin (1972) Protected membrane roof. Canadian Building Digest, NRC Canada. Schaefer, D. (1971) Installation of loose laid inverted roof system at Ft. Wainwright, Alaska. USA CRREL Technical Note (internal). Schaefer, o. ( 1973) Protected membrane roofing materials, a product survey. USA CRREL Technical Note (internal).

12 7 APPENDIX A: PHOTOGRAPHS OF ROOF CONSTRUCTION a. B eginning removal of built-up membrane on north half of roof. b. Melrose Bobcat.with forks, used to lift membtane on south half of roof. Figure Al. Removal of existing root.

13 8 APPENDIX A c. Bobcat with front-end loader used to remove lightweight insulating concrete. d. Roof drains on north side were lowered to structural deck level. Figure Al (cont'd). Removal of existing roof.

14 APPENDIX A 9 a. Water being squeezed from fiberglass expansion joint material. b. Light-colored (right) piece of insulating con crete was dry; the piece on left was saturated with moisture. Figure A2. Deteriorated lightweight concrete.

15 10 APPENDIX A c. Some of the insulating concrete had deteriorated to the point that it acted more like fresh concrete. d. Evidence of extent of deterioration. Figure A2 ( cont'd). FJeteriorated.Jigh tweigh t concrete.

16 APPENDIX A 11 a. A slurry of concrete-sand was placed in those areas where the builtj-up membrane had adhered to the insulating con crete, causing dips and depressions. b. The original slope to the drain was maintained on the south half of the roof. Figure A3. Leveling south half of roof.

17 12 APPENDIX A a. Six-mil polyethylene film was laid over exposed structural deck and lightly ballasted. b. Temporary roof drain where existing drain had been removed to lower it to structural deck level. Figure A4. Temporary protection.

18 APPENDIX A 13 a. Insulation and concrete pavers lor ballast. b. Four rolls of EPDM sheet material, sufficient to cover the 70 x 100-ft roof. Figure A5. Storage of materials.

19 11 APPENDIX A a. Special water cutoffs were installed on the north half to prevent water migration under the membrane, in the event of a leak. This facilitated finding possible leaks. The north half of the roof had no slope. The structural deck and membrane were painted with a strip of sealant. b. Two-in.-wide gum tape was applied and the membrane placed over this and rolled to insure a positive seal. Figure.A6. Water cut-off.

20 APPENDIX A 15 a. Both laps were cleaned with solvent to remove talc applied at the factory. b. Laps were painted with a manufacturer's recomm ended lap sealant. Figure A7. Field splicing the waterproof memb rane.

21 16 APPENDIX A c. Six-in.-wide gummed tape was applied to assure a continuous watertight bond between both membrane laps. d. Adhesion of laps was assured by carefully smoothing and rolling. A final step was the placement of a bead of sealing compound where the upper and lower laps joined. Figure A7 (cont'd). Field splicing the waterproof membrane.

22 APPENDIX A 17 a. Condition after removal of existing roof and old metal flashing. b. Two by twelve planks were nailed to the wall to provide a smooth surface. Membrane and wall were glued with recommended materials. Figure AB. Membrane flashing at wall-roof intersection.

23 18 APPENDIX A c. Membrane being adhered to wall. Height of wall lap should be 10. in. or more. d. Membrane counter flashing and side wall lap were prepared by painting with mastic. Figure A8 (cont'd). Membran e flashing at wall-root intersection.

24 APPENDIX i4 19 e. The counter flashing was taped with two strips of gum tape, one to adhere the flashing to the membrane side lap, and a 2-in.-wide strip to adhere the flashing to the wall above the side lap. -- ~iiiiiiil f. The membrane flashing was attached to the side wall and smoothed in place. The final step was to straighten the existing metal cap flashing. Figure AB (cont'd). Membrane flashing at wall-roof intersection.

25 20 APPENDIX A a. After the area was cleaned, sealant was applied to the membrane. b. Sealant was applied to the preformed boot. Figure A9. Penetration preparation.

26 APPENDIX A. 21 c. Six-in. gummed tape was applied around the perimeter. d. The penetration boot was pulled in place and adhered to the deck. Figure A9 (cont'd). Penetration preparation.

27 22 APPENDIX A a. After the membrane was cut and fitted over the penetration, procedures were basically the same as for installing the base flashing. b. Insulation and pavers were cut and fitted around penetration. Figure AlO. Ventilator penetration.

28 APPENDIX A 23 a. Intersection of metal counter flashing and second story. b. Care was taken to prevent hot solder from damaging the membrane. Figure All. Metal counter flashings.

29 24 APPENDIX A a. Polystyrene insulation was chamfered to allow channels for water passage. The chamfered side was placed down..";~- - :" ~-... \ - -. "'... ~ ~ -- b. Insulation and pavers were placed simultaneously to prevent wind damage during placement. Figure Al2. Insulation and pavers.

30 APPENDIX A 25 I I j I ) I c. In sulation placed in two layers should be placed so that joints are staggered. This prevents thermal bridges and thus reduces heat loss. d. Completed roof provides a terrace. Figure A12.(cont'd). Insulation and pavers.

31 26 APPENDIX A a. Measurements of microclimate were made above roof surface. These included wind, temperature at various levels, net radiation and de,w point. b. Heat flow meter was inserted into structural deck to measure heat flow into roof sandwich. Figure Al3. Instrumentation.

32 ROOF ROOF 2 0 ~ a: a: >- "'...J "'"' u...j a:.. z -... "'...J ~ ~ :1! z 8 R 0 0 F TRAVEL 223 MAIL 8 MESS AGE ROOM 22 4 RE PROOUCTION PR INTING 2 46 LIBRARY COMP T ROLL ER 10 SCALE 237 zo 30 FE ET OFFICE 40 ~ ;I> co 0 ~ ;I> ~ ~ ro -...]

33 Unclassified Security Classification DOCUMENT CONTROL OAT A R & D :'Security classification ol title, body of ea.trect and indexinl annotation muat be entered when the overall report Ia classified) ' ORIG I NATI NG ACTIVITY (Corporate author) U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Hanover, New Hampshire 241, REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Unclassified 2b. GROUP 29 ::1. REPORT T l TL E PROTECTED MEMBRANE ROOFING SYSTEM INSTALLATION AT HANOVER, NEW HAMPSHIRE 4. DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (Type of report and Inclusive dates) ~ - AUTHORIS J (Firat name, middle initial, /eat name) David Schaefer e. RE.POR_1 OA TE ~ December 1974 'ea." ~ 0 N T R A C T 0 R G R A '" 1' N 0. b. "' " 0 JEc T No. DA Project 4A062103A894 Task 21, Work Unit 004 c. 7a. TOTAL NO. OF PAGES 29 Ga. 0 RIGIN A TOR'S REPORT N \.IM'BE R(SI Special Report 215 Gb. OTHER REPORT NOISI (Any other numbera that may bo aaal/lned thla report) d. I R-II:l_l_J T-:-0-P..'_S_T_A_T_E_M_E_N_T J Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ~~~-.~SU~P=P~L-E~M-E_N_T_A_R~Y-N-O~T-E-S ~~ ABSTRACT -SP_O_N_S_O_R_I_N_G_M_I_L_11-. A-R_Y A_C_T-IV_I_T_Y Directorate of Military Construction Office, Chief of Engineers Washin{rton D.C. Protected membrane roofing is a relatively new concept that is currently under development by USA CRREL A major problem with continued development is the reluctance of designers and contractors to specify and bid on this roofing procedure. This paper reports on the construction of a protected membrane roof on the CRREL laboratory at Hanover, N.H. It includes discussions of the bidding procedure, cost breakdown as supplied by the contractor and photographic coverage of the various construction procedures. The concept proved to be material-sensitive rather than labor-sensitive (labor costs 12% of total, materials 58%). A pre-bid conference with potential bidders was found to be valuable. The completed roof has performed satisfactorily. 14. KEY WORDS Cold weather construction Insulation Roofing Roofs DD.': ~L.AC.8 DO ~ORM t 71, I.IAN N, WHICH 18 o.o&.. T.,o... Y ue. '{;:( U. S. GOVERNM ENT PRINTING OFFICE: security thcation

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