# Printed Dipole Antenna

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Printed Dipole Antenna Reto Zingg Abstract In this project a printed dipole antenna is being designed. Printed dipole antennas are of interest, when an electronic product, which is implemented on a printed circuit board (PCB) is in need of a cheap, compact antenna. This antenna has a fairly isotropic pattern, which makes it a good transmitter / receiver for portable devices. This design is based on the US patent held by Motorola [1]. It was originally designed for portable pager device for operation in the 900 MHz band. For this design the dipole as suggested by the patent was slightly remodeled and adopted to the 400 MHz band. The antenna was built and measured. Index Terms Printed dipole, resonant antenna, compact antenna I. INTRODUCTION Printed antennas are very popular because of their ease of fabrication. If the antenna is to be implemented on the same PCB as the circuitry, practically no additional costs arise. For a system where an isotropic pattern is required, as for example in a portable device, a dipole is a good and easy approach. To get a good performance out of a dipole, one likes to design it as resonant dipole. This requires the dipole to be slightly less then half a wavelength long. A good guess is 0.47 times the wavelength [3]. We can calculate the length of the resonant dipole with the equation (I-1). rd v = 0.47 λ = (I-1) f Where v is the actual propagation speed on the dipole radials. This speed depends on the effective dielectric constant of the environment surrounding the radials. We can calculate the speed with the equation (I-). c v = (I-) ε eff Where c is the speed of light in vacuum and ε eff is the effective dielectric constant of the surrounding media. The effective dielectric constant for a printed radial on a substrate depends on the geometry and the dielectric constant of the substrate. We can calculate the effective dielectric constant for a narrow trace using equation (I-3) [4] ε eff ε r + 1 ε r 1 1 h = + 1+ w w h 1 (I-3) Where h is the thickness of the substrate, w the width of the trace and ε r the relative dielectric constant of the substrate used. II. DESIGN Using the equations introduced in section I we design a resonant printed dipole for 433 MHz. We use a standard FR-4 PCB with an estimated ε r of two at 433MHz and a thickness of 1.5mm. The trace width for the radials we set to 0.65mm. First we calculate the effective dielectric constant using equation (I-3): ε eff = ( 0.5) = 1. 6 With the effective dielectric constant we can calculate the speed on the radials with equation (I-): F m (II-1) m v = = (II-) 1.6 s With this speed we can go now into equation (I-1) to get the length of the resonant printed dipole on our PCB: rd = 0.47 = 5. 7cm (II-3) So, if we want a device to operate at 433 MHz and want to have a resonant dipole, our device shouldn t be smaller then 6cm. That s not very practical. The idea is now to shorten the physical extent further by folding the dipole antenna. With this approach, we can reduce the length of the dipole again by a factor of two (ideally). Then we are at the length of University of Colorado at Boulder - 1 -

2 rd 5.7 = = = 1. cm (II-4) fd 9 This is more of what we are looking for. If we would use a frequency of 900 MHz this even reduces to 6.cm (assumed ε r of the dielectric is constant over the frequency range). and the antenna radials (b). Figure III-4 shows the S11 parameter of this configuration. It clearly shows the resonance with 17dB at 433MHz (marker M1). III. RESULTS / EXAMPLES A. Simulations As the length calculated in (II-4) is based on the assumption that the physical extent is halved if we bend the radials, we now simulate a model of the antenna and find the resonant length for 433MHz. The model that will be used for these simulations is shown in Figure III-1. Figure III- and Figure III-3 show the top and bottom layer of the PCB separately. The radials on opposite sides of the PCB are connected at the outer ends with vias. The ground plane is introduced to reproduce the effect of electric circuitry on the PCB. b a Figure III-4 S11, b=30mm Figure III-5 shows the Smithchart of the same configuration. The upper of the two squares in the loop is at 433 MHz. The loop shows that the antenna is resonant at this frequency. It also shows that the design with the folded radials seems to be stable (i.e. no additional resonance). Figure III-1 Top view dipole, all layers Figure III- Top view dipole, top layer Figure III-5 Smithchart, b=30mm Figure III-3 Top view dipole, bottom layer After several simulations the resonant length (a) for 433MHz was found. It is at 05mm for an estimated ε r of. A separation of 3cm was used between the ground plane Figure III-6 shows the input impedance (Z11) of the antenna. Once again the resonance is clearly visible. We can read out an input-impedance of 40Ω. This is already quiet close to 50Ω, which would be very convenient. University of Colorado at Boulder - -

3 Figure III-6 Z11, b=30mm How are these characteristics influenced by the design parameters? To find that out some variations of the design have been simulated. First the distance between the ground plane and the antenna radials (b) has been reduced to cm. As the nearby ground plane loads down the antenna we expect a less strong resonance. In Figure III-7 we see that the resonance was shifted towards higher frequencies and that S11 at resonance increased from 17dB (with 3cm distance between ground and the radials) to 8.3dB. Figure III-8 Smithchart, b=0mm Figure III-9 Z11, b=0mm Figure III-7 S11, b=0mm In Figure III-8 can also be seen that the loop got smaller, which indicates a weaker resonance. Finally Figure III-9 shows that we have an input-impedance of 7.5Ω at resonance. Now what happens if the radials are moved away from the ground plane? In Figure III-10, Figure III-11 and Figure III-1 the results of a simulation is presented, where the distance between the ground plane and the radials (b) is 40mm. In Figure III-10 we see that the resonant frequency has been moved to a lower frequency and that S11 at resonance decreased from -17dB to db. This is no big change for an increase in used space for the antenna of 33%. Also the Smithchart (compare Figure III-5 and Figure III-11) has no large change. The input impedance at resonance even decreased slightly. From this results we can say, that a distance of the radials from the ground plane (b) of 30mm is enough and a further increase doesn't bring any advantage but uses valuable PCB space. University of Colorado at Boulder - 3 -

4 How about other parameters like the ground plane width relative to the radial length? Let's extend the ground plane as shown in Figure III-13 and have a look at the simulation results. The antenna length (a) was kept at the resonant length of 05mm, the distance between ground plane and the radials (b) was set to 30mm and the ground plane was extended on both sides by 30mm, resulting in a total width of 65mm (c). c b a Figure III-13 All layers, extended ground plane Figure III-10 S11, b=40mm In Figure III-14, Figure III-15 and Figure III-16 the results of the simulation of the antenna with extended ground plane is shown. The resonant frequency was lowered from 433Mhz to 44Mhz. This might indicate that the edge of the ground plane is also working as a part of the antenna. Most interesting is the decrease of the S11 parameter from -17dB to -3dB at resonance. Figure III-11 Smithchart, b=40mm Figure III-14 S11, wide ground plane, c=65mm Also in the Smithchart (Figure III-15) the stronger resonance is obvious (larger loop). The input impedance we can read out of Figure III-16 is 56Ω. Figure III-1 Z11, b=40mm University of Colorado at Boulder - 4 -

5 shows the top and bottom view of antenna. Table III-1 shows the dimensions of the antennas. b a Figure III-15 Smithchart, c=65mm Figure III-17 Antenna top and bottom view b Figure III-16 Z11, c=65mm a B. Discussion of Simulation Results If we compare now the different results of the simulations we come to the conclusion, that the length of the radials (a) determines the resonant frequency (which is obvious from the theory). The ground plane near the antenna further influences the resonance frequency. Here both of the two investigated parameters, width of the ground plane and distance from the radials, influence the resonant frequency. The further away the ground plane, the lower the resonant frequency. The wider the ground plane, the lower the resonant frequency. This brings up the question if a part of the ground plane works as antenna. Furthermore the ground plane influences the "strength" of the resonance and therefore the input impedance. The further away the ground plane, the stronger the resonance. C. Measurements To verify the theory and the simulation results, two printed dipole antennas have been built and measured. Figure III-17 shows the top and bottom view of antenna. Figure III-18 Figure III-18 Antenna top and bottom view Table III-1 Dimensions of prototype antennas Antenna Antenna Substrate material FR-4 PCB FR-4 PCB Substrate thickness 1.5 mm 1.5 mm Width (a) 180 mm 180 cm Ground distance (b) 17 mm 5 mm Tuning style Outer end shortening Inner end shortening First the input impedance of the two antennas was measured with a network analyzer. This measurement was performed inside the laboratory. The antenna was kept away from metallic objects as far as possible. Of course the ground plane on the PCB and also the connecting cable will always be close to the antenna. University of Colorado at Boulder - 5 -

6 The two prototype antennas are same, except for the distance between the radials and the ground plane (b). Antenna has a distance of b=17mm, antenna a distance of b=5mm. The two antennas have been mechanically tuned to a resonance at 433MHz. This was done by simply shortening the radials until the resonance occurred at 433MHz. Antenna was tuned by shortening the outer end of the antenna (bends around the PCB), antenna was tuned by shortening the inner end of the antenna (end of radials close to feed). The antennas have an extent of a=180mm. This is close to the simulated 05mm. The difference can be explained due to an incorrectly assumed ε r =. In the following figures the S11 plots and Smithcharts of the two antennas are presented. Figure III-19 shows the S11 Parameter of antenna. At 433MHz we have 8.6dB. Figure III-1 shows S11 of antenna. Note the different vertical resolution compared to Figure III-19. Antenna has an S11 at 433MHz of 1.4dB. This is what we expected from the simulations. Figure III-1 Measured S11, antenna The Smithchart in Figure III- shows again the resonance at 433MHz and an input impedance of 56 + j19 Ω Figure III-19 Measured S11, antenna Figure III-0 shows the S11 Smithchart of antenna. Also here is the loop of resonance clearly visible. The additional two loops indicate resonance of higher order or other modes. These were not visible in the simulation results, as they occur above the simulation limit of 500MHz. The measured input impedance at 433MHz of antenna is 47 + j34 Ω. Figure III-0 Measured Smithchart, antenna Figure III- Measured Smithchart, antenna D. Far Field Radiation Pattern The far field radiation pattern of the antenna with a distance between the radials and the ground plane of 30mm was simulated and is shown in Figure III-3 and Figure III-7. The coordinate system for the simulations and measurements is defined by the following: The PCB where the antenna is printed on lies in the x-y plane, where the radials are in the direction of the x-axis. The positive y direction goes from the radials to the ground plane. The positive z-axis rises perpendicular from the top plane of the antenna. The graphs have been rotated in such a manner, that the curves can be compared directly (measurement and simulation uses different angle definitions). The measurements show the E-fields in phi direction (as much as a separation is possible with the used antennas). As transmitter was antenna used. A constant power level of 7.5 Watts at 433 MHz was applied to the antenna. The University of Colorado at Boulder - 6 -

8 G P = r 4 ( π R) P λ t (III-) As gain is not taking mismatch in account, the measured power values have to be adjusted to take the mismatch in account. P = P t measured t measured Pr Pr = 1 s 11 ( 1 s11 ) = = 51.8pW = = 6.68W (III-3) Figure III-7 Simulated E-field pattern in y-z plane Using the parameters of the measurement and assuming the two antennas have the same gain we get G = ( 4 π 33) = (III-4) This is a rather small gain. As we use antenna, which has only a distance of 17 mm between the radials and the ground plane, we can assume that the gain of antenna with 5 mm distance between the radials and the ground plane is considerably larger. Also was the transmitter antenna not exactly oriented for maximum directivity. IV. CONCLUSIONS A resonant dipole antenna for the frequency of 433 MHz has been designed which uses a space of 18 cm by.5 cm at the edge of a PCB. Measurement and Simulation results have been presented. From these results, we can conclude that such an antenna is convenient for a design of a base station of a portable device such as a hand-held remote control. Further investigation of the effect of the ground plane size would be interesting. Design alterations to increase radiation efficiency are necessary. Figure III-8 Measured phi directed power-pattern in y-z plane E. Gain Even though no standard gain antenna for the used frequency of 433 MHz was available, a rough measurement should show the approximate gain of the antenna. Using antenna as transmitter and antenna as receiver, we try to calculate the gain of the system. Using Friis transmission formula [3] Pt Gt Gr λ P = r ( 4 π R) the total gain of the system can be calculated (III-1) V. REFERENCES [1] US Patent 5,495,60 Motorola Inc., Schaumburg, Ill. [] FCC Part 15 regulations [3] Antenna Theory and Design Warren L. Stutzmann Garry A. Thiele ISBN [4] High-Speed Digital Design Howard Johnson Martin Graham ISBN University of Colorado at Boulder - 8 -

### ANTENNAS APPLICATIONS FOR RF MODULE

ANTENNAS APPLICATIONS FOR RF MODULE Introduction: There seems to be little information on compact antenna design for the low power wireless field. Good antenna design is required to realize good range

### National Laboratory of Antennas and Microwave Technology Xidian University Xi an, Shaanxi 710071, China

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 76, 237 242, 2007 A BROADBAND CPW-FED T-SHAPE SLOT ANTENNA J.-J. Jiao, G. Zhao, F.-S. Zhang, H.-W. Yuan, and Y.-C. Jiao National Laboratory of Antennas and Microwave

### Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking

Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking Larry B Kuechle, Advanced Telemetry Systems, Inc. Isanti, Minnesota 55040 lkuechle@atstrack.com The receiving antenna is an integral part of any radio location

### EM Noise Mitigation in Circuit Boards and Cavities

EM Noise Mitigation in Circuit Boards and Cavities Faculty (UMD): Omar M. Ramahi, Neil Goldsman and John Rodgers Visiting Professors (Finland): Fad Seydou Graduate Students (UMD): Xin Wu, Lin Li, Baharak

### Connectivity in a Wireless World. Cables Connectors 2014. A Special Supplement to

Connectivity in a Wireless World Cables Connectors 204 A Special Supplement to Signal Launch Methods for RF/Microwave PCBs John Coonrod Rogers Corp., Chandler, AZ COAX CABLE MICROSTRIP TRANSMISSION LINE

### Antennas and Propagation. Chapter 3: Antenna Parameters

Antennas and Propagation : Antenna Parameters Introduction Purpose Introduce standard terms and definitions for antennas Need a common language to specify performance Two types of parameters 1. Radiation

### ANTENNAS FOR LOW POWER APPLICATIONS By Kent Smith

ANTENNAS FOR LOW POWER APPLICATIONS By Kent Smith Introduction: There seems to be little information on compact antenna design for the low power wireless field. Good antenna design is required to realize

### Antenna Considerations. The space available for an antenna The proximity to neighbours The operating frequencies you will use The output power Money

Antennas A good antenna works A bad antenna is a waste of time & money Antenna systems can be very inexpensive and simple They can also be very, very expensive Antenna Considerations The space available

### Antenna Design First Semester Report

Antenna Design First Semester Report Fall 2011 By: Nate Hufnagel John James Prabhat Lamsal Prepared to partially fulfill the requirements for ECE 401 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Colorado

### Hardware Design Considerations for MCR20A IEEE Devices

Freescale Semiconductor Application Note Document Number: AN5003 Rev. 0, 07/2015 Hardware Design Considerations for MCR20A IEEE 802.15.4 Devices 1 Introduction This application note describes Printed Circuit

### An octave bandwidth dipole antenna

An octave bandwidth dipole antenna Abstract: Achieving wideband performance from resonant structures is challenging because their radiation properties and impedance characteristics are usually sensitive

### Review Paper for Broadband CPW-Fed T-Shape Slot Antenna

Review Paper for Broadband CPW-Fed T-Shape Slot Antenna Shahpure Sana 1, Bharate Rajashri 2, Prof. Jadhav D.A. 3 1,2 BE, Dept. of E&TC, Brahmdevdada Mane Institute of Technology, Dist. Solapur (Maharashtra)

### Designing Log Periodic Antennas

Designing Log Periodic Antennas By Glen Dash, Ampyx LLC, GlenDash at alum.mit.edu Copyright 2000, 2005 Ampyx LLC Lightweight and precise, the log periodic has become a favorite among EMC engineers. In

### Microwave Measurements with Network Analyzer Design of RFID Antenna. In the Course Circuit Theory By: Johan Sidén

Microwave Measurements with Network Analyzer Design of RFID Antenna In the Course Circuit Theory By: By: 1(9) In this laboratory work you will show your classmates that you can get the best resonance on

### PRINTED LOOP ANTENNA INTEGRATED INTO A COMPACT, OUTDOOR WLAN ACCESS POINT WITH DUAL-POLARIZED RADIATION

Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 19, 25 35, 2011 PRINTED LOOP ANTENNA INTEGRATED INTO A COMPACT, OUTDOOR WLAN ACCESS POINT WITH DUAL-POLARIZED RADIATION S.-W. Su Network Access Strategic Business

### λ/4 printed monopole antenna for 2.45GHz

λ/4 printed monopole antenna for 2.45GHz 1. Preface Taking the demand for small size, easy fabrication and low cost into account in the development of low-power radio devices for short-range 2.4GHz applications,

### Consequence for a dualband application

rel. bandwidth -6dB [%] DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR INTEGRATED MOBILE PHONE ANTENNAS D. Manteuffel, A. Bahr, D. Heberling, I. Wolff IMST GmbH, Germany, e-mail: manteuffel@imst.de Abstract Based on the investigation

### Nick R3RWF. Balanced Tuner

66.5 ft (20.27m) 66.5 ft (20.27m) Note:- Half Size Doublet covering the 40m-10m bands 51 ft (16m) 450 Ohm Balanced Tuner Doublets can use either 450 ohm ladder-line for his feeder back to the shack but

### APPLICATION NOTE. AT09567: ISM Band PCB Antenna Reference Design. Atmel Wireless. Features. Description

APPLICATION NOTE Features AT09567: ISM Band PCB Antenna Reference Design Atmel Wireless Compact PCB antennas for 915MHz and 2.4GHz ISM bands Easy to integrate Altium design files and gerber files Return

### Newcomers and Elmers Net : Basic Antenna Theory

Newcomers and Elmers Net 7-7-13: Basic Antenna Theory Radio Waves Radio waves are a combination of both an electric field and a magnetic field traveling perpendicular to one another at roughly the speed

### San Jose State University. Antenna Project. EE172 Extra Credit Project

San Jose State University Antenna Project EE172 Extra Credit Project Ivan Moon, Teera Songatikamas, and Ryan Wall 12/20/2009 ABSTRACT Two antennas will be designed, constructed, and tested to operate at

### Mutual Inductance Matching for Small Loop Antennas

Mutual Inductance Matching for Small Loop Antennas by Alan Bensky Loop antennas are one of the most popular and widespread antenna types for small wireless products, particularly those operating in UHF

### Antenna Glossary Before we talk about specific antennas, there are a few common terms that must be defined and explained:

Antenna Basics Introduction Antennas are a very important component of communication systems. By definition, an antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an electromagnetic

### 2/20/2009 3 Transmission Lines and Waveguides.doc 1/3. and Waveguides. Transmission Line A two conductor structure that can support a TEM wave.

2/20/2009 3 Transmission Lines and Waveguides.doc 1/3 Chapter 3 Transmission Lines and Waveguides First, some definitions: Transmission Line A two conductor structure that can support a TEM wave. Waveguide

### Just a Dipole. Gary Wescom N0GW July 16, 2007

Just a Dipole Gary Wescom N0GW July 16, 2007 Often we will hear people describing their antennas as just a dipole. After all, a coax cable fed, half wavelength dipole is one of the simplest antennas to

### Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Phone (603) 627-7877 FAX: (603) 627-1764 Email: sbest@cushcraft.com

### Are you. you should from your

Are you gaining what you should from your antenna? An overview of antenna design considerations is presented. The design considerations include system requirements, antenna selection, antenna placement,

### Design of a Planar Omnidirectional Antenna for Wireless Applications

Design of a Planar Omnidirectional Antenna for Wireless Applications Randy Bancroft and Blaine Bateman Centurion Wireless Technologies Westminster, Colorado Abstract Omnidirectional antennas are of great

### AN3359 Application note

Application note Low cost PCB antenna for 2.4GHz radio: Meander design 1 Introduction This application note is dedicated to the STM32W108 product family from STMicroelectronics. One of the main reasons

### Embedded FM/TV Antenna System

1 Embedded FM/TV Antenna System Final Report Prepared for By January 21, 2011 2 Table of Contents 1 Introduction... 5 2 Technical Specification... 6 3 Prototype Antenna... 7 4 FASTROAD Active module fabrication...

### 2.4 GHz Yagi-Uda Antenna

P a g e 1 EE 172 Extra Credit Project 2.4 GHz Yagi-Uda Antenna Created by Mario Delgadillo Maringan Pardamean Panggabean P a g e 2 Abstract This report will define antenna theory and design as it relates

### Connected U-Slots Patch Antenna for WiMAX Applications

Connected U-Slots Patch Antenna for WiMAX Applications Hattan F. AbuTarboush (1), D. Budimir (2), R. Nilavalan (1) and H. S. Al-Raweshidy (1) (1) Wireless Network and Communication Centre (WNCC), School

### Flexible PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2

Flexible PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2 CONTENTS 1. BASICS 2. APPLICATIONS 3. SIZE 4. SHAPE 5. GROUND PLANE SIZE 6. IMPEDANCE 7. BANDWIDTH 8. VSWR 9. GAIN 10. EFFICIENCY

### Remotely tuned 1m Dia HF loop antenna for 7 to 29MHz. Martin Ehrenfried - G8JNJ

Remotely tuned 1m Dia HF loop antenna for 7 to 29MHz Martin Ehrenfried - G8JNJ The following is a description of a prototype loop antenna I've been constructing. The big challenge with all small loop designs

### RFID Receiver Antenna Project for 13.56 Mhz Band

RFID Receiver Antenna Project for 13.56 Mhz Band Fatih Eken TE 401 Microwave Course Term Project, Fall 2004 Supervised by Asst. Prof. İbrahim Tekin Telecommunication Program in Faculty of Engineering and

### PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2

PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2 CONTENTS 1. BASICS 2. APPLICATIONS 3. SIZE 4. SHAPE 5. GROUND PLANE SIZE 6. BANDWIDTH 7. VSWR 8. GAIN 9. EFFICIENCY 10. TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGES

### Time and Frequency Domain Analysis for Right Angle Corners on Printed Circuit Board Traces

Time and Frequency Domain Analysis for Right Angle Corners on Printed Circuit Board Traces Mark I. Montrose Montrose Compliance Services 2353 Mission Glen Dr. Santa Clara, CA 95051-1214 Abstract: For years,

### 40m-10m DELTA LOOP ANTENNA - GU3WHN

This simple broad band antenna is easy to build, has gain similar to that of a dipole and is tolerant of nearby objects. It can be erected in almost any configuration provided the wires are well separated

### 7.4 Slotted-cylinder antennas

7.4 Slotted-cylinder antennas As illustrated in Figure 7-3, a slot in an infinite plane is equivalent to a dipole of the same dimensions. In practice, a sheet much bigger than the slot is a nearly infinite

### Antenna Basic Concepts

ANTENNA An antenna is a device to transmit and/or receive electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are often referred to as radio waves. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently

### Insight on mobile phones and communication system:

Introduction: Rapid progresses are being made in wireless communications to make interactive voice, data and even video services available anytime and anyplace. Nowadays mobile phones are becoming ubiquitous.

### Basic Wire Antennas. Part II: Loops and Verticals

Basic Wire Antennas Part II: Loops and Verticals A loop antenna is composed of a single loop of wire, greater than a half wavelength long. The loop does not have to be any particular shape. RF power can

### 1 Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC)

Wire Antenna Modelling with NEC-2 1 Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) The software Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC-2) has been developed in the 1970s in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore,

### Sensor and Simulation Notes. Note 479. October 2003. A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna

Sensor and Simulation Notes Note 479 October 2003 A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna Leland H. Bowen and Everett G. Farr Farr Research, Inc. Dean I. Lawry Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed

### Antenna Deployment Technical Brief

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

### BAR mxtend TM AN for 2G/3G/4G Handsets (BAR mxtend).

BAR mxtend TM AN for 2G/3G/4G Handsets (BAR mxtend). 698-798 MHz or 824-960 MHz or 1710-2690 MHz Fractus Antennas specializes in enabling effective mobile communications. Using Fractus Antennas technology,

### AVR2006: Design and characterization of the Radio Controller Board's 2.4GHz PCB Antenna. Application Note. Features.

AVR26: Design and characterization of the Radio Controller Board's 2.4GHz PCB Antenna Features Radiation pattern Impedance measurements WIPL design files NEC model Application Note 1 Introduction This

### Enhanced Stripline Scanning Array B.M. Cahill and J.C. Batchelor

Enhanced Stripline Scanning Array B.M. Cahill and J.C. Batchelor This paper is a postprint of a paper submitted to and accepted for publication in IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation and is subject

### RFTECHNOLOGY. European Microwave Week Conference Preview and Technical Program Highlights INSIDE THIS ISSUE: DESIGN NEWS RF FUNDAMENTALS

RFTECHNOLOGY I N T E R N A T I O N A L www.rfti.com A worldwide forum for engineering ideas and information September 2012 INSIDE THIS ISSUE: European Microwave Week Conference Preview and Technical Program

### Printed Omni Directional Wi-Fi Antenna for 5.6 GHz Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW

Printed Omni Directional Wi-Fi Antenna for 5.6 GHz Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com Why printed antenna? Building antenna on SHF is associated with problems of manufacturing its parts with

### Design of an U-slot Folded Shorted Patch Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting

Design of an U-slot Folded Shorted Patch Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting Diponkar Kundu, Ahmed Wasif Reza, and Harikrishnan Ramiah Abstract Novel optimized U-slot Folded Shorted Patch Antenna (FSPA) is

### Small Size UWB-Bluetooth Antenna Design with Band-Notched Characteristics

Small Size UWB-Bluetooth Antenna Design with Band-Notched Characteristics Mrs. Priyalaskhmi.B, Sheena Agrawal Assistant Professor, Department of Telecommunication Engineering, SRM University, Kattankulathur,

### CHAPTER4 GENERAL ASPECTS OF MUTUAL

CHAPTER4 GENERAL ASPECTS OF MUTUAL ADMITTANCE OF CPW-FED TWIN SLOTS ON CONDUCTOR-BACKED TWO-LAYER SUBSTRATES 4.1 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS The present chapter is concerned with an exploratory investigation

### A Note on the Effects of Broadcast Antenna Gain, Beam Width and Height Above Average Terrain

A Note on the Effects of Broadcast Antenna Gain, Beam Width and Height Above Average Terrain John L. Schadler - Director of Antenna Development Dielectric L.L.C. Raymond, ME 30 September 2014 Abstract

### How to make a Quick Turn PCB that modern RF parts will actually fit on!

How to make a Quick Turn PCB that modern RF parts will actually fit on! By: Steve Hageman www.analoghome.com I like to use those low cost, no frills or Bare Bones [1] type of PCB for prototyping as they

### Source Control Drawing

Page (1) of (16) Abracon Drawing # 453782 Revision #: Revision A Source Control Drawing Part Description: Customer Part Number: Abracon Part Number: AMCA Series Multilayer Chip Antenna Application Note

### Constructing and Using Chokes

Constructing and Using Chokes The first installment of this series introduced basic antenna modeling and demonstrated the generation and control of feed line currents. The control of the feed line currents

### Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F.

Aalborg Universitet Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F. Published in: 10th European Conference

### Use bandpass filters to discriminate against wide ranges of frequencies outside the passband.

Microwave Filter Design Chp6. Bandstop Filters Prof. Tzong-Lin Wu Department of Electrical Engineering National Taiwan University Bandstop Filters Bandstop filter V.S. Bandpass filter Use bandpass filters

### Shielding Effectiveness Test Method. Harbour s LL, SB, and SS Coaxial Cables. Designs for Improved Shielding Effectiveness

Shielding Effectiveness Test Method Harbour s LL, SB, and SS Coaxial Cables Designs for Improved Shielding Effectiveness Harbour Industries 4744 Shelburne Road Shelburne Vermont 05482 USA 802-985-3311

### VBA Macro for construction of an EM 3D model of a tyre and part of the vehicle

VBA Macro for construction of an EM 3D model of a tyre and part of the vehicle Guillermo Vietti, Gianluca Dassano, Mario Orefice LACE, Politecnico di Torino, Turin, Italy. guillermo.vietti@polito.it Work

### INTRODUCTION OF A NEW CONCEPT IN ANTENNA THEORY, ALIAS THE POYNTING ANTENNA.

INTRODUCTION OF A NEW CONCEPT IN ANTENNA THEORY, ALIAS THE POYNTING ANTENNA. by Ted Hart W5QJR CEO EH Antenna Systems, LLC INTRODUCTION: A long time ago (1880) Mr. Hertz conceived the resonant antenna

### UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE422H1S: RADIO AND MICROWAVE WIRELESS SYSTEMS EXPERIMENT 1:

### Understanding SWR by Example

Understanding SWR by Example Take the mystery and mystique out of standing wave ratio. Darrin Walraven, K5DVW It sometimes seems that one of the most mysterious creatures in the world of Amateur Radio

### Design of a Dual-band Omni-directional Microstrip Antenna for Smart Mobile Phones

The 2012 International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC 2012) Design of a Dual-band Omni-directional Microstrip Antenna for Smart Mobile Phones Vu Duc Tiep, Truong Vu Bang Giang

### The Care and Feeding of Simple, Broadband HF Antennas. Tom McDermott, N5EG March 3, 2011

The Care and Feeding of Simple, Broadband HF Antennas Tom McDermott, N5EG March 3, 2011 Problem Statement 1. Cover multiple HF Amateur Bands with one antenna. 80m through 10m if possible. 2. Use single

### Antenna Measurements

Antenna Measurements Antenna Measurements Introduction Antenna range Radiation patterns Amplitude Phase Gain measurements Antenna polarization Scale model measurements Introduction Most of the methodology

### Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna For Ultra Wide Band Applications On WR-137 & WR- 62 Waveguides

International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 3 Issue 7ǁ July 2014 ǁ PP.11-17 Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn

### Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

### ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT SHAPE IN THE DESIGN FOR MULTI-BAND APPLICATIONS

ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT SHAPE IN THE DESIGN FOR MULTI-BAND APPLICATIONS Pidugu Prasad 1, D Vakula 2 1 M.Tech, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, NIT Warangal, A.P, India 2 Assistant Professor,

### Analysis of Broadband Slot Cut Semi-Circular Microstrip Antennas

Analysis of Broadband Slot Cut Semi-Circular Microstrip Antennas Amit A. Deshmukh EXTC, DJSCOE Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India Ankita R. Jain EXTC, DJSCOE Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India Apurva A. Joshi EXTC,

### Introduction to antenna and near-field simulation in CST Microwave Studio software

Lisbon, IT, 22 March 2010 Introduction to antenna and near-field simulation in CST Microwave Studio software Jorge R. Costa Jerzy Guterman 2005, it - instituto de telecomunicações. Todos os direitos reservados.

### High performance horn antenna design (II) Dr. Carlos del Río Bocio Antenna Group Public University of Navarra

High performance horn antenna design (II) Dr. Carlos del Río Bocio Antenna Group Public University of Navarra Feed-horns Feed-horns Feed-horns are widely used in microwave and millimeter wave bands because

### Piezo Technologies - Technical Resource Paper

An Overview of the Properties of Different Piezoceramic Materials Material Families Four of the more important types of piezoceramic materials are introduced below. Lead Zirconate-Titanate - Because of

### Antenna A mean for radiating and receiving radio waves Transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device. Application: Radiation

Antenna A mean for radiating and receiving radio waves Transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device Application: adiation Introduction An antenna is designed to radiate or receive electromagnetic

### Design, Development and Simulation of a 2.4 GHz Yagi Uda Antenna

International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013 ǁ PP.31-37 Design, Development and Simulation of a 2.4 GHz Yagi Uda

### CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ANTENNA An antenna is a device that is used to convert guided electromagnetic waves into electrical signals and vice versa (i.e. either in transmitting mode or

### Experimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION ( )

a. Using Faraday s law: Experimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION The overall sign will not be graded. For the current, we use the extensive hints in the

### VJ 6040 Mobile Digital TV UHF Antenna Evaluation Board

VISHAY VITRAMON Multilayer Chip Capacitors Application Note GENERAL is a multilayer ceramic chip antenna designed for receiving mobile digital TV transmissions in the UHF band. The target application for

### Compact Tunable and Dual band Circular Microstrip Antenna for GSM and Bluetooth Applications

205 Compact Tunable and Dual band Circular Microstrip Antenna for GSM and Bluetooth Applications *K. P. Ray 1, S. Nikhil 2 and A. Nair 2 1 SAMEER, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India 2 K.J.Somaiya

### A MULTI BAND MINI PRINTED OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA WITH V-SHAPED FOR RFID APPLICA- TIONS

Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 27, 385 399, 2011 A MULTI BAND MINI PRINTED OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA WITH V-SHAPED FOR RFID APPLICA- TIONS Evizal, T. A. Rahman, and S. K. A. Rahim Wireless

### TX SAW MID 5V TRANSMITTER

TX SAW MID 5V TRANSMITTER SAW Transmitter module with external antenna, for utilisations with ON-OFF modulation of a RF carrier with digital data. Buffer stage for enhanced power and low harmonics on output

Section 5. : Horn Physics Section 5. : Horn Physics By Martin J. King, 6/29/8 Copyright 28 by Martin J. King. All Rights Reserved. Before discussing the design of a horn loaded loudspeaker system, it is

Broadcast Antenna for Handsets Final Report Executive Summary December 15th, 2010 Michael Lukin michael.lukin@ttp.com The Technology Partnership plc +44 1763 262626 www.ttp.com 1 project objectives The

### A Study of RF Absorber for Anechoic Chambers Used in the Frequency Range for Power Line Communication System

538 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2006, Cambridge, USA, March 26-29 A Study of RF Absorber for Anechoic Chambers Used in the Frequency Range for Power Line Communication System K. Shimada

### Brevis GPS SMD. The A10204 GPS antenna is intended for reception of GPS signals at 1575 MHz.

Brevis GPS SMD Antenna Product Specification 1 Features GPS antenna designed for embedded applications Designed for use with the ground plane extended beneath the antenna Good efficiency to size ratio

### Overview of Antennas. Muhammad Dawood Research Assistant Professor. The Information and Telecommunication Technology Center

Overview of Antennas Muhammad Dawood Research Assistant Professor The Information and Telecommunication Technology Center Outline What is an Antenna? Historical Background Antenna Radiation Mechanism Antenna

### Efficient Feed for Offset Parabolic Antennas for 2.4 GHz Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW

Efficient Feed for Offset Parabolic Antennas for 2.4 GHz Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW Resume his article examines some of the possible solutions to the problems of efficiently T illuminating SAT TV offset

### Compact Integrated Antennas

Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. Application Note Document Number: AN2731 Rev. 3, 09/2015 Compact Integrated Antennas Designs and Applications for the MC1321x, MC1322x, MC1323x, and MKW40/30/20 1 Introduction

### Band-Notched UWB Equiangular Spiral Antenna

LLNL-CONF-647186 Band-Notched UWB Equiangular Spiral Antenna J. H. Jeon, J. T. Chang, A. Pham December 5, 2013 IEEE International Microwave Symposium Tampa Bay, FL, United States June 1, 2014 through June

### STUDY OF ELLPITICAL SLOT UWB ANTENNAS WITH A 5.0 6.0 GHz BAND-NOTCH CAPABILITY

Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 16, 207 222, 2010 STUDY OF ELLPITICAL SLOT UWB ANTENNAS WITH A 5.0 6.0 GHz BAND-NOTCH CAPABILITY A. Elboushi, O. M. Ahmed, and A. R. Sebak Electrical and Computer

### Modeling Physical Interconnects (Part 3)

Modeling Physical Interconnects (Part 3) Dr. José Ernesto Rayas Sánchez 1 Outline Vias Vias in PCBs Types of vias in PCBs Pad and antipad Nonfunctional pads Modeling vias Calculating circuit element values

### Preliminary Data Sheet

Surface Mount Ceramic Chip Antennas for 433 MHz The VJ5301M433 series are small form-factor, high-performance chip-antennas optimized for industrial, automotive, and medical applications. chip antenna

### Comparative analysis for Bandwidth Enhancement of RMPA using EBG and varying feed line lengths

Comparative analysis for Bandwidth Enhancement of RMPA using EBG and varying feed line lengths Tripti Basedia 1 1 EC Deptt., SRIT, India, Jabalpur Rahul Koshtha 2 EC Deptt., SRIT, India, Jabalpur ---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------

### Microwave Antennas and Radar. Maria Leonora Guico Tcom 126 2 nd Sem Lecture 8

Microwave Antennas and Radar Maria Leonora Guico Tcom 126 2 nd Sem Lecture 8 G P P directional isotropic Antenna Basics Isotropic Dipole High gain directional 0 db i 2.2 db i 14 db i Antenna performance

### Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com

Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com Introduction The pillbox or cheese antenna is made of two parallel plates which are connected to the narrow strip of parabolic

### MULTIPLE-RING MONOPOLE ANTENNA WITH SLEE- VE-SHAPED GROUND FOR DVB-T APPLICATIONS

Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 14, 1 161, 21 MULTIPLE-RING MONOPOLE ANTENNA WITH SLEE- VE-SHAPED GROUND FOR DVB-T APPLICATIONS B.-M. Jeng, C.-M. Lee, and C.-H. Luo Department of Electrical

### CAPACITIVE SENSOR ARRANGEMENT TO DETECT EXTERNAL LOAD ON A MOBILE TERMINAL AN- TENNA

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 15, 13 18, 2010 CAPACITIVE SENSOR ARRANGEMENT TO DETECT EXTERNAL LOAD ON A MOBILE TERMINAL AN- TENNA A. Huttunen and S. Myllymaki Microelectronics and