Wireless Communication Technologies

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1 1 Wireless Communication Technologies Lin DAI

2 Requirement 2 Prerequisite: Principles of Communications A certain math background Probability, Linear Algebra, Matrix Be interactive in class! Think independently!

3 Assessment 3 Exam (60%) Two hours Closed-book Five to six questions Coursework (40%) Presentation (50%) Report (50%) Bonus Important Deadlines: Oct. 2: proposal Dec. 4: final report

4 References 4 David Tse and Pramod Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, Cambridge University Press, Andrea Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, Andreas F. Molisch, Wireless Communications, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Dimitri Bertsekas and Robert Gallager, Data Networks (2 nd Edition), Prentice Hall, Robert G. Gallager, Principles of Digital Communication, Cambridge University Press, John G. Proakis and Masoud Salehi, Digital Communications (5 th Edition), McGraw Hill, B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications (2 nd Edition), Prentice-Hall, 2001.

5 5 Lecture 1. Overview of Wireless Communications

6 Electromagnetic Radiation 6 Faraday: Electromagnetic Induction Maxwell: Equations for Electromagnetic Field Hertz: Discovery of Electromagnetic Waves Marconi: Wireless telegraph

7 Electromagnetic Spectrum 7 Visible light Below 30 khz: submarine Radio Spectrum khz: AM longwave and medium-wave broadcasting 3-30 MHz: AM shortwave broadcasting MHz: FM broadcasting, broadcast TV, aviation, paging MHz: cellular, cordless phone, wireless LANs, wireless PANs, trunking radio, microwave oven 3-30 GHz: wireless LANs, WiMAX, radar, satellite TV Above 30 GHz: microwave radio relay, fixed wireless services

8 Radio Waves 8 Propagation in free space Speed = 299,792,458 m/s Isotropic Received power at a particular location decays with distance: P ~ r -2 Propagation in terrestrial environment Propagation loss: P ~ r -, >2 Reflection, diffraction and scattering

9 A Glimpse of Wireless Channels 9 Line-of-sight (LOS) T T T R propagation loss multipath mobility Fading channel How to model the fading channel? How to achieve reliable communications over fading channels?

10 A Glimpse of Wireless Channels 10 broadcast Interference How to share the channel?

11 Challenges of Wireless Communication 11 Fading channel PHY Techniques (Equalization, OFDM, MIMO ) Interference MAC Protocols (TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA, Random Access, ) Small size of terminal Limited energy Limited image resolution Power-efficient Techniques (power control, ) Lossy source coding algorithms

12 Course Organization 12 Lecture 2: Fading Channel Lecture 3: Diversity Tutorial 1 Lecture 4: Capacity of Fading Channels Tutorial 2 Lecture 5: Multiple Access Part I: Centralized MAC Part II: Distributed MAC Tutorial 3 Group Presentation Case Study

13 13 Appendix Principles of Communications

14 Point-to-Point Communication Systems Noise and Distortion 14 SOURCE Source Info. Transmitter Transmitted signal Channel Received signal Receiver Received info. User Transmitter: to convert the electrical signal into a form that is suitable for transmission Receiver: to recover the message contained in the corrupted received signal

15 15 Digital Communication Systems { b i } Digital Modulation Transmitted Digital waveform s(t) Channel Corrupted Digital waveform y(t) Digital Demodulation ˆ { } b i Channel: How to model the effect imposed by the channel on the transmitted signals? Digital Modulation: How to design the transmitted signals to best utilize the channel (to maximize the bandwidth efficiency)? Digital Demodulation: How to retrieve the original information with the least errors (to minimize the symbol/bit error rate)?

16 Channel Modeling 16 Transmitted signal s(t) Channel Received signal y(t) LTI (Linear Time Invariant): yt () st ( ) h( ) d zt () Suppose that h(t) is a deterministic function of time t. If s(t) is a deterministic signal: Y( f) H( f) S( f) If s(t) is a WSS random signal: y(t) is also a WSS signal with mean Y S htdt () SH(0) autocorrelation R ( ) R ( ) h( ) h( ) power spectrum Y S G ( f ) G ( f ) H ( f ) The thermal noise z(t) is modeled as a white Gaussian WSS process. Y S 2

17 Digital Modulation 17 { b i } Digital Modulation Transmitted signal s(t) Channel Received signal y(t) Baseband Amplitude Modulation: s() t Z v( t n ) n Z n is a discrete random variable with Pr{ Zn ai} 1/ M, i 1,..., M, v(t) is a unit baseband signal Power spectrum of s(t): Z m Gs( f) V( f) Z f m Information Bit Rate Rb Bandwidth efficiency: Required Channel Bandwidth B Ignore the noise. What is the maximum bandwidth efficiency for distortionless binary transmission over a baseband channel, and how to achieve it? n h

18 Digital Demodulation 18 Received signal y(t) Digital Demodulation ˆ { } b i Filter h(t) z(t) z(t 0 ) Sample at t 0 Threshold Comparison bˆ i 1 if zt ( 0) bˆ i 0 if zt ( 0) Probability of Bit Error (BER): P Pr{ bˆ=1, b 0} Pr{ bˆ=0, b 1} b i i i i Suppose binary modulation is adopted. With AWGN noise, what is the optimal BER, and how to design the receiver to achieve the optimal BER performance?

19 Performance Comparison of Digital Modulation Schemes R / B b h The highest achievable bandwidth efficiency * : QPSK (SSB) x 8PSK (SSB) x 2 1 Eb N 0 16PSK (SSB) x Required E b /N 0 when * 5 10 : P b 19 BPSK: 9.6dB QPSK: 9.6dB 8PSK: 12.9dB 16PSK: 17.4dB /2 0 x 5 10 BPSK 15 (SSB) 20 Eb N 0 ( db ) 1/4

20 Digital Communication Systems 20 { b i } Digital Modulation Transmitted Digital waveform Channel Corrupted Digital waveform Digital Demodulation ˆ { } b i Bandwidth Efficiency BER (Fidelity Performance) Information Bit Rate Rb Required Channel Bandwidth B h Binary: P b E (1 ) b Q N 0 What if the channel is not an LTI system? What is the highest bandwidth efficiency for given E b /N 0? How to achieve the highest bandwidth efficiency?

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